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35790Crous P., Osieck E., Shivas R., Tan Y., Bishop-Hurley S., Esteve-Raventós F., Larsson E., Luangsa-ard J.J., Pancorbo F., Balashov S., Baseia I.G., Boekhout T., Chandranayaka S., Cowan D.A., Cruz R.H.S.F., Czachura P., De la Peña-Lastra S., Dovana F., Drury B., Fell J., Flakus A., Fotedar R., Jurjević Ž., Kolecka A., Mack J., Maggs-Kölling G., Mahadevakumar S., Mateos A., Mongkolsamrit S., Noisripoom W., Plaza M., Overy D.P., Pitek M., Sandoval-Denis M., Vauras J., Wingfield M.J., Abell S.E., Ahmadpour A., Akulov A., Alavi F., Alavi Z., Altés A., Alvarado P., Anand G., Ashtekar N., Assyov B., Banc-Prandi G., Barbosa K.D., Barreto G.G., Bellanger J.M., Bezerra J.L., Bhat D.J., Bilański P., Bose T., Bozok F., Chaves J., Costa-Rezende D.H., Danteswari C., Darmostuk V., Delgado G., Denman S., Eichmeier A., Etayo J., Eyssartier G., Faulwetter S., Ganga K.G.G., Ghosta Y., Goh J., Góis J.S., Gramaje D., Granit L., Groenewald M., Gulden G., Gusmão L.F.P., Hammerbacher A., Heidarian Z., Hywel-Jones N., Jankowiak R., Kaliyaperumal M., Kaygusuz O., Kezo K., Khonsanit A., Kumar S., Kuo C.H., Laessøe T., Latha K.P.D., Loizides M., Luo S.M., Maciá-Vicente J.G., Manimohan P., Marbach P.A.S., Marinho P., Marney T.S., Marques G., Martín M.P., Miller A.N., Mondello F., Moreno G., Mufeeda K.T., Mun H.Y., Nau T., Nkomo T., Okrasińska A., Oliveira J.P.A.F., Oliveira R.L., Ortiz D.A., Pawłowska J., Pérez-De-Gregorio M.À., Podile A.R., Portugal A., Privitera N., Rajeshkumar K.C., Rauf I., Rian B., Rigueiro-Rodríguez A., Rivas-Torres G.F., Rodriguez-Flakus P., Romero-Gordillo M., Saar I., Saba M., Santos C.D., Sarma P.V.S.R.N., Siquier J.L., Sleiman S., Spetik M., Sridhar K.R., Stryjak-Bogacka M., Szczepańska K., Taşikn H., Tennakoon D.S., Thanakitpipattana D., Trovão J., Türkekul A., van Iperen A.L., van 't Hof P., Vasquez G., Visagie C.M., Wingfield B.D., Wong P.T.W., Yang W.X., Yarar M., Yarden O., Yilmaz N., Zhang N., Zhu Y.N. & Groenewald J.Z. (2023): Fungal Planet Description Sheets: 1478–1549. - Persoonia, 50: 158–310.
Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia, Aschersonia mackerrasiae on whitefly, Cladosporium corticola on bark of Melaleuca quinquenervia, Penicillium nudgee from soil under Melaleuca quinquenervia, Pseudocercospora blackwoodiae on leaf spot of Persoonia falcata, and Pseudocercospora dalyelliae on leaf spot of Senna alata. Bolivia, Aspicilia lutzoniana on fully submersed siliceous schist in high-mountain streams, and Niesslia parviseta on the lower part and apothecial discs of Erioderma barbellatum onatwig. Brazil, Cyathus bonsai on decaying wood, Geastrum albofibrosum from moist soil with leaf litter, Laetiporus pratigiensis on a trunk of a living unknown hardwood tree species, and Scytalidium synnematicum on dead twigs of unidentified plant. Bulgaria, Amanita abscondita on sandy soil in a plantation of Quercus suber. Canada, Penicillium acericola on dead bark of Acer saccharum, and Penicillium corticola on dead bark of Acer saccharum. China, Colletotrichum qingyuanense on fruit lesion of Capsicum annuum. Denmark, Helminthosphaeria leptospora on corticioid Neohypochnicium cremicolor. Ecuador (Galapagos), Phaeosphaeria scalesiae on Scalesia sp. Finland, Inocybe jacobssonii on calcareouss oils in dry forests and park habitats. France, Cortinarius rufomyrrheus on sandy soil under Pinus pinaster, and Periconia neominutissima on leaves of Poaceae. India, Coprinopsis fragilis on decaying bark of logs, Filoboletus keralensis on unidentified woody substrate, Penicillium sankaranii from soil, Physisporinus tamilnaduensis on the trunk of Azadirachta indica, and Poronia nagaraholensis on elephant dung. Iran, Neosetophoma fic on infected leaves of Ficus elastica. Israel, Cnidariophoma eilatica (incl. Cnidariophoma gen. nov.) from Stylophora pistillata. Italy, Lyophyllum obscurum on acidic soil. Namibia, Aureobasidium faidherbiae on dead leaf of Faidherbia albida, and Aureobasidium welwitschiae on dead leaves of Welwitschia mirabilis. Netherlands, Gaeumannomycella caricigena on dead culms of Carex elongata, Houtenomyces caricicola (incl. Houtenomyces gen. nov.) on culms of Carex disticha, Neodacampia ulmea (incl. Neodacampia gen. nov.) on branch of Ulmus laevis, Niesslia phragmiticola on dead standing culms of Phragmites australis, Pseudopyricularia caricicola on culms of Carex disticha, and Rhodoveronaea nieuwwulvenica on dead bamboo sticks. Norway, Arrhenia similis half-buried and moss-covered pieces of rotting wood in grass-grownpath. Pakistan, Mallocybe ahmadii on soil. Poland, Beskidomyces laricis (incl. Beskidomyces gen. nov.) from resin of Larix decidua ssp. polonica, Lapidomyces epipinicola from sooty mould community on Pinus nigra, and Leptographium granulatum from a gallery of Dendroctonus micans on Picea abies. Portugal, Geoglossum azoricum on mossy areas of laurel forest areas planted with Cryptomeria japonica, and Lunasporangiospora lusitanica from a biofilm covering a bio deteriorated limestone wall. Qatar, Alternaria halotolerans from hypersaline sea water, and Alternaria qatarensis from water sample collected from hypersaline lagoon. South Africa, Alfaria thamnochorti on culm of Thamnochortus fraternus, Knufia aloeicola on Aloe gariepensis, Muriseptatomyces restionacearum (incl.Muriseptatomyces gen. nov.) on culms of Restionaceae, Neocladosporium arctotis on nest of cases of bagworm moths(Lepidoptera, Psychidae) on Arctotis auriculata, Neodevriesia scadoxi on leaves of Scadoxus puniceus, Paraloratospora schoenoplecti on stems of Schoenoplectus lacustris, Tulasnella epidendrea from the roots of Epidendrum × obrienianum, and Xenoidriella cinnamomi (incl. Xenoidriella gen. nov.) on leaf of Cinnamomum camphora. South Korea, Lemonniera fraxinea on decaying leaves of Fraxinus sp. frompond. Spain, Atheniella lauri on the bark of fallen trees of Laurus nobilis, Halocryptovalsa endophytica from surface-sterilised, asymptomatic roots of Salicornia patula, Inocybe amygdaliolens on soil in mixed forest, Inocybe pityusarum on calcareous soil in mixed forest, Inocybe roseobulbipes on acidic soils, Neonectria borealis from roots of Vitis berlandieri × Vitis rupestris, Sympoventuria eucalyptorum on leaves of Eucalyptus sp., and Tuber conchae fromsoil. Sweden, Inocybe bidumensis on calcareous soil. Thailand, Cordyceps sandindaengensis on Lepidoptera pupa, buried in soil, Ophiocordyceps kuchinaraiensis on Coleoptera larva, buried in soil, and Samsoniella winandae on Lepidoptera pupa, buriedinsoil. Taiwan region (China), Neophaeosphaeria livistonae on dead leaf of Livistona rotundifolia. Türkiye, Melanogaster anatolicus on clay loamy soils. UK, Basingstokeomyces allii (incl. Basingstokeomyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Allium schoenoprasum. Ukraine, Xenosphaeropsis corni on recently dead stem of Cornus alba. USA, Nothotrichosporon aquaticum (incl. Nothotrichosporon gen. nov.) from water, and Periconia philadelphiana from swab of coil surface. Morphological and culture characteristics for these new taxa are supported by DNA barcodes. Keywords: ITS nrDNA barcodes; LSU; new taxa; systematics.
35789Käffer M.I., Port R.K. & Schmitt J.L. (2023): Distinct lichen community in riparian forests along an anthropogenic disturbance gradient in Southern Brazil. - Rodriguésia, 74: e01332021 [11 p.].
The riparian forest sustains an expressive richness and diversity of species and anthropogenic impacts in certain sites have caused changes in the structure of the communities. This study aimed to analyze the composition and structural parameters of the lichen community in riparian forests. The study was carried out in seven sites surrounded by different matrices: rural, urban and industrial. The lichens were mapped using the acetate method and the composition and phytosociological parameters were analyzed. A total of 208 species were identified. The riparian forest sites of the rural matrix differed from the others by the dominance of the morphological forms crustose and squamulose, as well as the predominance of species from humid and shaded environments. Phyllopsora lividocarpa, Phyllopsora parvifolia and Herpothallon minimum presented the highest importance values in the forest sites. The lichen community presented greater homogeneity in riparian forest sites of the urban-industrial matrix. Modifications in the species’ composition and structural parameters of the lichen community demonstrated a gradient of disturbances in the different matrices. Preservation actions of riparian forests are essential for the conservation of the species and landscape connectivity since they act as an important reservoir of biodiversity in sites of subtropical watersheds. Key words: Atlantic Forest; lichenized fungi; rare species; urbanization.
35788Fraga Junior C.A.V., Gumboski E.L., Feuerstein S.C., Cáceres M.E.S., Aptroot A. & Magnago A.C. (2023): Funga Capixaba: Ascomycota and lichen-forming fungi. - Rodriguésia, 74: e00692022 [6 p.].
The “Funga Capixaba” have been overlooked for a very long time, leading to a gap in the local mycological knowledge. In order to create a preliminary and updated list of Ascomycetes and lichen-forming fungi from Espírito Santo state, Brazil we reviewed all specimens deposited in the VIES Herbarium and key references of former mycological studies. In our list, we report a total of 528 species belonging to 173 genera and 65 families. 422 are new records for Espírito Santo state, six species, Mazaediothecium uniseptatum, Cratiriachloraceus, Lecanoraglaucoidea, Pyrenula montocensis, and P. oleosa, are new records both for the neotropics and Brazil, and Lobariella pseudocrenulata is also new to Brazil. We have increased the number of accepted macrofungi species names from 85 to 528, which makes the Espírito Santo state the 10th highest in terms of known fungal diversity among Brazilian states. An updated and preliminary list of macroscopic Ascomycota including lichen-forming fungi from Espírito Santo, comments, and a brief overview about the local mycology are provided. Key words: Atlantic forest, diversity, Espírito Santo, lichen, Southeast Brazil.
35787Diekmann M., Heinken T., Becker T., Dörfler I., Heinrichs S., Leuschner C., Peppler-Lisbach C., Osthaus M., Schmidt W., Strubelt I. & Wagner E.-R. (2023): Resurvey studies of terricolous bryophytes and lichens indicate a widespread nutrient enrichment in German forests. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 34: e13201 [12 p.].
Questions: Vegetation resurveys, both single studies and meta-analyses, have predominantly been based on vascular plant data while bryophytes and lichens have largely been neglected. Our study aims to fill this gap and addresses the following research questions: has the overall species richness of terricolous bryophytes and lichens in forests changed over time? Which are the winners and losers among single species and ecological species groups? Do the results give a signal of the impact of nutrient enrichment, of changes in the light regime and of climate change? Location: Deciduous and coniferous forests in Germany. Methods: We compiled 35 single resurvey data sets, including 1096 plots in total (each sampled twice). The time interval between initial surveys and resurveys ranged from 10 to 65 years. The differences between old and new plots were analysed with respect to the frequency of single species, total species richness, and the absolute and relative numbers of taxa in the species groups. Trend scores of species were related to ecological indicator values to identify the main environmental drivers behind the observed changes. Results: Total species richness did not systematically change, while pleurocarpous mosses had increased at the expense of acrocarpous mosses and, in coniferous forests, of lichens. Weak changes were generally observed in deciduous forests on base-rich soils. In coniferous forests and in deciduous forests on acid soils, species with high nitrogen demand and high shade tolerance had increased, whereas those being typical for more infertile and open forest sites had decreased. There were trends towards a larger share of taxa with a more oceanic distribution. Conclusions: The changes in the vegetation of terricolous bryophytes and lichens in the studied forests indicate nutrient enrichment and increasingly shady conditions in forests on acid soils, likely caused by nitrogen deposition and shrub layer closure. Keywords: acrocarpous mosses, bryophytes, Ellenberg indicator values, lichens, liverworts, nitrogen deposition, pleurocarpous mosses, shrub layer, species trend scores, tree layer.
35786Buyens I.P.R., Raath-Krüger M.J., Haddad W.A. & le Roux P.C. (2023): Fine-scale variation in the effect of the cushion plant Azorella selago on vascular plants, mosses, hepatics and lichens in the sub-Antarctic . - Journal of Vegetation Science, 34: e13200 [16 p.].
Question: Plant–plant interactions can strongly influence community structure and composition. The outcome of these interactions can vary considerably across space and is often linked to environmental conditions, with, for example, a higher prevalence of facilitative interactions typically being observed under greater environmental severity. To date, most studies have documented shifts from competitive to facilitative (or neutral) plant–plant and plant–lichen interactions along gradients of increasing environmental severity from pairwise interspecific interactions. However, few studies have examined if the outcome of these interactions for different taxonomic groups is dependent on environmental conditions across multiple environmental stress gradients. Location: Sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Methods: We examine community-level variation in the response of four taxa (i.e., vascular plants, hepatics, mosses, and lichens) to an interaction with a long-lived cushion plant species (Azorella selago) that ameliorates microenvironmental conditions, testing how the effect of the cushion plant on the taxa varies along multiple stress gradients at the scale of a landform. Results: Contrary to expectations, even when considering multiple proximate predictor variables, fine-scale spatial variation in the effect of A. selago on the taxa could not be explained. However, the outcome of the interaction with A. selago differed between taxonomic groups, with vascular plants benefitting and the non-vascular taxa experiencing neutral or negative impacts. Conclusions: This study highlights that the impacts of biotic interactions cannot always be generalized across plant groups, and that it is necessary to consider taxonspecific responses when predicting community-level impacts of biotic interactions. More generally, we demonstrate how complex spatial variation in environmental stressors can be explicitly considered when modelling variation in the outcome of plant–plant interactions. Keywords: cushion plant, facilitation, fine-scale variation, plant–lichen communities, plant–lichen interactions, plant–plant interactions, proximal variables, stress gradient, sub-Antarctic.
35785Zulfiqar R., Asghar H.S. & Khalid A.N. (2023): New species of genus Oxneriaria S.Y.Kondr. & Lőkös (lichenized Ascomycota, Megasporaceae) from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 44(8): 109–116.
Oxneriaria immersa H.S.Asghar, R.Zulfiqar & Khalid, sp. nov. and O. insignis R.Zulfiqar & Khalid, sp. nov. (Megasporaceae) are described here as new to science, both characterized by their elongating/spreading marginal areoles. The distinguishing features of O. immersa H.S.Asghar, R.Zulfiqar & Khalid, sp. nov. are poriform-aspicilioid apothecial discs, a smaller hymenium and hypothecium (90-100 and 50-70 µm, respectively) and larger ascospores (20-25×10-15 µm). The key characters of O. insignis R.Zulfiqar & Khalid, sp. nov. are distinctly lecanorine apothecial discs, a taller hymenium and hypothecium (190-230 and 100-160 µm, respectively) and smaller ascospores (15-21×9-13 µm). Detailed morpho-anatomical descriptions and a nrITS phylogeny of both species along with a worldwide key to the genus Oxneriaria S.Y.Kondr. & Lőkös are provided. Key words: Pakistan, Kohistan, Swat Valley, Oxneriaria, phylogeny, new species.
35784Marasinghe D.S., Hongsanan S., Zeng X.Y., Jones E.B.G., Chomnunti P., Boonmee S. & Hyde K.D. (2023): Taxonomic monograph of epifoliar fungi. - Fungal Diversity, 121: 139–334.
Epifoliar fungi are one of the significant fungal groups typically living on the surface of leaves. They are usually recorded as saprobes, obligate parasites and commensals and are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Numerous genera within this group remain inadequately understood, primarily attributed to limited taxonomic knowledge and insufficient molecular data. Furthermore, the taxonomic delineation of epifoliar fungi remained uncertain, with scattered and literature-based data often intermixed with other foliicolous fungi. Herein, a comprehensive taxonomic monograph of 124 genera in (32) Asterinales, (18) Capnodiales, (15) Chaetothyriales, (8) Meliolales, (8) Micropeltidales, (10) Microthyriales, (32) Parmulariales and (1) Zeloasperisporiales was provided re-describing with illustrations and line drawings. Notes on ecological and economic importance of the families are also provided. Representatives type herbarium materials of Campoa pulcherrima, Cycloschizon brachylaenae, Ferrarisia philippina, Hysterostomella guaranitica, Palawaniella orbiculata and Pseudolembosia orbicularis of Parmulariaceae were re-examined and provided updated illustrations with descriptions. A backbone phylogenetic tree and divergence estimation analysis for epifoliar fungi based on LSU and 5.8s ITS sequence data are provided. Keywords: Divergence · Follicolous · Obligate · Parmulariaceae · Tropical.
35783Paoli L., Bandoni E. & Sanità di Toppi L. (2023): Lichens and mosses as biomonitors of indoor pollution. - Biology, 12(9): 1248 [20 p.] .
Biomonitoring in indoor environments is a recent application, and so far, indoor air quality (IAQ) has been investigated only in a few cases using photosynthesising biomonitors. On the whole, 22 studies have been selected and reviewed, being specifically focused on the assessment of IAQ using biomonitors, such as lichens (9 papers), mosses (10), or their combination (3). In general, indoor samples face an altered light regime, ventilation, and a reduced hydration, which should be taken into consideration during the design and implementation of indoor monitoring. This review highlights critical issues (and some solutions) related to sample devitalisation (moss), hydration during exposure, preparation of the exposure device (mostly lichen and moss bags), duration of the exposure, post-exposure treatments, assessment of the vitality of the samples, as well as data elaboration and interpretation. This review evidences the feasibility and usefulness of lichen/moss monitoring in indoor environments and the need to develop standardised protocols. Keywords: biomonitoring; heavy metals; indoor air quality; indoor air pollution; lichen bags; moss bags.
35782Neubner E. (1893): Untersuchungen über den Thallus und die Fruchtanfänge der Calycieen. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der krustig-staubartigen Flechten. - Wissenschaftliche Beilage zu dem IV. Jahresberichte des Königlichen Gymnasiums zu Plauen i. V., Ostern, 1893: 1–12. . .
[mit einer kolorierten Tafel]; study on thallus morphology and ontogeny of leprose lichens, on example of the genus Chaenotheca (as Cyphelium)
35781Norouzi H., Sohrabi M., Yousefi M & Boustie J. (2023): Tridepsides as potential bioactives: a review on their chemistry and the global distribution of their lichenic and non-lichenic natural sources. - Frontiers in Fungal Biology, 4: 1088966 [18 p.].
Tridepsides, as fully oxidized polyketides, have been known to exist in lichens for more than a century. Recent studies have showed that these possible defensive lichenochemicals possess various biological activities. Also, a candidate biosynthetic gene cluster was recently reported for gyrophoric acid (GA), an important tridepside. The present study focused on biosynthesis, natural sources, biological activities, and bioanalytical methods of tridepside molecules. Our survey shows that, so far, lichenic tridepsides have been reported from 37 families, 111 genera, and 526 species of lichen. Because many of their species contain tridepsides, the families Parmeliaceae, Lobariaceae, and Peltigeraceae can be considered critical lichenic sources of tridepsides. Furthermore, several species of Hypotrachyna in Parmeliaceae family showed lichenic tridepsides, suggesting that this genus is a viable source of tridepsides. This research also explored tridepsides from non-lichenic sources, such as non-lichenized fungi, lichenicolous fungi, endophytes, parasites, and liverworts, which offer substantial potential as biotechnological sources to produce tridepsides, which are produced in small amounts in lichen thalli. Two lichenic tridepsides have also been detected in non-lichenic sources: GA and tenuiorin (TE). Additionally, no significant correlation was found between tridepside biosynthesis and geographical distribution patterns for several potentially tridepside-producing lichens. We further showed that GA is the most studied tridepside with various reported biological activities, including anticancer, wound healing, photoprotection, anti-aging, antioxidant, cardiovascular effect, DNA interaction, anti-diabetes, anti-Alzheimer’s, anti-bacterial, and antifungal. Last but not least, this study provides an overview of some bioanalytical methods used to analyze tridepsides over the past few years. Keywords: lichenic tridepsides, non-lichenic tridepsides, biome-based distribution, global distribution, lichenochemicals, gyrophoric acid.
35780Melie T., Pirro S., Miller A.N., Smith S.D., Schutz K.S. & Quandt C.A. (2023): Comparative genomics and phylogenomic investigation of the class Geoglossomycetes provide insights into ecological specialization and the systematics of Pezizomycotina. - Mycologia, 115(4): 499‒512.
Despite their global presence and ubiquity, members of the class Geoglossomycetes (Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota) are understudied systematically and ecologically. These fungi have long been presumed saprobic due to their occurrence in or near leaf litter and soils. Additionally, they lack an apparent association with other organisms, reinforcing this perception. However, observations of sporocarps near ericaceous shrubs have given rise to an alternative hypothesis that members of Geoglossomycetes may form ericoid mycorrhizae or ectomycorrhizae. This claim, however, has yet to be confirmed via microscopy or amplicon-based studies examining root communities. As a result, our current understanding of their ecology is based on cursory observations. This study presents a comparative analysis of genomic signatures related to ecological niche to investigate the hypothesis of an ericoid mycorrhizal or ectomycorrhizal ecology in the class. We compared the carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) and secondary metabolite contents of six newly sequenced Geoglossomycetes genomes with those of fungi representing specific ecologies across Pezizomycotina. Our analysis reveals CAZyme and secondary metabolite content patterns consistent with ectomycorrhizal (EcM) members of Pezizomycotina. Specifically, we found a reduction in CAZyme-encoding genes and secondary metabolite clusters that suggests a mutualistic ecology. Our work includes the broadest taxon sampling for a phylogenomic study of Pezizomycotina to date. It represents the first functional genomic and genome-scale phylogenetic study of the class Geoglossomycetes and improves the foundational knowledge of the ecology and evolution of these understudied fungi. Keywords: Ascomycota; concordance; gene tree conflict; Geoglossaceae; metagenome; mutualism; mycorrhizae. p. 503: "All relationships within the classes were resolved with high support. Lichinomycetes plus Coniocybomycetes were recovered as the sister group of Geoglossomycetes, with Xylonomycetes closely related to these three (FIG. 1)."; "Hierarchical clustering resulted in Geoglossomycetes grouping with both EcM and lichenized fungi due to shared contractions in many CAZyme families (FIG. 3)."
35779Aartsma P., Odland A., Reinhardt S. & Renssen H. (2023): Drivers of soil temperature variation in alpine lichen heaths and shrub vegetation during the summer. - Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 55(1): 2209397 [13 p.].
Lichen heaths are decreasing in abundance in alpine and Arctic areas because of an increased competition with shrubs. This shift in vegetation might have important consequences for the soil temperature. The aim of this study is to find the drivers of the variation in soil temperature below lichen heaths and shrubs. Moreover, we want to gain more insight in the variability of the soil temperature below lichen heaths. We measured the soil temperature in thirty lichen plots and fifteen shrub plots in an alpine area in southern Norway during July and August 2019. We applied several treatments to study the drivers behind the variation in soil temperature between lichen heaths and shrub vegetation. We found that the average soil temperature was 1.45°C higher below lichen heaths than below shrub vegetation. Moreover, we measured a difference in soil temperature of 1.66°C between north- and south-facing lichen heaths, which contributes to the small-scale spatial variability in soil temperature below lichen heaths. Based on our experiments, we conclude that the buffering capacity of the litter layer below shrubs and shading of the soil by the shrub canopy lead to a lower soil temperature below shrubs compared to lichen heaths during the summer. Keywords: Lichen; shrub; soil temperature; alpine; treatments.
35778Park J.S., Kwag Y.-N., Han S.-K. & Oh S.-O. (2023): Two new species of the family Acarosporaceae from South Korea. - Mycobiology, 51(4): 216–229.
Acarosporaceae is a crustose lichen and is known as a species that has more than 50 multispores, and has hyaline spores. Those taxa are often found in rock and soil in mountain areas or coastal regions in Korea, and very diverse forms and species are known. However, after an overall genetic phylogenetic analysis of carbonized ascomata in 2015, species consisting only of the morphological base are newly divided, and several species of Acarosporaceae in Korea are also being discovered in this situation. As a result of analysis using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and nuLSU gene analysis, Korean species belonged to Acarospora and Sarcogyne clade, and Acarospora classified as the Acarospora clade was mixed with the Polysporina group and the Sarcogyne clade is mixed with the Acarospora. We identified two new species (Acarospora beangnokdamensis J. S. Park & S. O. Oh, sp. nov., Sarcogyne jejuensis J. S. Park & S. O. Oh, sp. nov.) through morphological, molecular, and secondary metabolite substance and found one new record (Sarcogyne oceanica K. Knudsen & Kocourk). We have made a classification key for Acarospora and Sarcogyne in Korea and reported all information together here. Keywords: Lichenized Ascomycota; carbonized ascomata; phylogenetic; taxonomy.
35777Tokgoz E., Emsen B. & Dogan M. (2023): Allelopathic effects of some lichens on growth and antioxidant activities of in vitro propagated Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. - Journal of Taibah University for Science, 17(1): 2229595 [10 p.].
The effects of Dermatocarpon miniatum and Parmelia saxatilis lichens on growth, total phenolic, total flavonoid contents and antioxidant potentials of in vitro medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri were investigated. B. monnieri was treated with different concentrations of methanolic and aqueous extracts of D. miniatum and P. saxatilis lichens. Total phenolic, total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of B. monnieri that showed the best growth with lichen application and control plant were investigated. Methanolic extract of allelopathic plants showed strongest DPPH scavenging (IC50: 27.60 mg/L) and metal chelating activities (IC50: 120.29 mg/mL) compared to the control. Also the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of allelopathic samples for both extracts had significantly (p
35776Pišút I. (2008): Nachträge zur Kenntnis der Flechten der Slowakei 20. - Acta Rerum Naturalium Musei Nationalis Slovaci / Zborník Slovenského Národného Múzea, Prírodné Vedy, 54: 29-32.
Addition to the knowledge of lichens of Slovakia. Publication of further noteworthy lichen findings from Slovakia is continued. Slovakia, lichens Die Veröffentlichung weiterer Funde interessanterer Flechtenarten aus der Slowakei wird fortgesetzt (siehe PIŠÚT 2006). Alle Belege sind vom Verfasser gesammelt worden und im Slowakischen Nationalmuseum (BRA) oder im Botanischen Institut der Slowa- kischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (SAV) in Bratislava aufbewahrt
35775Lisická E., Pišút I. & Kliment J. (2008): Lišajníky (Lichens). In: Kliment J., Lisická E., Šoltés R., Bernátová D., Dítě D., Janišová M., Jarolímek I., Kochjarová J., Kubinská A., Kučera P., Mišíková K., Obuch J., Pišút I., Topercer J., Uhlířová J. & Zaliberová M. (2008): Príroda Veľkej Fatry. Lišajníky, machorasty, cievnaté rastliny. - Vydavateľstvo Univerzity Komenského, Bratislava, 408 pp. .
An annotated checklist of lichens recorded from the National Park Velká Fatra is presented. For each taxon the following information is provided: vernacular name, IUCN category of threat and rareness within Slovakia, legal protection status, presence in the Red book of threatened and rare species of the Slovak and Czech Republics, synonyms), substrate/habitat preferences, localities, unpublished herbarium data and references. In Velká Fatra Mts 406 species of lichens (ca one quarter of all species known from Slovakia) were recorded; 162 (ca 40 %) are red-listed: EX - 1 ca 0.2 %), CR -53 (ca 13 %), EN - 13 (ca 3.2 %), VU - 52 (ca 13 %), LRint - 40 (ca 10 %), DD - 3 (ca 0.7 %). Four species of lichenicolous fungi were recorded too. The Index of Ecological Continuity is 33 and indicates an outstanding quality of the territory from the environmental aspect._x000D_lichens, Velká Fatra Mts, Slovakia.
35774Lamacraft D. & Chambers S.P. (2023): Lichen survey of three coastal SSSIs on the Llŷn Peninsula, Gwynedd. - Natural Resources Wales Evidence Report, 675(1): 1-79. .
Work was completed by a combination of site survey in the autumn-winter 2022 and collation of records made by the author in recent years. 151 taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi were recorded on all three SSSIs: 115 in Glannau Aberdaron, 53 in Mynydd Penarfynydd and 89 in Porth Ceiriad (see Appendix 1). 51 of these are notable including: • Heterodermia leucomelos; extensive population in Glannau Aberdaron SSSI. • Caloplaca aractina; one of only three British localities outside of the Lizard, at Glannau Aberdaron SSSI. • Teloschistes flavicans; populations in all three SSSIs. • Heterodermia obscurata; known from two localities in Glannau Aberdaron SSSI and at Mynydd Penarfynydd SSSI. • Physcia clementei; on a picrite outcrop at Mynydd Penarfynydd SSSI, the only North Wales locality. • Rinodina roboris var. armeriicola; possibly new to Wales, on soil terraces in Glannau Aberdaron SSSI. • Endocarpon pusillum var. pallidum; new to North Wales and the first British record this century of this variety (awaiting confirmation), on soil terraces in Mynydd Penarfynydd SSSI. • Protoparmelia montagnei; new to North Wales, found in Glannau Aberdaron SSSI and Porth Ceiriad, Porth Neigwl ac Ynysoedd Sant Tudwal SSSI. Only Glannau Aberdaron SSSI meets the qualification threshold of the MRCSI, the others falling short. All SSSIs have other qualifying features based on the presence of Red List species. Viewed together the three SSSIs form a meta-site of significant maritime lichen interest. There are no immediate threats to the lichen interest. The main management issues relate to grazing management of the coastal heath and grassland habitats. Wales, United Kingdom, Europe
35773Yakovchenko L.S., Davydov E.A. & Ryzhkova P.Yu. (2023): The genus Placolecis (Catillariaceae, Lichenized Ascomycota) in Russia. - Turczaninowia, 26(2): 128–139.
A review of the lichen genus Placolecis in Russia is presented. Localities in the Primorye Territory of Placolecis loekoesiana, a new to Russia species, and P. opaca, a new to the Russian Far East species, are reported. ForP. opaca, this is a second locality in Russia after Trans-Baikal Territory (South Siberia). Placolecis loekoesiana was previ-ously known exclusively from the “locus classicus” in South Korea. New localities in South Korea are also reported. The description and localities of the new to Russia lichen species Placolecis loekoesiana in the Primorye Territory are repor- ted and results of the phylogenetic analysis (nrITS/5.8S) of Placolecis species are presented, confirming the distinctness of P. loekoesiana and indicating conspecifity of Far Eastern specimens with specimens from South Korea. The studied specimens of P. loekoesiana from Russia and South Korea differ from the protologue by hyaline hymenium smaller in size, exclusively ellipsoid ascospores smaller in size and thallus bigger in size. The verified diagnostic traits of P. loe-koesiana based on studied specimens from Russia and South Korea are given. Besides, the data on pycnidia and conidia for P. loekoesiana are presented for the first time. Thus, the species is characterized by its placodioid, yellow-brown or yellow-olivaceous thallus, lecideine apothecia with glossy permanent proper margin, yellow to orange-yellow medulla, hyaline hymenium, pale brownish to hyaline hypothecium, 8-spored Catillaria-type asci with simple, hyaline, ellipsoid ascospores. New data on ecology of the species are reported: so far P. loekoesiana was known occurring on calcareous rocks in habitats with periodically flowing water, while wherevers in the Russian Far East, it grows on open, dry sur-faces of calcareous rocks at the elevation 290 to 480 m. Keywords: biogeography, East Asia, lichens, Placolecis loekoesiana, Placolecis opaca, Primorye Territory, South Korea.
35772Aptroot A., dos Santos L.A., Fraga Junior C.A.V. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2023): Ramalea and the new genus Appressodiscus belong in the Ramalinaceae. - Bryologist, 126(3): 360–366.
A species of the genus Ramalea, R. coilophylla, was recollected at the type locality and an additional large population was found in another state, Espı´rito Santo, in Brazil. This enabled a morphological study showing that the podetia arise from the margins of primary squamules. Sequencing showed the species and, because it is very similar to the type species, the genus, which was lastly cited as incertae sedis, to belong to the Ramalinaceae. A new species from the Amazon was also shown to belong to the Ramalinaceae and the new genus Appressodiscus is erected to accommodate this species, as well as a species that was recently described in the genus Ramboldia. New lichen species are Appressodiscus isidiobadius and Lecania variocolorata, and Appressodiscus badius is a new combination. Keywords: Lichen, Brazil, topotype, Lecania.
35771Ohmura Y. & Kashiwadani H. (2018): Checklist of lichens and allied fungi of Japan. - National Museum of Nature and Science Monographs [Tokyo], 49: 1–140. .
35770Eufemio R.J., Ribeiro I.A., Sformo T.L., Laursen G.A. , Molinero V. , Fröhlich-Nowoisky J., Bonn M. & Meister K. (2023): Lichen species across Alaska produce highly active and stable ice nucleators. - Biogeosciences, 20: 2805–2812.
Forty years ago, lichens were identified as extraordinary biological ice nucleators (INs) that enable ice formation at temperatures close to 0 ◦C. By employing INs, lichens thrive in freezing environments that surpass the physiological limits of other vegetation, thus making them the majority of vegetative biomass in northern ecosystems. Aerosolized lichen INs might further impact cloud glaciation and have the potential to alter atmospheric processes in a warming Arctic. Despite the ecological importance and formidable ice nucleation activities, the abundance, diversity, sources, and role of ice nucleation in lichens remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the ice nucleation capabilities of lichens collected from various ecosystems across Alaska. We find ice nucleating activity in lichen to be widespread, particularly in the coastal rainforest of southeast Alaska. Across 29 investigated lichen, all species show ice nucleation temperatures above −15 ◦C, and ∼ 30 % initiate freezing at temperatures above −6 ◦C. Concentration series of lichen ice nucleation assays in combination with statistical analysis reveal that the lichens contain two subpopulations of INs, similar to previous observations in bacteria. However, unlike the bacterial INs, the lichen INs appear as independent subpopulations resistant to freeze–thaw cycles and against temperature treatment. The ubiquity and high stability of the lichen INs suggest that they can impact local atmospheric processes and that ice nucleation activity is an essential trait for their survival in cold environments.
35769Vynokurov D., Lysenko T., Dutova Z., Shylnikov D., Doroshina G., Urbanavichene I., Urbanavichus G. & Tsepkova N. (2021): The dry grasslands (Festuco-Brometea) of the North Caucasus: first data on numerical classification and biodiversity patterns. - Tuexenia, 41: 175–201.
The North Caucasus is still one of the least studied regions in Europe regarding syntaxonomy. We investigated dry grasslands in the central part of the North Caucasus, namely in the Stavropol Kray region of Russia. We sampled 47 vegetation plots (relevés) of 10 m2 size (3.16 × 3.16 m) at elevations from 470 to 1150 m a.s.l. To determine the scale-dependent species richness patterns, we recorded five nested-plot series of 0.0001 to 100 m² in different dry grassland types (one in xero-mesic, one in xeric, two in rocky grasslands on limestones, one in rocky grasslands on chalk outcrops). To obtain a more comprehensive understanding of higher-level syntaxa, we collected other available data from published sources from the Stavropol Kray and the Northern Caucasus. In total, we collected 392 additional relevés from the Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia, Stavropol Kray, Krasnodar Kray, Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria, Republic of North Ossetia-Alania and Dagestan Republic regions. We analyzed the dataset using Modified TWINSPAN with different settings until we received ecologically meaningful units. This yielded in five main cluster that correspond to the major steppe vegetation types: 1) desert steppes; 2) true steppes; 3) mountain steppes of Dagestan and the intermontane basins of the Central Caucasus; 4) rocky grasslands; 5) semi-dry and dry grasslands on deep soils. Considering that these vegetation types are quite unique and different from those described in previous literature, we describe here a new order of Caucasian and Crimean xerophilous rocky grasslands on calcareous outcrops (Asphodelino tauricae-Euphorbietalia petrophilae), three new alliances (Artemisio chamaemelifoliae-Bromopsion variegatae, Helianthemo buschii-Cephalarion coriaceae, Onosmo caucasicae-Asphodelinion tauricae) and nine new associations.
35768Pišút I. (2006): Nachträge zur Kenntnis der Flechten der Slowakei 19. - Acta Rerum Naturalium Musei Nationalis Slovaci / Zborník Slovenského Národného Múzea, Prírodné Vedy, 52: 6–11. .
Publication of further noteworthy author´s lichen findings from Slovakia is continued. Sarcogyne distinguenda is recorded for the first, Clauzadea metzleri and Ochrolechia subviridis for the second time in the country. New finding places of overlooked species Caloplaca conversa and Rhizocarpon disporum are presented.
35767Voitk A., Thorn G. & Saar I. (2023): Lichenomphalia umbellifera: fungible and infungible epithets and species concepts. - Mycotaxon, 137(4): 629–667.
Comparison of the protologue of Agaricus umbellifer L. with specimens and descriptions of the basidiolichen Lichenomphalia umbellifera (L.) Redhead & al. revealed that the epithet umbellifera was misapplied to the Lichenomphalia species, causing several major conflicts with Linnaeus’s species concept. A felicitous match for Linnaeus’s species concept was found with a species of Marasmius sect. Epiphylli. Because A. umbellifer falls in a group that arises from an evolutionary pathway divergent from that leading to Marasmius s. str., we erected a new genus, Owingsia, to accommodate it, and recombined the type species as Owingsia umbellifera. Molecular studies demonstrated that it is a widely distributed circumpolar species, prevalent in Lapland and islands of the Baltic Sea, where Linnaeus encountered it. The earliest legitimate description of the basidiolichen L. umbellifera is A. pseudoandrosaceus Bull., a name superseded by the sanctioned later synonym, A. ericetorum Pers. We recombined this basionym as L. ericetorum, and epitypified O. umbellifera and L. ericetorum with modern sequenced specimens. Key words—nomenclature, taxonomy.
35766Ai M., Wang X.-Y., Worthy F.R. & Wang L.-S. (2023): Buellia parmigera sp. nov. from China. - Mycotaxon, 137(4): 619–628.
A new species, Buellia parmigera, was discovered from the Tibetan plateau, characterized by a crustose-subsquamulose thallus, immersed and lecanorine apothecia, a hyaline hypothecium, and Buellia-type ascospores. The new species is described, and compared with the other Buellia species with lecanorine apothecia. Key words—lichenized fungi, Ascomycota, taxonomy, Caliciaceae.
35765Coca L.F., Gómez Gómez S., Guzmán Guillermo J., Trujillo Trujillo E., Clavijo L., Zuluaga A., Dal Forno M. & Lumbsch H.T. (2023): Erratum: Coca, L.F., Gómez Gómez, S., Guzmán Guillermo, J., Trujillo Trujillo, E., Clavijo, L., Zuluaga, A., Dal Forno, M. & Lumbsch, H.T. (2023) Sulzbacheromyces leucodontium (Basidiomycota, Lepidostromataceae), a new species of basidiolichen widely distributed in the Neotropics. Phytotaxa 597 (2): 153–164.. - Phytotaxa, 612(2): 250. .
validation of the new species because an invalid mycobank number was used in the original paper
35764Zuo Y.-B., Han D.-Y., Wang Y.-Y., Yang Q.-X., Ren Q., Liu X.-Z. & Wei X.-L. (2023): Fungal–algal association drives lichens’ mutualistic symbiosis: A case study with Trebouxia-related lichens. - Plants, 12(17): 3172 [17 p.] .
Biotic and abiotic factors influence the formation of fungal–algal pairings in lichen symbiosis. However, the specific determinants of these associations, particularly when distantly related fungi are involved, remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the impact of different drivers on the association patterns between taxonomically diverse lichenized fungi and their trebouxioid symbiotic partners. We collected 200 samples from four biomes and identified 41 species of lichenized fungi, associating them with 16 species of trebouxioid green algae, of which 62% were previously unreported. The species identity of both the fungal and algal partners had the most significant effect on the outcome of the symbiosis, compared to abiotic factors like climatic variables and geographic distance. Some obviously specific associations were observed in the temperate zone; however, the nestedness value was lower in arid regions than in cold, polar, and temperate regions according to interaction network analysis. Cophylogenetic analyses revealed congruent phylogenies between trebouxioid algae and associated fungi, indicating a tendency to reject random associations. The main evolutionary mechanisms contributing to the observed phylogenetic patterns were “loss” and “failure to diverge” of the algal partners. This study broadens our knowledge of fungal–algal symbiotic patterns in view of Trebouxia-associated fungi. Keywords: Trebouxia; lichen; symbiosis; association; coevolution.
35763Desmarets L., Millot M., Chollet-Krugler M., Boustie J., Camuzet C., François N., Rouillé Y., Belouzard S., Tomasi S., Mambu L. & Séron K. (2023): Lichen or associated micro-organism compounds are active against human coronaviruses. . - Viruses, 15(9): 1859 [15 p.] .
(1) Background: Since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, efforts have been made to identify antiviral compounds against human coronaviruses. With the aim of increasing the diversity of molecule scaffolds, 42 natural compounds, of which 28 were isolated from lichens and 14 from their associated microorganisms (bacteria and fungi), were screened against human coronavirus HCoV-229E. (2) Methods: Antiviral assays were performed using HCoV-229E in Huh-7 and Huh-7/TMPRSS2 cells and SARS-CoV-2 in a Vero-81-derived clone with a GFP reporter probe. (3) Results: Four lichen compounds, including chloroatranol, emodin, perlatolic acid and vulpinic acid, displayed high activities against HCoV-229E (IC50 = 68.86, 59.25, 16.42 and 14.58 μM, respectively) and no toxicity at active concentrations. Kinetics studies were performed to determine their mode of action. The four compounds were active when added at the replication step. Due to their significant activity, they were further tested on SARS-CoV-2. Perlatolic acid was shown to be active against SARS-CoV-2. (4) Conclusions: Taken together, these results show that lichens are a source of interesting antiviral agents against human coronaviruses. Moreover, perlatolic acid might be further studied for its pan-coronavirus antiviral activity. Keywords: antiviral; natural product; coronavirus; HCoV-229E; SARS-CoV-2; lichen compounds.
35762Soto-Medina E., Aptroot A. & Lücking R. (2023): New species of lichen for Colombia tropical dry forest. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 44(7): 103–107.
Three new species of lichen are described from Colombia. Astrothelium caucavallense Soto-Medina & Aptroot, sp. nov. is characterized by larger ascospores than A. megaeneum Flakus & Aptroot; Pyrenula gigaspora Soto-Medina, Aptroot & Lücking, sp. nov. has the largest 3-septate ascospores known in the genus; and Ocelullaria vallensis Soto-Medina & Lücking, sp. nov. is similar to O. buckii Lücking, but differs in the larger ascospores and fewer septae.
35761Wijayawardene N.N., Dai D.-Q., Premarathne B.M., Wimalasena M.K., Jayalal R.G.U., Wickramanayake K.D., Dangalla H., Jayathunga W.H., Brahmanage R.S., Karunarathna S.C., Weerakoon G., Ariyawansa K.G.S.U., Yapa P.N., Madawala S., Nanayakkara C.M., Fan X.-L., Kirk P.M., Zhang G.-Q., Ediriweera A., Bhat D.J., Dawoud T.M., Tibpromma S. & Wijesundara D.S.A. (2023): Checklist, typification details, and nomenclature status of ascomycetous fungi originally described in Sri Lanka. - Phytotaxa, 611(1): 1–105.
Despite being a biodiversity-rich country, Sri Lanka’s fungal diversity remains largely unexplored. In the 19th century, British mycologists conducted extensive research, leading to the identification of more than 1,800 fungal taxa, including ascomycetous and basidiomycetous species. However, the majority of these taxa have not been revisited since their initial description, and molecular evidence is lacking. Moreover, a significant number of fungal taxa have been deemed invalid or illegitimate, indicating the need for a nomenclatural revision. To address this knowledge gap, this review provides a comprehensive list of ascomycetous taxa (including both lichen-forming and non-lichenized) that were originally described in Sri Lanka. Names are listed according to the original names which were included in the protologue. In the cases where species have been transferred to other genera, the current names and new classifications are provided. The typification details, nomenclature status, and classification are also presented. This checklist will serve as a valuable resource for the future epitypification of old taxa, as much of the existing information is poorly documented and scattered. Key words: British mycologists, fungaria, holotype, morphology, voucher specimens.
35760Torres J.M., Torres V.O., Rodrigues A.S., Gianini A.S., Micheletti A.C., Honda N.K., Spielmann A.A. & Lorenz A.P. (2023): Lineages of the lichen‑forming fungus Stereocaulon alpinum and their photobionts in southern South America and maritime Antarctica. - Polar Biology, 46: 865–879.
Stereocaulon alpinum is a lichenized fungus commonly found in the Antarctic, circumarctic, alpine, and in mountainous areas of temperate regions. It forms a tripartite lichen symbiosis together with trebouxioid green microalgae, as its primary photobiont, and cyanobacteria of the genus Nostoc inside delimited cephalodia. Previous DNA-based analyses revealed two lineages for this fungus. This research discusses the morphological and chemical circumscription of S. alpinum and its geographic distribution and, to this end, we included new DNA data from the mycobiont and its photosynthetic partners. Phylogenetic reconstructions rejected infraspecific categories and revealed that specimens from the southern hemisphere (maritime Antarctica and South America) formed a well-supported “bipolar clade” with specimens from Finland, Greenland, and Canada. In addition, S. alpinum also formed a “northern clade” with sequences from Europe and North Atlantic islands. In specimens from the southern hemisphere, the identified lineages of phyco- and cyanobionts were already known to be associated with other lichenized fungi. The phycobiont was identified as Asterochloris pseudoirregularis and the cyanobiont as a member of the genus Nostoc. The phenotypic differences among the southern hemisphere specimens examined in this study pointed towards a broad morphological circumscription of S. alpinum. Simultaneously, the available descriptions of S. alpinum collected in the northern hemisphere, including the type specimen, do not provide characters distinguishing them from the southern specimens. These two clades likely represent cryptic species, one new and potentially only recognized using genetic data. Additional integrative studies, including a comprehensive analysis of specimens from the northern hemisphere, are necessary to know the diversity contained in the lichens identified as Stereocaulon alpinum worldwide. Keywords: Ascomycota · bipolar species · Lichen phylogeography · Stereocaulaceae · Taxonomy.
35759Malíček J. (2023): Aleš Müller oslavil sedmdesát!. - Bryonora, 71: 71–72.
35758Šoun J., Svoboda D. & Kovář P. (2023): Jiří Liška – 70. - Bryonora, 71: 70–71.
35757Palice Z. (2023): Česká a slovenská lichenologická bibliografie XXXV [Czech and Slovak lichenological bibliography, XXXV]. - Bryonora, 71: 58–62.
35756Bouda F., Ghlimová H., Hlisnikovský D., Jerhot Š., Syrovátková L., Uhlík P. & Malíček J. (2023): Lišejníky zaznamenané během 34. bryologicko-lichenologických dní na Drahanské vrchovině [Lichens recorded during the 34th Bryological and Lichenological Days in the Drahanská vrchovina Highlands]. - Bryonora, 71: 42–53.
This contribution presents records of 172 lichenised fungi observed during a number of excursions to the Drahanská vrchovina Highlands, including Moravský kras (Moravian Karst) in Moravia. We studied mostly limestone localities and rock substrates. The area is rich in several species absent or very rare elsewhere in the Czech Republic, such as Caloplaca fiumana, C. xantholyta and Lecanora rouxii. The oceanic species Gyalecta nidarosiensis is reported here for the first time in the Czech Republic. We also highlight other interesting records of rarely reported species, such as Acarospora oligospora, Bagliettoa parmigera, Catapyrenium cinereum, Dirina massiliensis, Enchylium coccophorum, Endocarpon pallidum, Heteroplacidium compactum, Involucropyrenium romeanum, Lepraria diffusa, Opegrapha rupestris, Placynthium subradiatum, Protoblastenia lilacina, Rinodina immersa and Thelenella muscorum. Identifications of four specimens are supported by molecular ITS and/or mtSSU data. One collected lichen, Bacidina aff. arnoldiana, characterised by conspicuous sessile white pycnidia, probably represents an undescribed species. Keywords: biodiversity, limestones, Moravian Karst.
35755Malíček J. (2023): Lišejníky NPR Velká Pleš na Křivoklátsku [Lichens of Velká Pleš National Nature Reserve (Křivoklát region)]. - Bryonora, 71: 1–27.
Velká Pleš National Nature Reserve (94.8 ha; alt. 248–500 m) belongs to the most valuable localities in the Křivoklátsko Protected Landscape Area. It is covered mainly by natural beech, oak and ravine forests up to ±150 years old, but the highest biodiversity is concentrated in local xerothermic steppe grasslands with andesite outcrops and in the surrounding parkland with a high tree diversity and wild mouflon grazing. In a survey between 2021 and 2023, a total of 290 lichen species, 7 lichenicolous fungi and 12 nonlichenised fungi were recorded in the reserve. Another 21 lichen species were reported in previous floristic studies but have not been confirmed recently. Presently, Velká Pleš is the fifth most lichen species-rich locality known in the Czech Republic. The corticolous fungus Morrisographium ulmi is reported here as new to the Czech Republic. Ionaspis ceracea had hitherto only been known from historical records from the country. Dermatocarpon meiophyllizum, Everhartia lignatilis (non-lichenised species) and Verrucaria substerilis are reported from their second (recent) localities in the Czech Republic. The species Bacidia vermifera, Buellia leptocline, Cladonia parasitica, Inoderma byssaceum, Multiclavula mucida, Peltigera neocanina, Pertusaria aspergilla, P. leucosora, Phaeophyscia pusilloides, Porina byssophila, Pyrenula nitidella, Rinodina moziana and Strigula affinis represent other valuable records. Identifications of 20 specimens are supported by molecular ITS and/or mtSSU data. Key words: andesite rock, biodiversity, natural lowland forests.
35754Fernández-Pastor I., González-Menéndez V., Martínez Andrade K., Serrano R., Mackenzie T.A., Benítez G., Casares-Porcel M., Genilloud O. & Reyes F. (2023): Xerophytic lichens from gypsiferous outcrops of arid areas of Andalusia as a source of anti-phytopathogenic depsides. - Journal of Fungi, 9(9): 887 [13 p.] .
In a survey to evaluate the potential of lichens associated with gypsum areas as sources of new antifungal metabolites, six species of lichens were collected in the gypsum outcrops of the Sorbas Desert (Diploschistes ocellatus and Seirophora lacunosa) and the Tabernas Desert (Cladonia foliacea, Acarospora placodiformis, Squamarina lentigera and Xanthoparmelia pokornyi) in southern Spain. Raw lichen acetone extracts were tested against a panel of seven phytopathogenic fungi, including Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum acutatum, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp cubense TR4, Fusarium ploriferaum, Magnaporthe grisea, Verticillium dahliae and Zymoseptoria tritici. Active extracts of Cladonia foliacea, Xanthoparmelia pokornyi and Squamarina lentigera were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS and Molecular Networking to identify possible metabolites responsible for the antifungal activity. A total of ten depside-like metabolites were identified by MS/MS dereplication and NMR experiments, of which one was a new derivative of fumaroprotocetraric acid. The compounds without previously described biological activity were purified and tested against the panel of fungal phytopathogens. Herein, the antifungal activity against fungal phytopathogens of 4′-O-methylpaludosic acid, divaricatic acid and stenosporic acid is reported for the first time. Stenosporic and divaricatic acids displayed a broad antifungal spectrum against seven relevant fungal phytopathogens in a micromolar range, including the extremely resistant fungus F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 (TR4). 4′-O-methylpaludosic acid exhibited specific antifungal activity against the wheat pathogen Z. tritici, with an IC50 of 38.87 µg/mL (87.1 µM) in the absorbance-based assay and 24.88 µg/mL (55.52 µM) in the fluorescence-based assay. Keywords: xerophytic lichens; antifungal activity; biopesticides; fungal phytopathogens; dereplication; MS/MS molecular networking; depsides.
35753Shi K., Jia Z. & Zhao X. (2023): A new species and two new records of the lichen genus Fissurina from China. - Diversity, 15(9): 959 [13 p.] .
The lichenized fungal genus Fissurina with mostly slit-like lirellae, belongs to Graphidaceae and is mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. A total of 17 Fissurina species have been reported from China. During a survey of the lichen diversity of southern China, a new species Fissurina wuyinensis K.J. Shi, Z.F. Jia and X. Zhao, sp. nov. was found, which is characterized by a corticolous thallus without detected secondary substances, uncarbonized lirellae, and an exposed disc with pruina, muriform and amyloid ascospores. Furthermore, two new records of F. pseudostromatica, F. subcomparimuralis have been identified by morphological, anatomical, chemical and molecular studies. Phylogenetic analyses of three loci (ITS, nuLSU and mtSSU) supported the position of these species within Fissurina. Detailed morphological descriptions as well as high-resolution photographs of the morphology and anatomy of the three species are provided, as well as a comparison and discussion of the characteristics of similar species. The studied specimens were deposited in the Fungarium of the College of Life Sciences, Liaocheng University (LCUF). Keywords: lichenized fungi; Ascomycota; Ostropales; taxonomy.
35752Curtis T., Waters D.P. & Lendemer J.C. (2023): Bilimbia fuscoviridis (≡ Bacidia fuscoviridis), another overlooked sorediate crustose lichen widely distributed in temperate eastern North America. - Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 150(3): 385–397.
Bilimbia fuscoviridis (≡ Bacidia fuscoviridis) is newly reported from North America where it is shown to be widespread in the temperate eastern United States and adjacent Canada, frequently occurring on shaded calcareous rocks and siliceous rocks in humid habitats near waterways. A detailed description on the basis of North American material is provided, the distribution is mapped, and color photographs are provided. The species is likely common but overlooked because of its inconspicuous appearance and the absence of diagnostic secondary metabolites. Key words: asexual reproduction, biodiversity, floristics, limestone, soredia, sterile sorediate crust.
35751Gill H., Sorensen J.L. & Collemare J. (2023): Lichen fungal secondary metabolites: Progress in the genomic era toward ecological roles in the interaction. - In: Scott B. & Mesarich C. (eds), Plant Relationships, The Mycota 5, p. 185–208, Springer, Cham.
35750Lebreton E., Carriconde F., Brouste D., Lespagnol A., Stenger P.-L., Sérusiaux E. & Ertz D. (2023): Enterographa ducouretiana sp. nov. (lichenized Ascomycota, Roccellaceae), a new foliicolous species from New Caledonia. - Phytotaxa, 609(3): 247–252.
Enterographa ducouretiana is described as new to science from New Caledonia. It is characterized by a foliicolous habit, ascomata immersed in a pseudostroma, a dark purple hypothecium, and (3–)5-septate ascospores of (16–)20.5(–24) × (2.5–)2.9(–3.5) µm with a distinct gelatinous sheath of 1.5(–2) μm. Key words: Arthoniales, Australasia, Lichen, Taxonomy.
35749Jurciņš D., Mežaka A., Strazdiņa L., Gerra-Inohosa L., Perševica G. & Piterāns A. (2014): Refound of extinct lichen Lobaria amplissima (Scop.) Forssell in Latvia. - Acta Biologica Universitatis Daugavpiliensis , 14(1): 59–65. .
Lobaria amplissima is rare lichen in many European countries, including Latvia, where it is listed as extinct species with last known record in 1870 from Slitere, North – West Latvia. This species was refound in a spring of 2014 in North Vidzeme Biosphere Reserve on East from the past record in broad-leaved forest and black alder forest. The distribution of Lobaria amplissima in Latvia was discussed. Key words: Lobaria amplissima, distribution, deciduous trees.
35748Ganesan A., Thangapandian M., Ponnusamy P., Sundararaj J.P. & Nayaka S. (2015): Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of parmeliod lichens from Shevaroy hills of Eastern Ghats, India. - International Journal of PharmTech Research, 8(9): 13–23. .
In recent decades, the occurrence of new diseases associated with pathogens in humans has become very common and has spurred efforts to exert control over various diseases. Lichen species such as Parmotrema austrosinense, P. hababianum, and P. tinctorum were collected from the Eastern Ghats of India, covering the Shevaroy hills in Tamil Nadu. The extracts were obtained by using various solvents; they were then subjected to antibacterial and various antioxidants assays, such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and hydrogen peroxide. Benzene extract of P. tinctorum, showed an inhibition zone of 13.77 mm against Salmonella typhimurium, whereas in case of P. hababianum and P. austrosinense inhibition zones were 8.2 and 12.23 mm, respectively. Total antioxidant activity of acetone extract (IC50 18.41 μg/mL) of P. tinctorum was higher than that of other species. Methanol and benzene extracts of P. hababianum and P. austrosinense showed significant effects on free radical scavenging activity. Keywords: Lichen, Antibacterial, Antioxidant activity, DPPH assay, FRAP assay, IC50.
35747Nimis P.L. & de Faveri R. (1981): Numerical classification of Xanthorion communities in north eastern Italy. - Gortania, 2: 91‒110. .
A numerical classification of 250 releves of epiphytic vegetation belonging to the Xanthorion parietinae in North-eastern Italy led to the distinction of 9 communitytypes. Distribution and ecology of each type are briefly discussed. Key words: Xanthorion parietinae, Lichens, Epiphytes, North-eastern Italy, Numerical classification.
35746Otte V. (2020): Bericht vom 14. brandenburgischen Flechtenkartierungstreffen vom 20. bis zum 22. Oktober 2017 in Altkünkendorf. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins Berlin Brandenburg, 151[2019]: 201–205.
Report on a lichen mapping meeting (Brandenburg, Germany).
35745Otte V. (2020): Bericht vom 13. brandenburgischen Flechtenkartierungstreffen vom 12. bis 14. Mai 2017 in Reetz bei Wiesenburg/Fläming. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins Berlin Brandenburg, 151[2019]: 197–199.
Report on a lichen mapping meeting (Brandenburg, Germany).
35744Otte V. (2020): Bericht vom 12. brandenburgischen Flechtenkartierungstreffen vom 28. bis zum 31. Oktober 2016 in Lugau/Niederlausitz . - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins Berlin Brandenburg, 151[2019]: 191–195.
Report on a lichen mapping meeting (Lower Lusatia, Germany).
35743Otte V. (2020): Bericht über das 11. brandenburgische Flechtenkartierungstreffen vom 1. bis zum 3. April 2016 in Altkünkendorf. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins Berlin Brandenburg, 151[2019]: 185–190.
Report on a lichen mapping meeting (Brandenburg, Germany).
35742Fürstenow J. & Linder W. (2020): Die Moos- und Flechtenflora im FFH-Gebiet Wittstock-Ruppiner Heide. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins Berlin Brandenburg, 151[2019]: 63–82.
The "Wittstock-Ruppiner Heide", a protection area under EU-Habitat Directive, comprises the largest coherent heathland in Germany. In the course of biotope mapping 2013/2014 within the heaths, dry grasslands and the surrounding fore forest stages 63 bryophyte and 124 lichen taxa were found. Among them, 18 (= 29%) bryophytes and 49 (= 40%) lichens belong to highly endangered, endangered or declining species. Overall, the long list of remarkable finds from many rare species confirms the area's importance and high conservation value for bryophytes and lichens. Since the particular habitats for the bryophytes and lichens are threatened by succession and eutrophication, the preservation of their habitats requires large-scale conservation efforts.
35741de Bruyn U. & Dethlefs B. (2008): Bemerkenswerte neue Nachweise von Bartflechten in der Südheide. - Floristische Notizen aus der Lüneburger Heide, 16: 31–35.
35740Aszalósné Balogh R., Farkas E., Tüdősné Budai J., Lőkös L. & Matus G. (2023): Cryptogamic biomass in Pannonic acidic sand steppes subject to changing land-use. - Plants, 12(16): 2972 [25 p.].
Cryptogams, often neglected in vegetation dynamics studies, compose a large part of biomass and contribute to the biodiversity of sandy grasslands. Since the work of Verseghy (1970s), their productivity has not been analyzed in Hungary. We studied the lichen and bryophyte dynamics (hereinafter called cryptogams) at two Eastern Hungarian dry sandy grassland sites. The sites of Corynephorus canescens and of Festuca vaginata dominance, respectively, belonging to the community Festuco vaginatae–Corynephoretum have been monitored. We aimed at (1) quantifying the diversity and biomass of the cryptogamic communities; (2) exploring the cryptogamic response to management changes; and (3) studying the effect of experimental management (fencing) on the cryptogamic assemblages. The sites have been compared in 2013 and 2018, respectively. Forty microplots per site per management have been analyzed in both years. Samples of lichens and bryophytes were hand-sorted, dried and then measured. Fencing has led to increased biomass of cryptogams within a few years. Lichens in general benefited comparatively more from exclosure than bryophytes. The increase in lichen biomass (especially that of Cladonia rangiformis) is clearly due to the over 10-year absence of grazing. The only lichen favored by moderate grazing is the legally protected C. magyarica. Short spells of low-intensity grazing can promote the species richness of cryptogams in the community. Keywords: biomass; bryophytes; cryptogams; dry grassland; lichens.
35739Poncet R., Paradis A.-H. & Dupré R. (2023): Additions to the lichenized and non-lichenized fungi from the Aude department (Occitanie Region, France). - The Lichen Survey Journal, 1(1): 1–15.
The department of Aude (Occitanie region, France) is one of the most biodiverse in mainland France, yet its land remains largely unexplored, leaving numerous lichen-forming fungi species undocumented. Herein, we document the discovery of 40 previously unrecorded species within the Aude department: Coniocarpon cinnabarinum, Alyxoria variiformis, Pseudoschismatomma rufescens, Acarospora glaucocarpa, Cladonia cervicornis, C. humilis, C. portentosa, C. squamosa var. subsquamosa, C. subulata, Squamarina gypsacea, S. periculosa, Stereocaulon evolutum, Parmelia omphalodes, Pleurosticta acetabulum, Usnea cornuta, U. esperantiana, U. flammea, U. glabrescens, U. rubicunda, Xanthoparmelia verruculifera, Psora testacea, Ramalina fraxinea, Thalloidima opuntioides, Sphaerophorus globosus, Romjularia lurida, Leprocaulon quisquiliare, Diploschistes scruposus, Graphis betulina, G. elegans, Scytinium lichenoides, Fuscopannaria ignobilis, Nephroma tangeriense, Peltigera canina, Peltigera hymenina, Rhizocarpon lecanorinum, Calogaya decipiens subsp. decipiens, Kuettlingeria teicholyta, Polycauliona polycarpa, Umbilicaria polyphylla, Rhytidhysteron hysterinum. Additionally, we report the first occurrence of Usnea fulvoreagens in the Lot department (Occitanie region, France). These findings contribute to our understanding of the remarkable lichen diversity within the Aude department, emphasizing the need for further exploration and conservation efforts in this region. Key words: Lichen survey, ZNIEFF, new records.
35738Morris C. & Stone D. (2023): Chaenotheca subroscida and C. phaeocephala in the Pacific Northwest of North America. - Evansia, 40(1): 3–10. .
Morphological identification of Chaenotheca phaeocephala and Chaenotheca subroscida in the Pacific Northwest is difficult. Both have stalked mazaediate ascomata with yellow pruina and ascospores that are relatively large for the genus. In Scandinavia, their thalli are distinguishable and they occur in different habitats. We used thin-layer chromatography to examine the secondary metabolites in thalli of 36 specimens from Oregon and Washington identified as C. phaeocephala or C. subroscida. Nine specimens contained pseudoplacodiolic acid, which places them in C. subroscida. The thalli of six of these had dense whitish granules and no verrucae; other specimens had a mixture of verrucae and white granules. The rest of the specimens did not have pseudoplacodiolic acid and were therefore C. phaeocephala; their thalli had varying amounts of verrucae and granules. Our results suggest that identification of these two species in the Pacific Northwest is not possible without TLC. Key words: Lichens, calicioids, TLC, pseudoplacodiolic acid.
35737McCune B. (2023): A rare lichen, Umbilicaria hirsuta, pioneers an old trailer in Montana. - Evansia, 40(1): 11–14. .
Umbilicaria hirsuta colonized an old travel trailer parked in a pasture in western Montana, U.S.A. Although the species has been reported several times from Montana, beginning with Llano (1950), all of the previous reports were based on the same initial record from Glacier County on the east side of the Continental Divide in Glacier National Park (McCune et al. 2014).
35736Villella J., Calabria L.M., McCune B., Miller J.E.D., Sharrett S.T. & Restrepo A. (2023): An annotated list of lichens and allied fungi in Oregon’s Opal Creek Wilderness and adjacent areas: pre-fire baseline. - Evansia, 40(1): 15–36. .
In 2020 the Beachie Creek Fire burned a large, forested area in the northern Oregon Cascade Range that included public and private land and much of the Opal Creek Wilderness. We compiled a pre-fire baseline data set from various sources of the lichens and allied fungi known to occur before the fire within the fire perimeter. These data are presented as an annotated species list documenting two hundred and eighty-three species. Euopsis pulvinata, Lepraria elobata, Miriquidica instrata, Plectocarpon nephromeum, Porpidia flavicunda, and Rhizocarpon distinctum are reported as new for Oregon based on an online search of herbarium records and relevant literature. Near the wilderness area, where populations of listed rare species are known, their occurrences are mapped against a fire severity gradient. Drone-generated images of selected locations before and after the fire are included to help gauge the fire effects on lichen communities. Increased fire activity in the area is potentially causing landscape-level changes in biodiversity, and the data we present represent a historical baseline for future analyses of the effects of the Beachie Creek fire on lichen diversity. Key words: Fire severity, Willamette National Forest, megafire, climate change, species inventory.
35735Cernat Popa M.M. & Rusănescu C.O. (2023): The efficiency of lichens in air biomonitoring in Teleorman county. - Atmosphere, 14: 1287 [10 p.].
In this work, we collected samples of lichens from the oaks of Pădurea Troianul, in the area of Teleorman county, to analyze the air quality, using the lichen biodiversity index and its determining factor. We transplanted them to the points to be monitored and analyzed them to detect and quantify the concentration of heavy metals or other toxic substances accumulated in the lichen biomass. This research was conducted at transplant sites, where five sample sites were chosen. We investigated the concentrations of the heavy metals Cd, Pb and Hg, making a comparison between the concentrations indicated by lichens and conventional measurements. The sampling, observation and analysis of lichens, we carried out in the months of September, October and November 2021, because in September the temperatures are higher and the degree of precipitation is lower than in November, so we followed a development of lichens covering different periods in terms of temperature and humidity. The comparison was made starting from the contamination factors obtained and measured in the sampling station. The application of the biomonitoring method allows obtaining an exact index of the purity of the atmosphere based on the tolerance of the transplanted lichens, the results being obtained quickly. Keywords: bioindicators; lichens; heavy metals; transplantation; pollution sources.
35734Carrasco Baquero J.C., Caballero Serrano V.L., Romero Cañizares F., Carrasco López D.C., León Gualán D.A., Vieira Lanero R. & Cobo-Gradín F. (2023): Water quality determination using soil and vegetation communities in the wetlands of the Andes of Ecuador. - Land, 12(8): 1586 [18 p.].
The bofedales are high Andean ecosystems of great socioeconomic and ecological importance. The Chimborazo Fauna Production Reserve has 15 bofedales in its jurisdiction, located in the provinces of Chimborazo, Bolívar, and Tungurahua. The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between plant species composition and the physicochemical characteristics of water and soil. To determine the floristic composition, destructive sampling of species was applied, and three sampling points of 1 m2 were established every 100 m per wetland. At each sampling point, physical-chemical variables were recorded in situ and in the laboratory for water and soil. The floristic analysis identified 78 riparian species of riparian plants (63 vascular, 12 bryophytes, 4 pteridophytes) and 1 lichen. In the aquatic environment, seven vascular plants, recognized as macrophytes, were recorded. The results show great heterogeneity in the soil, water, and vegetation characters because they respond to a mineralization gradient (as indicated by the high values of electrical conductivity and dissolved ions). Additionally, it was observed that the total amount of soluble solids that characterizes the Los Hieleros wetland (W11) is independent of hardness and chemical oxygen demand, which correlate with each other and, in turn, better describe the Pachancho wetland (W12). The highest degree of turbidity corresponds to the Cóndor Samana (W9) and Portal Andino (W10) wetlands. The Culebrillas (W6), Puente Ayora ANI (W14), and Pampas Salasacas (W1) wetlands are characterized by the presence of dissolved oxygen, so it is assumed that these are the wetlands with the best water quality. Consequently, it is imperative to double efforts to describe the ecology and status of these high Andean wetlands in order to promote their conservation. Keywords: floristic inventory; HJ-Biplot; soil sampling; vegetation communities; water quality.
35733Magain N., Miadlikowska J., Goffinet B., Goward T., Pardo-De la Hoz C.J., Jüriado I., Simon A., Mercado-Díaz J.A., Barlow T., Moncada B., Lücking R., Spielmann A., Canez L., Wang L.S., Nelson P., Wheeler T., Lutzoni F. & Sérusiaux E. (2023): High species richness in the lichen genus Peltigera (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes): 34 species in the dolichorhizoid and scabrosoid clades of section Polydactylon, including 24 new to science. - Persoonia, 51: 1–88.
Applying molecular methods to fungi establishing lichenized associations with green algae or cyanobacteria has repeatedly revealed the existence of numerous phylogenetic taxa overlooked by classical taxonomic approaches. Here, we report taxonomical conclusions based on multiple species delimitation and validation analyses performed on an eight-locus dataset that includes world-wide representatives of the dolichorhizoid and scabrosoid clades in section Polydactylon of the genus Peltigera. Following the recommendations resulting from a consensus species delimitation approach and additional species validation analysis (BPP) performed in this study, we present a total of 25 species in the dolichorhizoid clade and nine in the scabrosoid clade, including respectively 18 and six species that are new to science and formally described. Additionally, one combination and three varieties (including two new to science) are proposed in the dolichorhizoid clade. The following 24 new species are described: P. appalachiensis, P. asiatica, P. borealis, P. borinquensis, P. chabanenkoae, P. clathrata, P. elixii, P. esslingeri, P. flabellae, P. gallowayi, P. hawaiiensis, P. holtanhartwigii, P. itatiaiae, P. hokkaidoensis, P. kukwae, P. massonii, P. mikado, P. nigriventris, P. orientalis, P. rangiferina, P. sipmanii, P. stanleyensis, P. vitikainenii and P. willdenowii; the following new varieties are introduced: P. kukwae var. phyllidiata and P. truculenta var. austroscabrosa; and the following new combination is introduced: P. hymenina var. dissecta. Each species from the dolichorhizoid and scabrosoid clades is morphologically and chemically described, illustrated, and characterised with ITS sequences. Identification keys are provided for the main biogeographic regions where species from the two clades occur. Morphological and chemical characters that are commonly used for species identification in the genus Peltigera cannot be applied to unambiguously recognise most molecularly circumscribed species, due to high variation of thalli formed by individuals within a fungal species, including the presence of distinct morphs in some cases, or low interspecific variation in others. The four commonly recognised morphospecies: P. dolichorhiza, P. neopolydactyla, P. pulverulenta and P. scabrosa in the dolichorhizoid and scabrosoid clades represent species complexes spread across multiple and often phylogenetically distantly related lineages. Geographic origin of specimens is often helpful for species recognition; however, ITS sequences are frequently required for a reliable identification. Key words: cryptic species; identification key; new taxa; Peltigerales; species delimitation.
35732Davydov E.A., Ryzhkova P.Yu., Frolov I.V., Galanina I.A. & Yakovchenko L.S. (2023): New records of lichens from the Russian Far East. IV. The lichens of limestone outcrops of the southern part of the Russian Far East. - Acta Biologica Sibirica, 9: 451–477.
The new records of the lichens of limestone outcrops in the southern part of the Russian Far East (Primorye Territory and Sakhalin Region) are presented. Among them, Catillaria detractula, Gyalecta jenensis, Myriolecis semipallida, Physconia jacutica, Sarcogyne regularis, Thyrea confusa, Verrucaria caerulela, V. viridula and Xanthoria calcicola are newly reported for the Russian Far East; Acarospora glaucocarpa, A. macrospora, Lecanora valesiaca, Protoblastenia calva and Thelidium decipiens are newly reported for the southern part of the Russian Far East. Xanthocarpia crenulatella is a new species for Sakhalin Region. Diagnostic traits of the species, peculiarities of the material from the Russian Far East, distribution, ecology and comparison with the closest species are given. Keywords: Sikhote-Alin’ Range, lichenized fungus, calciphile species, floristic findings, biodiversity, flora, Sakhalin Region, Primorye Territory, temperate East Asia.
35731Yin A.C., Zhong Q.Y., Scheidegger C., Jin J.Z., Worthy F.R., Wang L.S. & Wang X.Y. (2023): The phylogeny and taxonomy of Glypholecia (Acarosporaceae lichenized Ascomycota), including a new species from northwestern China. - Mycokeys, (98): 153-165.
Glypholecia qinghaiensis An C. Yin, Q. Y. Zhong & Li S. Wang is described as new to science. It is characterized by its squamulose thallus, compound apothecia, ellipsoid asco -spores, and the presence of rhizines on the lower surface of the thallus. A phylogenetic tree of Glypholecia species was constructed based on nrITS and mtSSU sequences. Two species G. qinghaiensis and G. scabra are confirmed in China. cosmopolitan, lichenized fungi, morphological diversity, phylogenetic anal-yses, Tibetan Plateau, FUNGI, EVOLUTION, PRIMERS
35730Yanan X., Qiuxia Y. & Zefeng J. (2023): Preliminary study on lichen genus Phlyctis from China. - Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany, 30(3): 407-412.
Lichen species Phlyctis subhimalayensis is reported as new to China. Its morphological and molecular data are provided. All species of the genus Phlyctis in China have been briefly described, and similar species are discussed, and a key to the known species of Phlyctis in China is also provided, that would provide basic data for the further study of Phlyctis.
35729Biting L., Shouyu G., Mamuti Reyimu & Xinli W. (2023): Four Species of Lichen Genera Lecanora and Cladonia New to China. - Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany, 31(4): 573-584.
Based on combined morphological and chemical data with phylogenetic analysis using nrDNA ITS sequences, four species in the lichenized genus Lecanora Ach. and Cladonia P. Browne., including L. layana Lendemer, L. baekdudaeganensis B. G. Lee & Hur, L. pseudargentata Lumbsch and C. caespiticia (Pers.) P. Gaertn., B. Mey & Scherb. from Dabie Mountains, are reported as new record to China. The taxonomic characteristics of these species are described in detail and compared with similar species, and the geographic distribution and morphological photos are provided. These will provide information for the species diversity of Lecanora and Cladonia in China. Lichenized fungi, Lecanorales, Dabie Mountains, New record
35728Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1894): Lichenes Eckfeldtiani a cl. Dr. J. W. Eckfeldt Philadelphensi, praesertim in Mexico lecti, quos enumerat. - Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, 2: 89–93. .
35727Jung P., Werner L., Briegel-Williams L., Emrich D. & Lakatos M. (2023): Roccellinastrum, Cenozosia and Heterodermia: Ecology and phylogeny of fog lichens and their photobionts from the coastal Atacama Desert. - MycoKeys, 98: 317–348.
Some deserts on Earth such as the Namib or the Atacama are influenced by fog which can lead to the formation of local fog oases - unique environments hosting a great diversity of specialized plants and lichens. Lichens of the genera Ramalina, Niebla or Heterodermia have taxonomically been investigated from fog oases around the globe but not from the Atacama Desert, one of the oldest and driest deserts. Conditioned by its topography and the presence of orographic fog, the National Park Pan de Azúcar in the Atacama Desert is considered to be such a lichen hotspot. Applying multi-gen loci involving phylogenetic analyses combined with intense morphological and chemical characterization, we determined the taxonomic position of five of the most abundant epiphytic lichens of this area. We evaluated Roccellinastrum spongoideum and Heterodermia follmannii which were both described from the area but also finally showed that the genus Cenozosia is the endemic sister genus to Ramalina, Vermilacinia, Namibialina and Niebla. As a result, we have described the species Heterodermia adunca, C. cava and C. excorticata as new lichen species. This work provides a comprehensive dataset for common fog lichen genera of the Coastal Range of the Atacama Desert that can be used as a baseline for monitoring programs and environmental health assessments. Key words: Chlorolichens, Heterodermia, Niebla, Pan de Azucar, Symbiochloris, Trebouxia.
35726Li L., Zhang Y. & Printzen C. (2023): Phylogeny, morphology and chemistry reveal two new multispored species in the Lecanora subfusca group (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota). - MycoKeys, 99: 25–43.
Two new multispored species from China, Lecanora anhuiensis Li J. Li & Printzen, sp. nov. and Lecanora pseudojaponica Li J. Li & Printzen, sp. nov. are described and illustrated here, based on morphological, chemical and molecular evidence. Lecanora anhuiensis is characterised by an epruinose, yellowish-brown to deep brown apothecial disc, an epihymenium with fine crystals, an amphithecium with small crystals, 16-spored asci and the presence of zeorin, in addition to atranorin. Lecanora pseudojaponica is characterised by an epruinose, red-brown apothecial disc, an epihymenium without crystals, an amphithecium with small crystals, 8 or 16- spored asci and the presence of zeorin and the stictic acid complex, in addition to atranorin. Phylogenetic reconstructions, based on mtSSU, nrITS and nrLSU suggest that these two species are members of the Lecanora subfusca group. They are compared with morphologically similar and phylogenetically related species, based on a nrITS dataset. Phylogenetic results show that the multispored taxa of Lecanora are polyphyletic. The number of ascospores per ascus appears to be a taxonomic character of minor importance. Detailed descriptions, discussions and figures for the two new species from China and a key for the multispored species of Lecanora worldwide are provided. Key words: Ascospores, China, identification key, Lecanora, lichen, taxonomy.
35725Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1894): Arthoniae et Arthothelii species Wrightianae in insula Cuba lectae. - Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, 2: 725–736. .
Arthonia, Arthothelium, Cuba
35724Prieto M., Montané N., Aragón G., Martínez I. & Rodríguez-Arribas C. (2023): Cyanobacterial variability in lichen cephalodia. - Journal of Fungi, 9(8): 826 [11 p.].
The ecological success of lichens is related to both myco- and photobionts which condition the physiological limits of the lichen symbioses and thus affect their ecological niches and geographic ranges. A particular type of lichen, called cephalolichen, is characterized by housing both green algal and cyanobacterial symbionts—the latter is restricted to special structures called cephalodia. In this type of lichen, questions related to specialization within species or within individuals are still unsolved as different patterns have previously been observed. In order to study the variability at the intrathalline, intraspecific, and interspecific level, cyanobionts from different cephalodia within the same thalli and from different thalli were genetically analysed in three cephalolichen species at two different forests (18 thalli, 90 cephalodia). The results showed variability in the cephalodial Nostoc OTUs in all the studied species, both at the intrathalline and intraspecific levels. The variability of Nostoc OTUs found in different cephalodia of the same thallus suggests low specialization in this relationship. Additionally, differences in OTU diversity in the three studied species and in the two forests were found. The variability observed may confer an increased ecological plasticity and an advantage to colonize or persist under additional or novel habitats or conditions. Keywords: cyanolichens; intrathalline; rbcLX; Nephroma antarcticum; Nostoc; Pannaria farinosa; Pseudocyphellaria granulata; specialization; symbiosis.
35723Wagner H.-G. unter Mithilfe von Eichler M., Cezanne R., Raabe U., Schmidt C., Jagel A., Wirth V., Lumbsch H.T., Schumm F., Stapper N. et al. (2023): Im Gedenken an Dieter Gregor Zimmermann (1942–2022). - Herzogia, 36(1): 5–11. .
[in German], a tribute to Gregor Zimmermann; necrolog; bibliography
35722Weber L., Arup U. & Schiefelbein U. (2023): Lecanora sublivescens, a little-known lichen species in Germany. - Herzogia, 36(1): 12–28. .
New records of the lichenized fungus Lecanora sublivescens are reported from northern Germany. Here the species was previously known from four, mainly historical, localities and is considered highly endangered. Because of its variability and similarity to other Lecanora species it might however also be underreported. We present an analysis of the taxon’s phylogenetic position within Lecanora sensu lato as well as a detailed description of its morphology, ecology and geographic distribution. Key words: rediscovery, northern Germany, distribution, habitat.
35721Neumann P., Brackel W. v., Dolnik C., Cezanne R., Eichler M., Schiefelbein U. & Schultz M. (2023): Additional records of lichenised and lichenicolous fungi from Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania . - Herzogia, 36(1): 29–51. .
Records of a total of 91 taxa are reported, among these 51 lichens, 39 lichenicolous fungi and one lichen-allied fungus. Diplotomma parasiticum, Inoderma subabietinum, Lepraria sylvicola, Lichenochora aprica, L. collematum, Lichenoconium aeruginosum, Rhagadostoma collematum and Taeniolella trapeliopseos are new to Germany. Bactrospora corticola, Calicium notarisii and Lecidea diducens, thought to be lost throughout Germany, were rediscovered. Arthonia mediella, Micarea tomentosa, Parmotrema pseudoreticulatum as well as the lichenicolous fungi Abrothallus caerulescens, Cercidospora macrospora, Chaenothecopsis debilis, Cladosporium licheniphilum, Corynespora laevistipitata, Phaeospora lecanorae, Phoma peltigerae, Taeniolella cladinicola and Xenonectriella physciacearum are recorded for northern Germany for the first time. For Schleswig-Holstein 51 species are added to the lichen flora, 21 previously extinct taxa were rediscovered. Twenty-two taxa are new to Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Key words: Germany, lichen diversity.
35720Knudsen K., van Zon S., Tsurykau A., Kocourková J., Hodková E., Huereca A. & Malíček J. (2023): Sarcogyne (Acarosporaceae) on calcareous rock in Europe and North America . - Herzogia, 36(1): 52–71. .
Sarcogyne pruinosa and S. regularis are revised and lectotypes selected. Sarcogyne pruinosa is recognized as oldest name for the species and S. regularis as a synonym. The description of the species is revised. Sarcogyne pruinosa does not occur in North America. Two new species are described, Sarcogyne nimisii from Italy and Sarcogyne belarusensis from Belarus, Germany and Italy. Sarcogyne platycarpoides is lectotypified and S. melaniza is recognized as its synonym. New records are reported of S. distinguenda and S. nivea from the Czech Republic and Italy and S. fallax from the Czech Republic. A key is supplied for 14 species of Sarcogyne on calcareous rock in Europe. Key words: Carbonized margins, convex apothecia, lecideine apothecia, nomenclature, Sarcogyne coeruleonigrans.
35719Mouedden R., Ayache A., Khedim R., Motiejūnaitė J. & Ayad N. (2023): Records of new and overlooked lichens from the Saïda province (Western Algeria). - Herzogia, 36(1): 72–83. .
Eighty five lichens are reported for the first time from Doui-Thabet forest, Saïda province, Algeria, four of them (Acarospora aeginaica, Acarospora calcivora, Acarospora pitardii, Acarospora xanthophana) are new to Algeria. Of them Acarospora aeginaica is reported for the first time to north Africa. Ten of the recorded species are protected under the Algerian endangered species legislation. For all newly recorded species descriptions of morphology, anatomy, ecology and distribution are provided. Keywords: lichenized fungi, diversity, Doui-Thabet forest, northern Africa.
35718Zhurbenko M.P. (2023): Contributions to the knowledge of lichenicolous fungi growing on Pannariaceae, including four new species and an identification key. - Herzogia, 36(1): 131–160. .
Four species of lichenicolous fungi are described as new to science: Capronia marginalis (on Psoroma pallidum), with large perithecia, up to 250 μm diam., short and inconspicuous setae, a hemiamyloid hymenial gel, and light greyish orange, (0 –)3-septate ascospores with rather acute ends; Cladophialophora novozhilovii (on Psoroma hypnorum), with loose, light grey sporodochia, up to 530 μm diam., and light grey-brown, often slightly angular, 0(–1)-septate conidia; Lichenochora alaskana (on Fuscopannaria viridescens and Psoroma hypnorum), with 2(– 4)-spored asci, and (0 –)1(–2)-septate, long ascospores; and Zwackhiomyces errinundrensis (on Pannaria microphyllizans), with small perithecia, 70 –150 μm diam., without radial fissures around the ostiole, 4 -spored asci, and ascospores without a distinct perispore. The morphological differences between genera Lichenochora and Rhagadostoma are discussed. Perforations in the excipular cell walls of Lichenochora species are illustrated and compared to Munk pores. Two potentially new species, Capronia sp. 1 (on Psoroma paleaceum) and Ovicuculispora cf. parmeliae (on Psoroma pallidum) are characterised and discussed. Broader species concepts for Lichenochora coppinsii s. lat. and L. lepidiotae s. lat. are proposed. Fuscopannaria is a new host genus for Lichenochora coppinsii s. lat., Psoroma is a new host genus for L. lepidiotae s. lat. and Xenonectriella protopannariae. The possible synonymy of Xenonectriella protopannariae and X. rosea is discussed. Dacampia leptogiicola is newly reported for Macaronesia on a new host (Pectenia), and Opegrapha invadens is newly reported for New Zealand on a new host (Psoroma). A key to 80 species of lichenicolous fungi and three species of lichenicolous lichens known to occur on Pannariaceae is provided. Key words: biogeography, ecology, lichen-dwelling fungi, taxonomy.
35717Joshi Y. & Bansal P. (2023): A new species of Stigmidium (Mycosphaerellaceae) on Bulbothrix setschwanensis (Parmeliaceae) from India. - Herzogia, 36(1): 161–168. .
Stigmidium bulbothricis, parasiting the thallus of Bulbothrix setschwanensis is described as new to science from India. This is the twelfth species of Stigmidium growing on members of the family Parmeliaceae, and the first species on Bulbothrix. It is characterized by stromatic wart formations on the thallus of the host, a compound of multilocular ascomata in a sterile stromatic tissue between and over the loculi, hamathecium of “type b” pseudoparaphyses, and hyaline, 1-septate narrow ascospores with rounded ends. The species is compared with other gall-inducing Stigmidium species and a key to all known Stigmidium species colonizing members of the lichen family Parmeliaceae is provided. Keywords: Himalaya, lichenicolous fungi, parmelioid.
35716Brackel W. v. & Wirth V. (2023): Flechtenbewohnende Pilze im Naturraum Schwarzwald (südwestliches Deutschland). - Herzogia, 36(1): 84–130. .
Lichenicolous fungi known from the natural region Black Forest are listed, mainly based on recent finds. On the whole, 197 taxa are mentioned, including 183 described obligately lichenicolous fungi. Lichenosticta wirthii (on Loxospora cismonica) and Tremella altimontana (on Caloplaca cerina) are described as new to science. Further 17 species are new to Germany: Carbonea aggregantula, Clypeococcum cladonema, Didymocyrtis melanelixiae, Endococcus sardous, Lichenostigma rupicolae, Minutophoma chrysophthalmae, Neobarya peltigerae, Polycoccum versisporum, Rhymbocarpus neglectus, Roselliniopsis groedensis, Sclerococcum pertusariicola, Sphaerellothecium araneosum, S. stereocaulorum, Stigmidium leprariae, Taeniolella chrysothricis, Tremella tuckerae, Trimmatostroma vandenboomii and Weddellomyces turcicus. Another 42 species are new to Baden-Württemberg. Putative new species from the genera Endococcus, Lichenochora, Lichenothelia, Muellerella, Phaeoseptoria, Sphaerellothecium, Stigmidium and Trimmatostroma are sketched but not formally described. The distribution, rarity and endangerment of lichenicolous fungi and the possibility to evaluate these factors are discussed. Key words: Lichenicolous fungi, SW Germany, Black Forest, new records, ecology, endangerment.
35715Knudsen K., Kocourková J., Hodková E., Malíček J. & Wang Y. (2023): Acarosporaceae of New Mexico: eight new species of Acarospora and Sarcogyne. - Western North American Naturalist, 83(1): 51–88.
Eight new species are described from the Chihuahuan Desert in southern New Mexico: Acarospora agostiniana, A. divisa, A. fissurata, A. ryanii, Sarcogyne brouardiana, S. coeruleonigricans, S. malpaiensis, and S. nogalensis. Three species, Acarospora coloradiana, A. peltastica, and A. utahensis are not treated as synonyms of A. strigata, a South American endemic. Thirty-four species of Acarosporaceae are reported from the Chihuahuan Desert in southern New Mexico. Fifty-six species of Acarosporaceae are reported from New Mexico. It is estimated that 416 species of described Acarosporales occur worldwide, most in need of revisions. Including species described or taken out of synonymy in this paper, there are 120 species of Acarosporaceae reported from North America north of Mexico. Caeruleum heppii is not a member of the Acarosporales. A key is supplied for 93 species of Acarosporaceae in the southwestern United States (Arizona, southern and central California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and western Texas), which covers 77.5% of the described species in North America.
35714Ohmaki A., Okane I., Crous P.W. & Verkley G.J.M. (2023): Cylindromonium dirinariae sp. nov. (Ascomycota, Hypocreales), a new nectrioid lichenicolous species on Dirinaria applanata in Japan. - Fungal Systematics and Evolution, 11: 1–10.
A nectrioid fungus forming a pinkish colony with mainly solitary phialides producing ellipsoid, aseptate conidia in mucoid packets was isolated from Dirinaria applanata. Our taxonomic study based on morphology and phylogenetic analysis using ITS rDNA sequences revealed that the isolates represented a member of the genus Cylindromonium. Based on further morphological examination, nucleotide sequence comparison, and phylogenetic analysis based on LSU rDNA, tef1, and rpb2 in addition to the phylogenetic analysis using the ITS rDNA sequences, the fungus from Dirinaria represents a new species, which is described here as Cylindromonium dirinariae sp. nov. Furthermore, inoculation experiments revealed that this species can also produce perithecia when inoculated on the host lichen in laboratory environments. Key words: culture; inoculation; lichenicolous fungi; Nectriaceae; new taxon; phylogeny.
35713Toksoz O., Turkmenoglu I., Berber D., Caglayan P., Birbir M. & Sesal N.C. (2023): Evaluation of antibacterial potencies of eight lichen extracts against gram-positive moderately halophilic bacteria : ecological materials to control moderately halophilic bacteria for leather preservation. - Johnson Matthey Technol. Rev., 67(1): 85–96.
The leather sector has global economic importance. Overcoming microbiological problems, especially arising from halophilic bacteria, will greatly reduce product losses. In this study, lichen species including Usnea sp., Platismatia glauca, Ramalina farinacea, Evernia divaricata, Bryoria capillaris, Hypogymnia tubulosa, Pseudevernia furfuracea and Lobaria pulmonaria were examined for their antibacterial efficacies against Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus (TR5) and Salinicoccus roseus (KV3) which are proteolytic and lipolytic Gram-positive moderately halophilic bacteria. The extracts of P. glauca, B. capillaris, P. furfuracea and L. pulmonaria had no antibacterial efficacy against the test bacteria. On the other hand, the extracts of H. tubulosa, R. farinacea, Usnea sp. and E. divaricata had considerable antibacterial effect with varying percentages of inhibition. The maximum inhibition ratios at the tested concentrations of 15–240 μg ml–1 for lichen samples of H. tubulosa, R. farinacea, Usnea sp. and E. divaricata were detected as 94.72 ± 0.75%, 76.10 ± 1.85%, 99.36 ± 0.04%, 89.49 ± 2.26% for TR5 and 97.44 ± 0.14%, 95.92 ± 0.29%, 97.97 ± 0.39%, 97.58 ± 0.53% for KV3, respectively. The most remarkable suppression was obtained with Usnea sp. extracts against KV3. These results indicate the need for further studies investigating the applicability of these natural resources to control moderately halophilic bacteria in the preservation of raw hides and skins.
35712Sepulveda B., Benites D., Albornoz L., Simirgiotis M., Castro O., Garcia-Beltran O. & Areche C. (2023): Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of lichen substances from Hypotrachyna cirrhata. Ethyl lactate, a better extracting agent than methanol toxic organic solvent?. - Natural Product Research, 37(1): 159‒163.
For the first time, we report a green extraction of lichen substances assisted by high power ultrasounds from Hypotrachyna cirrhata using ethyl lactate. This sustainable alternative was comparable, both in isolation and detection of lichen substances, to methanol. In the metabolomic analysis, a total of 77 lichen substances were detected comprising depsides, depsidones, dibenzofurans, organic acids, and lipids. Although the UHPLC/ESI/ MS profiles were similar, the antioxidant activity was higher for the ethyl lactate extract. Ethyl lactate can replace toxic organic solvents, such as methanol, in order to provide more sustainable green chemistry methods. Keywords: alternative solvents; antioxidants; green chemistry; Hypotrachyna; LC/MS; lichens; ultrasound.
35711Nguyen T.-Q.-T., Pham N.-K.-T., Trung N.T., An T.N., Mai D.-T., Sichaem J., Huynh B.-L.-C., Anh N.T.H., Nguyen N.-H. & Duong T.-H. (2023): Indicuen, a new hopane from Parmotrema indicum Hale growing in Vietnam. - Natural Product Research, 37(8): 1284‒1291.
One new hopane-type triterpene, indicuen (1), along with eight known compounds (2–9) were isolated from the n-hexane extract of the lichen Parmotrema indicum Hale. The chemical structures of isolated compounds were identified by interpretation of their spectroscopic data (1D, 2D NMR and HRESIMS) combined with DFT-NMR chemical shift calculations and subsequent assignment of DP4+ probabilities and by comparison with the literature. Indicuen represents for a rare hopane bearing a 1-carboxyethyl substituent at C-21 in lichens. Compounds 1–3 and 5–8 were evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibition and cytotoxicity against K562 and HepG2 cancer cell lines. Compounds 1, 5 and 7 exhibited moderate α-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 values of 201.1, 156.3 and 187.4 µM, respectively. Compound 1 also showed weak cytotoxicity toward K562 cell line while others showed no activity. Keywords: Lichen; Parmotrema indicum Hale; indicuen; triterpene; α-glucosidase inhibition; cytotoxicity.
35710Nguyen V.-K., Nguyen-Si H.-V., Devi A.P., Poonsukkho P., Sangvichien E., Tran T.-N., Yusuke H., Mitsunaga T. & Chavasiri W. (2023): Eumitrins F-H: three new xanthone dimers from the lichen Usnea baileyi and their biological activities. - Natural Product Research, 37(9): 1480‒1490.
The lichen Usnea baileyi is a fruticose lichen belonging to the Usnea genus. It is well known as a rich source of natural xanthone dimers and possesses various bioactivities. Nevertheless, the chemical investigation on this type of lichen is still rare as most of researches reported its components without structural elucidation. Herein, in the continuous study on this type of lichen, we further isolate xanthone dimers from the dichloromethane extract and explore three new xanthone dimers, eumitrins F − H (1 − 3). Their structures were elucidated unambiguously by spectroscopic analyses, including high resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HRESIMS), 1 D and 2 D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 D and 2 D NMR), and DP4 probability. All compounds were evaluated for their enzyme inhibition against α-glucosidase, tyrosinase, and antibacterial activity. They revealed moderate antimicrobial and weak tyrosinase inhibition. For α-glucosidase inhibition, compound 3 displayed the most significant inhibitory against α-glucosidase possessing an IC50 value of 64.2 µM. Keywords: Lichen; Usnea baileyi; dimeric xanthone; α-glucosidase; enzyme inhibitory; antibacteria.
35709Nguyen H.-H., Duong T.-H., Nguyen T.V.A., Do T.-H., Pham D.-D., Nguyen N.-H. & Truong Nguyen H. (2023): α-Glucosidase inhibitory derivatives of protocetraric acid. - Natural Product Research, 37(12): 1935‒1946.
Lichen-derived depsidones have been a successful source for alpha-glucosidase inhibitory agents with numerous advantages. In this article, derivatives of protocetraric acids were designed and synthesised. Diels-Alder reaction, esterification, and Friedel-Crafts alkylation of protocetraric acid with different reagents under Lewis acid were performed. Eleven products were prepared, including 10 new compounds and parmosidone A. Among them, compounds 2–4 and 6 had the novel skeletons. The newly synthetic products were evaluated for alpha-glucosidase inhibition. Among tested compounds, 9 showed the strongest activity, with an IC50 value of 5.9 mM. The molecular docking model indicated the consistency between in vitro and in silico data of alpha-glucosidase inhibition. Keywords: Alpha-glucosidase; depsidone; molecular docking; protocetraric acid.
35708Castañeta G., Sepulveda B., Vargas R., Garcia-Beltran O., Simirgiotis M. & Areche C. (2023): A sustainable application for the extraction of lichen metabolites from Usnea cornuta: nontargeted metabolomics and antioxidant activity. - Natural Product Research, 37(12): 2076‒2082.
In this study, isolation and purification of lichen substances from Usnea cornuta were performed using conventional solvents, green solvents and green technologies. In addition, several lichen compounds were tentatively identified by UHPLC/ESI/MS/MS and usnic acid, diffractaic and galbinic acids were quantified as well. Limonene, ethyl lactate and methanol, were compared regarding their extraction properties and antioxidant capacities, determined by DPPH, ORAC, and FRAP assays. In the ethyl lactate, methanol and limonene extracts, 28 compounds in all, were detected for the first time by high resolution UHPLC-MS/MS fingerprinting. Untargeted metabolomics tentatively identified 14 compounds from the methanolic extract, 4 from limonene extract, and 20 metabolites from ethyl lactate extract. The green extract of ethyl lactate showed a similar antioxidant capacity to toxic methanol extract, except at ORAC assay where it was higher. Therefore, ethyl lactate can replace methanol, to provide more sustainable green chemistry methods. Keywords: Alternative solvents; antioxidants; green chemistry; Usnea; LC/MS; lichens.
35707Burt S.R., Harper J.K. & Cool L.G. (2023): A new depsidone from the neotricone-rich chemotype of the lichenised fungus Usnea fulvoreagens. - Natural Product Research, 37(13): 2248‒2254.
Individuals of Usnea fulvoreagens (Parmeliaceae, lichenised Ascomycota), a shrubby corticolous species that is widespread in Europe, East Asia and North America, produce medullary lichen acids in several distinct chemotypic patterns. One such chemotype reportedly contains an unidentified substance as the major secondary metabolite. We isolated this compound from Californian specimens of U. fulvoreagens and identified it as the rare depsidone neotricone. A co-occurring compound, conneotricone, was identified as 4,10-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-8- methyl-3,7-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-7H-isobenzofuro[4,5-b][1,4]benzodioxepine- 11-carboxylic acid by NMR and HPLC-UV-MSn comparison with the material synthesised from salazinic acid. Keywords: chemotype; conneotricone; lichen; LC-MS; NMR; perisalazinic acid.
35706Goyette S., Spirin V. & Spribille T. (2023): Systemic infection of Bryoria (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota) by Athelia (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) in western North America. - Mycologia, 115(3): 299‒316.
The present contribution is motivated by the frequent occurrence of traces generated by lichens on the fossil record, the usual and erroneous attribution of them to plant roots, and the scarce information published about bioerosive damage caused by lichens. As a result, two different patterns were identified on the surface and inside the fossil bones and teeth. The first one is characterised by the presence of lines clearer than the rest of the surface, produced by the hyphae and interrupted by small pits corresponding to the apothecia. These traces are often confused with Corrossichnia and Sphenoichnia, a situation that leads to taphonomic and palaeoecological misinterpretation. The second pattern, more unnoticed among other visible traces, consists of isolated pits without any other surficial trace distributed in the fossil surface. These pits can be confused with perforations made by many organisms. However, the presence of apothecia and, in some cases, also hyphae on the fossil remains, allows the accurate identification of the causal agent and the mechanism of action by which it occurs. Keywords: Bioerosion; taphonomy; South America; Antarctica; Cenozoic.
35705Acosta Hospitaleche C., García R., Pérez L.M. & Márquez G. (2023): Neoichnology of endolithic lichens: an update on the traces produced in fossil bones and teeth. - Historical Biology, 35(7): 1175‒1185.
The present contribution is motivated by the frequent occurrence of traces generated by lichens on the fossil record, the usual and erroneous attribution of them to plant roots, and the scarce information published about bioerosive damage caused by lichens. As a result, two different patterns were identified on the surface and inside the fossil bones and teeth. The first one is characterised by the presence of lines clearer than the rest of the surface, produced by the hyphae and interrupted by small pits corresponding to the apothecia. These traces are often confused with Corrossichnia and Sphenoichnia, a situation that leads to taphonomic and palaeoecological misinterpretation. The second pattern, more unnoticed among other visible traces, consists of isolated pits without any other surficial trace distributed in the fossil surface. These pits can be confused with perforations made by many organisms. However, the presence of apothecia and, in some cases, also hyphae on the fossil remains, allows the accurate identification of the causal agent and the mechanism of action by which it occurs. Keywords: Bioerosion; taphonomy; South America; Antarctica; Cenozoic.
35704Crous P.W., Akulov A., Balashov S., Boers J., Braun U., Castillo J., Delgado M.A., Denman S., Erhard A., Gusella G., Jurjević Ž., Kruse J., Malloch D.W., Osieck E.R., Polizzi G., Schumacher R.K., Slootweg E., Starink-Willemse M., van Iperen A.L., Verkley G.J.M. & Groenewald J.Z. (2023): New and Interesting Fungi. 6. - Fungal Systematics and Evolution, 11: 109–156. doi: 10.3114/fuse.2023.11.09.
Three new genera, six new species, three combinations, six epitypes, and 25 interesting new host and / or geographical records are introduced in this study. New genera: Neoleptodontidium (based on Neoleptodontidium aquaticum), and Nothoramularia (based on Nothoramularia ragnhildianicola). New species: Acremonium aquaticum (from cooling pad water, USA, Cladophialophora laricicola (on dead wood of Larix sp., Netherlands), Cyphellophora neerlandica (on lichen on brick wall, Netherlands), Geonectria muralis (on moss growing on a wall, Netherlands), Harposporium illinoisense (from rockwool, USA), and Neoleptodontidium aquaticum (from hydroponic water, USA). New combinations: Cyphellophora deltoidea (based on Anthopsis deltoidea), Neoleptodontidium aciculare (based on Leptodontidium aciculare), and Nothoramularia ragnhildianicola (based on Ramularia ragnhildianicola). Epitypes: Cephaliophora tropica (from water, USA), Miricatena prunicola (on leaves of Prunus serotina, Netherlands), Nothoramularia ragnhildianicola (on Ragnhildiana ferruginea, parasitic on Artemisia vulgaris, Germany), Phyllosticta multicorniculata (on needles of Abietis balsamea, Canada), Thyronectria caraganae (on twigs of Caragana arborescens, Ukraine), and Trichosphaeria pilosa (on decayed Salix branch, Netherlands). Furthermore, the higher order phylogeny of three genera regarded as incertae sedis is resolved, namely Cephaliophora (Ascodesmidaceae, Pezizales), Miricatena (Helotiales, Leotiomycetes), and Trichosphaeria (Trichosphaeriaceae, Trichosphaeriales), with Trichosphaeriaceae being an older name for Plectosphaerellaceae. Key words: biodiversity; ITS barcodes; multi-gene phylogeny; new taxa; systematics; typification.
35703Müller (Argoviensis), J. (1895): Graphideae eckfeldtianae in Louisiana et Florida lecte, additis observationibus in Graphideas calkinsianas ejusdem regionis. - Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, 3(2): 41–50. .
Platygrapha subattingens, Sclerophyton inscriptum, Opegrapha candida, Opegrapha Bonplandi, Opegrapha vulgata, Opegrapha leucoplaca, Opegrapha varia, Opegrapha astraea, Opegrapha (s. Pleurothecium) longissima, Opegraphella filicina, Melaspilea (s. Holographa) octomera, Melaspilea (s. Eumelaspilea) maculosa, Melaspilea (s. Melaspileopsis) cupularis, Graphis (s. Aulacographa) duplicata, Graphis (s. Aulacographa) striatula, Graphis (s. Aulacogramma) rimulosa, Graphis (s. Solenographa) assimilis, Graphis (s. Eugraphis) scripta v. limitata, Graphis (s. Anomothecium) Celtidis, Graphis (s. Ghlorographa) intertexta, Graphis (s. Ghlorographa) poitaeoides, Graphis (s. Diplographis) rufula, Graphis (s. Leucographis) Afzelii, Graphis (s. Fissurina) Beaumontii, Graphis (s.Anomomorpha) turbulenta, Graphina (s. Aulacographina) sophistica, Graphina (s. Schizographina) acrophaea, Graphina (s. Chlorographina) abaphoides, Graphina (s. Chlorographina) adscribens, Graphina (s. Platygrammina) mendax, Graphina (s. Platygrammina) subvirginalis, v. fulvescens, Graphina (s. Thalloloma) virginalis, Graphina (s. Thalloloma) Cypressi, Graphina (s. Thalloloma) glaueoderma, Graphina (s. Thalloloma) incrustans, Phseographis (s. Platygramma) dendritica, Phseographis (s. Hemithecium) inusta, Phseographina (s. Eleutheroloma) esesiopruinosa, Arthonia gregaria ß obscura, v. opegraphina, Arthonia Eckfeldtii, Arthonia rubella, Arthonia epipastoides, Arthonia quintaria, Arthonia polymorpha, Arthonia asteriscus, Arthothelium interveniens, Arthothelium macrotheca, Helminthocarpon Le Prevostii, Sarcographa (s. Eusarcographa) tricosa, Chiodecton heterotropoides, Glyphis favulosa v. confluens
35702Rotter P., Purchart L. (eds.) (2023): Ekologie lesa. Jak se les mění a funguje. - Brno: Mendelova univerzita v Brně, 647 p.
Kniha představuje čtenáři les jako komplexní adaptivní systém. Oproti tradičnímu ekosystémovému pohledu jsou více zdůrazněny biotické interakce mezi členy této složité sítě. To se neobejde bez vysvětlení některých základních pojmů a fenoménů sítí vztahů v lesních ekosystémech. V těchto sítích vynikají některé druhy, či skupiny druhů, jako druhy klíčové nebo jako tzv. ekosystémoví inženýři. Tyto druhy, skupiny druhů, či dokonce celé fragmenty sítě vztahů jsou představovány na konkrétní úrovni prostřednictvím poznatků osvětlujících fungování lesa jako celku. Publikace rovněž vyniká důrazem na funkční pohled a na pochopení toho, které druhy, místa či procesy představují základ existence lesa jako celku. Cílem knihy je zasadit všechny prezentované informace z ekologie lesa do rámce, který je nanejvýš aktuální a pro středoevropský prostor klíčový, a ukázat, jak mohou tyto znalosti přispět k lepšímu hospodaření v lesích a k jejich adaptaci na klimatickou změnu. Při následování takto vytyčené cesty za poznáním lesa je čtenář nejdříve seznámen s tím, jak odlišné pohledy na les utvářely různé způsoby jeho využívání a proč je ještě více než kdy v minulosti nezbytné, aby hospodaření člověka s lesem vycházelo z ekologických základů. Vývoj lesa jako časoprostorové struktury je ná- sledně představen pomocí poznatků o vývoji lesů v holocénu, o dynamice přirozených temperátních lesů a o vlivu jednoho z hlavních hybatelů této dynamiky – disturbancí – na strukturu i biodiverzitu lesa. Od tohoto základu se pozornost upírá k sítím – trofickým sítím a kaskádám – i k fyzickému propojení v mykorhizních sítích jako k základním fenoménům utvářejícím lesní ekosystém. Tato širší perspektiva přechází do zevrubného představování rolí jednotlivých skupin organismů, klíčových druhů a ekosystémových inženýrů pro fungování celku. Z těchto detailů se na úrovni celku, či jeho výrazných subsystémů, vynořují emergentní ekosystémové vlastnosti – koloběh živin a stabilita ekosystému. Protože žijeme v době bouřlivých změn, jež jsou důsledkem globální klimatické změny, pochopení podstaty ekologické stability a dalších aspektů adaptace se stává nezbytným pro udržení hospodářských lesů a jejich – pro společnost klíčových – ekosystémových služeb. Tato problematika je čtenáři předkládána téměř v závěru knihy. Publikaci uzavírá syntézní kapitola, která shrnuje představenou koncepci pojetí ekologie lesa a možnosti využití jejich poznatků. adaptace lesa, biodiverzita, disturbance, ekologická stabilita, klimatická změna, koloběh živin, trofické vztahy, lišejníky
35701Vieira C., Hespanhol H., Portela A., Marques J. & Vila-Viçosa C. (2019): The Mediterranean in a Closet: Botany collections at the Herbarium of the Natural history and Science Museum of the University of Porto. - Museu di Scientia Natural Porto, 2023: 1-1.
The Herbarium of the Natural History and Science Museum of the University of Porto (MHNC-UP) (registered in the Index Herbariorum as PO Herbarium) is an active collection in continuous growth that contains about 100,000 herbarium specimens of fungi, lichens, algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes and vascular plants. The history of botany at Porto University is inseparable from the origins of the first specimens of bryophytes and lichens collected by Isaac Newton in 1848, in mainland Portugal. The majority of specimens of PO Herbarium were collected in Portugal, but this collection also includes a General Herbarium with specimens from countries worldwide obtained through a versatile exchange policy during the last three centuries.
35700Vieira C. & Costa R. (2019): Wild African Cryptogams: more than one thousand specimens understudied at the Natural History and Science Museum at Porto University (PO) Herbarium. - Museu di Scientia Natural Porto, 2023: 1-1.
The herbarium of the Natural History and Science Museum at Porto University (PO) is a reference collection of Portuguese flora, comprising collections since the 19th century including former Portuguese colonies. All specimens deposited in this herbarium are readily accessible with meta-data (location and date of collection and name of collector). But some of the cryptogamic collections generated as secondary or opportunistic specimens in field surveys end up as unnamed or unpublished. This worsens when no documentation refers to these collections or when collections resulted from personal or casual collections made by botanists focused on vascular plants. PO African cryptogams comprise a total number of 3308 specimens (algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes). Some of these were the basis of new species to science or the first records for some countries, but 1484 are clearly understudied, being potentially interesting discoveries awaiting at the shelves. The main objective of this work was to recognize, repackage, numerate, and database these irreplaceable specimens. In this way, we hope to ensure their accessibility to staff and researchers. By presenting these collections, from a curatorship perspective, the associated missions, protagonists, and meta-data we hope to promote their study and application. We would like to acknowledge the support of the Portuguese Infrastructure of Scientific Collections - POCI-01-0145FEDER-022168 (
35699Cerrejón C., Valeria O. & Fenton N. (2023): Estimating lichen α-and β-diversity using satellite data at different spatial resolutions. - Ecological Indicators, 149: 110173.
Understanding biodiversity patterns and its environmental drivers is crucial to meet conservation targets and develop effective monitoring tools. Inconspicuous species such as lichens require special attention since they are ecologically important but sensitive species that are often overlooked in conservation planning. Remote sensing (RS) can be particularly beneficial for these species as in combination with modelling techniques it allows planners to assess and better understand biodiversity patterns. This study aims to model the lichen α-diversity (species richness) and β-diversity (species turnover) biodiversity components using high resolution RS variables across a subarctic region in Northern Quebec (~190.25 km 2). Two sensors, one commercial (WorldView-3, WV3) and another freely accessible (Sentinel-2, S2), at different resolutions (1.2 m and 10 m, respectively) were tested separately to develop our variables and feed the models. Lichens were sampled in 45 plots across different habitat types, ranging from forested habitats (coniferous, deciduous) to wetlands (bogs, fens) and rocky outcrops. Two sets of uncorrelated variables (Red and NIR; EVI2) from each sensor were parallelly used to build the α-and β-diversity models (8 models in total) through Poisson regressions and generalized dissimilarity modelling (GDM), respectively. Red and NIR variables were useful for modeling the two biodiversity components at both resolutions, providing information on stand canopy closure and structure, respectively. EVI2, especially from WV3, was only informative for assessing β-diversity, providing similar information than Red. Poisson models explained up to 32 % of the variation in lichen α-diversity, with Red, NIR and EVI2, either from WV3 or S2, showing negative relationships with lichen richness. GDMs described well the relationship between β-diversity and spectral dissimilarity (R 2 from 0.25 to 0.30), except for the S2 EVI2 model (R 2 = 0.07), confirming that more spectrally and thus environmentally different areas tend to harbor different lichen communities. While WV3 often outperformed the S2 sensor, the latter still provides a powerful tool for the study of lichens and their conservation. This study contributes to improve our knowledge and to inform on the use of RS to understand biodiversity patterns of inconspicuous species, which we consider to be an essential step to enhance their representation in conservation planning.
35698Cannon P., Aptroot A., Coppins B., Ertz D., Sanderson N., Simkin J., Benfield B. & Wolseley P. (2023): Arthoniales: Roccellaceae [revision 1] including the genera Cresponea, Dendrographa, Dirina, Enterographa, Gyrographa, Lecanactis, Ocellomma, Pseudoschismatomma, Psoronactis, Roccella, Schismatomma and Syncesia. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 32: 1-22.
35697Brinker S. (2020): Brinker 2020 Contributions to the Ontario flora of lichens and allied fungi, with emphasis on the Great Lakes Basin. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 19: 58-157.
One-hundred and sixty-three new or noteworthy lichens and allied fungi are reported from Ontario based on new collections. The lichens Lecanora atromarginata, L. gisleriana, Rhizocarpon ridescens and Sclerococcum griseisporodochium are new to North America. The reported species new to Canada are: Abrothallus bertianus, Absconditella trivialis, Agonimia opuntiella, Diploschistes gypsaceus, Ephebe solida, Heterodermia japonica, Minutoexcipula tuckerae, Peltula bolanderi, Placynthium petersii, Protothelenella sphinctrinoides, Pycnora praestabilis, Thelopsis melathelia, Toninia tecta and Verrucaria quercina. Sixty-one taxa reported new to Ontario include: Abrothallus peyritschii, A. usneae, Agonimia tristicula, Arctoparmelia subcentrifuga, Arthrorhaphis citronella, Bachmanniomyces uncialicola, Baeomyces placophyllus, Biatora printzenii, Bilimbia lobulata, Calicium lucidum, Caloplaca stillicidiorum, Cetraria nigricans, Chaenothecopsis australis, Cystocoleus ebeneus, Dactylospora lobariella, Dendriscocaulon intricatulum, Dermatocarpon schaechtelinii, Enchylium conglomeratum, Endocarpon pulvinatum, Gyrographa gyrocarpa, Henrica theleodes, Heterodermia neglecta, Homostegia piggotii, Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta, H. revoluta, Lathagrium auriforme, Lecanora appalachensis, Lecanora epibryon, Lecanora orae-frigidae, Lecidea lapicida, Lecidella wulfenii, Lempholemma radiatum, Lepraria oxybapha, Lichenoconium usneae, Lichenomphalia umbellifera, Lichenostigma elongata, Lopadium coralloideum, Ophioparma lapponica, Pertusaria bryontha, P. coriacea, P. globularis, Phylliscum demangeonii, Plectocarpon lichenum, Polycauliona stellata, Porpidia flavicunda, Pseudosagedia chlorotica, Rhizocarpon eupetraeoides, Rostania ceranisca, Sclerophora farinacea, Scytinium schraderi, Solorina bispora, Sphaerellothecium minutum, Sticta beauvoisii, S. fuliginosa, Tetramelas papillatus, Tremella cetrariicola, Umbilicaria lyngei, Usnea ceratina, Xanthomendoza fulva and Xylographa opegraphella. Details on additional rare or otherwise rarely collected species new to explored counties and districts are also provided. These include: Acarospora bullata, Ahtiana aurescens, Amygdalaria panaeola, Anaptychia crinalis, Arctoparmelia incurva, Arthonia diffusella, Baeomyces carneus, Blastenia ferruginea, Buellia badia, Calicium abietinum, Caloplaca saxicola, Cetraria aculeata, Chaenotheca stemonea, Chaenothecopsis perforata, Cliostomum griffithii, Cyphobasidium hypogymniicola, Dermatocarpon dolomiticum, Dibaeis baeomyces, Flavocetraria nivalis, Fuscopannaria leucosticta, Heppia adglutinata, Heterodermia hypoleuca, H. obscurata, Hyperphyscia syncolla, Hypogymnia vittata, Immersaria athroocarpa, Inoderma byssaceum, Lecanora epanora, Lepraria cryophila, Leproplaca chrysodeta, Leptogium rivulare, Lichenodiplis lecanorae, Lichenostigma cosmopolites, Lithothelium hyalosporum, Lobaria scrobiculata, Lobothallia alphoplaca, Lopadium disciforme, Melanelixia albertana, M. subargentifera, Melanohalea halei, M. subolivacea, Muellerella erratica, Mycoblastus alpinus, Mycoglaena myricae, Myelochroa obsessa, Ovicuculispora parmeliae, Pannaria tavaresii, Parmotrema hypotropum, P. reticulatum, P. stuppeum, Peltigera venosa, Pertusaria superiana, Phacopsis oxyspora var. oxyspora, Physcia americana, Physcia tenella, Physconia grumosa, Placidium arboreum, Polychidium muscicola, Porina scabrida, Porpidia degelii, Pseudocyphellaria holarctica, Pseudoschismatomma rufescens, Psoroma hypnorum, Punctelia appalachensis, P. stictica, Rhizocarpon eupetraeum, Rinodina pachysperma, Sarea difformis, Scytinium gelatinosum, Scytinium intermedium, Sphaerophorus fragilis, S. globosus, Stictis radiata, Synalissa ramulosa, Syzygospora physciarcearum, Teloschistes chrysophthalmus, Thyrea confusa, Toninia aromatica, Tremella everniae, Umbilicaria arctica, U. hirsuta, U. proboscidea, U. torrefacta, Usnea glabrescens and Xanthoparmelia angustiphylla.
35696Bjorå C.S., Bendiksby M., Løfall B.P., Johannesen L.E. & Timdal E. (2023): Collections of Arctic Plants, Lichens, and Fungi in the Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norway. - Collections, 2023: 1-17.
The Arctic has been, and is, an area of focus for the botanical and fungal (lichenized fungi included) collections at the Natural History Museum of Oslo. These collections house more than 233,000 unique Arctic specimens, the oldest dating back more than two centuries. The vascular plants account for 63 percent, lichens 30 percent, and fungi 7 percent. The Arctic collections have a circumpolar representation with emphasis on mainland Norway (48 percent) and Svalbard (13 percent), followed by Arctic America (10 percent), Greenland (9 percent), and Arctic Russia (8 percent). The Oslo herbarium and fungarium house collections from important polar expeditions like Fram-2, Gj?a, and Maud, but also of many expeditions where collecting biological specimens was the main purpose. The number of new collections was highest in the decades 1930 to 1939 and 2000 to 2009 with each around 35,000 new specimens. In the 1990s, a DNA Bank was established for DNA extracts and tissue samples, and it houses today 22,879 Arctic accessions of fungi, lichens, and plants. In times of climatic change and a tense geopolitical situation, the herbarium and fungarium at NHM-Oslo represent an invaluable source for biological information about the Arctic. We welcome the use of our collections for research-, nature management-, and teaching purposes.
35695Audibert C. & Neyton L. (2019): Note sur quelques collections cryptogamiques au musée des Confluences (Lyon). - Colligo, 2(2): 3-8.
This note deals with four cryptogamic collections held at the Confluences Museum in Lyon. As part of their inventory, research was undertaken on the collectors and acquisition by the museum. Present among these collections is a fascicle of a century of algae collected in Brittany by Lelièvre de la Morinière & Prouhet in 1841. Also two specimens of dried lichens of lichens made during the expeditions of Ernest Chantre (1890-1894) in the Caucasus and Gaston Buchet (1892-1895) in the Canary Islands and Iceland. Among the Chantre collection are two syntypes of species described by J. Müller Argoviensis on the basis of specimens collected by Ms. Chantre, an unknown botanist: Lecidea araratica and Lecidea chantriana. Finally, unexpectedly, a series of mosses of Hilarion Borel, which has been published by Octave Meyran in 1912, is included in the Vermorel collection. Algae, Mosses Lichens, musée des Confluences Victor Vermorel Hilarion Borel, Octave Meyran Lelièvre de la Morinière Prouhet, Gaston Buchet, Ernest Chantre Jeanne Bellonie Chantre XIXth century - XXth century
35694Simijaca D., Ocampo G., Escoto-Moreno J. & Pérez-Pérez R.E. (2023): Lichen community assemblages and functional traits as indicators of vegetation types in Central Mexico, based on herbarium specimens . - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 44(6): 83–102.
Despite the growing interest in the lichen communities of Mexico, little is known about the assemblages from the central part of the country. For that reason, we defined the following research objectives: 1) to compare species richness, composition, and dissimilarity of lichen communities among three vegetation types; 2) to explore the incidence of environmental variables on lichen community species composition; and 3) to identify species and functional traits indicative of each vegetation type. Based on lichens’ collection of Aguascalientes (HUAA herbarium), the relationships between species, traits, and environmental variables were represented through beta diversity components, non-metric multidimensional scales, Indicator Species Analysis, and Fourth Corner Analysis. In total, 218 lichen species were found, 132 in Quercus L. forests, 90 in subtropical shrubland, and 85 in xerophytic shrubland. Vegetation types had beta diversity total values higher than 0.8, although paired comparisons revealed variations in species replacement and richness. The indicator species identified for Quercus forests were Parmotrema acutatum Kurok., while for subtropical shrubland Phaeophyscia nashii Essl. and Physcia biziana (A.Massal.) Zahlbr. No indicator species were identified for xerophytic shrubland. Functional traits indicative of xerophytic shrubland were crustose lichens and the saxicolous substrate. Subtropical shrubland indicators comprised soredia and foliose narrow lobes, whereas indicators of Quercus forest consisted of foliose wide lobes and the epiphyte substrate. The functional trait approach used in the study of Mexican lichen communities is highly recommended given the observed similarities between taxonomical and functional community assemblages and the ease with which the functional traits approach links species composition to environmental variables. Key words: Bioindicators, community assemblages, diversity, response traits, shrublands.
35693Wang H.X., Xuan M., Diao J.J., Xu N., Li M.L., Huang C. & Wang C.H. (2023): Metabolism and toxicity of usnic acid and barbatic acid based on microsomes, S9 fraction, and 3T3 fibroblasts in vitro combined with a UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method. - Frontiers in Pharmacology, 14: 1207928.
Introduction: Usnic acid (UA) and barbatic acid (BA), two typical dibenzofurans and depsides in lichen, have a wide range of pharmacological activities and hepatotoxicity concerns. This study aimed to clarify the metabolic pathway of UA and BA and illuminate the relationship between metabolism and toxicity. Methods: An UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method was developed for metabolite identification of UA and BA in human liver microsomes (HLMs), rat liver microsomes (RLMs), and S9 fraction (RS9). The key metabolic enzymes responsible for UA and BA were identified by enzyme inhibitors combined with recombinant human cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes. The cytotoxicity and metabolic toxicity mechanism of UA and BA were determined by the combination model of human primary hepatocytes and mouse 3T3 fibroblasts. Results: The hydroxylation, methylation, and glucuronidation reactions were involved in the metabolic profiles of UA and BA in RLMs, HLMs, and RS9. CYP2C9, CYP3A4, CYP2C8, and UGT1A1 are key metabolic enzymes responsible for metabolites of UA and CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP1A1, UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, and UGT1A10 for metabolites of BA. UA and BA did not display evident cytotoxicity in human primary hepatocytes at concentrations of 0.01-25 and 0.01-100 mu M, respectively, but showed potential cytotoxicity to mouse 3T3 fibroblasts with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 7.40 and 60.2 mu M. Discussion: In conclusion, the attenuated cytotoxicity of BA is associated with metabolism, and UGTs may be the key metabolic detoxification enzymes. The cytotoxicity of UA may be associated with chronic toxicity. The present results provide important insights into the understanding of the biotransformation behavior and metabolic detoxification of UA and BA. usnic acid, barbatic acid, metabolism, metabolic pathway, detoxification, UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS, ANTIMYCOBACTERIAL ACTIVITY, DIETARY-SUPPLEMENT, LIVER-FAILURE, HEPATOTOXICITY, LICHEN, HEPATOCYTES, INHIBITION, INDOMETHACIN, CYTOTOXICITY, IRRADIATION
35692Nayaka S. & Debnath A. (2023): Cyphellostereum indicum (Hygrophoraceae), a new species of basidiolichen from India. - Phytotaxa, 603(3): 271–279.
Cyphellostereum indicum, an interesting basidiolichen is described as a new species. The species was collected from Arunachal Pradesh, an Indian state located within the Eastern Himalayas. The species is characterized by a terricolous habitat, the cyanobacteria Rhizonema as the photobiont that is loosely wrapped by fungus hyphae, white to cream-coloured, flabellate, solitary hymenophores, and thin-walled, smooth, simple, irregular to pip-shaped basidiospores 3.18–4.9 × 2.06– 2.9 μm. The phylogenetic analysis clearly shows its position in a separate branch within the genus Cyphellostereum making it a species distinct from any previously reported species. Cyphellostereum indicum is the third basidiolichen reported from India. Keywords: Asia, biodiversity hotspot, lichenized fungi, Lichenomphalinoideae, mycobiota.
35691Bell-Doyon P. (2023): Checklist of lichens and associated fungi from Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve, Québec, Canada. - Northeastern Naturalist, 30(3): 304‒328.
This first annotated checklist of the lichens and associated fungi from Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve (Québec, Canada) was compiled with the aim of enhancing the ecological knowledge from this regional biodiversity hotspot. I collected specimens in 2021 and 2022 and reviewed previous records based on vouchers deposited at the Louis‑Marie Herbarium. A total of 257 species belonging to 96 genera are reported for the protected area, 3 of which represent the first published occurrence with an associated, digitized voucher for the province of Québec: Lecanactis abietina, Opegrapha vulgata, and Usnea diplotypus. This work highlights that Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve has the potential to be recognized as an area of high lichen diversity in northeastern North America.
35690Li M., Ju Y. & Jia Z. (2023): Chaenothecopsis xishuiensis sp. nov. to Science and Lecanora pseudargentata Newly Reported from China. - Diversity, 15(8): 893 [13 p.].
In order to provide data for lichenologists studying taxonomy, Chaenothecopsis xishuiensis is supported and proposed as a new species from China based on phenotypic, molecular, and metabolite data. It is characterised by leprose thallus, single, conical to hemispherical apothecia, nonbranching stipe, cylindrical, eight-spored asci, and nonseptate and brown spores, and this lichenised fungus contains atranorin and zeorin in the thallus. In addition, Lecanora pseudargentata is reported for the first time as a new record from China. This species is characterised by red-brown to dark brown apothecial discs, eight-spored asci, nonseptate, hyaline spores, and the presence of atranorin and gangaleoidin. The biological activity of its lichen substances is discussed. Keywords: lichenised fungi; Mycocaliciaceae; Lecanoraceae; taxonomy.
35689Khodosovtsev A., Vasylyuk O. & Marushchak O. (2023): Awardee report of the EDGG Fund for Ukrainian Scientists: Dataset for threatened terricolous lichens with arid ecology from Ukraine. - Palaearctic Grasslands, 57: 33–35. .
35688Zuo Q., Wang L. & Zhang L. (2023): One new species and three new records in the genus Porpidia from China. - The Lichenologist, 55(3-4):139-150.
Four species of Porpidia are newly reported from China, including one species new to science (Porpidia crystallina) and three records (Porpidia umbonifera, P. seakensis and P. cf. contraponenda) new to China. Porpidia crystallina is characterized by a macrocarpa-type exciple containing crystals, a Cinereorufa-green epihymenium, large ascospores and a lack of secondary metabolites. Morpho-anatomical, chemical and phylogenetic analyses were carried out to elucidate the placement of the species and to support the delimitation of the new taxon. Detailed taxonomic descriptions, ecological and chemical characters, and illustrations are provided for each species. A key to all known Chinese Porpidia species is also provided. ITS, Lecideaceae, lichens, phylogeny, taxonomy
35687Zhang Y., Wang L., Wang X., Printzen C., Timdal E. & Wang L. (2023): Squamarina subcetrarioides comb. & stat. nov. (Stereocaulaceae), a separate species from the type species of Squamarina. - The Lichenologist, 55(3-4):133-137.
The type species of Squamarina has two varieties, S. gypsacea var. gypsacea and S. gypsacea var. subcetrarioides. In this study, a phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis of these two varieties shows that S. var. subcetrarioides merits treatment as a species separate from S. gypsacea. Therefore, we raise this variety to species level as S. subcetrarioides (Zahlbr.) Y. Y. Zhang. Squamarina subcetrarioides is phylogenetically not closely related to S. gypsacea and differs from that species in the thallus forming rosettes when young, later becoming cracked and irregular in outline, and consisting of numerous small squamules. alpine lichen, Mediterranean, Squamarinoideae, taxonomy
35686Wolseley P., Woods R., Douglass J., Coppins B.J. & Peterken G. (2023): Alan Orange – an appreciation, 19th June 1955–5th February 2023. - The Lichenologist, 55(3-4):103-106.
35685Usman M., Firdous Q., Dyer P.S. & Khalid A.N. (2023): A new species of the genus Anamylopsora (Baeomycetaceae; Ascomycota) from Deosai National Park, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. - The Lichenologist, 55(3-4):125-132.
A novel lichen species occurring on rocks was collected from three different localities within Deosai National Park, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. Phylogenetic analyses of the nrDNA ITS and nuLSU regions revealed that it clustered within the genus Anamylopsora. Further chemical and morpho-anatomical analyses confirmed its uniqueness, and it is described here as a new species under the name A. pakistanica. The distinguishing characters are: an irregularly squamulose appressed thallus on rocks without rhizines; an epinecral layer up to 25 μm thick; ascospores that are hyaline, simple, thick-walled with a smooth surface; septate paraphyses with a pigmented apical cell in a gel-like matrix; globose to subglobose pycnidia with hyaline and bacilliform pycnidiospores. In particular, the species is distinguished from other members of the genus by morpho-anatomical features including the coloration of the thalli, the presence of a thick lower cortex (up to 100 μm), and the presence of simple, thick-walled ascospores. Specimens were found at altitudes up to 4587 m, the highest elevation yet reported for Anamylopsora. A key and comparison to all existing species of the genus Anamylopsora is also given. Anamylopsoraceae, arctic-alpine, Asia, lichens, systematics
35684Li L., Wang L. & Printzen C. (2023): A new species and new combination of Lecanora s. str. (Lecanoraceae) from China. - The Lichenologist, 55(3-4):115-124.
A new lichen species, Lecanora zeorina Li J. Li & Printzen is described here from the south-west of China. Lecanora zeorina is characterized by its somewhat areolate-squamulose thallus, zeorine to lecanorine apothecia, an epihymenium without crystals around expanded paraphyses tips, an amphithecium with large calcium oxalate crystals and the production of atranorin. A new combination, Lecanora crystalliniformis (B.G. Lee & Hur) Li J. Li & Printzen, is based on Protoparmeliopsis crystalliniformis B.G. Lee & Hur, which was described as a new species from South Korea. Collections from China are almost identical in morphology and chemistry, and are phylogenetically closely related. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on ITS and mtSSU suggest that these two lecanoroid species belong in Lecanora s. str. where they form a sister group to sorediate species such as L. barkmaniana Aptroot & Herk and L. variolascens Nyl. Detailed descriptions, discussions, distributions and phylogenetic trees, based on multiple collections, are presented. chemistry, Lecanora subfusca group, lichens, phylogeny, taxonomy
35683Arup U., Holien H. & Coppins B.J. (2023): Lecanora caledonica – a new species in the Lecanora intumescens group (Lecanoraceae) from north-western Europe. - The Lichenologist, 55(3-4):107-114.
Lecanora caledonica is described as new to science. Molecular analyses show that it belongs to the L. intumescens group. It is also rather similar in appearance to L. intumescens, but differs mainly chemically in containing only atranorin and an unknown UV+ ice blue substance. There are also anatomical and morphological differences to the other species of the group. The new species has a pronounced oceanic distribution and is so far known only from western Norway and Scotland. corticolous, DNA, Lecanora albella, lichen, molecular, Norway, oceanic, Scotland
35682Moycho M., Gubański M. & Rennert A. (1959): Wyciąg z porostu Cetraria islandica inhibitorem wirusa mozaiki tytoniowej [An extract from the lichen Cetraria islandica as an inhibitor of TMV]. - Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 28(1): 185–193. .
35681Honegger R. (1985): Ascus structure and ascospore formation in the lichen-forming Chaenotheca chrysocephala (Caliciales). - Sydowia, 38: 146–157.
In the thin-walled pre-meiotic asci of Chaenotheca chrysocephala a peripheral ascospore delimiting membrane cylinder was formed by transformation of membrane material generated by the proliferating plasma membrane. The ascus wall broke in parts and was degraded soon after the onset of secondary ascospore wall formation. Numerous lysosomes were observed prior to ascus deliquescence. The ascospores grew and their secondary wall layer became melanized after their release into the mazaedium.
35680Morales-Sánchez J.Á., Mark K., Talts E., Rasulov B. & Niinemets Ü. (2023): Improved monitoring of cryptogam gas-exchange and volatile emissions during desiccation-rehydration cycles with a within-chamber hydration method. - Plant Science, 333: 111745 [14 p.].
Desiccation-rehydration studies in cryptogams constitute an important tool to understand the relation of key physiological traits with species stress tolerance and environmental adaptability. Real-time monitoring of responses has been limited by the design of commercial or custom measuring cuvettes and difficulties in experimental manipulation. We developed a within-chamber rehydration method that allows to rewater the samples rapidly, without the need to open the chamber and take out the sample for manual rehydration by the investigator. Data is collected in real-time and simultaneously with an infrared gas-analyzer (LICOR-7000), a chlorophyll fluorometer (Maxi Imaging-PAM) and a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass-spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) for volatile organic compound emissions. The system was tested on four cryptogam species with contrasting ecological distributions. No major errors or kinetics disruptions were found during system testing and measurements. Our within-chamber rehydration method improved accuracy, as measurement periods were not lacking, and repeatability of the protocol by reducing error variance in sample manipulation. This method provides an improved technique to conduct desiccation-rehydration measurements, contributing to the standardization and accuracy of current existing methodologies. A close real-time and simultaneous monitoring of photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and volatile organic compound emission data, offers a novel perspective in the analysis of the cryptogam stress responses that is yet to be fully explored. Keywords: Bryophytes; Chlorophyll; fluorescence; Desiccation; Lichens; Photosynthesis; Rehydration; Volatile organic compounds.
35679Döbbeler P. & Triebel D. (1985): Hepaticole Vertreter der Gattungen Muellerella und Dactylospora (Ascomycetes) [Hepaticolous representatives of the genera Muellerella and Dactylospora (Ascomycetes)]. - Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie, 107(1-4): 503-519. .
Both genera include lichenicolous members as well. Muellerella frullaniae sp. nov., M. rubescens sp. nov., Dactylospora heimerlii (Zukal) comb. nov., Dactylospora, Hepaticolous, Lichenicolous, Muellerella
35678Manninen S., Jääskeläinen K., Stephens A., Iwanicka A., Tang S. & van Dijk N. (2023): NH3 concentrations below the current critical level affect the epiphytic macrolichen communities – Evidence from a Northern European City. - Science of the Total Environment, 877: 162877 [11 p.].
Acidophytic, oligotrophic lichens on tree trunks are widely considered to be the most sensitive biota to elevated concentrations of atmospheric ammonia (NH3). We studied the relationships between measured NH3 concentrations and the composition of macrolichen communities on the acidic bark of Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur and the base-rich bark of Acer platanoides and Ulmus glabra at ten roadside and ten non-roadside sites in Helsinki, Finland. NH3 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were higher at the roadside than non-roadside sites indicating traffic as the main source of NH3 and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The diversity of oligotrophs on Quercus was lower at the roadside than non-roadside sites, while that of eutrophs was higher. The abundance and presence of oligotrophic acidophytes (e.g., Hypogymnia physodes) decreased with increasing NH3 concentration (2-year means = 0.15–1.03 μg m−3) especially on Q. robur, while those of eutrophic/nitrophilous species (e.g., Melanohalea exasperatula, Physcia tenella) increased. The abundance of some nitrophytes seemed to depend only on bark pH, i.e., their abundances were highest on Ulmus, which had the highest average bark pH. Overall, the results of lichen bioindicator studies may depend on tree species (bark pH) and lichen species used in calculating indices describing the air quality impact. Nevertheless, Quercus is recommended to be used to study the impact of NH3 alone and in combination with NOx on lichen communities, because the responses of both oligotrophic acidophytes and eutrophic species can already be observed at NH3 concentrations below the current critical level. Keywords: Ammonia; Acidophytes; Nitrophytes; Nitrogen dioxide; Bark pH; Roadside.
35677Pelageev D.N., Borisova K.L. & Anufriev V.P. (2023): Dimeric (poly)hydroxynaphthazarins, metabolites of echinoderms and lichens: the history of the synthesis and structure elucidation. - Marine Drugs, 21(7): 407 [18 p.].
This review provides information on the synthesis and revision of the structures of natural dimeric (poly)hydroxynaphthazarins, metabolites of echinoderms and lichens, and on the refinement of the direction and mechanism of reactions in the synthesis of some of these compounds. Keywords: ethylidene-bis(2,6,7-trihydroxynaphthazarin); octahydroxymethyldibenzo[b,i] xanthenetetraone; mirabiquinone; cuculoquinone; islandoquinone; hybocarpone; mesocentroquinone; sea urchins; lichens; metabolites; tautomerism.
35676Balogh R.A., Matus G., Lőkös L., Adorján B., Freytag C., Mészáros I., Oláh V., Szűcs P., Erzberger P. & Farkas E. (2023): Cryptogamic communities on flatroofs in the city of Debrecen (East Hungary). - Biologia Futura , 74: 183–197.
Cryptogams of ten urban flatroofs, contrasting in their age and size, were studied between 2016 and 2018. Siliceous (bituminous felt, gravel, brick) and calcareous (concrete) substrata occurred at each site. Microclimate (T, RH) at two sites of contrasting shading was monitored from September 2016 to January 2017. Biomass of two differently aged, exposed flatroofs was sampled in October 2018. Taxa of Cladonia and Xanthoparmelia have been identified by spot tests and HPTLC. A total of 61 taxa (25 bryophytes, 36 lichens), mostly widespread synanthropic species, have been detected with an explicit difference of species composition between shaded and exposed sites. Floristically interesting species included acidophilous bryophytes (Hedwigia ciliata, Racomitrium canescens) and lichens (Xanthoparmelia conspersa, Stereocaulon tomentosum) of montane character. The most widespread lichen is Cladonia rei which accounted for a significant part of the biomass at selected sites. Species-area curves for bryophytes at exposed sites have become saturated at 100–150 m 2 . In contrast, saturation of lichen diversity has not been reached even at the largest sites. Flatroofs with traditional roofing techniques can harbour relatively diverse microhabitats and species-rich synanthropic vegetation. It is urgent to study these sites before renovation with modern roofing techniques eliminates them. Diversification of urban surroundings is possible in the future via application of various substrats in renovated and newly constructed roofs. Keywords: Bryophytes · Lichens · Microclimate · Biomass · Species composition · Roofing techniques · Urban.
35675Mallen-Cooper M., Rodríguez-Caballero E., Eldridge D.J., Weber B., Büdel B., Höhne H. & Cornwell W.K. (2023): Towards an understanding of future range shifts in lichens and mosses under climate change. - Journal of Biogeography, 50: 406–417.
Aim: Lichens and mosses play important functional roles in all terrestrial ecosystems, particularly in tundra and drylands. As with all taxa, to maintain their current niche in a changing climate, lichens and mosses will have to migrate. However, there are no published estimates of future habitat suitability or necessary rates of migration for members of these groups at the global scale. Taxon: Lichens and mosses. Location: Global. Methods: Using global occurrence data, we conducted ensemble distribution models in the ‘biomod2’ R package, parameterised with a range of climatic, land use and soil variables, to estimate current and future (2100) habitat suitability in 16 abundant species of lichen and moss. Results: Without considering dispersal limitation, suitable area was forecast to expand for eight species and decline for four species. For species with predominantly boreo-arctic distributions, suitable area typically declined at the temperate range edge and expanded across the High Arctic. Future suitable area available to dryland-adapted species generally declined overall, likely relating to the desiccation-tolerant physiology of lichens and mosses. The average migration rates required for species to disperse into new suitable habitat ranged from 1.7 (Placidium squamulosum) to 9.0 km year−1 (Syntrichia ruralis), although most species will need to migrate >16 km year−1 to completely fill their potential future suitable habitat. Main Conclusions: For mosses and lichens, as with all species, migration will be an important part of the adjustment to a warmer climate, but realisation of these potential migrations will require both rare dispersal events and habitat that is suitable in non-climatic dimensions. Current evidence on dispersal in these groups suggests that these geographical shifts may be unlikely to be realised without intervention, especially in landscapes that are highly modified by humans. Keywords: biocrust, cryptogam, drylands, GBIF, niche, species distribution model, tundra.
35674Gerra-Inohosa L., Matisons R., Jansone D., Jansons Ā. & Lībiete Z. (2023): The role of retention trees in providing a habitat for bryophytes and lichens in young forest stands: a mid-term perspective. - Diversity, 15(7): 870 [12 p.].
Retention of trees from the previous generation is one of the most widespread conservation practices in forests used for timber production. Despite the comparatively long history of this approach in Europe, there is a lack of long-term studies on the effectiveness of retention trees in preserving epiphyte communities. We compared the diversity of bryophyte and lichen species on retention trees in 20 young forest stands in Latvia in two assessments, 11 years and 18 years after clearfelling. Linear mixed-effects models showed that richness of both lichens and bryophytes remained stable during the assessment years, while bryophyte cover and diversity on retention trees increased over time. The main indicator of higher species richness, cover and diversity on retention trees in managed forests in hemi-boreal vegetation zone was the tree species, with deciduous trees playing the key role. They also provided essential habitat for rare species. Regarding bryophytes, ash, elm, and aspen can be suggested as more efficient retention trees, thus aiding the continuity of bryophyte succession in young forest stands. For lichens, lime could also be prioritised. Keywords: retention forestry; bryophytes; lichens; species richness; species cover; species diversity; hemi-boreal forest.
35673Gams W., Diederich P. & Põldmaa K. (2004): Fungicolous fungi: inventory and monitoring methods. - In: Mueller G.M., Bills G.F. & Foster M.S. (eds), Biodiversity of fungi, p. 343–392, Elsevier, Academic Press, Amsterdam.
Book chapter
35672Bílek O. (2014): Zajímavá flóra a vegetace Újezdského vrchuu Vranovic. - Calluna, 19(1): 11–14. .
Czech Republic, vegetation, excursion; nine lichen species of the genera Cetraria, Cladonia and Xanthoparmelia identified by O. Peksa listed from a phytocoenological relevé.
35671Peksa O. (2009): Za lišejníky vrchu Radyně aneb krátká zpráva z jarní exkurze Západočeské pobočky. - Calluna, 14(1): 1–2. .
Czech Republic, Western Bohemia; report on lichenological excursion of the West Bohemian section of the Czech Botanical Society
35670Cometto A., Leavitt S.D., Grube M., De Hoog S. & Muggia L. (2023): Tackling fungal diversity in lichen symbioses: molecular and morphological data recognize new lineages in Chaetothyriales (Eurotiomycetes, Ascomycota). - Mycological Progress, 22: 53 [26 p.].
Lichens have been reappraised as self-sustaining and long-living ecosystems in which a multiplicity of microorganisms are housed, in addition to the main symbiotic partners. Lichen-associated microfungi can frequently occur cryptically, and their species diversity has recently been more fully elucidated by DNA metabarcoding studies and culture isolations. These lichen-associated fungi represent a wide array of major lineages in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, including both filamentous and yeast species. Thanks to culture isolations, the morphology of a subset of the lichen-associated microfungal diversity has been studied. Metabarcoding analyses have shown high diversity of ascomycetous lichen-associated fungi in the two cosmopolitan rock-inhabiting lichens – Rhizoplaca melanophthalma and Tephromela atra – and many of these taxa were successfully isolated in culture. Based on DNA sequence data and morphological analyses, two new lineages within Chaetothyriales are here recognized. Both occur in lichens from dry habitats and are described here as the new species Cladophialophora endolichena Cometto, de Hoog, Muggia and Paracladophialophora lichenicola Cometto, de Hoog, Muggia. Other strains are placed in Pleostigmataceae, Trichomeriaceae, Pleosporales, Mycosphaerellales, Coniochaetales and Hypocreales, further filling gaps of knowledge of the high fungal diversity residing in lichen thalli. Keywords: Cladophialophora · Dothideomycetes · Herpotrichiellaceae · Phylogeny · Paracladophyalophora · Sordariomycetes.
35669Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1895): Lichenes Sikkimenses a reverendiss. Stevens in montibus Sikkim, Indiae orientalis lecti, quos enumerat. Sertulum Primum. - Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, 3(4): 194–195. .
1. Stereocaulon strictum, 2. Baeomyces fungoides Ach., 3. Usnea barbata v. florida Fr., 4. Ramalina calicaris Fr., 5. Anaptychia podocarpa Trev., 6. Anaptychia leucomelaena v. multifida Wain., 7. Stictina retigera (Ach.) Müll. Arg., 8. Parmelia Kamtschadalis Eschw., 9. Parmelia Wallichiana Tayl., 10. Pseudophyscia speciosa v. cinerascens Müll. Arg., 11. Patellaria (s. Psorothecium) Sikkimensis Müll. Arg., 12. Graphis duplicata Ach.
35668Eckstein J. & Grünberg H. [mitarb. Putzmann F. & Rettig J.] (2021): Rote Liste der Flechten Thüringens. 4. Fassung, Stand: 11/2020. - Naturschutzreport Heft, 30: 402‒424. .
Redlist; Germany, Thuringia
35667Meinunger L. (2011): Rote Liste der Flechten (Lichenes) Thüringens. - Naturschutzreport Heft, 26: 418‒438. .
Redlist; Germany, Thuringia
35666Gnüchtel A. (2009): Rote Liste Flechten Sachsens. - Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt und Geologie, Radebeul, 56 p. .
Redlist; Germany, Saxony
35665Gnüchtel A. (1997): Materialien zu Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege 1997. Artenliste der Flechten Sachsens. - Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt und Geologie, Radebeul, 56 p. .
Checklist, Germany, Saxony
35664Gnüchtel A. (1996): Materialien zu Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege 1996. Rote Liste [der] Flechten. Freistaat Sachsen. - Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt und Geologie, Radebeul, 14 p. .
Red list, Germany, Saxony
35663Tonouchi J. (2009): Isolation and characterization of a novel facultative anaerobic filamentous fungus from Japanese rice field soil. - International Journal of Microbiology, 2009: 571383 [9 p.]. doi:10.1155/2009/571383.
A novel filamentous fungus strain designated RB-1 was isolated into pure culture from Japanese rice field soil through an anaerobic role tube technique. The strain is a mitosporic fungus that grows in both aerobic and strict anaerobic conditions using various mono-, di-, tri-, and polysaccharides with acetate and ethanol productions. The amount of acetate produced was higher than that of ethanol in both aerobic and anaerobic cultures. The characteristic verrucose or punctuate conidia of RB-1 closely resembled those of some strains of the genus Thermomyces, a thermophilic or mesophilic anamorphic ascomycete. However, based on phylogenetic analysis with the small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences, RB-1 was characterized as a member of the class Lecanoromycetes of the phylum Ascomycota. Currently, RB-1 is designated as an anamorphic ascomycete and is phylogenetically considered an incertae sedis within the class Lecanoromycetes.
35662Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1895): Sertum australiense s. species novae australienses Thelotremearum, Graphidearum et Pyrenocarpearum quas proponit. - Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, 3(7): 313–327. .
1. Ocellularia jugalis Müll. Arg., 2. Ocellularia platychlamys Müll. Arg., 3. Ocellularia annulosa Müll. Arg., 4. Thelotrema cyphelloides Müll. Arg., 5. Thelotrema microphthalmum Müll. Arg., 6. Thelotrema hypomelanum Müll. Arg., 7. Thelotrema profundum Müll. Arg., 8. Leptotrema patulum, 9. Leptotrema polycarpum Müll. Arg., 10. Leptotrema nitidulum Müll. Arg., 11. Leptotrema semulum Müll. Arg., 12. Platygrapha Shirleyana Müll.Arg., 13. Platygrapha leptospora Müll. Arg., 14. Melaspilea (s. Eumelaspilea) congregantula Müll. Arg., 15. Melaspilea (s. Melaspileopsis) stellaris Müll. Arg., 16. Opegrapha minutula Müll. Arg. , 17. Opegrapha leptocarpa Müll. Arg. , 18. Opegrapha (s. Lecanactis) microcarpella Müll. Arg. ;, 19. Graphis (s. Aulacographa) vinosa Müll. Arg., 20. Graphis(s. Aulacogramma) descissaMüll.Arg. , 21. Graphis (s. Eugraphis) immersella Müll. Arg. , 23. Graphis (s. Anomothecium) epimelsena Müll. Arg., 24. Graphis (s. Mesographis) xanthospora Müll. Arg., 25. Graphis (s. Fissurina) nigririmis, 26. Phaeographis (s. Hemithecium) subtricosa Müll.Arg., 27. Phaeographis (s. Hemithecium) subintricata Müll. Arg., 28. Phaeographis (s. Cœlogramma) elaeina Müll. Arg., 29. Phaeographis (Cœlogramma) pseudomelana Müll., 30. Graphina (s. Aulacographina) sophistica v. recta Müll. Arg., 31. Phseographina (s. Eleutheroloma) caesio-pruinosa, 32. Helminthocarpon Baileyanum Müll. Arg., 33. Arthonia gracilior Müll. Arg. , 34. Arthonia amcena Müll. Arg., 35. Arthothelium microsporum Müll. Arg., 36. Arthothelium polycarpum Müll. Arg., 37. Sarcographa (s. Phaeoglyphis) oculata Müll. Arg., 38. Enterodictyon Knightii Müll. Arg., 39. Chiodecton virens Müll. Arg. , 40. Asteroporum rimale Müll. Arg., 41. Asterotrema punetuliforme Müll. Arg., 42. Mycoporellum raicrospermum Müll. Arg., 43. Arthopyrenia (s. Mesopyrenia) suboculata Müll. Arg., 44. Arthopyrenia (s. Anisomeridium) dirumpens Müll. Arg. , 45. Porina( s. Segestrella) fulvula Müll. Arg., 46. Porina (s. Euporina) platystoma Müll. Arg. , 47. Porina (s. Euporina) pallida Müll. Arg. , 48. Microthelia stictaria Müll. Arg., 49. Pyrenula conspurcata Müll. Arg., 50. Anthracothecium monosporum Müll. Arg.
35661Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1895): Lecanoreae et Lecideae australienses novae quas describsit. - Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, 3(12): 632–642. .
Australia, Lecanora atra Ach. v. serialis Müll. Arg., Lecanora subfusca Ach. v. conjungens, Lecanora albellaria Müll. Arg., Lecanora melacarpella Müll. Arg., Lecanora Knightiana Müll. Arg., Lecanora flavido-fusca Müll. Arg., Lecania (s. Semilecania) chlaronoides Müll. Arg., Lecania (s. Semilecania) selenospora Müll. Arg., Lecania (s. Eulecania) subsquamosa Müll. Arg., Callopisma cerinum Mass. v. microcarpum Müll. Arg., Rinodina diffractella Müll. Arg., Pertusaria (s. Lecanorastrum) rhodotropa Müll. Arg., Pertusaria (§ Pertusae) plicatula Müll. Arg., Pertusaria (§ Pustulatae) elliptica Müll. Arg., Pertusaria (§ Pustulatae) leucostoma Müll. Arg., Pertusaria (§ Depressae) leiocarpella Müll. Arg., Pertusaria (§ Depressae) subrigida Müll. Arg., Pertusaria (§ Leioplacae) leucoxantha Müll. Arg., Pertusaria (§ Leioplacae) schizostomella Müll. Arg., Pertusaria (§ Leioplacae) leucothelia Müll. Arg., Pertusaria (§ Leioplacae) microspora Müll Arg., Pertusaria (§ Leioplacse) amblyogona Müll. Arg., Pertusaria (§ Irreguläres) irregularis Müll. Arg., Pertusaria (§ Seriales) straminea Müll. Arg., Pertusaria (§ Seriales) confluens Müll. Arg., Pertusaria (§ Seriales) albinea Müll. Arg., Pertusaria (§ Graphicae) paratropa Müll. Arg., Pertusaria (§ Graphicae) macra Müll. Arg., Pertusaria (§ Graphicae) concava Müll. Arg., Lecidea (s. Biatora) aspidula Krplh. Austr., n. 115 v. dispersa Müll. Arg., Lecidea (s. Biatora) selenospora Müll. Arg., Lecidea (s. Lecidella) nesophila .Müll. Arg., Lecidea ferax Müll. Arg. L. Wils. n. 85 v. geographica, Blastenia ochroleuca Müll. Arg., Buellia amblyogona Müll. Arg., Buellia macrosporoides Müll. Arg.
35660Thakur M., Kapoor B., Kapoor D. & Sharma N.R. (2023): Lichens: A promising source of anti-cancerous activity and their molecular mechanisms. - South African Journal of Botany, 159: 155–163.
The potential of lichens for medicinal use is to have a variety of bioactive anticancer compounds. Several factors drive the issue of lichens as a usual substance of carcinoma chemicals for lichens. In a variety of climates which could be represented by extreme climatic variables, lichens can endure heat intensities, Ultraviolet rays, limited nutrient uptake, humidity, etc. Their results are obtained is due to the possible defence system they have towards severe change, simultaneously generating bioactive substances with distinctive attributes through different biosynthesis pathways. Synthesized lichen compounds may exhibit a range of bioactive constituents in response to their cytotoxic effects, including antioxidant, antibiotic, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, inhibitory proteins, as well as endogenous plant growth impact. In addition, lichen derivatives have a wide range of anti-cancer effects against many forms of cancer cell types, like usnic acid, gyrophoric acid, and lechanoric acid. Furthermore, when functioning together through human cancer cells, lichens compounds can cause synergistic cytotoxic results. Anti-cancer stimulation of molecular lichen derivatives through the process of cytotoxicity by cellular processes and initiation of cell death and by modulation in immune activity, angiogenesis, or metabolism of energy. This review mainly focuses on the potential role of lichens' active constituents as beneficial moieties to exhibit anticancer activities with their molecular mechanism. Key words: Lichens; Active constituents; Anticancer activity; Molecular mechanism.
35659Demková L., Bobuľská L, Árvay J., Homolová Z., Michalko M. & Balintová M. (2023): Potentially toxic elements in soil and air along an altitudinal gradient in Tatra National Park. - Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 252: 107268 [9 p.].
With a growing number of tourists, national parks are facing high pressure in terms of production and spreading the potentially toxic elements (PTEs). Car parks, roads or civil amenities have become a source of PTEs, which are spreading not only in their immediate vicinity, but can contaminate much wider surroundings. Total content of Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn was determined in soil samples and, also in mosses and lichen samples, which were used as bioindication method for air pollution monitoring. Soil pollution was evaluated by contamination factor (Cf), degree of contamination (Cd) and the pollution load index (PLI). The impact of pollution on selected soil characteristics (soil enzymes, soil respiration, total nitrogen, organic carbon, soil pH) was also evaluated. Content of PTEs in moss and lichen samples was expressed by relative accumulation factor values (RAF). The most serious soil pollution was recorded at the first (lowest in terms of altitude) sampling point, but soil contamination reached significant values also at higher altitudes. All evaluated soil properties showed decreasing tendency under the soil pollution, with exception of soil pH, which showed positive correlation with PTEs. The ability of mosses and lichen to accumulate pollution in their insoles varied depending on the toxic element. High levels of PTEs have also been captured at higher altitudes due to their ability to spread, transport and accumulate in the environment. Keywords: Soil pollution; Soil enzymes; Moss and lichen bag technique; Relative accumulation factor.
35658Gaia G., Ribeiro V.R., Ghilardi R.P., Sousa F.N., Llopart M.P. & Ricardi-Branco F. (2023): Chemical and elementary characterization of Spongiophyton nanum: Understanding the phylogeny, paleoenvironment, and fossilization processes of an enigmatic flora. - Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology , 316: 104943 [11 p.].
The record of thalloid macrofossils in the North-Northwest region of the Paran´ a Basin is less studied compared to that of invertebrate paleofauna in the same area. Consequently, the lack of important information regarding the niches occupied by thalloid embryophytes during early land colonization in this coastal paleoenvironment is evident. This study presents the first chemical and elemental data on Spongiophyton for this region of the basin, offering insights into its paleoenvironment and fossilization processes and providing considerations about the phylogeny of this enigmatic assemblage Spongiophyton nanum Kr¨ ausel emend. Chaloner et al. (1974) collected fragments from an outcropping rock in Jaciara, Mato Grosso, Brazil, and studied them using scanning electron microscope/energy X-ray dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy techniques. The EDS analysis showed the highest elemental concentration of carbon, oxygen, and calcium as the main elements of the cuticle composition. Silicon and aluminum were better represented inside the pores than in other areas of the cuticle. The high carbon concentration in the cuticle suggested an anoxic condition prevalent during the deposition of the fine-grained sediments, which prevented its oxidation before and during diagenesis. The carbon present in the EDS spectra was restricted to the cuticle area, and the FTIR spectra indicated the presence of some functional groups, both related to the original organic matter, possibly cutin. Based on elemental characterization, the fossilization of S. nanum may involve more than one process, such as carbonification and mineralization, and S. nanum has more affinities with lichen groups. Keywords: Taphonomy ; SEM/EDS ; FTIR ; Early land plant ; Paleoenvironment.
35657Özkök E.A. & Çobanoğlu G. (2023): Spatial evaluation of air quality by biomonitoring of toxic element accumulation in lichens in urban green areas and nature parks on the Anatolian side of Istanbul. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment , 195: 908 [14 p.].
The city of Istanbul is constantly exposed to air pollution due to its high population, heavy traffic — sea and air transport — and urban industry. This study basically aims to determine the recent level of airborne heavy metals, using lichen biomonitoring method. The cosmopolitan foliose lichen Xanthoria parietina growing abundantly on trees was sampled from 16 urban green spaces in 8 districts on the Anatolian side of Istanbul. Multi-element analysis by ICP-MS was applied to measure the accumulation of 10 potentially toxic trace elements in lichen samples. Spatial distributions of element levels in the air in the sampling areas are shown by mapping. According to the analysis data, the sequence of element deposition levels in lichen samples was as follows; Al>Fe>Mn >Zn>Cr>Cu>Pb>V>Ni>As. Most of the measured atmospheric element amounts yielded results much higher than the reference material in all areas. It was detected that the highest pollution in terms of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ni elements was in Elmasburnu Nature Park area in Beykoz district, which is a touristic place by the sea. Changes in the city’s air quality over the years have been evaluated by comparing element levels in these locations in a previous biomonitoring study and some differences were found. The resulting data is valuable for periodic monitoring of toxic elements in the air, for determining causes of air pollution, and for taking precautions. Keywords: Air quality · Heavy metals · Lichen monitoring · Elements · Bioaccumulation.
35656Zhou R., Zhang L., Zeng B., Zhou Y., Jin W. & Zhang G. (2023): A novel self‑purifed auxiliary protein enhances the lichenase activity towards lichenan for biomass degradation. - Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology , 107: 4553–4566.
Due to the complex composition of lichenan, lichenase alone cannot always hydrolyze it efciently. Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) have been confrmed to increase the hydrolysis efciency of lichenases. However, their practical application was hampered by the complex and costly preparation procedure, as well as the poor stability of LPMOs. Herein, we discovered a novel and stable auxiliary protein named SCE to boost the hydrolysis efciency. SCE was composed of SpyCatcher (SC) and elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) and could be easily and cheaply prepared. Under the optimal conditions, the boosting degree for SCE/lichenase was 1.45, and the reducing sugar yield improved by nearly 45%. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that SCE had no infuence on the hydrolysis pattern of lichenase. Through the experimental verifcation and bioinformatics analysis, we proposed the role of SCE in promoting the interaction between the lichenase and substrates. These fndings endow SC with a novel function in binding to insoluble lichenan, paving the way for biomass degradation and biorefnery. Key points: • A novel self-purifcation auxiliary protein that could boost the hydrolysis efciency of lichenase has been identifed. • The protein is highly produced, simple to prepare, well stable, and does not require any external electron donor. • The novel function of SpyCatcher in binding to insoluble lichenan was frst demonstrated. Keywords: Lichenase · SpyCatcher · Boosting efect · Biomass degradation.
35655Perini L., Gostinčar C., Likar M., Frisvad J.C., Kostanjšek R., Nicholes M., Williamson C., Anesio A.M., Zalar P. & Gunde‑Cimerman N. (2023): Interactions of fungi and algae from the Greenland Ice Sheet. - Microbial Ecology, 86: 282–296.
Heavily pigmented glacier ice algae Ancylonema nordenskiöldii and Ancylonema alaskanum (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) reduce the bare ice albedo of the Greenland Ice Sheet, amplifying melt from the largest cryospheric contributor to eustatic sea-level rise. Little information is available about glacier ice algae interactions with other microbial communities within the surface ice environment, including fungi, which may be important for sustaining algal bloom development. To address this substantial knowledge gap and investigate the nature of algal-fungal interactions, an ex situ co-cultivation experiment with two species of fungi, recently isolated from the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet (here proposed new species Penicillium anthracinoglaciei Perini, Frisvad and Zalar, Mycobank (MB 835602), and Articulospora sp.), and the mixed microbial community dominated by glacier ice algae was performed. The utilization of the dark pigment purpurogallin carboxylic acid-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (C18H18O12) by the two fungi was also evaluated in a separate experiment. P. anthracinoglaciei was capable of utilizing and converting the pigment to purpurogallin carboxylic acid, possibly using the sugar moiety as a nutrient source. Furthermore, after 3 weeks of incubation in the presence of P. anthracinoglaciei, a signifcantly slower decline in the maximum quantum efciency (Fv/Fm, inverse proxy of algal stress) in glacier ice algae, compared to other treatments, was evident, suggesting a positive relationship between these species. Articulospora sp. did uptake the glycosylated purpurogallin, but did not seem to be involved in its conversion to aglycone derivative. At the end of the incubation experiments and, in conjunction with increased algal mortality, we detected a substantially increasing presence of the zoosporic fungi Chytridiomycota suggesting an important role for them as decomposers or parasites of glacier ice algae. Keywords: Greenland Ice Sheet · Purpurogallin carboxylic acid-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside · Purpurogallin carboxylic acid · HPLC · SEM · Light microscopy · Penicillium anthracinoglaciei.
35654Økland T., Halvorsen R., Lange T., Nordbakken J.-F. & Clarke N. (2023): Climate change drives substantial decline of understorey species richness and abundance in Norway spruce forests during 32 years of vegetation monitoring. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 34: e13191 [22 p.].
Questions Observations in permanent forest vegetation plots in Norway and elsewhere indicate that complex changes have taken place over the period 1988–2020. These observations are summarised in the “climate-induced understorey change (CIUC)” hypothesis, i.e. that the understorey vegetation of old-growth boreal forests in Norway undergoes significant long-term changes and that these changes are consistent with the ongoing climate change as an important driver. Seven testable predictions were derived from the CIUC hypothesis. Location Norway. Methods Vegetation has been monitored in a total of 458 permanently marked plots, each 1 m2, in nine old-growth forest sites dominated by Picea abies at intervals of 5–8 years over the 32-year study period. For each of the 52 combinations of site and year, we obtained response variables for the abundance of single species, abundance and species density of taxonomic–ecological species groups and two size classes of cryptogams, and site species richness. All of these variables were subjected to linear regression modelling with site and year as predictors. Results Mean annual temperature, growing-season length and the number of days with precipitation were higher in the study period than in the preceding ca. 30-year period, resulting in increasingly favourable conditions for bryophyte growth. Site species richness decreased by 13% over the 32-year study period. On average, group abundance of vascular plants decreased by 24% (decrease in forbs: 38%). Patterns of group abundance change differed among cryptogam groups: although peat-moss abundance increased by 39%, the abundance of mosses, hepatics and lichens decreased by 13%, 49% and 67%, respectively. Group abundance of small cryptogams decreased by 61%, whereas a 13% increase was found for large cryptogams. Of 61 single species tested for abundance change, a significant decrease was found for 43 species, whereas a significant increase was found only for 6 species. Conclusions The major patterns of change in species richness, group species density and group abundance observed over the 32-year study period accord with most predictions from the CIUC hypothesis and are interpreted as direct and indirect responses to climate change, partly mediated through changes in the population dynamics of microtine rodents. The more favourable climate for bryophyte growth explains the observed increase for a few large bryophyte species, whereas the decrease observed for small mosses and hepatics is interpreted as an indirect amensalistic effect, brought about by shading and burial in mats of larger species and accelerated by reduced fine-scale disturbance by microtine rodents. Indirect effects of a thicker moss mat most likely drive the vascular plant decline although long-term effects of tree-stand dynamics and former logging cannot be completely ruled out. Our results suggest that the ongoing climate change has extensive, cascading effects on boreal forest ecosystems. The importance of long time-series of permanent vegetation plots for detecting and understanding the effects of climate change on boreal forests is emphasised. Keywords: abundance decline, bryophyte, climate warming, hepatic, Norway spruce forest, understorey vegetation, vascular plants, vegetation change.
35653Rodríguez-Arribas C., Martínez I., Aragón G., Zamorano-Elgueta C., Cavieres L. & Prieto M. (2023): Specialization patterns in symbiotic associations: A community perspective over spatial scales. - Ecology and Evolution, 13: e10296 [16 p.].
Specialization, contextualized in a resource axis of an organism niche, is a core concept in ecology. In biotic interactions, specialization can be determined by the range of interacting partners. Evolutionary and ecological factors, in combination with the surveyed scale (spatial, temporal, biological, and/or taxonomic), influence the conception of specialization. This study aimed to assess the specialization patterns and drivers in the lichen symbiosis, considering the interaction between the principal fungus (mycobiont) and the associated Nostoc (cyanobiont), from a community perspective considering different spatial scales. Thus, we determined Nostoc phylogroup richness and composition of lichen communities in 11 Nothofagus pumilio forests across a wide latitudinal gradient in Chile. To measure specialization, cyanobiont richness, Simpson's and d′ indices were estimated for 37 mycobiont species in these communities. Potential drivers that might shape Nostoc composition and specialization measures along the environmental gradient were analysed. Limitations in lichen distributional ranges due to the availability of their cyanobionts were studied. Turnover patterns of cyanobionts were identified at multiple spatial scales. The results showed that environmental factors shaped the Nostoc composition of these communities, thus limiting cyanobiont availability to establish the symbiotic association. Besides, specialization changed with the spatial scale and with the metric considered. Cyanolichens were more specialized than cephalolichens when considering partner richness and Simpson's index, whereas the d′ index was mostly explained by mycobiont identity. Little evidence of lichen distributional ranges due to the distribution of their cyanobionts was found. Thus, lichens with broad distributional ranges either associated with several cyanobionts or with widely distributed cyanobionts. Comparisons between local and regional scales showed a decreasing degree of specialization at larger scales due to an increase in cyanobiont richness. The results support the context dependency of specialization and how its consideration changes with the metric and the spatial scale considered. Subsequently, we suggest considering the entire community and widening the spatial scale studied as it is crucial to understand factors determining specialization. Keywords: lichen, mutualism, niche, specialization, symbiosis.
35652Halıcı M., Kahraman Y.M., Osmanoğlu O. & Bartak M. (2021): New Records of lichenized fungi for Antarctica. - Polish Polar Research, 42: 203-219.
Three lichenized fungal species collected from James Ross Island (eastern coast of Antarctic Peninsula): Cladonia acuminata (Ach.) Norrl., Rhizocarpon pusillum Runemark and Rhizoplaca parilis S.D. Leav., Fern.-Mend., Lumbsch, Sohrabi et St. Clair are reported from Antarctica for the first time. Detailed morphological and anatomical properties of these species along with photographes based on Antarctic specimens are provided here. In addition, the nrITS gene regions of the selected specimens are studied and the phylogenetic positions of the species are discussed. The nrITS data for Rhizocarpon pusillum is provided for the first time. According to our studies the lichen biodiversity of the Antarctic is still poorly known and molecular studies are very important in order to present the correct lichen biodiversity of Antarctica. Antarctic, biodiversity, James Ross Island, lichens
35651Yang Q., Wang Y., Lücking R., Lumbsch H. T., Du Z., Chen Y., Bai M., Ren D., Wei J., Li H., Wang Y. & Wei X. (2023): The Jurassic epiphytic macrolichen Daohugouthallus reveals the oldest lichen-plant interaction in a Mesozoic forest ecosystem. - iScience, 26: 105770.
Lichens are well known as pioneer organisms or stress-tolerant extremophiles, potentially playing a core role in the early formation of terrestrial ecosystems. Epiphytic macrolichens are known to contribute to the water- and nutrient cycles in forest ecosystem. But due to the scarcity of fossil record, the evolutionary history of epiphytic macrolichens is poorly documented. Based on new fossil of Jurassic Daohugouthallus ciliiferus, we demonstrate the hitherto oldest known macrolichen inhabited a gymnosperm branch. We applied energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and geometric morphometric analysis to complementarily verify lichen affinity of D. ciliiferus and quantitatively assess the potential relationships with extant lichenized lineages, providing new approaches for study of this lichen adpression fossil. Considering the results, and the inferred age of D. ciliiferus, a new family, Daohugouthallaceae, is established. This work updates current knowledge to the early evolution of epiphytic macrolichens and reveals more complex lichen-plant interactions in a Jurassic forest ecosystem.
35650Varlı M., Lee E.-Y., Yang Y., Zhou R., Taş İ., Pulat S., Gamage C. D. B., Park S.-Y., Hur J.-S., Nam S.-J. & Kim H (2023): 1′-O-methyl-averantin isolated from the endolichenic fungus Jackrogersella sp. EL001672 suppresses colorectal cancer stemness via sonic Hedgehog and Notch signaling. - Scientific Reports, 13: 2811.
Endolichenic fungi are host organisms that live on lichens and produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites. Colorectal cancer stem cells are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into cancer cells, which makes cancers difficult to eradicate. New alternative therapeutics are needed to inhibit the growth of tumor stem cells. This study examined the ability of an extract of Jackrogersella sp. EL001672 (derived from the lichen Cetraria sp.) and the isolated compound 1′-O-methyl-averantin to inhibit development of cancer stemness. The endolichenic fungus Jackrogersella sp. EL001672 (KACC 83021BP), derived from Cetraria sp., was grown in culture medium. The culture broth was extracted with acetone to obtain a crude extract. Column chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC were used to isolate an active compound. The anticancer activity of the extract and the isolated compound was evaluated by qRT-PCR and western blotting, and in cell viability, spheroid formation, and reporter assays. The acetone extract of EL001672 did not affect cell viability. However, 1′-O-methyl-averantin showed cytotoxic effects against cancer cell lines at 50 μg/mL and 25 μg/mL. Both the crude extract and 1′-O-methyl-averantin suppressed spheroid formation in CRC cell lines, and downregulated expression of stemness markers ALDH1, CD44, CD133, Lgr-5, Msi-1, and EphB1. To further characterize the mechanism underlying anti-stemness activity, we examined sonic Hedgehog and Notch signaling. The results showed that the crude extract and the 1′-O-methyl-averantin inhibited Gli1, Gli2, SMO, Bmi-1, Notch-1, Hes-1, and the CSL complex. Consequently, an acetone extract and 1′-O-methyl-averantin isolated from EL001672 suppresses colorectal cancer stemness by regulating the sonic Hedgehog and Notch signaling pathways.
35649Naksuwankul K. & Lumbsch H. T. (2023): Saxicolous species of the lichenized fungal genus Porina (Ascomycota; Porinaceae) new records and a key to species in Thailand. - Taiwania, 68: 261-264.
Species of the genus Porina can growth on various substrates, including siliceous rocks. This study focus on saxicolous species, including two new records for Thailand; P. leptalea and P. nucula. Ten species of Porina were found in Thailand and a key to the identification of the species is provided.
35648Halıcı M. G., Kahraman M., Scur M. C. & Kitaura M. J. (2022): Leptogium Pirireisii, a new species of lichenized Ascomycota (Collemataceae) from James Ross Island in Antarctica. - New Zealand Journal of Botany, 60: 68-76.
The first author collected lichens in the austral summer of 2017 from James Ross Island, located in the North-East region of the Antarctic Peninsula, which is one of the lichen-rich islands in Antarctica, with around 60 species reported previously. In this project, the lichen biodiversity of the island is studied by using molecular techniques in addition to morphological characters. Our results show that the lichen biodiversity of Antarctica is not well known, as many undescribed or unreported species are still present. One of the undescribed species is Leptogium pirireisii, a cyanolichen with Nostoc photobiont, a nitrogen fixer. In the nuITS phylogenetic tree, L. pirireisii clustered, with high support, with the species L. antarcticum, L. furfuraceum, L. marcellii, L. pseudofurfuraceum, L. puberulum and L. tectum, which are all characterised by the presence of hairs, while these are absent in the new species. We also confirmed the occurrence of L. antarcticum on James Ross Island based on molecular data and further generated nuITS sequences of L. puberulum.
35647Daminova A.G., Rassabina A.E., Khabibrakhmanova V.R., Beckett R.P. & Minibayeva F.V. (2023): Topography of UV-melanized thalli of Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm.. - Plants, 12(14): 2627 [12 p.].
Lichens are unique extremophilic organisms due to their phenomenal resistance to adverse environmental factors, including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Melanization plays a special role in the protection of lichens from UV-B stress. In the present study, we analyzed the binding of melanins with the components of cell walls of the mycobiont of the upper cortex in the melanized lichen thalli Lobaria pulmonaria. Using scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, the morphological and nanomechanical characteristics of the melanized layer of mycobiont cells were visualized. Melanization of lichen thalli led to the smoothing of the surface relief and thickening of mycobiont cell walls, as well as the reduction in adhesion properties of the lichen thallus. Treatment of thalli with hydrolytic enzymes, especially chitinase and lichenase, enhanced the yield of melanin from melanized thalli and promoted the release of carbohydrates, while treatment with pectinase increased the release of carbohydrates and phenols. Our results suggest that melanin can firmly bind with hyphal cell wall carbohydrates, particularly chitin and 1,4-β-glucans, strengthening the melanized upper cortex of lichen thalli, and thereby it can contribute to lichen survival under UV stress. Keywords: lichen; UV-induced melanization; melanin; topography; hydrolytic enzymes; microscopy.
35646Kerr M. & Leavitt S.D. (2023): A custom regional DNA barcode reference library for lichen-forming fungi of the Intermountain West, USA, increases successful specimen identification. - Journal of Fungi, 9(7): 741 [14 p.].
DNA barcoding approaches provide powerful tools for characterizing fungal diversity. However, DNA barcoding is limited by poor representation of species-level diversity in fungal sequence databases. Can the development of custom, regionally focused DNA reference libraries improve species-level identification rates for lichen-forming fungi? To explore this question, we created a regional ITS database for lichen-forming fungi (LFF) in the Intermountain West of the United States. The custom database comprised over 4800 sequences and represented over 600 formally described and provisional species. Lichen communities were sampled at 11 sites throughout the Intermountain West, and LFF diversity was characterized using high-throughput ITS2 amplicon sequencing. We compared the species-level identification success rates from our bulk community samples using our regional ITS database and the widely used UNITE database. The custom regional database resulted in significantly higher species-level assignments (72.3%) of candidate species than the UNITE database (28.3–34.2%). Within each site, identification of candidate species ranged from 72.3–82.1% using the custom database; and 31.5–55.4% using the UNITE database. These results highlight that developing regional databases may accelerate a wide range of LFF research by improving our ability to characterize species-level diversity using DNA barcoding. Keywords: Illumina; internal transcribed spacer (ITS); metabarcoding; species hypothesis; OTUs; taxonomic assignment; UNITE.
35645Alors D., Divakar P.K., Calchera A., Schmitt I., Crespo A. & Molina M.C. (2023): The temporal variation of secondary metabolites in the mycobiont culture and thallus of Parmelina carporrhizans and Parmelina quercina analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. - Separations, 10(7): 399 [11 p.].
Lichens are composite organisms that produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites; many of the compounds have a high potential as bioactive compounds. The major limitations of using bioactive compounds from lichens is their slow growth rate and the damage to environmental populations caused by massive collection. The alternative to the massive collection of lichens in the field is their culture under laboratory conditions. We chose two related lichen species of Parmeliaceae that produce similar metabolites and isolated from spores in cultures placed under axenic conditions for over 550 days. From these cultures, we sampled 35 mg of each species from different culture media at two sampling times. The samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to detect and identify major compounds. We found no differences in the metabolites produced within the species in comparisons between different culture media. Our results show that the mycobiont cultures produced different secondary metabolites than those found in natural lichen thalli. Moreover, different secondary metabolites between species and different metabolites over time were observed. We conclude that mycobiont cultures are a promising alternative for determining bioactive compounds and enhancing the efficiency of growth and production. These could be a good option for eco-friendly metabolite production. Keywords: Parmelina carporrhizans; Parmelina quercina; mycobiont culture; phenols; polyketides; HPLC.
35644Kulinowska M., Dresler S., Skalska-Kamińska A., Hanaka A. & Strzemski M. (2023): Methodological aspects of green extraction of usnic acid using natural deep eutectic solvents. - Molecules, 28(14): 5321 [12 p.].
Usnic acid (UA) is a compound with multiple biological activities that make it useful in various industries, e.g., pharmaceutical, cosmetic, dentistry, and agricultural sectors. Lichens are the primary source of UA, which is primarily extracted using acetone. This study aimed to investigate the solubility of UA in numerous natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) and use a mixture of thymol and camphor as a NADES in the optimization of the UA extraction process with the design of experiments method. For numerical optimization, the following parameters were employed in the experiment to confirm the model: a camphor-to-thymol ratio of 0.3, a liquid-to-solid ratio of 60, and a time of 30 min. The obtained experimental results aligned well with the predicted values, with the mean experimental value falling within the confidence interval, exhibiting deviations between 11.93 and 14.96. By employing this model, we were able to optimize the extraction procedure, facilitating the isolation of approximately 91% of the total UA content through a single extraction, whereas a single acetone extraction yielded only 78.4% of UA. Keywords: Cladonia uncialis; natural products; lichens; green chemistry; design of experiments.
35643Lee B.-G. & Hur J.-S. (2023): A new lichenized fungus, Lendemeriella luteoaurantia, with a key to the species of Lendemeriella. - Diversity, 15(7): 845 [12 p.].
Lendemeriella luteoaurantia B.G. Lee is described as a new lichen species from South Korea. The new species is identified by smaller, yellow-orange apothecia, larger ascospores with wider septum width, and the absence of Cinereorufa-green pigment and teloschistin, different from the closest species, L. aureopruinosa I.V. Frolov, Vondrák, Arup, Konoreva, S. Chesnokov, Yakovczenko and Davydov in morphology and chemistry. Molecular phylogeny employing internal transcribed spacer (nuITS), nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA (nuLSU), and mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) sequences strongly supports the new species as nonidentical in the genus Lendemeriella. A preliminary key is provided to assist in the identification of all 10 species of Lendemeriella. Keywords: biodiversity; saxicolous; phylogeny; taxonomy; Teloschistaceae.
35642Szczepańska K., Kubiak D., Ossowska E.A., Kukwa M., Jaskólska J., Kowalewska A., Schiefelbein U., Bohdan A., Kepel A., Sęktas M., Szymczyk R., Hachułka M., Rutkowski K., Smoczyk M., Zalewska A., Piegdoń A. & Romanow-Pękal E. (2023): Materiały do rozmieszczenia porostów i grzybów naporostowych Polski, 3 [Materials for the distribution of lichens and lichenicolous fungi in Poland, 3]. - Wiadomości Botaniczne, 67: 168486 [33 p.]. DOI: 10.5586/wb/168486.
[in Polish with English abstract: ] The paper presents new localities of 49 species of lichens and 11 species of lichenicolous fungi (marked by an asterisk), which are endangered in Poland or are regionally rare. The name of each taxon is followed by data on its diagnostic features and distribution in Poland. Provided lists of localities contain geographic coordinates and ATPOL grid squares, modified by S. Cieśliński and W. Fałtynowicz for the purposes of the Atlas of the Geographical Distribution of Lichens in Poland (published by W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, 1993). Keywords: lichenized fungi; lichenicolous fungi; biodiversity; rare species; distribution in Poland.
35641Zeller L., Forster A., Keye C., Meyer P., Roschak C. & Ammer C. (2023): What does literature tell us about the relationship between forest structural attributes and species richness in temperate forests?-A review. - Ecological Indicators, 153(2023): 110383.
The effects of forest management on species richness and diversity have become important research interests. The need to maintain biodiversity for forest ecosystem functioning has led to the question of how strongly and in what ways forest management modifies the diversity and abundance of different species groups. It is well known that many forest species rely on specific structures that may be modified by forest management. Assessing the impact of forest management on species richness may therefore require identification of structural properties. For this literature review we identified a large set of structural attributes that can serve as potential drivers of the richness of different species groups. Most studies included here focused on only one or a few structural attributes as explanatory variables and a limited number of species groups as dependent variables; we therefore analyzed the available publications across species and structural properties. We gathered 410 relationships of structure and species richness out of 85 studies from the temperate region in Europe. Positive, negative, and neutral (nonexistent) correlations between species richness and the presence of specific structural properties in European temperate forests were then compiled. Canopy gaps and structural attributes related to old-growth successional stage such as stand age and the share of large old trees were mostly positively correlated with species richness of the different taxa. Especially old-growth structures were ranked high in the reviewed literature. The structural attributes that were mainly positively correlated with species richness or the richness of groups of species may be used for further development of biodiversity monitoring concepts and forest management. Forest structure, Biodiversity, Correlations, Literature review, Silvicultural Management Intensity, Saproxylic Beetle Diversity, Wood-Inhabiting Fungi, Lichen Diversity, Stand Structure, Beech Forests, Bird Communities, Bryophyte Assemblages, Epiphytic Bryophytes, Oak Forests
35640Chircov C., Bîrcă A.C., Dănciulescu L.A., Neacșu I.A., Oprea O.-C., Trușcă R.-D. & Andronescu E. (2023): Usnic acid-loaded magnetite nanoparticles—A comparative study between synthesis methods. - Molecules, 28(13): 5198 [14 p.].
Since cancer is a continuously increasing concern for the general population, more efficient treatment alternatives ought to be developed. In this regard, a promising direction is represented by the use of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) to act both as a nanocarrier for the targeted release of antitumoral drugs and as hyperthermia agents. Thus, the present study focused on improving the control upon the outcome properties of MNPs by using two synthesis methods, namely the co-precipitation and microwave-assisted hydrothermal method, for the incorporation of usnic acid (UA), a natural lichen-derived metabolite with proven anticancer activity. The obtained UA-loaded MNPs were thoroughly characterized regarding their morpho-structural and physicochemical properties through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). Results demonstrated the formation of magnetite as the unique mineralogical phase through both types of synthesis, with increased uniformity regarding the drug loading efficiency, size, stability, and magnetic properties obtained through the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of the nanostructures against the HEK 293T cell line was investigated through the XTT assay, which further proved their potential for anticancer treatment applications. Keywords: magnetite nanoparticles; usnic acid; anticancer; co-precipitation; microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis.
35639Golubkina N., Tolpysheva T., Lapchenko V., Lapchenko H., Pirogov N., Zaitsev V., Sękara A., Tallarita A., Stoleru V., Murariu O.C. & Caruso G. (2023): Comparative evaluation of antioxidant status and mineral composition of Diploschistes ocellatus, Calvatia candida (rostk.) [sic!] Hollós, Battarrea phalloides and Artemisia lerchiana in conditions of high soil salinity. - Plants, 12(13): 2530 [16 p.].
Natural reserves play a fundamental role in maintaining flora and fauna biodiversity, but the biochemical characteristics of such ecosystems have been studied in an extremely fragmentary way. For the first time, mineral composition and antioxidant status of three systematic groups of organisms, lichens (Diplischistes ocellatus), mushrooms (Calvatia candida and Battarrea phalloides) and wormwood (Artemisia lerchiana) have been described at the territory of Bogdinsko-Baskunchak Nature Reserve (Astrakhan region, Russia), characterized by high salinity and solar radiation, and water deficiency. Through ICP-MS, it was determined that scale lichen D. ocellatus accumulated up to 10–15% Ca, 0.5% Fe, 15 mg kg−1 d.w. iodine (I), 54.5 mg kg−1 Cr. Battarrea phalloides demonstrated anomalously high concentrations of B, Cu, Fe, Mn Se, Zn, Sr and low Na levels, contrary to Calvatia candida mushrooms accumulating up to 10,850 mg kg−1 Na and only 3 mg kg−1 Sr. The peculiarity of A. lerchiana plants was the high accumulation of B (22.23 mg kg−1 d.w.), Mn (57.48 mg kg−1 d.w.), and antioxidants (total antioxidant activity: 68.6 mg GAE g−1 d.w.; polyphenols: 21.0 mg GAE g−1 d.w.; and proline: 5.45 mg g−1 d.w.). Diploschistes ocellatus and Calvatia candida demonstrated the lowest antioxidant status: 3.6–3.8 mg GAE g−1 d.w. total antioxidant activity, 1.73–2.10 mg GAE g−1 d.w. polyphenols and 2.0–5.3 mg g−1 d.w. proline. Overall, according to the elemental analysis of lichen from Baskunchak Nature Reserve compared to the Southern Crimean seashore, the vicinity of Baskunchak Salty Lake elicited increased environmental levels of Cr, Si, Li, Fe, Co, Ni and Ca. Keywords: Bogdinsko-Baskunchak Nature Reserve; lichen; mushrooms; wormwood; mineral elements; antioxidants.
35638Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1895): Pyrenocarpeae Queenslandiae. - Report of the Australian Association for the Advancement of Science, Brisbane, 6: 449–466. .
Australia, Pyrenocarpous Lichens, Queensland
35637van den Boom P.P.G., Lücking R. & Sipman H.J.M. (2023): Notes on Graphidaceae in Macaronesia, with descriptions of four new species. - Diversity, 15(7): 817 [21 p.] .
A survey of the lichen family Graphidaceae in Macaronesia (Madeira, the Canary Islands, and the Azores) is presented, with detailed treatments for the genera Allographa, Fissurina, and Graphis. All other species are listed and new records provided. A key to all Graphicacy known from Macaronesia, except the thelotremoid species, is presented. The following species are newly described: Fissurina azorica, Fissurina elaiocarpoides, Fissurina nigrolabiata, and Topeliopsis juniperina. Many species are newly recorded for one or more islands of the three archipelagos. Keywords: archipelago; biodiversity; Macaronesia; new species; taxonomy.
35636Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1896): Lichenes. – In: Reinecke, F., Die Flora der Samoa-Inseln. - Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie, 23: 291–299. .
35635Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1896): Lichenes colensoani a reverendiss. Colenso in Nova Zelandia septentrionali prope Napier lecti, et nuperius missi, in herbario reg. kewensi servati, quos determinavit. - The Journal of the Linnean Society London, Botany, 32: 197–208. .
Collemaceae, Epiconiaceae, Discocarpeae, Thamno-Phylloblastae, Kryoblastae, Pyrenocarpeae
35634Poulsen-Silva E., Gordillo-Fuenzalida F., Atala C., Moreno A.A. & Otero M.C. (2023): Bioactive lichen secondary metabolites and their presence in species from Chile. - Metabolites, 13(7): 805 [35 p.].
Lichens are symbiotic organisms composed of at least one fungal and one algal species. They are found in different environments around the world, even in the poles and deserts. Some species can withstand extreme abiotic conditions, including radiation and the vacuum of space. Their chemistry is mainly due to the fungal metabolism and the production of several secondary metabolites with biological activity, which have been isolated due to an increasing interest from the pharmaceutical community. However, beyond the experimental data, little is known about their mechanisms of action and the potential pharmaceutical use of these kinds of molecules, especially the ones isolated from lesser-known species and/or lesser-studied countries. The main objective of this review is to analyze the bibliographical data of the biological activity of secondary metabolites from lichens, identifying the possible mechanisms of action and lichen species from Chile. We carried out a bibliographic revision of different scientific articles in order to collect all necessary information on the biological activity of the metabolites of these lichen species. For this, validated databases were used. We found the most recent reports where in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the biological properties of these metabolites. The biological activity, namely anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity, of 26 secondary metabolites are described, as well as their reported molecular mechanisms. The most notable metabolites found in this review were usnic acid, atranorin, protolichesterinic acid, and lobaric acid. Usnic acid was the most investigated metabolite, in addition to undergoing toxicological and pharmacological studies, where a hepatotoxicity effect was reported due to uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. Additionally, no major studies have been made to validate the pharmacological application of these metabolites, and few advancements have been made in their artificial growth in bioreactors. Despite the described biological activities, there is little support to consider these metabolites in pharmaceutical formulations or to evaluate them in clinical trials. Nevertheless, it is important to carry out further studies regarding their possible human health effects. These lichen secondary metabolites present a promising research opportunity to find new pharmaceutical molecules due to their bioactive properties. Keywords: secondary metabolites; biological properties.
35633Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1896): Ueber einige Flechten vom Monte Rosa. - Berichte der Schweizer Botanischen Gesellschaft, 6: 53–54. .
Alectoria jubata var. depressula, Parmelia lanata var. minuscula, Gyrophora anthracina, Placodium concolor var. angustum, Placodium concolor var. pulvinatum, Lecidea confluens var. steriza, Lecidea vitellinaria, Lecidea (Sporastatia) tephrodes, Buellia (Karschia) leptolepis, Rhizocarpon oederi
35632Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1896): Analecta Australiensia. - Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, 4: 87–96. .
Australia, Leptogium tremelloides var. limbatum, Calicium obconicum, Calicium wilsoni, Stereocaulon ramulosum v. compactum, Stereocaulon humile, Clathrina aggregata v. pygmaea, Cladonia squamosa Hoffm. v. pachypoda, Ramalina geniculata Hook. f. et Tayl. v. compacta, Ramalea cochleata, Stictina Mougeotiana f. isidiosa, Sticta flavissima Müll.Arg. v. simulans, Stictina rigida, Theloschistes chrysophthalmus v. fornicatus, Parmelia albata, Parmelia tiliacea Ach. v. convexula, Parmelia tenuirimis Tayl. f. isidiosa, Parmelia conspersa Ach. v. strigosa, v. caespitosa, Parmelia physodes Ach. v. leucina, Parmelia enteroxantha, Parmelia pertransita Stirt. v. phaeocarpa, Parmelia myriotrema, Physcia crispa Nyl. v. linearis, Pyxine retirugella Nyl. v. endoxantha Müll. Arg. f. sorediosa, v. endoxantha, Pyxine retirugella Nyl.f. sorediigera, Pannaria nigrata, Pannaria obscura, Pannaria aenea, annaria subimmixta Nyl. var. recedens, Pannaria myrioloba, Coccocarpia pellita v. mesomorpha, Thalloidima (s. Toninia) nitidum, Amphiloma microlobum, Placodium (s. Placopsis) brachylobum, Placodium imperfectum, Patellaria (s. Biatorina) mycophila, Patellaria (s. Catillaria) verrucosa, Patellaria (s. Psorothecium) Frenchiana, Patellaria(s. Psorothecium) melaclinoides, Patellaria (s. Bilimbia) Campbelliae, Patellaria (s. Sagiolechia) leptoplacella, Patellaria (s. Bacidia) superbula, Patellaria(s. Bacidia) modestula, Patellaria (s. Bacidia) rudis, atellaria (s. Scoliciosporum) livido-nigrans, Coenogonium ornatum
35631Chirva O.V., Nikerova K.M., Ignatenko R.V., Androsova V.I. & Tarasova V.N. (2023): Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity as an indicator of the ontogenetic state of the threatened lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. in the middle boreal subzone. - Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 70: 76 [7 p.]. DOI: 10.1134/S1021443722602798.
It is well-known that the switch of an organism ontogenetic state is accompanied with the change in metabolic status, especially, the activity of antioxidant system enzymes. However, there is still lack of knowledge about the internal changes which occur during the shift between ontogenetic stages in lichens. In this study, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were measured for Lobaria pulmonaria thalli from middle boreal subzone on the Karelian Republic territory. We have shown that the transition between ontogenetic stages in L. pulmonaria could be observed not only by the set of morphological features, but also by changes in the activity of SOD and CAT for the first time. Therefore, we have made a conclusion that the enzyme activity could be the basis for more justified separation of different ontogenetic stages and identifying processes associated with aging. Keywords: Lobaria pulmonaria, antioxidant enzymes, ontogenetic stages.
35630Culberson W. L. & Culberson C. F. (1970): A Phylogenetic View of Chemical Evolution in the Lichens. - The Bryologist, 73(1): 1–31 .
The distribution of 209 chemical substances among the 2,315 species of lichens that have been reported in a literature of approximately 1,000 papers is summarized. The information is used to assess the extent and the nature of chemical evolution in the lichen-forming fungi and to evaluate the present supraspecific (especially generic and familial) classifications of these plants. The order Lecanorales is the seat of most of the chemical variation, especially in the secondary natural products most useful in systematics, namely the sub- stances formed by coupling of phenolic units such as the orcinol and p-orcinol compounds. Most genera and families that are well defined morphologically and appear to represent natural taxa show highly uniform chemistries of several to many biogenetically related substances or sets of substances. Many genera with chemistries discordant for the families in which they are currently classified also seem to have affinities elsewhere from morphological information. In the lichen-forming fungi, which lack a fossil record, comparative phytochemistry is the most useful independent check that exists to evaluate the naturalness of systems of classification based upon morphology
35629Villagra J., Sancho L.G. & Alors D. (2023): Macrolichen communities depend on phorophyte in Conguillío National Park, Chile. - Plants, 12(13): 2452 [13 p.] .
The community composition of epiphytic macrolichens from two tree species (Araucaria araucana and Nothofagus antarctica) was conducted in temperate forests in the Conguillío National Park, Chile. The composition of lichen biota is influenced by phorophyte species, bark pH, and microclimatic conditions. A total of 31 species of macrolichens were found on A. araucana and N. antarctica. Most of the species showed phorophyte preference, with nine being exclusive to A. araucana and 10 to N. antarctica. The detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) indicated the formation of three communities: one representing macrolichens growing on N. antarctica and two others growing chiefly on A. araucana, either with north or south exposure. More work is needed to study the lichen biota of the forests of the Chilean Andes, which are under multiple threats, including clearing and climate change. In order to counteract such risks to native forests and to the biodiversity of the associated epiphytic lichens, conservation plans should be established that consider the factors that influence the composition of the lichen community. Keywords: macrolichens; exposure; Araucaria araucana; Nothofagus antarctica.
35628Erschbamer B., Niederfriniger Schlag R., Carnicero P. & Kaufmann R. (2023): Long‑term monitoring confirms limitations of recruitment and facilitation and reveals unexpected changes of the successional pathways in a glacier foreland of the Central Austrian Alps. - Plant Ecology , 224: 373–386.
On a glacier foreland of the Central Austrian Alps, a permanent plot study was performed to investigate the successional pathway on two moraines. We expected that the pioneer stage deglaciated for 25 years will converge to an early successional stage after another 25 years and the early stage deglaciated for 40 years will show trends toward a late successional stage. Different dynamics of species occurrence such as colonization/persistence and cover increase/decrease, were anticipated. Twenty plots of 25 × 25 cm were established in 1996 on each successional stage by selecting vegetated and bare ground plots to account for impacts of facilitation on seedling recruitment. We expected seed and establishment limitations, therefore, also effects of sowing were studied on sown and control plots. Species enrichment occurred on all control and sown plots of both stages. However, the pioneer stage did not converge to an early successional stage as it was expected. On the early successional stage, only on sown plots a development toward a late successional stage was found. Bryophyta were the most efficient colonizers on all plots together with the lichen Stereocaulon alpinum at the pioneer stage and the sown species Anthyllis vulneraria ssp. alpicola at the early successional stage. The pioneer species Saxifraga oppositifolia was still present after 25 years on the pioneer and early successional stages, although its cover significantly decreased. We conclude that seed and establishment limitations, drought, facilitation deficits, and ageing of individuals are the essential drivers on the studied glacier foreland, creating ‘quasi-stationary’ communities. Keywords: Colonization · Cover · Diversity · Glacial moraines · Pioneer species · Persistence.
35627Gorbunova A.M., L.S. Gorbunov L.S. & Veselkin D.V. (2023): Changing the reserves of green and lichen forage stocks in the southern tundra communities of Yamal from the 1930s to 2017–2019. - Russian Journal of Ecology, 54(2): 77–87. DOI: 10.1134/S1067413623020066.
[Original Russian Text published in Ekologiya, 2023, No. 2, pp. 83–93.] We compared the reindeer forage stocks at two landfills in the southern part of the Yamal Peninsula for the period from the early 1930s to 2017–2019. Data from [30] was used to characterize the feedstock in the 1930s. Feedstocks in the 1930s and 2017–2019 in plant communities in the basins of the the Erkatayakha and Baidaratayakha rivers were compared in the following vegetation divisions: lichen and shrub tundras; moss and grass tundras; shrub tundra; meadow communities; and bogs. The following hypotheses were tested: (1) the total supply of feed in Yamal decreased since the 1930s; (2) the decrease in stocks affected the lichen component to the greatest extent. Both hypotheses were confirmed. The general changes in the stocks and structure of food in the plant communities of South Yamal over the 85–87 years include delichenization, a decrease in the mass of lichens and the proportion of lichen food. The average stock of lichen fodder from the 1930s to 2017–2019 decreased by 5 times in the communities at the Erkatayakha test site and by 2 times at the Baidaratayakha test site. The mass of green fodder for 85–87 years has not changed. Thus, the change in the masses of economically important components of tundra vegetation over a uniquely long period, almost 90 years, has been characterized. Keywords: Yamal, southern tundra, reindeer, pastures, overgrazing, delichenization, herbification, feed reserves, community productivity.
35626Allain A., Alexis M.A., Bridoux M.C., Humbert G., Agnan Y. & Rouelle M. (2023): Fingerprinting the elemental composition and chemodiversity of vegetation leachates: consequences for dissolved organic matter dynamics in Arctic environments. - Biogeochemistry, 164: 73–98.
Dissolved organic matter is a key compartment for biogeochemical cycles in the Arctic and Subarctic terrestrial environments. With changing vegetation ecosystems, the chemical composition of organic matter is expected to shift and thus, the most labile part of it, namely the extractable fraction. To this date, few studies have focused on the fingerprinting of DOM fraction from different primary sources, and even less on its potential repercussions on the environment. In this study, we jointly characterized the chemical composition of bulk and water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) from different vegetation species typical of Subarctic ecosystems. Through a multi-analyses approach, including elementary analysis, solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, UV and 3D fluorescence spectroscopy, and high-resolution mass spectrometry, our results highlighted that the quantity and composition of produced WEOM significantly differed between vegetation sources and specifically between plant functional types (PFT, e.g., lichens, graminoids, and trees and shrubs). The relevance of optical indices was questioned, and the use of several of them was discarded for unprocessed WEOM study. However, the DOM proxies (optical indices, molecular composition, and stoichiometry) enabled to conclude that the lichen WEOM was likely less degradable than vascular plants WEOM, and among the latter group, graminoids produced more degradable WEOM than trees and shrubs. This work reported specific organic fingerprints for the different PFT. Consequently, the ongoing changes of vegetation in Arctic and Subarctic regions may greatly affect the composition of DOM that enters the soil and the hydrosystems, as well as the biogeochemical processes it is involved in. Keywords: Water extractable organic matter · Chemical characterization · Multi-analyses approach · Arctic ecosystem shift · Organic matter dynamics.
35625Leavitt S.D., DeBolt A., McQuhae E. & Allen J.L. (2023): Genomic resources for the first federally endangered lichen: the Florida Perforate Cladonia (Cladonia perforata). - Journal of Fungi, 9(7): 698 [15 p.].
Thirty years after its designation as a federally endangered species, the Florida Perforate Cladonia (FPC) remains imperiled in isolated populations in the Florida scrub in the southeastern USA. For threatened and endangered species, such as FPC, reference genomes provide critical insight into genomic diversity, local adaptations, landscape-level genetics, and phylogenomics. Using high-throughput sequencing, we assemble the first draft nuclear and mitochondrial genomes for the FPC mycobiont—Cladonia perforata. We also assess genetic diversity within and among populations in southeastern Florida using genome-scale data and investigate diversity across the entire nuclear ribosomal cistron, including the standard DNA barcoding marker for fungi. The draft nuclear genome spanned 33.6 Mb, and the complete, circular mitochondrial genome was 59 Kb. We also generated the first chloroplast genome, to our knowledge, for the photobiont genus associated with FPC, an undescribed Asterochloris species. We inferred the presence of multiple, distinct mycobiont parental genotypes (genets) occurring at local scales in southeastern Florida, and strikingly, no genets were shared among even the closest sample sites. All sampled thalli shared identical mitochondrial genomes, while the nuclear ribosomal cistron showed limited variability—highlighting the genetic resolution provided by nuclear genome-scale datasets. The genomic resources generated here provide critical resources for informed conservation efforts for the FPC. Keywords: conservation; Florida scrub; genet; Illumina; MinION; Oxford Nanopore Technologies; ramet; reindeer lichens; transplant.
35624Цуриков А.Г. [Tsurykau A.G.] (2023): Лишайники Беларуси [Lichens of Belarus]. - Гомель : Гомельский государственный университет имени Франциска Скорины [Gomel : Francisk Skorina Gomel State University], 379 p.. .
[in Russian] a book on lichens of Belarus
35623Цуриков А.Г. [Tsurykau A.G.] (2021): Эпифитные лишайники Беларуси. II. Облигатные и факультативные эпифиты [Corticolous lichens of Belarus. II. Obligate and facultative epiphytes]. - Известия Иркутского государственного университета. Серия Биология. Экология [The Bulletin of Irkutsk State University. Series Biology], 35: 51–60.
[in Russian with English abstract :] The lichen biota of Belarus lists 406 corticolous species. Of these, 213 (35.7%) species are obligate epiphytes. Crustose lichens make up the majority of obligate epiphytes (157 species, or 73.7%). Apparently, this can indicate the decisive role of the morphology and chemistry of the substrate for the closely contacted lichen thallus. Facultative epiphytes are represented by 193 species, which are quite widely represented by foliose and fruticose life forms (51.3%). Facultative epiphytes inhabit rotting and processed wood, stony substrates, soil (including forest litter), mosses, leaves (needles), root turnouts and metal objects. Wood is inhabited by 154 facultative epiphyte species, of which 80 lichens are strongly epiphyticlignicolous. The lichen diversity of tree bark and wood is relatively similar; the value of the Sørensen-Dice index is equal to 0.51. Soil is the second most important substrate after wood for facultative epiphytes. It is inhabited by 55 lichens, most of which are represented by Cladonia and Peltigera species. 46 species of facultative epiphytes were found on mosses. These are represented mainly by cyanobiont-containing lichens, broad-lobed species, as well as many by the representatives of the genus Cladonia. The stony substrate is suitable for 43 facultative epiphytes species and is characterized by a high specificity of lichen biota. Its Sørensen- Dice index is equal to 0.13. Most of these representatives are common in urban environments. Fungi, lichens, root inversions, leaves, and metal are predominantly inhabited by multisubstrate lichen species. Keywords: epiphyte, phorophyte, lichen biota, substrate, affinity index.
35622Цуриков А.Г. & Цурикова Н.В. [Tsurykau A.G. & Tsurikova N.V.] (2020): Эпифитные лишайники Беларуси. I. Особенности распределения по древесным породам [Corticolous lichens of Belarus. I. Distribution peculiarities by tree species]. - Вестник Оренбургского государственного педагогического университета : электронный научный журнал [Vestnik of Orenburg State Pedagogical University. Electronic Scientific Journal], 2(34): 59–71. DOI: 10.32516/2303-9922.2020.34.6.
[in Russian with English summary: ] Based on the data accumulated over the nearly 240-year history of lichenological studies in Belarus (1781— 2017), the results of comparing the species composition of epiphytic lichens are presented. In Belarus, two thirds of lichen species (406, or 68,0%) grow on the bark of 49 species of trees and shrubs. The main types of phorophytes are pedunculate oak, aspen, Scots pine, alder, birch and spruce. A positive correlation between the total number of epiphytic lichens of tree species and the amount of obligate epiphytes was revealed. The cluster analysis revealed a significant difference in the lichen species composition of various species of trees and shrubs. At a level corresponding to a Sørensen index value of more than 0,5, five clusters have been identified that combine phorophytes with relatively high similarity in the species composition of lichens. The article presents the lichen species which are typical for each group of phorophytes. Key words: epiphytes, phorophyte, lichen biota, substrate, affinity index, Belarus.
35621Lücking R., Álvaro-Alba W.R., Moncada B., Marín-Canchala N.L., Tunjano S.S. & Cárdenas-López D. (2023): Lichens from the Colombian Amazon: 666 taxa including 28 new species and 157 new country records document an extraordinary diversity. - Bryologist, 126(2): 242–303.
In this study, we revised the lichen collection at the Herbario Amazonico Colombiano (coah) in Bogotá, Colombia. The collection has a total of nearly 2,400 specimens, with some duplicates in the Herbario Nacional (col) and in the herbarium of the Botanic Garden in Berlin (b). The revision of 1,861 specimens revealed 574 species in 142 genera and 44 families, among which there are 28 species new to science and seven new combinations. Previously, 324 species had been reported from the Colombian Amazon, and our revision resulted in a new total of 666 species, more than doubling the previous number. All 666 species are enumerated here in the first comprehensive checklist of lichens from the Colombian Amazon. A total of 157 new country records (53 already reported in the new Catalogue of Fungi of Colombia) increase the number of lichens known from Colombia to 2,827. The following species are described as new: Allographa exuens, differing from A. argentata by the lirellae with the corticiform layer soon flaking off and exposing the black labia, the only finely inspersed hymenium, and the narrower ascospores; A. guainiae, differing from Graphis syzygii in the prominent ascomata with lateral thalline margin and whitish thallus remnants between the striae; A. labiata, differing from A. immersa in the prominent lirellae with conspicuous, entire, exposed labia, an inspersed hymenium, longer ascospores, and stictic acid as secondary compound; A. lichexanthonica, differing from A. sitiana in producing lichexanthone; A. sessilis, differing from A. contortuplicata in the muriform ascospores; A. suprainspersata, differing from A. angustata in the very thin thalline cover of the ascomata and the apically inspersed hymenium; Astrothelium bireagens, differing from A. cinnamomeum by the broader, apically flattened perithecia covered by a thin, ferruginous-red, K+ deep purple pruina and internally with an ochraceous-yellow, K+ deep yellow pigment; A. stromatolucidum, differing from A. neovariolosum in the distinctly pseudostromatic ascomata; Carbacanthographis submultiseptata, differing from C. multiseptata in the narrower ascospores and the indistinct periphysoids; Chapsa inconspicua, differing from C. angustispora in the smooth to uneven versus farinose thallus and in the much shorter ascospores; Coenogonium velutinellum, differing from C. pineti in the finely velvety, rather thick thallus composed of irregular to erect, densely packed algal threads covered by a thin pseudocortex; Fellhanera naevioides, differing from F. naevia in the finely dispersed, minutely crenulate thallus and the blackish apothecia; Fissurina sipmanii, differing from F. amazonica in the shorter and broader, slightly gaping, somewhat chroodiscoid ascomata, and the amyloid ascospores; Glyphis lirellizans, differing from Glyphis substriatula in the erumpent vs. prominent lirellae with lateral thalline margin and the exposed disc; Graphis papillifera, differing from G. stellata in the lirellae lacking a thalline margin, very elongate and irregularly to radiately branched and not in stellate clusters, and in the 5-septate ascospores; G. pseudoglyphis, differing from Graphis stellata in the non-verrucose thallus, the branched lirellae which do not, however, form stellate clusters, and the shorter ascospores; Malmidea flavimarginata, differing from M. bacidinoides in the pale yellow, K+ deep yellow medulla and yellow, K+ deep yellow excipular crystals, as well as the smaller ascospores; M. isidiopiperina, differing from M. taytayensis in the smaller ascospores; M. papillitrailiana, differing from M. trailiana in the papillose apothecial margins; Myriotrema araracuarense, differing from Myriotrema muluense in the non-annulate pores of the apothecia and in the longer ascospores; Ocellularia areolata, differing from Ocellularia rhicnoporoides in the pigmented medulla and the larger, more prominent apothecia with completely carbonized excipulum; O. caquetensis, differing from Ocellularia rotundifumosa in the absence of a columella; O. inspersipallens, differing from O. viridipallens in the inspersed hymenium and the 5–7-septate ascospores; O. rufocinctoides, differing from O. rufocincta in the thallus lacking large and irregular crystal clusters, in the more prominent apothecia and in the smaller ascospores; O. sipmanii, differing from Ocellularia abbayesiana in the smaller, 3-septate ascospores; Pseudopyrenula daironii, differing from all other species of the genus in the aggregate perithecia with shared ostiole and the internal orange-red pigment granules lining the perithecial wall; Pyrenula asymmetrica, differing from Pyrenula papilligera in the longer, almost rectangular ascospores; and Redingeria pseudostromatica, differing from other species in the genus in the pseudostromatic ascomata with small, rounded apothecia, in combination with 1-septate ascospores. In addition, the following seven new combinations are proposed: Bacidina cyanophila (≡ Bacidina simplex var. cyanophila), Malmidea sorediifera (≡ Lecanora sorediifera), Ocellularia fuscescens (≡ Thelotrema fuscescens), Phaeographis cymbegrapha (≡ Graphis cymbegrapha; = Phaeographis amazonica Staiger], Polyblastidium flavosquamosum (≡ Heterodermia flavosquamosa), Polyblastidium lamelligerum (≡ Parmelia lamelligera), and Polyblastidium rottboellii (≡ Anaptychia hypoleuca var. rottboellii). Keywords: Amazonas, Astrothelium meiophorum, Calopadia psoromoides, Caquetá, Coccocarpia pellita, Diorygma isolichexanthonicum, Eugeniella atrichoides, Guainía, Guaviare, Micarea prasina, Ocellularia jutaratiae, Ocellularia zamorana, Putumayo, Vaupés.
35620McCool M. (2023): [Review:] Common Mosses, Liverworts, and Lichens of Ohio: A Visual Guide – A field companion for the cryptogam naturalist. - Bryologist, 126(2): 326–337.
book review of : Klips, R. A. 2022. Common Mosses, Liverworts, and Lichens of Ohio: A Visual Guide. xiii + 374 pp. Ohio University Press, Athens, OH. [ISBN: 9780821424735 (paperback), ISBN 9780821447710 (pdf)]. Price: $39.95. Common+Mosses%2C+Liverworts%2C+and+Lichens+of+Ohio.
35619Lendemer J.C. (2023): Recent literature on lichens—269. - Bryologist, 126(2): 326–335.
35618Suija A. & van den Boom P. (2023): (2953) Proposal to conserve the name Absconditella against Geisleria (Ascomycota: Lecanoromycetes). - Taxon, 72(3): 660–661.
35617Mies B.A., Lumbsch H.T. & Guderley E. (2023): Nachruf für Fritz Dieter Gregor Zimmermann 1942 – 2022. - Herzogiella, 10: 1–6. .
35616Teuber U., Gey S., Berger A. & Berger M. (2023): Bericht zur Jahresexkursion der BLAM in den Nationalpark Bayerischer Wald vom 14. bis 18. September 2022. - Herzogiella, 10: 22–39.
Report on the BLAM excursion of bryologists and lichenologists in Bavarian Forest (Germany) in September 2022.
35615Printzen C. & Ivanovich C. (2023): Lecanora sarcopidoides, eine übersehene oder verkannte Krustenflechte. - Herzogiella, 10: 73–79.
35614Eichler M. & Cezanne R. (2023): Neue Publikationen die Flechtenflora Mitteleuropas betreffend. Neunte Folge. - Herzogiella, 10: 40–47.
35613Schultz M. & Resl P. (2023): Taxonomische und nomenklatorische Neuerungen – Flechten, Siebte Folge. - Herzogiella, 10: 48–51.
35612Cezanne R., Eichler M., Berger F., Von Brackel W., Breuss O., Dolnik C., Dornes A.P., Eckstein J., Schultz M., Thüs H. & Türk R. (2023): Neu- und Wiederfunde von Flechten, flechtenbewohnenden und flechtenähnlichen Pilzen in Deutschland. - Herzogiella, 10: 80–102. .
35611Brude E. (2023): Flechten im Botanischen Garten Frankfurt – wie kann das Interesse der Besucher an diesen Lebewesen geweckt werden. - Herzogiella, 10: 103–106.
35610Weber L. (2023): In der Mitte Norden – Kleiner Bericht zu Finnlands Flechten. - Herzogiella, 10: 107–109. .
35609von Brackel W., Cezanne R., Eichler M. & Schultz M. (2023): Auf Arnolds Spuren in der Frankenalb. - Herzogiella, 10: 110–129. .
In the footsteps of Arnold in the Frankenalb. Results of 8 lichenological excursions are presented. 10 species of lichens/lichenicolous fungi are photodocumented (Anema decipiens, Heppia adglutinata, Buelliella poetschii (on Endocarpon adsurgens), Catillaria minuta, Graphium aphthosae, Kiliasia pennina, Lemmopsis arnoldiana, Sarcosagium campestre, Sclerococcum griseisporodochium, Synalissa ramulosa.
35608Kirschbaum U. (2023): Makrofotografie von Flechten/Moosen mit der TOUGH 6 von Olympus. - Herzogiella, 10: 130–134. .
macrophotography of lichens/mosses
35607von Brackel W. & Nebel M. (2023): Flechte und Moos des Jahres 2023. - Herzogiella, 10: 135–139. .
The lichen and moss of the year 2023 are presented (Cladonia rangiformis and Tortula inclinata).
35606Gey S. & Raubold P. (2022): Bericht zur Jahresexkursion der BLAM im Südschwarzwald vom 15. bis 19. September 2021. - Herzogiella, 9: 8–19. .
Report on the field excursion of bryologists and lichenologists organized in south part of Black Forest (Germany) in 2021.
35605Cezanne R. & Eichler M. (2022): Neue Publikationen die Flechtenflora Mitteleuropas betreffend. Achte Folge. - Herzogiella, 9: 27–36. .
35604von Brackel W., Schäfer-Verwimp A. & Schultz M. (2022): Flechte und Moos des Jahres 2022. - Herzogiella, 9: 55–60. .
The lichen and moss of the year 2000 are presented (Enchylium tenax and Diobelonella palustris).
35603Farkas E., Lőkös L. & Veres K. (2023): Analysis of lichen secondary metabolites and morphometrics in the Cladonia chlorophaea species group (Cladoniaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in Hungary. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 44(5): 61–82.
The genus Cladonia P.Browne is one of the richest genera in species among lichenized fungi, consisting of about 500 species based on both morphological and chemical diversity. Thalli of the Cladonia chlorophaea species group with horizontal primary thalline lobes and sorediate, cup-, funnel-, goblet- or wineglasss-shaped podetia contain twelve different lichen secondary metabolites (atranorin, congrayanic, cryptochlorophaeic, 4-O-methyl-cryptochlorophaeic, fumarprotocetraric, grayanic, 4-O-demethyl-grayanic, homosekikaic, merochlorophaeic, norrangiformic, quaesitic, rangiformic and thamnolic acids) in various combinations. Six taxa are currently distinguished at species level based mainly on these substances. The 281 specimens kept in herbaria as Cladonia chlorophaea s.l. collected in Hungary were analysed by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). The chemical revision allowed to separate C. asahinae J.W.Thomson, C. cryptochlorophaea Asahina, C. grayi G.Merr. ex Sandst., C. merochlorophaea Asahina and C. novochlorophaea (Sipman) Brodo & Ahti from C. chlorophaea s.str. Three species – C. asahinae, C. grayi and C. novochlorophaea – represent new distribution records to Hungary. The morphological characters differentiating these species according to the literature data were less obvious. Therefore, a detailed morphometric study of 227 podetia – considering the size of podetia, cup, stalk, soredia and squamules – was carried out on selected specimens. Although Cladonia asahinae and C. cryptochlorophaea were usually smaller than the robust C. chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Spreng. or C. merochlorophaea, the chemical characteristics supplied more stable results than morphological metrics. Key words: Cladoniaceae, lichen-forming fungus, lichen secondary metabolites, chemotaxonomy, geographical distribution, high performance thinlayer chromatography, morphometric analysis.
35602Zimmermann E. (2023): Lichenicole Pilze der Schweiz VIII: Zur Biodiversität im oberen Albulatal (Graubünden, Schweiz). - Meylania, 71: 15–24. .
Forty-two lichenicolous fungi were recorded on an alpine grassland in the Albula valley (Graubünden, Switzerland), most notable: Arthrorhaphis vacillans, Cercidospora verrucosaria, Cercidospora xanthoriae, Epicladonia lapponica, Listerella paradoxa, Merismatium heterophractum, Stigmidium gyrophorarum, Sclerococcum zhurbenkoi. Furthermore, a potentially undescribed lichenicolous Ascomycet on Peltigera is presented. Published for the first time for Switzerland are: Arthrorhaphis vacillans, Cercidospora xanthoriae, Epicladonia lapponica and Listerella paradoxa.
35601Keller C., Gabathuler M. & Stofer S. (2021): Äste, Äste, Äste – besondere Flechten im Zürcher Weinland. - Meylania, 67: 31–36. .
Twigs & branches – Gratifying lichen observations in Zurich’s Weinland. After a storm in the Niderholz-forest (Marthalen, Zürich, Switzerland) in midsummer 2017 lichen samples were collected from branches of fallen oak and European hornbeam trees. Among the 63 identified lichen species there were four of the five endangered Usnea-species known from that locality from historical records (Usnea glabrata, U. wasmuthii, U. ceratina und U. glabrescens var. fulvoreagens). Furthermore, Lepra trachythallina, classified as regionally extinct in the current Red List and four other rare species (Arthonia apatetica, Bacidia circumspecta, Buellia erubescens and Rinodina griseosoralifera) were recorded for the first time in the region of the Zürich Weinland.
35600Zimmermann E. & Feusi S. (2021): Lichenicole Pilze der Schweiz V: Zur Biodiversität lichenicoler Pilze am 2850 m hohen Breitkamm beim Umbrailpass (Schweiz, Graubünden). - Meylania, 68: 39–53. .
Forty-six lichenicolous fungi were recorded at the alpine plain Breitkamm at about 2850 m a.s.l. near Umbrailpass (Grisons, Switzerland). Among these, 22 species are published for the first time for Switzerland. Endococcus cladiae, Phoma thamnoliae and Sphaerellothecium aculeatae are recorded for the first time in the Alps. A possibly undescribed Abrothallus-species on Flavocetraria cucullata and another unknown ascomycete on Cetraria islandica are presented. The following species are worth mentioning because of their rarity: Arthonia circinata, Laetinaevia epithallina, Phoma thamnoliae, Sphaerellothecium soechtingii and Sphaeropezia thamnoliae.
35599Bürgi-Meyer K., Keller C. & Rigling L. (2021): Der silikatische Findling «Ferme de Jobert» und seine Flechten. - Meylania, 68: 31–38. .
The siliceous erratic boulder “Ferme de Jobert” and its lichens. On the siliceous erratic boulder “Ferme de Jobert” in Orvin (Canton of Berne, Switzerland) 25 species of calcifuge and rock-dwelling lichens were identified. These include remarkable alpine species, such as Ophioparma ventosa, Schaereria cinereorufa and Bryoria chalybeiformis. We provide information on the petrography, origin and glacial transport of the erratic boulder.
35598Dietrich M., Blaise P., Brännhage J., Bürgi-Meyer K., Frey D., Graf N., Groner U., Gross A., Keller C., Römer N., Roux C., Scheidegger C., Vonarburg C., von Hirschheydt G. & Vust M. (2021): Beiträge zur lichenologischen Erforschung der Schweiz – Folge 3. - Meylania, 68: 10–30.
Contributions to the lichenological exploration of Switzerland, 3. The third contribution presents 13 lichens new to Switzerland (Arthonia patellulata, Aspicilia lignicola, Baeomyces carneus, Caloplaca monacensis, Farnoldia muscigena, Fuscidea recensa, Gyalecta russula, Gyrographa saxigena, Micarea cinerea f. tenuispora, Phylliscum demangeonii, Verrucaria xyloxena, Xanthoparmelia plittii, X. sublaevis), as well as new sites of rare, threatened or other remarkable lichens.
35597Gabathuler M., Dietrich M., Graf N., von Hirschheydt G., Keller C., Vust M., Scheidegger C. & Stofer S. (2022): Die Revision der Roten Liste der Flechten auf Kurs. - Meylania, 69: 40–44. .
35596Zimmermann E. (2022): Lichenicole Pilze der Schweiz VI: Seltene und erwähnenswerte lichenicole Pilze. - Meylania, 69: 27–39. .
Lichenicolous fungi of Switzerland VI: Rare and noteworthy lichenicolous fungi. Several rare and noteworthy lichenicolous fungi from Switzerland are documented photographically and a short description is given. Thirteen species are recorded for the first time in Switzerland: Arthonia subfuscicola, Arthrorhaphis aeruginosa, Bergerella atrofusca, Buelliella lecanorae, Burgoa angulosa, Cercidospora soror, Didymellopsis collematum, Endococcus protoblasteniae, Kalchbrenneriella cyanescens, Lichenotubeufia heterodermiae, Nectriopsis hirta, Pronectria pedemontana, Unguiculariopsis thallophila. Particularly noteworthy is Kalchbrenneriella cyanescens.
35595Mermilliod J.-C. (2022): Découverte de cinq espèces d’Acarosporacées nouvelles ou rares en Suisse. - Meylania, 69: 15–21. .
Discovery of five species of Acarosporaceae that are new to Switzerland or rare. Observations of five rare lichens belonging to the Acarosporaceae family are presented. Three species are published for the first time for Switzerland (Acarospora adscendens, Myriospora dilatata and M. scabrida). The two others (Acarospora albomarginata and Timdalia intricata) are second observations. All five species have been collected in the canton of Valais, and one (A. albomarginata) has also been found in the canton of Grisons. The records of A. adscendens and M. dilatata are the first in the Alps.
35594Zimmermann E. & Feusi S. (2022): Lichenicole Pilze der Schweiz VII: Erwähnenswerte Arten aus dem Schweizer Jura. - Meylania, 70: 41–49. .
Lichenicolous fungi of Switzerland VII: Rare and noteworthy species from the Swiss Jura. Ten rare and noteworthy lichenicolous fungi from Switzerland are documented photographically and a short description is given: Lichenoconium cargillianum, Lichenopeltella peltigericola, L. santessonii, Llimoniella phaeophysciae, Nectriopsis hirta, N. physciicola, Niesslia lobariae, Pronectria etayoi, Xenonectriella physciacearum, X. zimmermanni. Fife of these represent first records for Switzerland: Lichenopeltella peltigericola, L. santessonii, Llimoniella phaeophysciae, Nectriopsis physciicola, Niesslia lobariae.
35593Bürgi-Meyer K., Keller C. & Groner U. (2022): Übersehen, verkannt, herausfordernd - Faszination Cyanoflechten. Beobachtungen an zwei Felsanschnitten im Gebiet des Brünigpasses (Kantone Bern und Obwalden, Schweiz). - Meylania, 70: 31–39. .
Overlooked, ignored, challenging - fascination cyanolichens. We report cyanolichens from two outcrops of Malm limestone in the area of Brünig-pass in the Swiss cantons of Bern and Obwalden. The small species in particular have so far rarely been collected and are poorly known in Switzerland. Descriptions of the lichen habitats and morphological characters of some selected small taxa are presented. We hope that the illustrations give an impression of our fascination with these often overlooked and neglected species which are often challenging to identify.
35592Dietrich M., Bertrand M., Blaise P., Brännhage J., Frey D., Gabathuler M., Groner U., Kaufmann G., Keller C., Mark K., Römer N., Scheidegger C., Spinelli A., von Hirschheydt G., Vust M., Westberg M., Zengerer V. & Züst S. (2022): Beiträge zur lichenologischen Erforschung der Schweiz – Folge 4. - Meylania, 70: 5–22.
Contributions to the lichenological exploration of Switzerland, 4. The fourth contribution presents 15 lichens new to Switzerland (Acarospora irregularis, Aspicilia navarroi, Buellia violaceofusca, Caloplaca atroflava, C. paulii, Enchylium bachmanianum, Gyalidea minuta, Lemmopsis pelodes, Lempholemma radiatum, Ochrolechia bahusiensis, Orcularia insperata, Parmelia encryptata, Pertusaria carneopallida, Umbilicaria maculata, Vezdaea leprosa), as well as new localities of Fuscopannaria nebulosa, Myriospora scabrida morpho. fulvoviridula and Xanthoparmelia mougeotii.
35591Vust M. & Mermilliod J.-C. (2022): Psorotichia allobrogensis Hue et autres nouveautés lichénologiques dans le canton de Fribourg. - Meylania, 70: 23–30. .
Psorotichia allobrogensis Hue and other lichenological novelties in the canton of Fribourg. The list of lichens collected during the biodiversity days in Montbovon (FR) in June 2009 is presented. Ninety-six species were observed. Several species from other excursions in the canton of Fribourg were added, in particular those recorded during the general meeting of Bryolich in Fribourg in 2007. In total, 34 species are reported for the first time in the canton of Fribourg and one of these is reported for the first time in Switzerland: Psorotichia allobrogensis Hue.
35590Tanona M. & Czarnota P. (2022): What determines the diversity and succession of lichens inhabiting post-bark beetle snags in the Western Carpathians?. - Annals of Forest Research, 65(1): 65-84.
"The life strategy of Norway spruce allows the recovery of European spruce forests in a scenario of catastrophic disturbances caused by the European spruce bark beetle. However, little is known about how the development of this insect infestation has influenced the preservation of the ecological balance in these forests over the last decades. Based on the upper montane spruce forests in the Polish Western Carpathians, we decided to check what species of lichens are using the decaying wood of post-bark beetle snags and how the progressive changes in wood hardness and stand decomposition affect the process of species exchange. In 2018-2019, we investigated spruce snags on permanent monitoring plots in Gorce National Park, whose cause and time of death have been recorded since 1999, and earlier in 1992 and 1997. The study covered 374 post-bark beetle spruce snags at 76 sites. We found 84 species, including 77 lichens, 6 lichenicolous fungi and one non-lichenised fungus, 15 of which were exclusively wood-inhabiting species in Gorce range. Using generalised linear models, the wood age (A) and the scale of the forest stand breakdown phenomenon (B) were compared with the altitude (C), the aspects of hillside exposure (D) and the forest plant community (E) in the assessment of their effect on lichen species diversity and abundance. ""A"" was the most important of the tested factors, significantly and positively influencing both parameters, while ""B-D"" only weakly influenced lichen abundance. Five groups of wood age, significantly different in the lichen abundance and the composition of species were distinguished, and a characteristic combination of dominant species was determined for each of them. Based on the measurements of the wood hardness under the thalli using Shore's method, the succession of species during the colonisation of the post-bark beetle snags was determined and four groups of species were selected, most frequent in the successive stages of wood decay process. The wood of spruces killed by the bark beetle is both an important substrate enabling the survival of obligately wood-inhabiting lichen species, as well as providing a habitat supporting the maintenance of epiphytes in the Carpathian forests. This study extends the knowledge about the specific requirements of lichens inhabiting spruce snags, as well as the pace and course of lichen succession on this substrate. lichen ecology, lichen succession, lichen diversity, bark beetle outbreaks, deadwood, natural forest disturbances, forest ecology, permanent study plots, Norway spruce snags, mountain spruce forest, species-diversity, norway spruce, natural disturbances, lichenicolous fungi, dependent lichens, epixylic lichens, nature-reserve, decaying wood, communities
35589Yang M.-X., Cheng E.H.-C., Ospondpant D., Tung K.-K., Wang L.-S., Lin S.-Y., Lai Q.W.-S., Wu Q,-Y., Xia Y.-J., Leung K.-W., Duan R., Dong T.T.-X. & Tsim K.W.-K. (2023): The extracts of Lobaria pindarensis, an edible lichen from Himalayas, suppress inflammatory response and fibrillation of amyloid β-protein in cultured microglial cells: Active depsidones, norstictic acid and stictic acid, are responsible for the functions. - Journal of Functional Foods, 107: 105607 [10 p.].
Lobaria pindarensis Räsänen is an edible and medicinal lichen found in the Himalayas that has been used as ethnomedicine for years to combat inflammation. The study aimed to evaluate the ability of L. pindarensis extracts and its main depsidones to suppress inflammation and Aβ fibril formation in cultured cells induced by LPS or Aβ42. The mRNA and protein expressions of inflammatory cytokines were declined significantly by the applied herbal extracts and depsidones in the LPS/Aβ-treated immune cells (p mmation; Fibrillar Aβ; Lichen; Lobaria pindarensis; Depsidone.
35588Svoboda D. (2022): Lišejníky – přehlížené malé ekosystémy. - Krása našeho domova, XXII/64 [podzim/zima 2022]: 26–27. .
[in Czech] a popular paper on lichens
35587Boonpeng C., Fuangkeaw P. & Boonpragob K. (2023): Bark, soil and lichens are effective indicators of dust from limestone industries in Thailand. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 195: 681 [14 p.].
Cement production, quarrying and stone crushing are major emission sources of alkaline dust that can affect human health and vegetation. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential of using bark pH, soil pH and lichen community for indicating alkaline dust pollution. Twelve polluted sites were in a limestone industrial area. Bark pH and the lichen community were observed on Alstonia scholaris trees, and soil pH was obtained from top-soil samples. The bark pH at all polluted sites was significantly higher (5.5 to 7.3) than that at the unpolluted site (4.3). Among the polluted sites, the highest bark pH value was observed at the nearest site to the center of the industrial area, while the lowest value was discovered at the farthest site. Bark pH showed a strongly negative correlation with the distance from the center. Soil pH at the unpolluted site (6.3) was also significantly lower than that at the polluted sites (7.6 to 8.1), except at the farthest site (6.5). The soil pH also tended to increase closer to the center. Seven lichen species were observed on the trunks of investigated trees in all polluted sites and were observed only at sites more than 4.7 km away from the center, where bark pH ranged from 5.5 to 6.3. The extent of dust impact on vegetation seemed to be within 6–7 km from the center. The results of this study confirm the potential of the bark pH of A. scholaris, soil pH and lichen community as long-term indicators of alkaline dust pollution. Keywords: Air pollution · Alstonia scholaris · Cement plant · Limestone quarry · Particulate matter.
35586Kidron G.J., Kronenfeld R., Tal S.Y., Temina M., Starinsky A. & McKay C.P. (2023): The effect of the water source on niche partioning of chlorolichens and cyanobacteria—implications for resilience?. - Planta , 258: 8 [14 p.].
Main conclusion: Microclimate determines lichens and cyanobacteria distribution in the Negev, with lichens and cyanobacteria inhabit dewy and dewless habitats, respectively. Lichens experiences more frequent and extensive environmental fluctuations than cyanobacteria. The spatial partitioning of chlorolichens (eukaryotes) and cyanobacteria (prokaryotes) are intriguing, especially following recent intense search for extraterrestrial life. This is especially relevant for deserts, where both lithobionts are thought to use rain and dew but may differ in their resilience to environmental extremes and fluctuations. Following the different spatial distribution of lithobionts in a south-facing slope of the Negev Highlands (with cyanobacteria-inhabiting rocks and chlorolichen-inhabiting cobbles), measurements of temperature, non-rainfall water (NRW) and biomass were carried out within the drainage basin aiming to test the hypotheses that (i) cobble-inhabiting lichens may access more water (through NRW) and may be subjected to more extensive environmental fluctuations of temperature and water than bedrock-inhabiting cyanobacteria, and (ii) will therefore have a greater contribution to the ecosystem productivity. In contrast to cyanobacteria, cobble-inhabiting chlorolichens were found to access NRW (up to 0.20 mm of daily amounts in comparison to
35585Saeed M., Ryu J., Lee H. & Choi H.-K. (2023): Enhanced growth, chlorophyll a and phycobiliprotein content, and modulation of bioactive metabolite profiles in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 culture by ( +)‑usnic acid. - Journal of Applied Phycology , 35: 1047–1059.
Synechocystis 6803 is a strain of unicellular freshwater cyanobacteria that can grow in both phototrophic and mixotrophic conditions. We investigated the effects of exogenous ( +)-usnic acid (0.01, 0.1, and 1 μM) on the growth, photosynthetic pigments, and metabolic profiles of Synechocystis 6803 culture through gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis (GC–MS) coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. Treatment with 1 μM ( +)-usnic acid enhanced the cell growth at day 14 and the photosynthetic pigments and relative levels (intensity g −1 ) of various bioactive metabolites such as glycine, serine, palmitoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, 1-monopalmitin, glycerol monostearate, neophytadiene, and α-tocopherol at days 8 and 14. Moreover, enhanced productivity of α-tocopherol was achieved on days 8 (0.36 ± 0.03 mg L −1 or 348 ± 28 μg g −1 ) and 14 (0.47 ± 0.05 mg L −1 or 457 ± 52 μg g −1 ) when treated with 1 μM usnic acid. These results suggest that Synechocystis 6803 can be treated with ( +)-usnic acid to enhance applications in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. Keywords: Synechocystis 6803 · ( +)-usnic acid · Metabolic profiling · Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
35584Pystina T.N., Kuznetsova E.G. & Novakovskiy A.B. (2023): Reaction of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes to dust pollution in the influence zone of the Middle Timan bauxite mine. - Contemporary Problems of Ecology, 16(3): 379–389. DOI: 10.1134/S1995425523030101.
[original Russian text published in Sibirskii Ekologicheskii Zhurnal, 2023, No. 3, pp. 372–385] Here we present the results of long-term monitoring (2002–2017) of epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes in the zone of influence of the Middle Timan bauxite mine (MTBM) (Komi Republic). Dust with a predominance of Al and Fe is the main environmental pollutant in this area. Three periods of the response of lichen to dust pollution are identified: shock, maximum changes, and adaptation. The dust pollution significantly reduced the projective cover of the species under study, increased the frequency of thallus necrosis, and decreased thallus linear dimensions. In the 10 years after we started our monitoring studies, the parameters of the vital state of H. physodes began to stabilize and then improve due to the adaptation of the lichen to chronic environmental pollution with dust. The study of changes in the content of main pollutants showed that, during the mining operation, they accumulate in the thalli of the lichen H. physodes in the following order: Al > Fe > Ni > Cu > Pb. Keywords: epiphytic lichens, Middle Timan, bauxite mine, pollution, monitoring.
35583Phu N.T., Cam V.T.M., Minh N.T.N., Tuoi V.T.H., Khanh N.Q., Son L.T., Giang T.T. & Lien N.T. (2023): Biological activity of the endolichenic Trichoderma spp. isolated from lichens Cryptothecia spp. and Dirinaria spp.. - Microbiology, 92(3): 408–417. DOI: 10.1134/S0026261722602093.
Endolichenic fungi are considered a promising source of new materials. For further evaluation of some biological activities of the Trichoderma strains isolated from lichens Dirinaria spp. and Cryptothecia spp., their antifungal and antibacterial activities were screened by the methods of dual culture and environmental toxicity. Substrate degradation was evaluated using the qualitative enzyme assays. Fourteen strains of Trichoderma spp. were isolated from 60 lichen samples. All the isolates were able to inhibit the radial growth of tested fungal strains (Bipolaris spp., Colletotrichum spp., Corynespora cassiicola, and Fusarium spp.). Otherwise, only 12/14 isolates were found capable of competing for substrates with Ralstonia solanacearum. The cell-free supernatant obtained from the cultures possessed both antifungal and antibacterial activities. The antagonistic activity of the isolates was selective. Most of the isolates were able to degrade at least one of the investigated substrates, namely cellulose, pectin, and starch. All strains could produce peroxidase; none of the isolates possessed laccase and tyrosinase. A potential antagonistic fungal strain VDT6 has been identified as Trichoderma harzianum. The assessment results indicated that the Trichoderma isolates could be used in agriculture as biological control agents. Keywords: biological activity, Cryptothecia spp., Dirinaria spp., lichen, Trichoderma spp., Trichoderma harzianum.
35582Huereca Delgado A., Salcedo Martínez S.M., Alvarado Vázquez M. & Moreno Limón S. (2018): Los líquenes:: definición, características, importancia y usos potenciales. - Biología y Sociedad, 2018: 17–27. .
[in Spanish] popular paper on lichens
35581van der Kolk H.-J., Aptroot A., Verboom L. & Sparrius L. (2020): Veertien soorten korstmossen nieuw in Nederland [Fourteen lichen species new in the Netherlands]. - Buxbaumiella, 119: 60–68. .
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] Fourteen species are reported for the first time in the Netherlands: Absconditella lignicola, Adelolecia pilati, Arthopyrenia subcerasi, Bagliettoa marmorea, Cladonia brevis, Enterographa zonata, Lecania spadicea, Lecidea confluentula, Marchantiana asserigena, Porina byssophila, Ramonia chrysophaea, Synalissa ramulosa, Verrucaria obfuscans and Verrucaria prominula.
35580Ketner-Oostra R. (2020): Terrestrische korstmossen en het veranderde milieu sinds 1970 [Terrestrial lichens in the Netherlands and the environmental changes since the 1970s]. - Buxbaumiella, 118: 20–29. .
[in Dutch with English summary: ] Copies of Buxbaumiella mentioned below (Buxb.), can be downloaded by searching for the authors’ name from The reports with an asterisk have been deposited in the archives of Heimans & Thijssen in Amsterdam (www.heimansen thijssestichting. nl). In 1984, a special issue of Buxbaumiella (Buxb. 16) was published on lichen research in the Netherlands 1971- 1983. However, terrestrial lichens have already been studied by students in vegetation science of the University of Utrecht, department of Systematic Botany since 1965. The botanical field-projects on heathland, inland and coastal dunes were part of the PhD research of De Smidt (1977). Since the 1970s, terrestrial lichen vegetation of dry calcium-poor dune-grasslands (Koelerio-Corynphoretea) deteriorated. This was published in Buxbaumiella with re-investigations from the 1990s onwards. Grass encroachment with tall grasses was proved with vegetation relevés. Lichens diminished and the neophytic moss Campylopus introflexus invaded the coastal and inland dunes. These events were probably triggered by the nationwide high atmospheric deposition. The lichen vegetation of dry calcium-poor coastal dunes of the island Terschelling was reported in Buxb. 68 and 79. The results of a long-term monitoring research in these dune grasslands was published in Buxb. 99 in 2014. Sod-cutting, management by burning, grazing with horses and goats were evaluated. However, lichen-rich grassland was best promoted by allowing slightly calcareous sand to blow in. Combined vegetation and microclimatic research from the 1970s was compared with that from the 1990s (Veer & Kooijman 1997, see Buxb. 79). Such combined research was used to disentangle the nest building practice of rare dune ants, Coptoformica exsecta (De Bruijn 2019). Surveys of inland calcium-poor dunes from the 1960s (Van Embden & Verwey 1968)* were also repeated in the 1990s. In the province of Gelderland, this was carried out for the Kootwijkerzand (Buxb. 35) and Wekeromse Zand (Buxb. 48 and 67). The investigations at the Hulshorsterzand (Ketner-Oostra et al. 2012) were the starting point for large-scale management measures in 2008. Such management is still counteracted by the large impact of N-deposition in inland dunes in this province, as was recently proved with aerial photography (Sparrius & Riksen 2019). Lichen vegetation is threatened due to the continuing encroachment with the neophytic moss Campylopus introflexus. Lichen- rich grassland on pleistocene sand at the railway yard in Nijmegen was found in 2002 before a new bus lane was built (Buxb. 59). In the province of Noord Brabant, the Loonse & Drunense duinen were studied in 1994 (Buxb. 64). In the province of Overijssel the earlier research on the Lemelerberg was re-evaluated using new research from 2000-2005 (Buxb. 72). Lichens on different sandy soils in the experimental garden of the Broekhuizen estate (province of Utrecht) since the 1970s, were again recorded in 2010 (Buxb. 85). In the north of the province of Limburg a master thesis (Cleef & Kers 1968)* founded a combined vegetation and soil research (Ketner-Oostra e.a. 2005). The management had to be repeated in 2005, 2008 and 2010 to safeguard the Natura 2000 habitat type 2330 with red-listed lichens in the National Park Maasduinen due to the high level of N-deposition. My previous master’s student Harrie Sipman is a professional lichenologist, stationed at the Botanical Museum in Berlin. I added some of his former measurements of cryptogamic dune vegetation from the 1970s to his biography (Buxb. 84). Terrestrial lichens, mainly from the genus Cladonia are still reported from heathland, lime-poor coastal and inland dunes. However, the invasive moss Campylopus introflexus is counteracting large-scale management measures, most probably in connection with the high N-deposition in the Netherlands. Long-term effects of moss and grass-encroachment was studied by Sparrius & Kooijman 2012. Whether the open dry grasslands could return after changes to its management depends mainly on whether the N-deposition in the Netherlands will be further lowered.
35579Sparrius L. & Willemsen J. (2020): Teloschistes chrysophthalmus (oranje wimpermos) na anderhalve eeuw weer even terug in Nederland [Teloschistes chrysophthalmus after a century and a half back in the Netherlands]. - Buxbaumiella, 118: 14–17. .
[in Dutch with English summary: ] Teloschistes chrysophthalmus has been rediscovered in the Netherlands in 2020, since its last record in 1843. A single thallus was growing on a low hanging branch of Quercus robur in a forest margin in an inland dune reserve. Section of one apothecium revealed abundant ripe ascospores. This record fits in the pattern of an increase of the species in the Atlantic region of Western Europe. It could be caused by the combination of increased nitrogen deposition and climate change.
35578Verboom L., van der Kolk H.J. & Sparrius L. (2020): Polycauliona phlogina (boomcitroenkorst) en Diplotomma pharcidium (boomcementkorst): twee vergeten korstmossen [Diplotomma pharcidium and Polycauliona phlogina were added to the Dutch lichen checklist]. - Buxbaumiella, 118: 10–13. .
[in Dutch with English summary: ] Diplotomma pharcidium has been sparsely recorded over the last decades in the north of the Netherlands. Diplotomma pharcidium is now a common species in Groningen, but probably rare elsewhere in the Netherlands. Polycauliona phlogina was previously recorded as corticolous forms of Flavoplaca citrina. It occurs on nutrient- rich bark throughout the Netherlands but is most common in the coastal areas.
35577Bijlsma R.-J., Nieuwkoop J. & Siebel H. (2020): De mosflora van de ontgronde delen van de Bemelerberg, met vlak parelmos (Weissia rutilans) nieuw voor Nederland. - Buxbaumiella, 117: 41–56. .
The bryophyte flora of restored areas of the Bemelerberg, with Weissia rutilans new to the Netherlands The Bemelerberg nature reserve, part of a Natura 2000 site in Southern Limburg, has long been known for its species-rich calcareous grasslands and outcrops. In 2013 about 5.5 ha of former agricultural grassland on the plateau terrace and adjacent to the reserve was restored by removing 10-40 cm of the phosphate-rich topsoil. The pH-NaCl of the exposed loamy soils ranged from 4.2 to 5.8 across several parcels. The western, relatively acidic parcels occur on the plateau margin (Bovenste Strooberg) with low-productive meadow as historical land use (early 19th century); the eastern, more base-rich parcels occur on a slope (Verlengde Winkelberg) with low-productive agricultural fields as historical land use. The restored areas were visited in April 2017 by an excursion of the Dutch Bryological Society (BLWG). The recorded bryophytes can be assigned to ecological groups ranging from calciphytes on shallow loess on limestone to acidophytes on sandy-gravelly Meuse deposits. The most interesting ecological group characterizes soils with intermediate base status and neutral pH. Several of its typical species we encountered, are rare in Southern Limburg, including Bryum archangelicum, Fossombronia incurva, Pleuridium acuminatum and Pogonatum nanum. Enthostodon fascicularis had a stronghold in South Limburg in the 19th century but became very rare afterwards. Unlike Weissia brachycarpa var. obliqua which is not uncommon in calcareous grassland, the var. brachycarpa we found in the restored parcels, occurs on loam and Pleistocene clay with neutral pH and is very rare in South Limburg. This species appeared to be accompanied on the Bovenste Strooberg by extensive patches of Weissia rutilans, new to the Netherlands. Many of these species have long-lived diaspores (tubers, spores) that can remain dormant in a diaspore bank. The applied restoration measure whereby the nutrient-rich topsoil was removed, and neutral, nutrient-poor loamy parent material became exposed, resulted in the germination of a hidden bryoflora not documented by historical records. At the same time the measure created habitat for easily colonizing bryophytes, some of which however became rare in the Netherlands due to acidification and nutrification, with Bryum caespiticium as a good example. We conclude that restoration of grasslands and fields which were low-productive in the early 19th century can be very successful by unlocking surprising species assemblages in the diaspore bank, especially when applied adjacent to existing nature reserves. 5 associated lichens listed in tables (Cladonia grayi, C. humilis, C. macilenta, Peltigera didactyla, P. rufescens).
35576van Dort K., Bekking M. & Bremer P. (2020): BLWG Voorjaarsweekend 2019 - Noordoostpolder [BLWG Spring field meeting 2019 Noordoostpolder]. - Buxbaumiella, 117: 31–40. .
[in Dutch with English summary: ] The BLWG spring field meeting 2019 was held in the Noordoostpolder (Province of Flevoland). Special attention was paid to the polder forests Kuinderbos and Voorsterbos, both planted halfway the 20th century. Over the years the Kuinderbos changed from a monotonous conifer dominated plantation into a structurally varied deciduous woodland. The tree layer shows a more natural species composition, dead wood is prominent on the forest floor. In the Voorsterbos we revisited several historical plots with Piet Bremer, the man who intensively studied polder bryophytes some 40 years ago. As expected, the terrestrial bryoflora was impoverished, although the wetter parts of the woodlands are still rich in pleurocarps, amongst which Ctenidium molluscum and Loeskeobryum brevirostre. The epiphytic flora of deciduous stands (mainly hornbeam, ash and oak) shows a distinct positive trend. Most noteworthy finds are Neckera pumila (on hornbeam) and Zygodon dentatus (on beech). The once very rare liverwort Cololejeunea minutissima is rapidly colonizing the polder forests nowadays. Except for Herzogiella seligeri common epixylics are still rare in Flevoland. Nowellia curvifolia could be noted for the first time. Concrete remnants of waterway scale models in the Waterloopbos yielded rare Anomodon viticulosus and Encalypta streptocarpa, as well as aquatic lichens Verrucaria aquatilis and V. hydrophila.
35575Дармостук В.В. [Darmostuk V.V.] (2022): Новий етап у вивченні ліхенофільних грибів – Diederich et al. 2022. Flora of Lichenicolous Fungi, Vol. 1, Basidiomycota. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg, 351 pages. ISBN: 978-2-919877-26-3. Price: 35 €.. - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 18(4): 377–379. doi: 10.32999/ksu1990-553X/2022-18-4-5.
[in Ukrainian] Book review
35574Rajendran K., Ponmurugan P., Gnanamangai B.M., Karuppiah P., Shaik M.R., Khan M., Khan M. & Shaik B. (2023): Bioefficacy of lecanoric acid produced by Parmotrema austrosinense (Zahlbr.) Hale against tea fungal pathogens. - Horticulturae, 9(6): 705 [11 p.].
Lichens are symbiotic organisms that are composed of fungal partners and photosynthetic algal partners. During the symbiotic process in lichen thallus, the fungus synthesizes certain secondary metabolites in which lecanoric acid is very important in terms of antibiotic properties. Considering the vital importance of lecanoric acid, the present study aimed to produce lecanoric acid from the thallus of Parmotrema austrosinense lichen using Modified Bold’s basal salt medium and evaluate the bio-efficacy against tea fungal pathogens. Lecanoric acid was purified and confirmed by micro-crystallization method and subsequently bioassayed against tea fungal pathogens. The results revealed that lecanoric acid registered a significant antifungal activity in terms of the growth inhibition of test pathogens. Companion systemic and botanical fungicides were found to be inferior to lecanoric acid in the percentage of growth inhibition. The inhibition rate varied among tea pathogens. Of the tea pathogens tested, tea leaf disease-causing pathogens including Cercospora theae (C. theae), Glomerella cingulata (G. cingulate), and Phomopsis theae (P. theae) showed the highest percentage of growth inhibition followed by stem and root rot diseases. The present study suggests that lecanoric acid showed an inhibitory effect against tea pathogens, which might be due to antibiotic properties and fungicidal action of lecanoric acid. Keywords: tea; lichen; lecanoric acid; Parmotrema austrosinense; antifungal activity.
35573Aleksić G., Vasić P. & Jakšić M. (2023): Records of lichen species from genus Acarospora, new for Serbia, southwest Balkan Peninsula. - Bulletin of Natural Sciences Research, 13(1): 1–4.
The lichens: Acarospora impressula, A. nitrophila, A. nodulosa, A. schleicheri, A. sinopica, A. smaragdula and A. umbillicata, collected in North Kosovo are reported as a new species to Serbia, following a recent lichenological survey. Location, herbarium deposits and substrates are given, together with notes on distribution of the reported taxa. Keywords: Lichens, New records, Biodiversity, Genus Acarospora, R. Serbia. [Note: Images of lichens in the paper likely belong to members of other genera than to the genus Acarospora]
35572Aleksić G., Stamenković S., Ristić S. & Marković M. (2019): Epiphytic lichens in the town of Zvečan and their bioindicatior s [sic!] value. - The University Thought - Publication in Natural Sciences, 9(2): 1–5.
This paper treats the long-term changes in area of the "lichen desert" of town Zvecan. Comparison of results obtained in 1926, when 67 lichen species where present, through the results in 1983 and 1988 when the "lichen desert", low or no lichen diversity was established because of the air pollution, with investigations carried out in 2014, 16 lichen species were identified. The "lichen desert" is no existing any more. The main reason that the lichens are present now is termination of operation of the "Trepca" company and cessation primary pollutants emissions. Using lichens as a bioindicators in this investigation it was established the average air pollution, which is lichen "struggle zone", meaning increase air quality. Keywords: "Lichen desert", Lichen "struggle zone", Bio-indicators, Air quality, Zvecan.
35571Hitch C.J.B. (1999): New, Rare and Interesting British Lichen and Lichenicolous Fungus Records. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 84: 46-54.
anthropogenic substrates, succession, wales, 2 fig. 1 tab.
35570Coppins B.J. (1999): Literature pertaining to British lichens – 25. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 84: 40-43.
british isles, pleurosticta, roadside,
35569Wolseley P. (1999): Changes in the lichen flora on a maritime bird-table in west Wales from 1983-1999. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 84: 27-30.
biocode, biogeography, bioindication, biotechnology, conservation, ecotypes, environmental modification, floristics, future, generic concepts, individual, internet, species concepts, systematics, Opinion piece on the authors personal visions of how 12 aspects of systematic and organismal lichenology may progress in the first decades of the 21st century
35568Winn J. (1999): Small ecological report: a survey to assess the current status of Anaptychia ciliaris, Parmelia acetabulum and Caloplaca luteoalba on wayside trees in lowland Angus. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 84: 22-23.
british isles, key, rimularia, A key and brief notes are provided for seven named and one unnamed species. New to the British Isles: Rimularia sphacelata.
35567Hawksworth D.L. (1999): Visions of systematic and organismal lichenology in the next century. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 84: 1-4.
air pollution, ecuador, pollution, urban, Note on unexpectedly rich lichen vegetation in a city environment.
35566Fryday A. (1999): The genus Rimularia Nylander in the British Isles. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 84: 18-21.
coast, metal spoils, wales, Description of lichen vegetation in a county in Wales.
35565Davey S. (1999): Lichens in Quito. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 84: 26-26.
air pollution, ecuador, pollution, urban, Note on unexpectedly rich lichen vegetation in a city environment.
35564Chambers S. (1999): Portrait of a county: 4. Cardiganshire VC46. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 84: 34-37.
coast, metal spoils, wales, Description of lichen vegetation in a county in Wales.
35563Hitch C.J.B. (1998): New, Rare and Interesting British Lichen and Lichenicolous Fungus Records. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 83: 47-53.
35562Coppins B.J. (1998): Literature pertaining to British lichens – 24. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 83: 44-45.
35561Fox H. (1998): Summer 1998 field meeting in Connemara, Ireland. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 83: 30-36.
35560Lambley P.W. (1998): Autum 1998 field meeting at Abergavenny. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 83: 28-29.
35559Davey S. (1998): In search of two rare coastal lichens. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 83: 26-27.
35558Street S. (1998): Specie lost and species regained. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 83: 24-25.
35557Edwards B. (1998): Portrait of a county 2: Dorset. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 83: 22-23.
35556Lambley P.W. & Woods R. (1998): Lichens and the UK biodiversity action plan. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 83: 1-6.
biodiversity, conservation, endangered species, 2 photos
35555Coppins B. (1998): Pertusaria lactescens - out of obscurity?. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 83: 20-21.
britain, pertusaria, Revision of British material proves this species more frequent than previously thought.
35554Benfield B. (1998): Further lichen observations at Plymtree, Devon, 1992-1997. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 83: 16-18.
biodiversity, conservation, endangered species,
35553Delves J., Lewis J.E.J., Ali N., Asad S.A., Chatterjee S., Crittenden P.D., Jones M., Kiran A., Pandey B.P., Reay D., Sharma S., Tshering D., Weerakoon G., van Dijk N., Sutton M.A., Wolseley P.A. & Ellis C.J. (2023): Lichens as spatially transferable bioindicators for monitoring nitrogen pollution. - Environmental Pollution, 328: 121575 [10 p.].
Excess nitrogen is a pollutant and global problem that harms ecosystems and can severely affect human health. Pollutant nitrogen is becoming more widespread and intensifying in the tropics. There is thus a requirement to develop nitrogen biomonitoring for spatial mapping and trend analysis of tropical biodiversity and ecosystems. In temperate and boreal zones, multiple bioindicators for nitrogen pollution have been developed, with lichen epiphytes among the most sensitive and widely applied. However, the state of our current knowledge on bioindicators is geographically biased, with extensive research effort focused on bioindicators in the temperate and boreal zones. The development of lichen bioindicators in the tropics is further weakened by incomplete taxonomic and ecological knowledge. In this study we performed a literature review and meta-analysis, attempting to identify characteristics of lichens that offer transferability of bioindication into tropical regions. This transferability must overcome the different species pools between source information - drawing on extensive research effort in the temperate and boreal zone - and tropical ecosystems. Focussing on ammonia concentration as the nitrogen pollutant, we identify a set of morphological traits and taxonomic relationships that cause lichen epiphytes to be more sensitive, or more resistant to this excess nitrogen. We perform an independent test of our bioindicator scheme and offer recommendations for its application and future research in the tropics. Keywords: ammonia, epiphytes, morphological traits, systematic relationships, trophic groups.
35552Badiali C., Petruccelli V., Brasili E. & Pasqua G. (2023): Xanthones: Biosynthesis and Trafficking in Plants, Fungi and Lichens. - Plants (Basel), 12(4): 36840041.
Xanthones are a class of secondary metabolites produced by plant organisms. They are characterized by a wide structural variety and numerous biological activities that make them valuable metabolites for use in the pharmaceutical field. This review shows the current knowledge of the xanthone biosynthetic pathway with a focus on the precursors and the enzymes involved, as well as on the cellular and organ localization of xanthones in plants. Xanthone biosynthesis in plants involves the shikimate and the acetate pathways which originate in plastids and endoplasmic reticulum, respectively. The pathway continues following three alternative routes, two phenylalanine-dependent and one phenylalanine-independent. All three routes lead to the biosynthesis of 2,3',4,6-tetrahydroxybenzophenone, which is the central intermediate. Unlike plants, the xanthone core in fungi and lichens is wholly derived from polyketide. Although organs and tissues synthesizing and accumulating xanthones are known in plants, no information is yet available on their subcellular and cellular localization in fungi and lichens. This review highlights the studies published to date on xanthone biosynthesis and trafficking in plant organisms, from which it emerges that the mechanisms underlying their synthesis need to be further investigated in order to exploit them for application purposes. biological activity, biosynthetic pathways, fungi, lichens, plants, subcellular and cellular localization, xanthones
35551Dutheil P., Paatero J., Rodushkin I., Sundström T., Leppänen A.-P. & Salminen-Paatero S. (2023): 137Cs and isotopic ratios of Pu and U in lichens and mosses from Russian Arctic areas. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 30: 76769–76783.
Knowledge of past anthropogenic sources of radionuclide contamination in Russian Arctic areas is important to assess the radioecological situation of these less-studied regions. Therefore, we investigated the sources of radionuclide contamination in Russian Arctic in the 1990s. Lichen and moss samples were collected from 1993 to 1996 in Kola Peninsula, Franz Josef Land, and few other locations. The activity concentration of (137)Cs was determined from the archived samples by gamma spectrometry in 2020. After radiochemical separation of Pu and U isotopes from the lichens and mosses, mass ratios (240)Pu/(239)Pu, (234)U/(238)U, (235)U/(238)U, and (236)U/(238)U were determined by mass spectrometry. (137)Cs activity concentrations at the sampling date were found to vary from 3.1 ± 1.4 (Inari, Finnish-Russian border) to 303 ± 7 (Kola Peninsula) Bq/kg. The ranges of isotopic ratios were 0.0592 ± 0.0007 to 0.253 ± 0.082 for (240)Pu/(239)Pu, (4.89 ± 3.91) × 10(-5) to (6.86 ± 0.04) × 10(-5) for (234)U/(238)U, 0.0072104(21) to 0.007376(41) for (235)U/(238)U, and from below 1 × 10(-7) to (2.65 ± 0.19) × 10(-6) for (236)U/(238)U, respectively. Based on the measured isotopic ratios and characteristic isotopic ratios of known contamination sources, the main Pu and U sources in the sampled lichens and mosses are global fallout, the Chernobyl accident, and possibly local nuclear activities. These results contribute to further understanding of past nuclear events and resulting nuclear contamination in Russian Arctic terrestrial areas. Keywords: Arctic, Environmental radioactivity, Isotopic ratios, Nuclear contamination, Plutonium, Uranium.
35550van der Kolk H.-J.,van der Pluijm A. & Meijer H. (2019): Strangospora deplanata, een voor Nederland nieuw korstmos in de Grienden van de Dood in de Biesbosch [Strangospora deplanata in the Biesbosch, new to the Netherlands]. - Buxbaumiella, 116: 27–32. .
[in Dutch with English summary: ] In 2019 Strangospora deplanata was found for the first time in the Netherlands in the Biesbosch, a National Park in the freshwater tidal area of the rivers Meuse and Rhine. Strangospora deplanata is characterized by having small black apothecia with a greyish epihymenium, multisporous asci with minute, globose ascospores and sessile pycnidia that contain ovoid to globose conidia. A key to epiphytic lichens with multisporous asci and globose ascospores occurring in the Netherlands is provided. The new species was found in one of the oldest willow forests in the Biesbosch area, called ‘Grienden van de Dood’, on a vertical, young willow branch. Rejuvenating branches on fallen horizontal trunks create an important new habitat for pioneer mosses and lichens. Other interesting finds here include Bryostigma musicgenum, Coniocarpon cinnabarinum, Phaeographis dendritica, P. smithii and Strigula taylorii.
35549Bekking M. & van Dort K. (2019): Verslag van het BLWG-zomerkamp 2018 in de Vosges Mosellanes in Oost-Lotharingen (N.O.-Frankrijk) [Report of the BLWG summer meeting 2018 in St. Quirin, Vosges Mosellanes, France]. - Buxbaumiella, 116: 1–26. .
[in Dutch with English summary: ] From the 21th to the 28th of July the summer meeting of the Dutch Bryological and Lichenological Society (BLWG) was held in the northern part of the Vosges (French Lorraine). Eight field trips were organized, focusing on bryophytes and lichens in the vast mixed forests (Abieti-Fagetum) in the colline and montane zone (up to 900 meters above sealevel). In spite of the extraordinary hot and dry weather no less than 317 species of bryophytes were detected, including 85 liverworts. A young ash tree in a sheltered valley held a population of the Atlantic liverwort Plagiochila exigua, a very special find. Several populations of the rare epixylic Buxbaumia viridis were seen. Conifer logs also held small liverworts, like Anastrophyllum hellerianum, reported for the first time from the Département Bas-Rhin. Sematophyllum demissum and Tetrodontium brownianum were spotted on shaded sandstone outcrops. In wetlands Aneura maxima was seen. A dried-up pond showed a carpet of colonists among which Physcomitrium eurystomum and P. sphaericum. Among the 156 lichen species listed are the ancient woodland indicator Arthonia leucopellaea and the inconspicuous Biatora veteranorum. Dead wood featured many coniocarps and rare epixylics like Lecidea turgidula.
35548van Herk K. (2019): Teloorgang van epifyten in de bossen op de Utrechtse Heuvelrug [Loss of epiphytic forest lichens in the Utrechtse Heuvelrug area, the Netherlands]. - Buxbaumiella, 115: 14–22. .
[in Dutch with English summary: ] Many typical epiphytic forest lichen species such as Platismatia glauca, Tuckermanopsis chlorophylla and Ochrolechia microstictoides have shown a severe decline over the last decades in the Netherlands. Earlier, it was shown that these species are sensitive to ammonia air pollution from cattle breeding. However, despite much lower ammonia emission rates in the Netherlands since the 1990s, this decline continues up to now. To investigate the cause of the decline of these acidophytes, changes of all lichens and mosses since 1995 on oaks in a large forested area (Utrechtse Heuvelrug) were monitored and analysed statistically. Multiple regression shows that increased nutrient availability due to ammonia air pollution is a major cause of changes up to 2001. From 2001 onwards, no indication was found that levels of ammonia increased further, but several irreversible and secondary effects of ammonia appear to have taken place. Most important is the rise of the bark pH which continues to occur up to now. This is especially apparent at twigs and young branches. The way in which this behaves, strongly suggests that cumulative rather than actual levels of ammonia are important for how bark pH develops. In fact, the opposite of what occurred in the 1970s when all bark acidified due to sulphurdioxide, given a certain dose and time. As a consequence, it is likely that several acidophytic lichen species will get extinct in our country (or even beyond our borders), even if ammonia levels will drop further. Another effect of the ammonia pollution is strong growth of Hypnum cupressiforme. This weedy moss species now covers all thick branches and trunk bases of the forest oaks, wiping out several sensitive lichen species. Other changes found with multiple regression are decreased light due to increased tree growth (until 2001), and higher humidity (after 2001). No indication was found that climate change (temperature or continentality) plays an important role in this type of forest. However, major effects of climate change were found, but only outside forests.
35547Bremer P. & van der Veen K. (2019): Mossen en andere epifyten op (afgestorven) pluimzeggehorsten in NW-Overijssel [Epiphytes, bryophytes in particular, growing on Carex paniculata tussocks at the NW part of Overijssel (The Netherlands)]. - Buxbaumiella, 115: 1–13. .
[in Dutch with English summary: ] Three studies have been carried out on epiphytes growing on Carex paniculata tussocks, two of them focused on bryophytes and lichens. During a bryological survey in the marshes of the Wieden and Weerribben 38 species of bryophytes and liverworts were recorded, with Campylopus pyriformis, Plagiothecium denticulatum and Calypogeia fissa as most common species. 35 tussocks (dead tussocks or post adults) were studied in more detail. 21 species were recorded, with Hypnum cupressiforme, Mnium hornum and Aulacomnium androgynum to be most common. At average 6,7 species were found per tussock. Kindbergia praelonga and Plagiothecium denticulatum showed to prefer the northside of the tussocks, Cladonia coniocraea and Lepraria incana the southside, while five species preferred the flat upper side, including Campylopus pyriformis and Herzogiella seligeri. The epiphytic vegetation belongs to the Aulacomnietum androgyni and Leucobryo-Tetraphidetum. A third study was focused on vascular plant species. On 190 tussocks 45 species were found, at average 1,1 species per tussock. Convolvulus sepium and Stachys palustris were most common. Within the group of epiphytes, the paper distinguishes 1) epiphytes sensu stricto, when plants really grow on the surface of the habitat, 2) vascular plants penetrating the tussocks and 3) species which behave like lianas.
35546Zulfiqar R. & Khalid A.N. (2023): A novel saxicolous species of Circinaria (Megasporaceae, Ascomycota) from Pakistan. - Plant Systematics and Evolution , 309: 21 [6 p.].
During a lichen survey of different localities of Pakistan, a novel taxon in genus Circinaria was collected and identified as C. thorstenii. The key characters of C. thorstenii are rimose–areolate thallus surface, absence of lobes, presence of pseudocyphellae, taller hypothecium (35–80 μm), larger ascospores (20–40 × 15–28 μm) and the absence of secondary metabolites. The new species is described and illustrated here, based on morpho-anatomical characters and multigene (ITS, mtSSU, nuLSU) phylogenetic evidence. Keywords: Crustose · Khyber Pakhtunkhwa · Kohistan · Taxonomy.
35545Chesnokov S.V., Davydov E.A., Konoreva L.A., Prokopiev I.A., Poryadina L.N., Zheludeva E.V. & Shavarda A.L. (2023): The monotypic genus Flavocetraria and two new genera: Cladocetraria and Foveolaria, in the cetrarioid core. - Plant Systematics and Evolution, 309: 24 [17 p.].
Data on morphology, anatomy, secondary chemistry, ecology, as well as phylogenetic reconstructions based on ITS/5.8S and mtSSU sequence data suggest that “Flavocetraria” minuscula should be transferred to a new monotypic genus Cladocetraria, phylogenetically related to “Cetraria” obtusata and Cetrariella. Cladocetraria minuscula is morphologically similar to Flavocetraria cucullata especially in miniature forms, but differs from this species in having helmet-shaped tips wrapped inside (up-turned) with inconspicuous white pruina, marginal pseudocyphellae in the form of a dotted line, and bacilliform uniformly thickened conidia. Differences from morphologically and phylogenetically related species are discussed. Chemical examination of Cladocetraria minuscula using a liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry assay revealed as previously reported usnic and protolichesterinic acids, as allo-protolichesterinic and lichesterinic acids reported for C. minuscula for the first time. According to presented phylogeny, Flavocetraria cucullata and F. nivalis are only distantly related and belong to different clades within the “Nephromopsis” branch, and must belong to different genera. In this regard, “Flavocetraria” nivalis should be transferred to the monotypic genus Foveolaria. Keywords: Cetrarioid lichens · Distribution · Morphology · Parmeliaceae · Phylogeny.
35544Coppins B.J. (1998): Literature pertaining to British lichens – 20. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 82: 52-57.
35543Hitch C.J.B. (1998): New, Rare and Interesting British Lichen and Lichenicolous Fungus Records. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 82: 42-52.
35542Lambley P.W. (1998): The woodlanders by Thomas Hardy. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 82: 40-40.
35541Bowen H. (1998): Lichens in literature: 2 rural rides by William Cobbett. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 82: 40-40.
35540Coppins B.J. & Coppins S. (1998): Records of priority lichens - can you help?. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 82: 38-40.
35539Aptroot A. (1998): Lichens in Kew Gardens, Richmond, Surrey. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 82: 36-37.
air pollution, Kew, recovery, urban,
35538Liška J. & Černohorský Z. (1998): Czech Lichenology in 1997. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 82: 28-28.
35537Randlane T. (1998): Lichenology in Estonia in 1995-1997. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 82: 26-27.
35536van Herk K. & Aptroot A. (1998): Recovery of epiphytic lichens in The Netherlands. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 82: 22-26.
air pollution, epiphytic, Netherlands, recovery, 2 tab.
35535Lambley P.W. (1998): Usnea used in body decoration in Papua New Guinea. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 82: 20-21.
35534Fox B.W. & James P.W. (1998): Caloplaca workshop. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 82: 18-20.
35533Chester T. (1998): Dorset field meeting – churchyards footnote. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 82: 17-17.
35532Edwards B. (1998): British Lichen Society Spring Meeting 1997: Dorset. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 82: 14-17.
35531Christensen S.N. & Sipman H.J.M. (1998): Silver moss - ornamental lichens from Brazil. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 82: 11-13.
35530Coppins B.J. (1997): Literature pertaining to British lichens – 22. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 81: 39-41.
35529HItch C.J.B. (1997): New, Rare and Interesting British Lichen and Lichenicolous Fungus Records. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 81: 32-39.
35528Bartok K. (1997): Letter from an overseas correspondent. Romanian lichenology 1991-1997. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 81: 26-27.
35527Upreti D.K. (1997): A Review of Lichenology in India during 1996. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 81: 25-26.
35526Chester T. (1997): Churchyard Project: Annual Report 1996-7. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 81: 20-24.
35525Seaward M.R.D. (1997): Last Square Bashed: a Linconshire Odyssey. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 81: 18-19.
35524Gilbert O. (1997): Portrait of a County 1: Derbyshire. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 81: 17-17.
35523Richardson D. (1997): Note on Lichen Tea. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 81: 16-16.
Thamnolia vemicularis
35522Benfield B. (1997): A forgotten species: Pyrenocollema pelvetiae discovered in Devon. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 81: 3-3.
Devon, Great Britain, Pyrenocollema,
35521Lambley P.W. (1997): Lichens in Literature: 1Congo Journey. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 81: 2-2.
35520Fox H. (1997): Parasitic fungi growing on lichens in an orchard. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 81: 1-2.
animals, associations, invertebrates, lichenicolous,
35519Nirhamo A., Pykälä J., Jääskeläinen K. & Kouki J. (2023): Habitat associations of red-listed epiphytic lichens in Finland. - Silva Fennica, 57: 22019.
The Finnish red list shows that the epiphytic lichen flora of Finnish forests is highly threatened and declining steeply. Red lists provide limited information on the habitat associations of threatened species, which could be relevant in informing management and conservation measures. We used documented empirical data and expert assessments to determine for each red-listed (IUCN categories Near Threatened, NT; Vulnerable, VU; Endangered, EN; Critically Endangered, CR; Regionally Extinct, RE) epiphytic lichen species of Finland the following key habitat associations: host tree species, substrate type, habitat type, geographical distribution, preferred microclimate, and minimum required forest and tree age. The most important host tree species were Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. and Populus tremula L. Other tree species of high importance included Sorbus aucuparia L. and Salix caprea L. One fourth of red-listed epiphytic lichens were primarily lignicolous. Most species required old-growth forests (required by 41% of species) or old trees (52%), but many species required only mature forests (36%) or trees (35%). The microclimatic preferences of most red-listed epiphytic lichens consisted of high or intermediate light availability and humidity. Most species whose status had deteriorated were dependent on deciduous trees. The continuous availability of old deciduous trees (especially Populus, Salix and Sorbus) requires special attention in both managed and protected forests. Red-listed epiphytic lichens would be aided by increased forest protection or transitioning to less intensive management regimes.
35518Mercado-Díaz J.A., Lücking R., Moncada B., Campbell K.C.S.E., Delnatte C., Familia L., Falcón-Hidalgo B., Motito-Marín A., Rivera-Queralta Y., Widhelm T.J. & Lumbsch H.T. (2023): Species assemblages of insular Caribbean Sticta (lichenized Ascomycota: Peltigerales) over ecological and evolutionary time scales. - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 186: 107830 [16 p.].
Phylogenetic approaches to macroevolution have provided unique insight into evolutionary relationships, ancestral ranges, and diversification patterns for many taxa. Similar frameworks have also been developed to assess how environmental and/or spatial variables shape species diversity and distribution patterns at different spatial/temporal scales, but studies implementing these are still scarce for many groups, including lichens. Here, we combine phylogeny-based ancestral range reconstruction and diversification analysis with community phylogenetics to reconstruct evolutionary origins and assess patterns of taxonomic and phylogenetic relatedness between island communities of the lichenized fungal genus Sticta in the Caribbean. Sampling was carried out in the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Jamaica, Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico) and Lesser Antilles (Dominica, Guadeloupe, and Martinique). Data for six molecular loci were obtained for 64 candidate Caribbean species and used to perform both macroevolutionary phylogenetics, which also included worldwide taxa, and phylobetadiversity analyses, which emphasized island-level communities. Our work uncovered high levels of island endemism (∼59%) in Caribbean Sticta. We estimate initial colonization of the region occurred about 19 Mya from a South American ancestor. Reverse migration events by Caribbean lineages to South America were also inferred. We found no evidence for increased diversification rates associated with range expansion into the Caribbean. Taxonomic and phylogenetic turnover between island-level communities was most strongly correlated with environmental variation rather than with geographic distance. We observed less dissimilarity among communities from the Dominican Republic and Jamaica than between these islands and the Lesser Antilles/Puerto Rico. High levels of hidden diversity and endemism in Caribbean Sticta reaffirm that islands are crucial for the maintenance of global biodiversity of lichenized fungi. Altogether, our findings suggest that strong evolutionary links exist between Caribbean and South American biotas but at regional scales, species assemblages exhibit complex taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships that are determined by local environments and shared evolutionary histories. Keywords: Peltigeraceae, Caribbean, Diversification, Biogeography, Phylobetadiversity, Biodiversity.
35517Kalra R., Conlan X.A. & Goel M. (2023): Recent advances in research for potential utilization of unexplored lichen metabolites. - Biotechnology Advances, 62: 108072.
Several research studies have shown that lichens are productive organisms for the synthesis of a broad range of secondary metabolites. Lichens are a self-sustainable stable microbial ecosystem comprising an exhabitant fungal partner (mycobiont) and at least one or more photosynthetic partners (photobiont). The successful symbiosis is responsible for their persistence throughout time and allows all the partners (holobionts) to thrive in many extreme habitats, where without the synergistic relationship they would be rare or non-existent. The ability to survive in harsh conditions can be directly correlated with the production of some unique metabolites. Despite the potential applications, these unique metabolites have been underutilised by pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries due to their slow growth, low biomass availability and technical challenges involved in their artificial cultivation. However, recent development of biotechnological tools such as molecular phylogenetics, modern tissue culture techniques, metabolomics and molecular engineering are opening up a new opportunity to exploit these compounds within the lichen holobiome for industrial applications. This review also highlights the recent advances in culturing the symbionts and the computational and molecular genetics approaches of lichen gene regulation recognized for the enhanced production of target metabolites. The recent development of multi-omics novel biodiscovery strategies aided by synthetic biology in order to study the heterologous expressed lichen-derived biosynthetic gene clusters in a cultivatable host offers a promising means for a sustainable supply of specialized metabolites. Endolichenic, Holobionts, Lichen Genomics, Mycobionts, Photobionts
35516Jeanjean M., Dron J., Allen B.L., Gramaglia C., Austruy A., Lees J., Ferrier Y., Periot M., Dotson M.P., Chamaret P. & Cohen A.K. (2023): Participatory environmental health research: A tool to explore the socio-exposome in a major european industrial zone. - Environmental Research, 218: 114865.
Objectives We show that participatory research approaches can be a useful tool across disciplines and data collection methods to explore the socio-exposome near one of the largest industrial harbors in Europe. We analyzed resident involvement in each project and their capacity to affect structural changes. Methods Longitudinal participatory environmental monitoring studies on lichens, petunias, aquatic systems and groundwater were conducted under the program VOCE (Volunteers for the Citizens' Observation of the Environment), which mobilized nearly 100 volunteers to collect and report data. A community-based participatory health survey, Fos EPSEAL was also carried out during the same period. We describe citizens' involvement in each study following Davis and Ramirez-Andreotta's (2021) ‘best practice’ grid. We also use residents' insights to refine understanding of the socio-exposome. Results The region is significantly impacted by industrial pollution and fenceline communities are disproportionately exposed. The community-based participatory health survey documented negative health outcomes among the residents, including a higher prevalence of chronic symptoms and diabetes (e.g., 11.9%) in the Fos-Berre Lagoon region than in other communities. This methodology shows the benefits of the co-production of knowledge in environmental health: not only does it enable epistemological transformations favorable to the vulnerable population, but it also triggered public action (i.e., media and public authorities’ attention leading to official expertise reports, filing of collective complaints before the courts). Conclusion This body of multiple participatory research studies over time is a useful approach to better understand the socio-exposome and health issues in an industrial zone. Community-based participatory research, Environmental justice, Exposome, Industrial pollution, Participatory science, Socio-exposome
35515Smith D.C. (1997): What future for lichenology?. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 80: 1-6.
amateurs, biodiversity, ecology, future, Overview and opinion piece.
35514Dobson F. (1997): Lichens of Man-Made Surfaces Leaflet. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 80: 64-64.
35513Coppins J.B. (1997): Literature pertaining to British lichens – 21. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 80: 59-63.
35512Hitch C.J.B. (1997): New, Rare and Interesting British Lichen and Lichenicolous Fungus Records. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 80: 46-58.
35511Insarov G., Insarova I. & Zeltyn S. (1997): Ident: A Computer-Aided Multi-Access Key for the Identification of Lichens of the Negev Desert. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 80: 42-45.
computer, computer keys, flora, key, negev desert,
35510Dobson F. (1997): Headley Heath Field Meeting. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 80: 34-37.
35509Gilbert O. (1997): Autumn Meeting 1996: Grange-Over-Sands. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 80: 33-33.
35508Liška J. & Černohorský Z. (1997): Letter From an Overseas Correspondent. Czech Lichenology in 1996. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 80: 32-32.
35507Seaward M. (1997): William Borrer (1781-1862). - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 80: 27-28.
35506Farmer A. (1997): Impacts of Air Pollution on Lobaria Species. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 80: 25-26.
air pollution, biomonitoring, lobaria,
35505Gilbert O. & Fletcher A. (1997): C. Geoffrey Dobbs. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 80: 6-7.
35504Coppins J.B. (1996): Literature pertaining to British lichens – 20. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 79: 49-51.
35503Hitch C.J.B. (1996): New, Rare and Interesting British Lichen and Lichenicolous Fungus Records. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 79: 38-47.
35502Fryday A. (1996): Ben Lawers National Nature Reserve. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 79: 36-36.
35501Chester T. (1996): Churchyard Project: Annual Report 1995-6. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 79: 30-33.
35500Day I. (1996): Great Wood, Keswick: Epiphytic Lichen Survey. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 79: 23-29.
35499Dalby K. (1996): Ursula Duncan in the Northern Isles. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 79: 21-23.
35498Smith D. (1996): Churchyard Natural History. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 79: 17-19.
35497Fox B. (1996): Parmelia and Ramalina workshop. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 79: 12-16.
35496Pykälä J. & Myllys L. (2023): Additions to the lichen flora of Finland. XI . - Graphis Scripta, 35(5): 66–74.
Lichen flora of broad-leaved forests and serpentine rock outcrops of Finland was studied during the year 2021. Seven lichen species are reported here as being new to Finland: Caloplaca grimmiae, Catillaria scotinodes, Lecanographa amylacea, Lecidella laureri, Rhizocarpon infernulum, Rinodina lecanorina and Tetramelas phaeophysciae. ITS sequences are provided for the species.
35495Garrido-Benavent I., de los Ríos A., Núñez-Zapata J., Ortiz-Álvarez R., Schultz M. & Pérez-Ortega S. (2023): Ocean crossers: A tale of disjunctions and speciation in the dwarf-fruticose Lichina (lichenized Ascomycota). - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 185: 107829 [13 p.].
Lichens thrive in rocky coastal areas in temperate and cold regions of both hemispheres. Species of the genus Lichina, which form characteristic black fruiting thalli associated with cyanobacteria, often create distinguishable bands in the intertidal and supralittoral zones. The present study uses a comprehensive specimen dataset and four gene loci to (1) delineate and discuss species boundaries in this genus, (2) assess evolutionary relationships among species, and (3) infer the most likely causes of their current geographic distribution in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. A dated phylogeny describes the time frame in which extant disjunctions of species and populations were established. The results showed that the genus is integrated by four species, with Lichina pygmaea, L. confinis and the newly described L. canariensis from rocky seashores in the Canary Islands, occurring in the Northern Hemisphere, whereas L. intermedia is restricted to the Southern Hemisphere. Lichina intermedia hosted a much higher intraspecific genetic diversity than the other species, with subclades interpreted as species-level lineages by the different species delimitation approaches. However, a conservative taxonomic approach was adopted. This species showed a striking disjunct distribution between Australasia and southern South America. The timing for the observed interspecific and intraspecific divergences and population disjunctions postdated continental plate movements, suggesting that long-distance dispersal across body waters in the two hemispheres played a major role in shaping the current species distributions. Such ocean crossings were, as in L. canariensis, followed by speciation. New substitution rates for the nrITS of the genus Lichina were inferred using a tree spanning the major Ascomycota lineages calibrated using fossils. In conclusion, this work lays the foundation for a better understanding of the evolution through time and space of maritime lichens. Keywords: Biogeography; Dispersal; Evolution; Integrative taxonomy; Lichen; Lichenized fungi; Lichinomycetes; Phylogeography; Population genetics; Subantarctic.
35494Chowaniec K., Latkowska E. & Skubała K. (2023): Effect of thallus melanisation on the sensitivity of lichens to heat stress. - Scientific Reports, 13: 5083 [14 p.].
Extreme climatic phenomena such as heat waves, heavy rainfall and prolonged droughts are one of the main problems associated with ongoing climate change. The global increase in extreme rainfalls associated with summer heatwaves are projected to increase in amplitude and frequency in the near future. However, the consequences of such extreme events on lichens are largely unknown. The aim was to determine the efect of heat stress on the physiology of lichen Cetraria aculeata in a metabolically active state and to verify whether strongly melanised thalli are more resistant than poorly melanised thalli. In the present study, melanin was extracted from C. aculeata for the frst time. Our study showed that the critical temperature for metabolism is around 35 °C. Both symbiotic partners responded to heat stress, manifested by the decreased maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry, high level of cell membrane damage, increased membrane lipid peroxidation and decreased dehydrogenase activity. Highly melanised thalli were more sensitive to heat stress, which excludes the role of melanins as compounds protecting against heat stress. Therefore, mycobiont melanisation imposes a trade-of between protection against UV and avoidance of damage caused by high temperature. It can be concluded that heavy rainfall during high temperatures may signifcantly deteriorate the physiological condition of melanised thalli. However, the level of membrane lipid peroxidation in melanised thalli decreased over time after exposure, suggesting greater efciency of antioxidant defence mechanisms. Given the ongoing climate changes, many lichen species may require a great deal of plasticity to maintain their physiological state at a level that ensures their survival.
35493Jafarova M., Grifoni L., Aherne J. & Loppi S. (2023): Comparison of lichens and mosses as biomonitors of airborne microplastics. - Atmosphere, 14(6): 1007 [9 p.].
The atmosphere is an important pathway for microplastic (MP) transport; however, observations are limited, as traditional sampling methods are generally labor-intensive. Biological monitors (biomonitors) have been widely used as a simple alternative to determine the abundance or presence of anthropogenic pollutants. Here, we compared the effectiveness of co-located lichen and moss species as biomonitors of the atmospheric deposition of microplastics. Samples of the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri and the epigeic moss Pseudoscleropodium purum were collected from five remote areas of central Italy. A total of 154 MPs were found across all samples, 93.5% of which were fibers and 6.5% were fragments. The accumulation of MPs for lichens (range of 8–12 MP/g) was significantly lower than for mosses (12–17 MP/g), which might be related to their structural characteristics or habitat positions (epiphytic versus epigeic). Nonetheless, higher accumulation facilitates analytical determination and provides greater separation from the limit of detection, suggesting that mosses are preferred over lichens for studying the deposition of airborne MPs. This study further suggests that biomonitoring may be an effective tool to assess the spatial distribution of atmospheric microplastics, which is a key requirement for the development of waste mitigation policies. Keywords: atmosphere; biomonitoring; lichen; moss; microplastics; Italy.
35492Vega J., Bárcenas-Pérez D., Fuentes-Ríos D., López-Romero J.M., Hrouzek P., Figueroa F.L. & Cheel J. (2023): Isolation of mycosporine-like amino acids from red macroalgae and a marine lichen by high-performance countercurrent chromatography: A strategy to obtain biological UV-filters. - Marine Drugs, 21(6): 357 [17 p.].
Marine organisms have gained considerable biotechnological interest in recent years due to their wide variety of bioactive compounds with potential applications. Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are UV-absorbing secondary metabolites with antioxidant and photoprotective capacity, mainly found in organisms living under stress conditions (e.g., cyanobacteria, red algae, or lichens). In this work, five MAAs were isolated from two red macroalgae (Pyropia columbina and Gelidium corneum) and one marine lichen (Lichina pygmaea) by high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC). The selected biphasic solvent system consisted of ethanol, acetonitrile, saturated ammonium sulphate solution, and water (1:1:0.5:1; v:v:v:v). The HPCCC process for P. columbina and G. corneum consisted of eight separation cycles (1 g and 200 mg of extract per cycle, respectively), whereas three cycles were performed for of L. pygmaea (1.2 g extract per cycle). The separation process resulted in fractions enriched with palythine (2.3 mg), asterina-330 (3.3 mg), shinorine (14.8 mg), porphyra-334 (203.5 mg) and mycosporine-serinol (46.6 mg), which were subsequently desalted by using precipitation with methanol and permeation on a Sephadex G-10 column. Target molecules were identified by HPLC, MS, and NMR. Keywords: countercurrent chromatography; isolation; marine lichen; mycosporine-like amino acids; photoprotection; red macroalgae.
35491Barták M., Hájek J., Halıcı M.G., Bednaříková M., Casanova-Katny A., Váczi P., Puhovkin A., Mishra K.B. & Giordano D. (2023): Resistance of primary photosynthesis to photoinhibition in Antarctic lichen Xanthoria elegans: Photoprotective mechanisms activated during a short period of high light stress. - Plants, 12(12): 2259 [15 p.].
The Antarctic lichen, Xanthoria elegans, in its hydrated state has several physiological mechanisms to cope with high light effects on the photosynthetic processes of its photobionts. We aim to investigate the changes in primary photochemical processes of photosystem II in response to a short-term photoinhibitory treatment. Several chlorophyll a fluorescence techniques: (1) slow Kautsky kinetics supplemented with quenching mechanism analysis; (2) light response curves of photosynthetic electron transport (ETR); and (3) response curves of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) were used in order to evaluate the phenomenon of photoinhibition of photosynthesis and its consequent recovery. Our findings suggest that X. elegans copes well with short-term high light (HL) stress due to effective photoprotective mechanisms that are activated during the photoinhibitory treatment. The investigations of quenching mechanisms revealed that photoinhibitory quenching (qIt) was a major non-photochemical quenching in HL-treated X. elegans; qIt relaxed rapidly and returned to pre-photoinhibition levels after a 120 min recovery. We conclude that the Antarctic lichen species X. elegans exhibits a high degree of photoinhibition resistance and effective non-photochemical quenching mechanisms. This photoprotective mechanism may help it survive even repeated periods of high light during the early austral summer season, when lichens are moist and physiologically active. Keywords: non-photochemical quenching; photoinhibitory quenching; Antarctica; James Ross Island.