Notice: session_start(): Ignoring session_start() because a session is already active in /www/sites/8/site10968/public_html/admin/auth.php on line 4
Last records

 

36637Farkas E. & Lőkös L. (2021): Distribution of Absconditella lignicola (Stictidaceae, lichenised Ascomycetes) in Hungary. - Studia Botanica Hungarica, 52: 115–124. http://doi.org/10.17110/StudBot.2021.52.2.115.
Absconditella lignicola a tiny, rather inconspicuous lichen species was found in Hungary recently. During a short period more than 30 new localities were recorded, and it turned to be a widely distributed but still overlooked species. Distribution map of Absconditella lignicola in Hungary is presented, and its habitat preference is discussed. Key words: Absconditella, distribution, floristics, Hungary, lichen-forming fungi, lignicolous.
36636Farkas E., Balogh R.A., Bauer N., Lőkös L., Matus G., Molnár Cs., Papp B., Pifkó D. & Varga N. (2022): Taxonomical and chorological notes 16 (164–177). - Studia Botanica Hungarica , 53(1): 249–266. https://doi.org/10.17110/StudBot.2022.53.2.249.
The present part of the series provides miscellaneous new records of six lichen-forming, two lichenicolous and six flowering plant species from Hungary, Romania and Serbia. New Hun- garian chorological records for the flowering plants are: Juncus sphaerocarpus new for the Putnok Hills and Sorbus semiincisa for Mezőföld. The second recent occurrence of Crepis mollis subsp. suc- cisifolia very rare in Hungary is presented here from the Bakonyalja region. Sporobolus cryptandrus agressively spreading in the Hungarian sandy areas was found in the Nyírség area. The old records of Lappula heteracantha in the Mezőföld (Balatonkenese) and those of Sherardia arvensis in the Zemplén Mts are confirmed. Regarding the lichen-forming fungi Bacidia fraxinea and Toniniopsis subincompta are new to the Vértes Mts (Hungary), Bacidia rubella is new to Mt Pilis (Hungary), Fla- voparmelia soredians is new to the Hajdúság area (Hungary), and Oxneria huculica is new to Roma- nia and Serbia. Second or further additional records are reported for Bacidia rubella (Vértes Mts), and for Parmotrema perlatum (Nyírség area). Several new Hungarian records of the lichenicolous fungi Scutula tuberculosa and Stigmidium solorinarium for the Bakony, Buda, Bükk and Vértes Mts are also listed here. Key words: Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, lichen-forming fungi, lichenicolous fungi, Hungary, Junca- ceae, Poaceae, Romania, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Serbia, vascular plants.
36635Varga N., Farkas E. & Lőkös L. (2023): Contributions to the lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi of the Aggtelek National Park (NE Hungary). - Studia Botanica Hungarica, 54: 155–174. https://doi.org/10.17110/StudBot.2023.54.2.155.
Rece nt lichenological investigations add new and noteworthy records of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi to the Aggtelek National Park, especially from the Szalonna-Karst region (Mt Esztramos near Bódvarákó, Mt Szár-hegy near Martonyi). Altogether 64 records of 38 species of lichen-forming fungi and 13 species of lichenicolous fungi are presented and annotated. Agon imia globulifera, Lecanora compallens and Th alloidima physaroides have been reported from the Aggtelek National Park for the fi rst time, and all the lichenicolous fungi (Athe lia arachnoidea, Bryostigma parietinarium, Bryostigma phaeophysciae, Didymocyrtis slaptonensis, Illosporiopsis christiansenii, Lichenochora obscuroides, Lichenoconium erodens, Lichenodiplis lecanorae, Pronectria robergei, Pyrenochaeta xanthoriae, Roselliniella cladoniae, Xanthoriicola physciae, Zyzygomyces physciacearum) are also new to the Aggtelek National Park. Key words: Aggtelek National Park, biodiversity, fl oristics, Hungary, lichen-forming fungi, lichenicolous fungi.
36634Varga N., Farkas E. & Lőkös L. (2023): Lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Olea europaea in Montenegro. - Acta Biologica Plantarum Agriensis, 11(2): 40. https://doi.org/10.21406/abpa.2023.11.2.40.
abstract; poster
36633Farkas E., Xu M., Szabó K., Kirika P.M. & Muhoro A.M. (2023): Usnic acid enantiomers in lichens in Europe and Africa. - Acta Biologica Plantarum Agriensis, 11(2): 9. https://doi.org/10.21406/abpa.2023.11.2.9.
abstract, lecture; 6th Conference on Cryptogams, Eszterházy Károly Catholic University, Eger, Hungary
36632Farkas E., Lőkös L., Muhoro A.M. & Varga N. (2023): New Records of Lichens and Lichenicolous Fungi from Kenya and Tanzania (East Africa). - Acta Biologica Plantarum Agriensis, 11(1): 107–128. https://doi.org/10.21406/abpa.2023.11.1.107.
Hungarian collections of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi from Kenya and Tanzania were studied analysing morphological and anatomical characters, as well as secondary chemistry by chromatography (HPTLC). Altogether 39 species of lichen-forming fungi and three species of lichenicolous fungi have been recognized and deposited in VBI. The lichens Bulbothrix kenyana, Chrysothrix xanthina, Lobaria discolor, Parmotrema durumae and P. taitae were discovered as new for Tanzania; Usnea abissinica and U. sanguinea are new for Kenya. The first records of the lichenicolous fungi Didymocyrtis cf. melanelixiae,Lichenoconium erodens and Spirographa lichenicola are presented from East Africa. Keywords: distibution of species, floristics, lichen-forming fungi, lichen parasites, new distribution records.
36631Hansen E.S. (2022): Lichens of Nuuk area, South West Greenland. - Studia Botanica Hungarica, 53: 95–104. https://doi.org/10.17110/StudBot.2022.53.1.95.
The paper lists 122 lichen taxa from Nuuk area, South West Greenland. These are listed alphabeti- cally and their associations and substrates are briefly indicated. Key words: Ascomycetes, Greenland, lichens, Nuuk.
36630Hansen E.S. (2022): Saxicolous lichens from four localities in South West Greenland. - Studia Botanica Hungarica, 53: 83–94. https://doi.org/10.17110/StudBot.2022.53.1.83.
A total of 147 taxa of saxicolous lichens are reported from four localities in South West Greenland. Many lichens are of particular interest and are very rare in this part of Greenland. The following species are selected as typical examples: Gyalidea lecideopsis, Physcia magnussonii, Psorula rufonigra, Rhizocarpon eupetraeum, R. ferax, Rinodina arnoldii, R. endophragmia, R. milvina and R. parasitica. A new combination is made, viz. Coppinsiella alcarum (Poelt) E. S. Hansen et S. Y. Kondr. The type of preferred rocky substrate is noted for all listed lichens. The substrate specificity of the lichens is shortly discussed and outlined. Key words: Ascomycetes, Greenland, saxicolous lichens, taxonomy.
36629Kondratyuk S.Y., Popova L.P., Kondratiuk A.S. & Lőkös L. (2022): The first enumeration of members of the Teloschistaceae (lichen-forming Ascomycetes) status of which confirmed by three gene phylogeny. - Studia Botanica Hungarica, 53: 137–234. https://doi.org/10.17110/StudBot.2022.53.2.137.
The first enumeration of members of the Teloschistaceae status of which hitherto confirmed by three gene phylogeny based on nrITS, nrLSU and mtSSU sequences is provided. The enumeration includes also taxa for which minimum two nuclear (nrITS or/and nrLSU) and mitochondrial DNA sequences hitherto available with references to publications where they are published. The enumeration including 590 species is alphabetically arranged after 115 accepted generic names within five subfamilies, i.e.: Xanthorioideae (271 species), Caloplacoideae (217 species), Teloschistoideae (69 species), Brownlielloideae (23 species), and Ikaerioideae (10 species). Accepted names are provided in bold and in italics, while synonymous names previously included in the genera Caloplaca, Xanthoria or Teloschistes as well as some taxa of the genera Polycauliona, Gyalolechia, Dufourea are provided in italics only. Recently described or combined taxa within genera segregated aft er molecular phylogeny data are briefly discussed. Six new combinations are proposed for the following taxa: Huriella osseophila (for Squamulea osseophila Søchting et Bungartz), Huriella phyllidizans (for Caloplaca phyllidizans Wetmore), Loekoeslaszloa catillarioides (for Caloplaca catillarioides Arup et van den Boom), Pyrenodesmia areolata (for Caloplaca cerina var. areolata Zahlbr.), Pyrenodesmia emilii (for Caloplaca emilii Vondrák, Khodos., Cl. Roux et V. Wirth), Pyrenodesmia fuscoatroides (for Caloplaca fuscoatroides J. Steiner). Position of taxa hitherto identified only on the basis of ITS phylogeny, or on incomplete set of gene sequences are briefly discussed too. Keywords: enumeration, mtSSU, nrITS, nrLSU, sequences, three gene phylogeny.
36628Kondratyuk S.Y., Popova L.P., Kondratiuk A.S. & Lőkös L. (2022): ‘Hot’ and ‘white’ spots of lichen diversity of the Ukrainian plains (after geobotanical subprovinces and administrative oblasts). - Studia Botanica Hungarica, 53: 59–82. DOI: 10.17110/StudBot.2022.53.1.59.
Podolian-Middle-Dnieper geobotanical subprovince of Forest-Steppe zone and the belts of Artemisia-Gramineae Steppes and grass-Stipeta-Festuca Steppes of Priazov Black Sea Steppe sub- province of Steppe zone are the most well studied among twelve geobotanical subprovinces of the Ukrainian plains, while the lack of information on lichen species diversity found to be in Middle Russian subprovince of Forest zone and belt of grass-Stipeta-Festuca Steppes of Middle-Don Steppe subprovince of Steppe zone of this territory. Among twenty three administrative oblasts of the Ukrainian plains situated in twelve geobotanic subprovinces of three zones the highest lichen spe- cies diversity is found in Kherson oblast of the belt of Artemisia-Gramineae Steppes (464 species), Mykolaiv oblasts of the belt of grass-Stipeta-Festuca Steppes of Priazov Black Sea Steppe subprovince (389 species) of Steppe zone, as well as in Kharkiv oblast of Middle Russian subprovince (332 spe- cies) of Forest-Steppe zone of the Ukrainian plains on the basis of the Fourth checklist of lichen- forming and lichenicolous fungi including 2,106 of the total Ukrainian lichens. The lower lichen diversity is hitherto recorded from Rightbank Polessian subprovince (the highest species diversity 296 species in Zhytomyr oblast) and Baltic Forest subprovince (281 species in Lviv oblast) in For- est zone of the Ukrainian plains as well as Podolian-Middle-Dnieper subprovince (287 species in Khmelnytsk oblast) of the Forest-Steppe zone of territory mentioned. Insufficient level of data on lichen diversity is recorded for Middle Russian and Podolian-Bessarabian Forest subprovinces of the Forest zone, as well as the belt of grass-Stipeta-Festuca Steppes of Middle-Don Steppe subprovince and the belt of Stipeta-Festuca Steppes of Priazov Black Sea Steppe subprovince of Steppe zone. The same rather lower level of data on lichen diversity is found in Ivano-Frankivsk, Chernivtsi, Chernihiv, Vinnytsia and Sumy of Forest and Forest-Steppe zones; in Poltava and Kharkiv, as well as Cherkasy, Kirovograd, Mykolaiv and Donetsk oblasts in Forest-Steppe and Steppe zones; in Odessa, Kherson and Dnipropetrovsk oblasts of Steppe zone, as well as Zhytomyr oblasts in Podolian-Middle-Dnieper subprovince of Forest-Steppe zone. List of the rarest taxa of the regionally unique group (hitherto known from single or a few localities) proposed as candidates for including to Red Regional lists of 22 oblasts of the Ukrainian plains as far the whole nature protection activity in Ukraine is provided. Key words: administrative oblast, Forest, Forest-Steppe, Kharkiv, Kherson, Mykolaiv, nature pro- tection, Steppe zone, Ukraine, Zhytomyr oblast.
36627Lendemer J.C. (2024): Recent literature on lichens—273. - Bryologist, 127(2): 306–311. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-127.2.306.
bibliography
36626Sun F., Xiao B., Kidron G.J. & Heitman J. (2024): Biocrusts critical regulation of soil water vapor transport (diffusion, sorption, and late‐stage evaporation) in drylands. - Water Resources Research, 60: e2023WR036520 [24 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1029/2023WR036520.
Soil surface cover is one of the most critical factors affecting soil water vapor transport, especially in drylands where water is limited, and the water movement occurs predominantly in the form of vapor instead of liquid. Biocrusts are an important living ground cover of dryland soils and play a vital role in modifying near-surface soil properties and maintaining soil structure. The role of biocrusts in mediating soil water vapor transport during daytime water evaporation and nighttime condensation remains unclear. We investigated the differences in vapor diffusion properties, vapor adsorption capacity, and water evaporation between bare soil and three types of biocrusts (cyanobacterial, cyanobacterial-moss mixed, and moss crusts) in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Our results showed that the three types of biocrusts had 5%–39% higher vapor diffusivity than bare soil. At the same level of ambient relative humidity and temperature, the initial vapor adsorption rates and cumulative adsorption amounts of the biocrusts were 10%–70% and 11%–85% higher than those of bare soil, respectively. Additionally, the late-stage evaporation rate of cyanobacterial-, cyanobacterial-moss mixed-, and moss-biocrusts were 31%–217%, 79%–492%, and 146%–775% higher than that of bare soil, respectively. The effect of biocrusts on increasing vapor transport properties was attributed to the higher soil porosity, clay content, and specific surface area induced by the biocrust layer. All of these modifications caused by biocrusts on surface soil vapor transport properties suggest that biocrusts play a vital role in reshaping surface soil water and energy balance in drylands.
36625Chakarwarti J., Anand V., Nayaka S. & Srivastava S. (2024): In vitro antibacterial activity and secondary metabolite profiling of endolichenic fungi isolated from genus Parmotrema. - Current Microbiology, 81: 195 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-024-03719-4.
The endolichenic fungi are an unexplored group of organisms for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites. The aim of the present study is to determine the antibacterial potential of endolichenic fungi isolated from genus Parmotrema. The study is continuation of our previous work, wherein a total of 73 endolichenic fungi were isolated from the lichenized fungi, which resulted in 47 species under 23 genera. All the isolated endolichenic fungi were screened for preliminary antibacterial activity. Five endolichenic fungi—Daldinia eschscholtzii, Nemania diffusa, Preussia sp., Trichoderma sp. and Xylaria feejeensis, were selected for further antibacterial activity by disc diffusion method. The zone of inhibition ranged from 14.3 ± 0.1 to 23.2 ± 0.1. The chemical composition of the selected endolichenic fungi was analysed through GC–MS, which yielded a total of 108 compounds from all the selected five endolichenic fungi. Diethyl phthalate, 1-hexadecanol, dibutyl phthalate, n-tetracosanol-1, 1-nonadecene, pyrrol[1,2-a] pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro-3-(2-methyl) and tetratetracontane were found to be common compounds among one or the other endolichenic fungi, which possibly were responsible for antibacterial activity. GC–MS data were further analysed through Principal Component Analysis which showed D. eschscholtzii to be with unique pattern of expression of metabolites. Compound confirmation test revealed coumaric acid to be responsible for antibacterial activity in D. eschscholtzii. So, the study proves that endolichenic fungi that inhabit lichenized fungal thalli could be a source of potential antibacterial compounds.
36624Ljaljević Grbić M., Dimkić I., Janakiev T., Kosel J., Tavzes Č., Popović S., Knežević A., Legan L., Retko K., Ropret P. & Unković N. (2024): Uncovering the role of autochthonous deteriogenic biofilm community: Rožanec Mithraeum monument (Slovenia). - Microbial Ecology, 87: 87 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-024-02404-0.
The primary purpose of the study, as part of the planned conservation work, was to uncover all aspects of autochthonous biofilm pertaining to the formation of numerous deterioration symptoms occurring on the limestone Rožanec Mithraeum monument in Slovenia. Using state-of-the-art sequencing technologies combining mycobiome data with observations made via numerous light and spectroscopic (FTIR and Raman) microscopy analyses pointed out to epilithic lichen Gyalecta jenensis and its photobiont, carotenoid-rich Trentepohlia aurea, as the origin of salmon-hued pigmented alterations of limestone surface. Furthermore, the development of the main deterioration symptom on the monument, i.e., biopitting, was instigated by the formation of typical endolithic thalli and ascomata of representative Verrucariaceae family (Verrucaria sp.) in conjunction with the oxalic acid-mediated dissolution of limestone. The domination of lichenized fungi, as the main deterioration agents, both on the relief and surrounding limestone, was additionally supported by the high relative abundance of lichenized and symbiotroph groups in FUNGuild analysis. Obtained results not only upgraded knowledge of this frequently occurring but often overlooked group of extremophilic stone heritage deteriogens but also provided a necessary groundwork for the development of efficient biocontrol formulation applicable in situ for the preservation of similarly affected limestone monuments. Keywords: Decay · Endoliths · Microbes · Roman masterpiece · Stone relief · Subaerial biofilm.
36623Worthy F.R., Schaefer D.A., Wanasinghe D., Xu J.C., Wang L.S. & Wang X.Y. (2024): Acquisition of green algal photobionts enables both chlorolichens and chloro-cyanolichens to activate photosynthesis at low humidity without liquid water. - AoB PLANTS, 16(3): plae025. https://doi.org/10.1093/aobpla/plae025.
Cyanobacteria require liquid water for photosynthesis, whereas green algae can photosynthesise with water vapour alone. We discovered that several Lobaria spp. which normally have cyanobacteria as the sole photobiont, in some regions of the trans-Himalayas also harboured green algae. We tested whether green algal acquisition was: limited to high elevations; obtained from neighbouring chloro-Lobaria species; enabled photosynthesis at low humidity. Lobaria spp. were collected from 2000 to 4000 m elevation. Spectrophotometry quantified green algal abundance by measuring chlorophyll b (absent in cyanobacteria). Thalli cross-sections visually confirmed green algal presence. We sequenced gene regions: Lobaria (ITS-EF-1α-RPB2), green algae (18S-RBC-L) and Nostoc (16S). Phylogenetic analysis determined myco-photobiont associations. We used a custom closed-circuit gas exchange system with an infrared gas analyser to measure CO2 exchange rates for desiccated specimens at 33%, 76%, 86% and 98% humidity. Cross-sections revealed that the photobiont layers in putative cyano-Lobaria contained both cyanobacteria and green algae, indicating that they should be considered chloro-cyanolichens. Chloro-Lobaria had no visible cephalodia nor cyanobacteria in the photobiont layer. Chloro-Lobaria and chloro-cyano-Lobaria had comparable levels of chlorophyll b. Chloro-Lobaria usually contained Symbiochloris. Chloro-cyano-Lobaria mainly associated with Parachloroidium and Nostoc; infrequently with Symbiochloris, Apatococcus, Chloroidium, Pseudochlorella, Trebouxia. Sequences from two green algal genera were obtained from within some thalli. Desiccated specimens of every Lobaria species could attain net photosynthesis with light exposure and 33% humidity. CO2 exchange dynamics over a five-day period differed between species. At all elevations, chloro-cyano-Lobaria spp. had abundant green algae in the photobiont layer, but green algal strains mostly differed to those of chloro-Lobaria spp. Both chloro-Lobaria and chloro-cyano-Lobaria were capable of conducting photosynthesis without liquid water. The data strongly suggest that they attained positive net photosynthesis. Keywords: humidity, Lobaria, molecular phylogeny, mycobiont, Nostoc, Parachloroidium, photobiont, photosynthesis, Symbiochloris.
36622Gerstmans C. & Ertz D. (2016): Arthonia phlyctiformis Nyl. (Arthoniaceae) retrouvé en France, après plus d’un siècle. - Bulletin de Association Française de Lichénologie, 41: 10–12. https://www.afl-lichenologie.fr/telecharger/Bull_AFL_old/Bull_2016/AFL_2016_1%20_10_12%20Arthonia%20phlyctiformis_def_juillet_12.pdf.
36621Yang J., Woo J.J., Sesal C., Gökalsın B., Eldem V., Açıkgöz B., Başaran T.I., Kurtuluş G. & Hur J.-S. (2024): Continental scale comparison of mycobiomes in Parmelia and Peltigera lichens from Turkey and South Korea. - BMC Microbiology, 24: 243 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12866-024-03388-0.
Background: Lichens, traditionally considered as a simple partnership primarily between mycobiont and photobiont, are, in reality, complex holobionts comprised of a multitude of microorganisms. Lichen mycobiome represents fungal community residing within lichen thalli. While it is acknowledged that factors like the host lichen species and environmental conditions influence the structure of the lichen mycobiome, the existing research remains insufficient. To investigate which factor, host genus or location, has a greater impact on the lichen mycobiome, we conducted a comparative analysis of mycobiomes within Parmelia and Peltigera collected from both Turkey and South Korea, using high-throughput sequencing based on internal transcribed spacer region amplification. Results: Overall, the lichen mycobiome was dominated by Capnodiales (Dothideomycetes), regardless of host or location. At the order level, the taxonomic composition was not significantly different according to lichen genus host or geographical distance. Hierarchical clustering of the top 100 abundant ASVs did not clearly indicate whether the lichen mycobiome was more influenced by host genus or location. Analyses of community similarity and partitioning variables revealed that the structure of the lichen mycobiome is more significantly influenced by location than by host genus. When analyzing the core mycobiome by host genus, the Peltigera mycobiome contained more ASV members than the Parmelia mycobiome. These two core mycobiomes also share common fungal strains, including basidiomycete yeast. Additionally, we used chi-squared tests to identify host genus-specialists and location-specialists. Conclusions: By comparing lichen mycobiomes of the same genera across different countries, our study advances our comprehension of these microbial communities. Our study elucidates that, although host species play a contributory role, geographic distance exerts a more pronounced impact on the structure of lichen mycobiome. We have made foundational contributions to understanding the lichen mycobiome occupying ecologically crucial niches. We anticipate that broader global-scale investigations into the fungal community structures will provide more detailed insights into fungal residents within lichens. Keywords: Lichen, Mycobiome, Community structure, Diversity, Turkey, South Korea.
36620Ndah F.A., Michelsen A., Rinnan R., Maljanen M., Mikkonen S. & Kivimäenpää M. (2024): Impact of three decades of warming, increased nutrient availability, and increased cloudiness on the fluxes of greenhouse gases and biogenic volatile organic compounds in a subarctic tundra heath. - Global Change Biology, 30: e17416 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.17416.
Climate change is exposing subarctic ecosystems to higher temperatures, increased nutrient availability, and increasing cloud cover. In this study, we assessed how these factors affect the fluxes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (i.e., methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2)), and biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in a subarctic mesic heath subjected to 34 years of climate change related manipulations of temperature, nutrient availability, and light. GHGs were sampled from static chambers and gases analyzed with gas chromatograph. BVOCs were measured using the push-pull method and gases analyzed with chromatography–mass spectrometry. The soil temperature and moisture content in the warmed and shaded plots did not differ significantly from that in the controls during GHG and BVOC measurements. Also, the enclosure temperatures during BVOC measurements in the warmed and shaded plots did not differ significantly from temperatures in the controls. Hence, this allowed for assessment of long-term effects of the climate treatment manipulations without interference of temperature and moisture differences at the time of measurements. Warming enhanced CH4 uptake and the emissions of CO2, N2O, and isoprene. Increased nutrient availability increased the emissions of CO2 and N2O but caused no significant changes in the fluxes of CH4 and BVOCs. Shading (simulating increased cloudiness) enhanced CH4 uptake but caused no significant changes in the fluxes of other gases compared to the controls. The results show that climate warming and increased cloudiness will enhance CH4 sink strength of subarctic mesic heath ecosystems, providing negative climate feedback, while climate warming and enhanced nutrient availability will provide positive climate feedback through increased emissions of CO2 and N2O. Climate warming will also indirectly, through vegetation changes, increase the amount of carbon lost as isoprene from subarctic ecosystems.
36619Kocakaya Z. (2024): Green synthetic biomaterials: Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial properties of lichen-derived nanomaterials. - Ceramics International, 50(17): 30712–30722. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2024.05.371.
The green synthesis of nanoparticles using lichen extracts offers a safer and more environmentally friendly alternative to traditional methods. Known for their medicinal properties, lichens can effectively reduce and stabilise metallic salts, providing an eco-friendly approach to producing nanomaterials with potential antimicrobial applications. In this study, the lichen Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca was utilised in the green synthesis of nanoparticles, successfully creating lichen-derived silver-zinc oxide (Ag–ZnO), silver-strontium oxide (Ag–SrO), and silver-nickel oxide (Ag–NiO) nanoparticles. Ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy revealed that the characteristic light absorption of the NCs occurred within the range of 300–400 nm for each synthesis, and dynamic light scattering measurements indicated that the hydrodynamic diameters of the nanoparticles were below 100 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the presence of the constituent elements. Imaging with field-emission scanning electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy showed that the nanoparticles had spherical shapes with dimensions measuring below 50 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis of the synthesised nanocomposite materials revealed the presence of Ag–ZnO (22 nm), Ag–SrO (48 nm), and Ag–NiO (21 nm) nanoparticles. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy identified functional groups in the nanoparticles, confirming their compositions, while thermogravimetric analysis determined the thermal decomposition temperatures of the NCs. The antibacterial efficacy of these materials was assessed, with Ag–ZnO (inhibition zone 11.0 mm) and Ag–NiO (inhibition zone 10.0 mm) showing significant effectiveness against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In contrast, Ag–SrO (inhibition zone 6.5 mm) exhibited comparatively lower antibacterial activity. Additionally, the study highlighted the antifungal properties of Ag–NiO (inhibition zone 19.0 mm) and Ag–ZnO (inhibition zone 8.5 mm) nanomaterials. This research advances the understanding of lichen-based nanotechnology and its potential for developing sustainable antimicrobial solutions.
36618Krawczyk R., Osyczka P., Siebielec G. & Nobis M. (2024): Fires in the face of climate change: Indicators of fire disturbance in heath areas – Inference from military training lands. - Journal of Environmental Management, 363: 121373 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2024.121373.
Global warming significantly affects the frequency and intensity of wildfires in many fire-prone areas of the world and fire disturbance regimes are changing rapidly. Alongside this, controlled burning is often considered or implemented as an alternative method for nature protection. Here, we studied the post-fire secondary succession in dry heath habitat located in military training grounds to recognise the impact of fire on the effectiveness and rate of ecosystem recovery. We focus particularly on identifying indicator species for a given successional phase of Central European dry heath habitats and assessing their value for dating the last fire disturbance. The research involved 60 vegetation patches (plots of 25 m2), which were assigned to four post-fire age classes, namely: 1–5 years (Class A), 6–10 years (Class B), 11–15 years (Class C), and >15 years (Class D). In each study plot, species diversity and coverage of lichens, bryophytes and vascular plants were examined in addition to the physicochemical properties of the soil substrate. Cryptogams and vascular plants clearly differ in terms of the secondary succession pattern; specific sets of cryptogams correspond well to particular post-fire classes and are therefore good determinants of the post-fire succession stage. Spontaneous succession of plant vegetation eventually leads to complete recovery of the heath in a relatively short time. Nevertheless, great vegetation dynamics in the first years after a fire disturbance may result in seemingly different directions of succession. Post-fire classes did not differ noticeably in terms of soil properties, it follows that the effects of fire on soil conditions are negligible; though, a significant upward trend was observed for exchangeable form of K throughout the succession process. Our results indicate that sporadic fires reduce the undesirable overgrowth of heathlands or psamophilous grasslands and generally have a little negative side-effect on the ecosystem. The revealed succession patterns and defined sets of species characteristic for subsequent post-fire age classes are applicable to dating fire disturbances, regardless of whether the fire was planned or spontaneous. Keywords: Post-fire indicators; Heathlands; Cryptogams; Vascular plants; Soil properties; Habitat conservation.
36617Matos P., Rocha B., Pinho P., Miranda V., Pina P., Goyanes G. & Vieira G. (2024): Microscale is key to model current and future Maritime Antarctic vegetation. - Science of the Total Environment, 946: 174171 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.174171.
Despite being one of the most pristine regions in the world, Antarctica is currently also one of the most vulnerable to climate change. Antarctic vegetation comprises mostly lichens and bryophytes, complemented in some milder regions of Maritime Antarctica by two vascular plant species. Shifts in the spatial patterns of these three main vegetation groups have already been observed in response to climate change, highlighting the urgent need for the development of comprehensive large-scale ecological models of the effects of climate change. Despite being one of the most pristine regions in the world, Antarctica is currently also one of the most vulnerable to climate change. Antarctic vegetation comprises mostly lichens and bryophytes, complemented in some milder regions of Maritime Antarctica by two vascular plant species. Shifts in the spatial patterns of these three main vegetation groups have already been observed in response to climate change, highlighting the urgent need for the development of comprehensive large-scale ecological models of the effects of climate change. Besides climate, Antarctic terrestrial vegetation is also strongly influenced by non-climatic microscale conditions related to abiotic and biotic factors. Nevertheless, the quantification of their importance in determining vegetation patterns remains unclear. The objective of this work was to quantify the importance of abiotic and biotic microscale conditions in determining the spatial cover patterns of the major functional types, lichens, vascular plants and bryophytes, explicitly determining the likely confinement of each functional type to the microscale conditions, i.e., their ecological niche. Microscale explained >60 % of the spatial variation of lichens and bryophytes and 30 % of vascular plants, with the niche analysis suggesting that each of the three functional types may be likely confined to specific microscale conditions in the studied gradient. Models indicate that the main microscale ecological filters are abiotic but show the potential benefits of including biotic variables and point to the need for further clarification of vegetation biotic interactions' role in these ecosystems. Altogether, these results point to the need for the inclusion of microscale drivers in ecological models to track and forecast climate change effects, as they are crucial to explain present vegetation patterns in response to climate, and for the interpretation of ecological model results under a climate change perspective. Keywords: Vegetation patterns; Climate change; Non-climatic microscale drivers.
36616Muriel S., Aragón G., Martínez I. & Prieto M. (2024): Do gypsophile lichens exist? Analysis of the affinity for the gypsum substrate of lichen species from Spain. - Journal of Arid Environments, 224: 105216 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2024.105216.
Gypsum soils, despite physico-chemical constraints, harbor a unique biota composed of specialist (gypsophiles) and stress-tolerant non-specialist species (gypsovags). Gypsophily has been addressed in plants, although is important to ask whether lichen communities also contain gypsophile species. Therefore, our main aim is the analysis of the affinity of lichens for the gypsum substrate in Spain. Affinity was estimated using two methods: a “geological method”, overlapping lichen occurrence data on a geological map of Spain; and a “biological method”, overlapping the occurrences on a map constructed with the distribution of plant gypsophiles. To assess the accuracy of both methods, we compared them with a literature review. Lichen occurrence data was obtained from GBIF. The biological method was the most accurate as it showed similar percentages to the literature review. The affinity for gypsum substrate has been effectively demonstrated by the employment of these methods, probing the existence of a group of lichens considered gypsophiles. Twenty lichen species are considered gypsophiles, 7 strict and 13 preferential (ca. 40% of 50 taxa analyzed), and 30 gypsovags. This approximation can apply to the study of the affinity for the substrate for other organisms/substrates, and for characterizing geological units when detailed geological maps are not available. Keywords: Biological soil crusts; Edaphic specialization; Endemism gypsiferous; Iberian Peninsula; Semi-arid Mediterranean.
36615Steenvoorden J., Leestemaker N., Kooij D., Crowley W., Fernandez F., Schouten M.G.C. & Limpens J. (2024): Towards standardised large-scale monitoring of peatland habitats through fine-scale drone-derived vegetation mapping. - Ecological Indicators, 166: 112265 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2024.112265.
Keywords: Peatlands; Raised bogs; Vegetation patterns; Habitat; Drones; Ecological indicators.
36614Baczewska I., Hawrylak-Nowak B., Ozimek E., Sęczyk Ł. & Dresler S. (2024): Enhanced accumulation of biologically active compounds in lichens with potential functional food applications. - Food Chemistry, 458: 140286 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2024.140286.
Lichens have great potential as food, functional food additives or flavourings. The presence of specific substances with multiple biological activities is one of the characteristics of lichens. However, research on lichens as a food source or functional food additive is limited. The present study simulated, for the first time, the potential bioaccessibility of active compounds from 6 lichen species in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. An in vitro digestion showed that the lichen substances had different bioaccessibility and stability during digestion. It was found that the application of some metabolic modulators significantly altered the accumulation of metabolites in most species. In addition, the study demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of the tested extracts as well as of 14 isolated lichen metabolites. These multi-directional studies demonstrate the potential of lichens in terms of their use as antimicrobial functional food additives. Keywords: Specialized metabolites; Food supplements; Usnic acid; Atranorin; In vitro digestion; Antimicrobial activity.
36613Barone I., Brūmelis J. & Donis J. (2024): Living and dead retention tree value in the conservation of bryophyte and lichen communities in production forests. - Forest Ecology and Management, 569: 122152 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2024.122152.
Retention forestry has become increasingly popular in recent decades. Although retained trees have a high post-harvest mortality rate, little is known about the role of dead retention trees in the conservation of lichen and bryophyte species. In this study, species composition and richness of bryophytes and lichens on living trees, and snags and logs of dead retention trees was assessed in 20 young stands in Latvia. The goal was to compare how the species richness and composition differ between retention tree structure types (living trees, snags, and logs). The results showed that higher bryophyte and lichen species richness per tree was found on logs and snags compared to living trees. Species composition significantly differed between retention tree structure types. Snags and logs hosted a higher number of woodland key habitat species than living trees. Retention tree species had a significant effect on bryophyte species richness on living trees, while tree species and diameter at breast height were important for bryophyte diversity on snags, and stage of decay on logs. In contrast, the number of lichen species on snags and logs was affected only by retention tree species while none of these factors had a significant effect on lichen species on living trees. As a conclusion, the conservation of bryophyte and lichen diversity on retention trees needs to consider also their role as deadwood substrates after their death. Keywords: Clear-cuts; Epiphytes; Living trees; Deadwood; Species richness.
36612Demir Y., Öztürk N., Isıyel M. & Ceylan H. (2024): Effects of carnosic and usnic acid on pentose phosphate pathway enzymes: An experimental and molecular docking study. - ChemistrySelect, 9: e202401067 [6 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/slct.202401067.
6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) and Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) are crucial enzymes involved in generating cellular reducing power. Modifying the balance of reduced NADPH is considered essential for cancer advancement and combined therapeutic strategies. Usnic acid (UA) is a physiologically active dibenzofuran derivative. Carnosic acid (CA) is a phenolic diterpene that has been isolated from several plants. This work evaluated the inhibitory effects of UA and CA on G6PD and 6PGD by in vitro tests. Molecular docking studies were employed to predict the mechanisms of inhibition. IC50 values for UA and CA were determined to be 49.50 μM and 77.00 μM for G6PD, and 69.30 μM and 57.75 μM for 6PGD, respectively. The Ki values for UA and CA were determined to be 35.01±7.69 μM and 43.46±10.48 μM for G6PD, and 104.87±11.86 μM and 31.17±2.55 μM for 6PGD, respectively. UA was identified as the most effective inhibitor against G6PD, whereas CA exhibited the best inhibitory activity against 6PGD, with estimated binding energies of −8.0 and −7.8 kcal/mol, respectively, in molecular docking studies. Ultimately, it was shown that the results obtained from in vitro and in silico methods in the study were strongly associated. These chemicals′ structure might assist in creating medications that focus on the pentose phosphate pathway.
36611Cezanne R., Teuber D., Eichler M., von Brackel W., Dornes A.P. & Schultz M. (2024): Ergänzungen zur Liste der Flechten und flechtenbewohnenden Pilze Hessens – 7. Folge. - Botanik und Naturschutz in Hessen, 36: 69–101. .
Contributions to the list of lichens and lichenicolous fungi in Hesse – 7th instalment. 63 new or re-discoveries as well as numerous previously unpublished findings of rare lichens and lichen-inhabiting fungi in Hesse are reported and briefly commented on. Further locations are given for species rarely found in Hesse. Due to new systematic findings, the list of lichens and lichen-inhabiting fungi in Hesse has been extended by one lichen species and three lichen-inhabiting or lichen-like fungi. Four species are to be deleted.
36610Cezanne R., Eichler M., Hohmann M.-L. & Teuber D. (2013): Die Situation der Rentierflechten in Hessen. - Hessen-Forst, FENA Skripte 3, Giessen, 107 p.. .
Cladonia subgenus Cladina, Hessen
36609Paukov A.G., Davydov E.A., Ren Q. & Sohrabi M. (2024): Circinaria tominii (Megasporaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) is represented by two different growth forms. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 69(1): 69–76. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2024-0007.
Molecular study of Circinaria specimens collected in arid habitats of the Chuya Steppe showed the existence of two different growth forms, crustose and vagrant, in C. tominii that implies a more complex lifecycle of the species compared to that postulated by Mereschkowsky for vagrant taxa. An ITS phylogeny revealed the position of Circinaria tominii relative to three vagrant species, C. alpicola, C. aschabadensis and C. jussufii. Circinaria tominii was first collected in 1926 and was rediscovered in its type locality 90 years later in the only habitat near Ortolyk settlement in the Republic of Altai (Russia). The species is found on soil in stony habitats of the Chuya Steppe. The estimated abundance of the species reaches several hundred specimens. Keywords: Altai Mts, growth forms, ITS, molecular phylogeny, vagrant lichen.
36608Ossowska E.A., Schiefelbein U. & Kukwa M. (2024): First records of Sticta arenosella and S. cellulosa from South America based on molecular and morphological data. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 69(1): 77–84. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2024-0008.
Two isidiate species, Sticta arenosella and S. cellulosa, are reported from South America for the first time and the former species also as new to Southern Hemisphere. Sticta arenosella was found in Chile and S. celulosa in Bolivia. The identification of both species was confirmed by sequencing of the nuITS rDNA marker, a universal barcode of fungi, and the haplotype network analyses. Specimen of S. celulosa possess sparse apothecia, which previously have not been observed in this species. Kezwords: barcoding; distribution; haplotype network; integrative taxonomy; lichens; Neotropics.
36607Fryday A., Möller E.J., Timdal E., Yahr R., Cannon P., Coppins B., Sanderson N. & Simkin J. (2024): Rhizocarpales, including Catolechia, Epilichen, Haugania, Poeltinula and Rhizocarpon (Rhizocarpaceae), and Sporastatia and Toensbergia (Sporastatiaceae). - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 41: 1–30. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/Rhizocarpales.pdf.
36606Tibell L. & Constantinescu O. (1991): Catenomycopsis rosea gen. et sp. nov (Hyphomycetes), anamorph of Chaenothecopsis haematopus. - Mycological Research, 95(5): 556–560. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0953-7562(09)80068-3.
Several single- and multiascospore cultures of Chaenothecopsis haematopus produced a hyphomycetous anamorph. Catenomycopsis rosea gen. et sp. nov, is introduced to accommodate this fungus. Detailed description and illustration of the cultural and morphological characters are provided. Chaenothecopsis haematopus, previously only known from Australia and Tasmania, is reported from South America.
36605Gauslaa Y. (2024): Changes in epiphytic lichen diversity along the urban-rural gradient before, during, and after the acid rain period . - Biodiversity and Conservation, 33: 2247–2263. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-024-02871-4.
Spatial variations in epiphytic macrolichen richness in the city of Oslo were assessed annually 1973–2019. These observations were contrasted with earlier published data from 1930 to examine how long-term changes in species richness of functional groups track different stages of air pollution regimes. From 1930 to the 1970’s, representing the early surge and late peak of S-deposition, the lichen-deficient urban area remained largely unaltered. Epiphytic macrolichen richness in the surrounding zone declined and changed from a mix of nitrophytes and acidophytes in 1930 when agriculture was still present to a dominance of acidophytes in the 1970’s shortly after the acid rain peak. The subsequent 1980-2019-period marked by significantly lower S-emissions, and weakly decreasing N-deposition, experienced a shift from acidophytes to nitrophytes, following the successful control of acid rain. This underscores the role of pH as a contributing determinant of the strong nitrophyte recolonization. While successive pollution regimes shaped functional group-specific changes in lichen richness over the past 90 years, continuous rain in autumn 2000 led to sudden temporal lichen dieback across the urban-to-rural gradient, delaying lichen recovery after the acid rain period by approximately 5 years for nitrophytes and over 15 years for acidophytes. Epiphytic lichen richness never returned to the high levels seen in 1930, even in the outer parts of the urban-rural gradient and despite the reduction in S-deposition. Excess N impedes effective establishment of acidophytic lichens and prevents full recovery of the former diversity. Keywords: Air pollution · Dieback · Epiphytic lichens · Long-term study · N-deposition · S-deposition.
36604Konoreva L.A., Chesnokov S.V. & Bolshakov S.Y. (2024): Inventory of lichenised and lichenicolous fungi of Nordaustlandet, Svalbard. - Polar Biology, 47: 639–649. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-024-03263-8.
Nordaustlandet is the northernmost and one of the most inaccessible regions of Svalbard. The lichens of the Nordaustlandet were studied most actively from the mid-nineteenth century to the 40 s of the twentieth century. It was during this period that significant collections of lichens were collected, which still form the basis for some taxonomic studies. Thanks to large-scale research conducted by the Avrorin Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden-Institute of the Kola Science Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences for 3 years (2010–2012), we were able to make a significant contribution to the knowledge of Nordaustlandet lichens. The study of the lichen biota of Murchisonfjorden prompted us to summarise all the information about the lichens and lichenophilous fungi of Nordaustlandet, as well as to evaluate the degree of detection of the lichen flora. The checklist includes 477 lichen species, 2 subspecies and 22 species and one subspecies of lichenicolous fungi, of which Calogaya bryochrysion, Diplotomma lutosum, Flavoplaca flavocitrina, Lecanora intumescens and Zwackhiomyces coepulonus are reported for the first time for the Svalbard archipelago and another 40 species—for Nordaustlandet. The richest in terms of the number of species is Gustav V Land (415 species and two subspecies of lichens and 18 species and one subspecies of lichenicolous fungi). An assessment of lichen biota diversity using an integrated approach based on Hill numbers showed that the data cover a maximum of 80.93% of the total number of lichen species in the study area. Keywords Arctic · Biodiversity · Lichens · New records.
36603Kaminsky L. & Smith M.E. (2024): Assessment of macrolichen diversity at Ordway-Swisher Biological Station in northern Florida contributes to the scientific mission of NEON. - Castanea, 89(1): 1–11. https://doi.org/10.2179/0008-7475.89.1.1.
The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is gathering select ecological and taxonomic data across 81 sites in the United States and Puerto Rico. Lichens are one of the organismal groups that NEON has not yet assessed across these sites. Here we sampled lichens at Ordway-Swisher Biological Station (OSBS), a NEON site in north central Florida, to provide a baseline survey of the commonly encountered macrolichens (foliose, fruticose, and squamulose lichens). Macrolichens represent a subset of observable lichens and are more commonly surveyed than crustose lichens. Seventy-four species of macrolichens were collected, including 25 occurrences that constitute new records for Putnam County, Florida. The lichen diversity at OSBS comprised approximately 30% of the macrolichen diversity known from the entire state of Florida. Fifty-four taxa are common in the state of Florida, 12 infrequent across the state, and eight are considered rare. Macrolichens were the seventh most species-rich taxonomic groups at OSBS and more diverse than the NEON focal groups of mammals and fish. Lastly, we suggest a theoretical roadmap for how lichenologists could work together with NEON to include lichens in future datasets. We hope that biologists focused on other key organismal groups will sample in NEON sites so that NEON data can be leveraged appropriately in future cross-taxon studies of biodiversity at the continental scale. Key words: biodiversity, ecology, macrolichens, National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), taxonomic bias.
36602Gillingham D., Hodge J., Skeard F., Hanel C., Wiersma Y.F., Arsenault A., Driscoll K.E., Paquette H.A. & McMullin R.T. (2024): Mi'kmaw knowledge helps uncover a new area of interesting lichen biodiversity on the island of Newfoundland (Ktaqmkuk). - Bryologist, 127(2): 249–268. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-127.2.249.
The island of Newfoundland, Canada, is known as an area with high lichen species richness; however, most of this diversity is known from coastal regions where the ocean creates a maritime climate. The central part of the island has a more continental climate and is also the part of the province with the highest levels of industrial forest harvest and mining activities. For these reasons, it has not been an area considered to have high lichen diversity. Here, we show how local Mi’kmaw knowledge in collaboration with western scientific expertise facilitated a two-eyed seeing approach (Etuaptmumk) that yielded the discovery of overlooked lichen diversity in Central Newfoundland. Surveys by the authors throughout 2023 yielded collections of 175 species of lichenized, lichenicolous and allied fungi from the area known as Charlie’s Place. Of these, there is a high proportion of cyanolichens (13%) and calicioids (11%), indicating high ecological value and potential old growth/ ancient forest status. In addition, we report 19 new species records for the province, two of which (Chaenothecopsis vainioana and Myrionora albidula) are new records for Canada. Overall, the survey work reported here suggests that Charlie’s Place should be a priority area for protection within the context of Central Newfoundland. This work also illustrates the value of research under the framework of Etuaptmumk and the benefits of combining local Indigenous and western scientific knowledge. The political, logistical, and financial support of Qalipu First Nation was key to the success of this work. Keywords: Indigenous-led conservation, two-eyed seeing, forest ecology, old-growth, Cyanolichens, calicioids, lichen diversity.
36601Kantelinen A., Svensson M., Malíček J., Vondrák J., Thor G., Palice Z., Svoboda S. & Myllys L. (2024): A phylogenetic study of Micarea melaeniza and similar-looking species (Pilocarpaceae) unveils hidden diversity and clarifies species boundaries and reproduction modes. - MycoKeys, 106: 327–353. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.106.123484.
Micarea (Ascomycota, Pilocarpaceae) is a large cosmopolitan genus of crustose lichens. We investigated molecular systematics and taxonomy of the poorly known Micarea melaeniza group focussing on M. melaeniza, M. nigella and M. osloensis. A total of 54 new sequences were generated and using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analysis of two markers (nuITS and mtSSU), we discovered two previously unrecognized phylogenetic lineages, one of which is described here as Micarea eurasiatica Kantelinen & G. Thor, sp. nov., morphologically characterized by pycnidia that are sessile to emergent, cylindrically shaped, with greenish-black K+ olive green, wall pigmentation and containing large mesoconidia up to 6 µm in length. The species is known from Japan and Finland. In addition, we show that the reproduction biology of M. osloensis has been poorly understood and that the species often occurs as an anamorph with stipitate pycnidia. We present a species synopsis and notes on pigments. Our research supports previous results of asexuality being an important reproductive strategy of species growing on dead wood. Key words: Biodiversity, DNA-barcoding, lichenized ascomycete, new species, overlooked taxa, reproduction mode.
36600Rodríguez-Arribas C., Prieto M., Aragón G., López-Angulo J., Escudero A. & Martínez I. (2024): Specialization: A multidimensional and integrative perspective. - Ecosphere, 15: e4916. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.4916.
Specialization remains as a controversial and ambiguous term in ecology. Although it has been usually measured using a dichotomic and simplified classification of specialists and generalists, its nature is by far more complex. In the context of biotic interactions, assigning these two labels is usually based on the number of interacting partners (one or few vs. many). Here, we provide a more precise, quantitative, and objective interpretation of the specialization phenomenon combining three different dimensions (specificity, preference, and selectivity) that offer complementary information to quantify specialization. Hence, partner richness is a metric associated with the specificity, Simpson's evenness is related to the preference and d′ index to the selectivity of the biotic interactions. Consequently, we propose a 3D specialization space combining these three metrics which allows to identify the degree of biotic specialization fleeing from its simplified historical interpretation. The proposed space was subsequently evaluated in five natural interacting systems (host–parasite, plant–ant, plant–pollinator, plant–seed disperser, and mycobiont–cyanobacteria) using available data comprising 116 networks with quantitative observations. The results indicate the prevalence of a lax specialization, where most organisms tended to show low values in at least one of the metrics. Predominantly, observations showed high values of specificity and low values of preference and selectivity. This relaxed specialization provides advantages of being specialized, without sentencing it when being too tight. The implementation of this framework provides a useful tool that allows to identify specialization in a more objective, integrative, and universal way for future specialization studies. Keywords: biotic interactions, generalization, preference, selectivity, specialization, specializationcontinuum, specificity.
36599Jung P., Briegel-Williams L., Büdel B., Schultz M., Nürnberg D.J., Grube M., D’Agostino P.M., Kaštovský J., Mareš J., Lorenz M., González M.L.G., Dal Forno M., Westberg M., Chrismas N., Pietrasiak N., Whelan P., Dvořák P., Košuthová A., Gkelis S., Bauersachs T., Schiefelbein U., Giao V.T.P. & Lakatos M. (2024): The underestimated fraction: diversity, challenges and novel insights into unicellular cyanobionts of lichens. - ISME Communications, 4(1): ycae069. https://doi.org/10.1093/ismeco/ycae069.
Lichens are remarkable and classic examples of symbiotic organisms that have fascinated scientists for centuries. Yet, it has only been for a couple of decades that significant advances have focused on the diversity of their green algal and/or cyanobacterial photobionts. Cyanolichens, which contain cyanobacteria as their photosynthetic partner, include up to 10% of all known lichens and, as such, studies on their cyanobionts are much rarer compared to their green algal counterparts. For the unicellular cyanobionts, i.e. cyanobacteria that do not form filaments, these studies are even scarcer. Nonetheless, these currently include at least 10 different genera in the cosmopolitan lichen order Lichinales. An international consortium (International Network of CyanoBionts; INCb) will tackle this lack of knowledge. In this article, we discuss the status of current unicellular cyanobiont research, compare the taxonomic resolution of photobionts from cyanolichens with those of green algal lichens (chlorolichens), and give a roadmap of research on how to recondition the underestimated fraction of symbiotic unicellular cyanobacteria in lichens.
36598Cerrejón C., Valeria O., Haughland D.L. & Fenton N.J. (2024): Lichen communities across a subarctic region of Northern Quebec (Canada): conservation status, α- and β-diversity, and functional traits. - Bryologist, 127(2): 233–248. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-127.2.233.
Conservation of lichens is impeded by knowledge gaps on their distribution and habitat requirements. This is a significant issue in vast, isolated and harsh environment regions such as subarctic regions, where lichen communities remain under documented. Lichen biodiversity assessments provide useful insights to better understand the functions supported by these ecologically important and sensitive species. This study aims i) to describe the conservation status of lichen communities and their α- and β-diversity components across a subarctic region in Northern Quebec (190 km2), ii) to describe their functional traits across the habitat types found in this region, and iii) to identify habitat types constituting lichen biodiversity hotspots. Lichens were sampled in 45 plots in habitats ranging from coniferous and deciduous forests to bogs, fens and rocky outcrops. A total of 115 species of largely macrolichens, calicioid lichens and allied fungi were identified, of which 18% currently have ranks of conservation concern at the provincial level, and 38% are newly reported for the region (∼124,000 km2 around our study area). Richness across plots averaged 36 ± 9 species and plots richer in microhabitats often harbored more species (R2 = 0.22). Differences in species composition were identified among plots and habitat types through NMDS and perMANOVA analyses (R2 = 0.35; p
36597Masson D. (2024): Une espèce nord-américaine de Dermatocarpon (Verrucariaceae) dans les Alpes françaises ?. - Bulletin de Association Française de Lichénologie, 49(1): 1–6. .
A North American species of Dermatocarpon (Verrucariaceae) in the French Alps ? Several thalli of an apparently new representative of the Dermatocarpon genus for the European flora were collected in 2010 in a locality of the Mercantour National Park (Alpes-de-Haute- Provence, France). Their phenotype is similar to that of D. reticulatum. In particular, they feature a dark lower surface with short, more or less angular protuberances, typical of this species. However, molecular data are required to confirm the presence in Europe of this taxon, which is currently only known from western North America.
36596Meyers D.J., Cotter H.V.T., Perlmutter G.B., Goodwin M.T. & McCormick C.A. (2024): Type specimens held in the fungal, lichen, and myxomycete collections of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Herbarium (NCU). - Southeastern Naturalist, 23(2): 245–258. https://doi.org/10.1656/058.023.0210.
The Fungal, Lichen, and Myxomycete Collections of the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill Herbarium (NCU) contain 952 type specimens, representing 607 names, which, based on current taxonomy and nomenclature, amount to 596 unique taxa. This wealth of type specimens is a legacy of the taxonomic research on fungi conducted by William C. Coker, Alma Holland Beers, John N. Couch, and other UNC mycologists in the first half of the 20th century. This inventory is a compilation of these types plus specimens for invalidly published designations that were intended as types by the mycologists who worked on these specimens. Also included are original material specimens intended as types for taxa in invalid publications, which were not included in the publications by subsequent authors validating the taxa. Fungal groups particularly well represented in the types held at NCU are boletes, clavarioid fungi, gasteroid fungi, hydnoid fungi, and septobasidia. A lectotype is designated for Clavaria atroumbrina. Since 2014, more than 1000 collections including >100 types have been loaned by NCU to mycologists at institutions around the world.
36595Vonarburg C., Blaise P., Graf N., Keller C., Orler M. & Zimmermann E. (2024): Lichenologische Beobachtungen an den Studientagen 2023 in den Flumserbergen (Kt. St. Gallen). - Meylania, 73: 63–69. https://www.bryolich.ch/pdfs/meylania/Meylania%2073%20p.%2063-69.pdf.
Lichenological observations on the 2023 study days in the Flumserberge (Canton St. Gallen). About 150 lichen species were recorded during the excursion of Bryolich in the sur- roundings of the Flumserberge (Canton St. Gallen, Switzerland). Ninety-eight of the- se are recorded for the first time in the municipality of Flums, 35 for the first time in the canton St. Gallen. Among these several rare species were found. The most note- worthy finding was Gyalolechia klementii, currently known from only 2 other localities in Switzerland.
36594Zimmermann E. (2024): Lichenicole Pilze der Schweiz X: Zur Biodiversität im Gebiet von Davos (Graubünden, Schweiz. - Meylania, 73: 41–54. https://www.bryolich.ch/pdfs/meylania/Meylania%2073%20p.%2041-54.pdf.
Lichenicolous fungi of Switzerland X: Rare and noteworthy species from alpine habitats in the region Davos. Fifty-one lichenicolous fungi were recorded in alpine habitats in the region Davos (Graubünden, Switzerland). Lasiosphaeriopsis lecanorae, Merismatium peregrinum, Scutula curvispora, are new records in Switzerland. Other notable taxa are Rhizo- carpon dinothetes, Sclerococcum ahtii, Sphaerellothecium umbilicariae. Furthermore, a potentially undescribed lichenicolous ascomycet on Peltigera is presented. Solorina crocea is presented as a new host for Epithamnolia brevicladoniae and Thamnolia ver- micularis as a new host for Epithamnolia xanthoriae.
36593Bürgi-Meyer K. & Keller C. (2024): Flechtenbeobachtungen in Moorgebieten des Grossschlierentals, Sarnen (OW, Zentralschweiz). - Meylania, 73: 25–32. https://www.bryolich.ch/pdfs/meylania/Meylania%2073%20p.%2025-32.pdf.
Lichen observations in bog areas of the Grossschlieren valley, Sarnen, canton of Obwalden (Central Switzerland). Following up earlier lichen surveys in the Glaubenberg-Fürstein Natural Forest Reser- ve in Central Switzerland (Cantons of Lucerne and Obwalden), we here report lichen observations in bog areas located further north-east in the Grossschlieren valley. Attention was focused on so-called key structures, which often proved to be sites of remarkable lichen species in the previously investigated areas. In a bog with abun- dant occurrence of reindeer lichens also the soil-inhabiting lichens were examined. Additionally, in a natural forest reserve, the old-growth forest lichens were the focus of the investigations. As a result, various interesting species are reported from the areas examined, including species considered to be relicts of a once more extended bog lichen vegetation.
36592Stepanchikova I.S., Pankova V.V., Filippova A.V., Timofeeva E.A., Rodionova A.A. & Himelbrant D.E. (2024): New records of lichens and allied fungi from the Leningrad Region, Russia. XIII. Mainly saxicolous species. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica , 61: 51–58. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2024.61.06.
Fourteen lichen species and three lichenicolous fungi were recorded for the first time for the Leningrad Region. The lichenicolous fungus Sclerococcum australe is new to Russia. Arthopyrenia cinereopruinosa, Aspicilia grisea, Buellia miriquidica, Catillaria atomarioides, Lithocalla ecorticata, Miriquidica intrudens, Rhizocarpon intermediellum, Sclerococcum amygdalariae, and S. parasiticum are new for North-Western European Russia. Keywords: lichen diversity, crustose lichens, lichenicolous fungi, Karelian Isthmus, Hogland Island.
36591Tsurykau A., Knudsen K., Golubkov V., Bely P. & Kocourková J. (2024): The lichen genus Sarcogyne (Acarosporaceae) in Belarus. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica , 61: 45–49. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2024.61.06.
The lichen genus Sarcogyne in Belarus is revised. Three species are accepted as occurring in the country, namely Sarcogyne belarusensis, S. hypophaea, and S. pruinosa. Of these, Sarcogyne belarusensis is the most widely distributed and commonest species. Sarcogyne pruinosa and S. hypophaea are rare taxa known from two and one localities, respectively. Morphological characters of these species are provided in comparison with similar taxa. Keywords: biodiversity, distribution, ecology, crustose lichens.
36590Furmanek Ł., Czarnota P., Tekiela A.. Kapusta I. & Seaward M.R.D. (2024): A spectrophotometric analysis of extracted water-soluble phenolic metabolites of lichens. - Planta, 260: 40 [19 p.] . https://doi.org/10.1007/s00425-024-04474-3.
The aims were (i) to test the hypothesis on the potential solubility of lichen phenolic compounds using rainwater under conditions that partly reflect the natural environment and (ii) to propose new and effective methods for the water extraction of lichen substances. The results of spectrophotometric analyses of total phenolic metabolites in rainwater-based extracts from epigeic and epiphytic lichens, employing the Folin–Ciocalteu (F.–C.) method, are presented. The water solvent was tested at three pH levels: natural, 3, and 9. Extraction methods were undertaken from two perspectives: the partial imitation of natural environmental conditions and the potential use of extraction for economic purposes. From an ecological perspective, room-temperature water extraction (‘cold’ method) was used for 10-, 60-, and 120-min extraction periods. A variant of water extraction at analogous time intervals was an ‘insolation’ with a 100W light bulb to simulate the heat energy of the sun. For economic purposes, the water extraction method used the Soxhlet apparatus and its modified version, the ‘tea-extraction’ method (‘hot’ ones). The results showed that those extractions without an external heat source were almost ineffective, but insolation over 60- and 120-min periods proved to be more effective. Both tested ‘hot’ methods also proved to be effective, especially the ‘tea-extraction’ one. Generally, an increase in the concentration of phenolic compounds in water extracts resulted from an increasing solvent pH. The results show the probable involvement of lichen substances in biogeochemical processes in nature and their promising use for a variety of human necessities. Main conclusion: Rainwater most probably constitutes a relatively effective solvent for lichen substances in nature which have the potential to provide for human and environmental needs in the future.
36589Iqbal M.S. & Khalid A.N. (2024): Lecanora darelensis, a new species of Lecanoraceae from Darel Valley, Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan. - Telopea, 27(1): 117–124. doi:10.7751/telopea17708.
A new species, Lecanora darelensis sp. nov. is described here from Darel Valley, Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan. A comparative morpho-anatomical, chemical study and ITSbased molecular analyses confirmed the position of new species within the genus Lecanora. The new taxon is phylogenetically closely related to L. argopholis. The former can be distinguished from latter in having pale yellowish green upper surface (vs yellowish white), larger apothecial disc 0.5–1.5 mm (vs c. 1.2 mm), brown, plane to convex, pruinose to rarely epruinose apothecial disc (vs deep yellowish brown, plane or slightly concave, epruinose), taller epihymenium 25–35 μm (vs c. 20 μm), taller hymenium 110–150 μm (vs 70–75 μm), larger ascospores 14–18 × 5–8 μm (vs c. 12.7 × 7.3 μm), atranorin is detected by TLC (vs atranorin, epanorin, zeorin) and growing on calcareous rocks (vs rock surfaces, detritus, mosses, sloping siliceous and calcareous rocks, boulders, gravel).
36588Crous P.W., Jurjević Z., Balashov S., De la Peña-Lastra S., Mateos A., Pinruan U., Rigueiro-Rodríguez A., Osieck E.R., Altés A., Czachura P., Esteve-Raventós F., Gunaseelan S., Kaliyaperumal M., Larsson E., Luangsa-ard J.J., Moreno G., Pancorbo F., Piątek M., Sommai S., Somrithipol S., Asif M., Delgado G., Flakus A., Illescas T., Kezo K., Khamsuntorn P., Kubátová A., Labuda R., Lavoise C., Lebel T., Lueangjaroenkit P., Maciá-Vicente J.G., Paz A., Saba M., Shivas R.G., Tan Y.P., Wingfield M.J., Aas T., Abramczyk B., Ainsworth A.M., Akulov A., Alvarado P., Armada F., Assyov B., Avchar R., Avesani M., Bezerra J.L., Bhat J.D., Bilański P., Bily D.S., Boccardo F., Bozok F., Campos J.C., Chaimongkol S., Chellappan N., Costa M.M., Dalecká M., Darmostuk V., Daskalopoulos V., Dearnaley J., Dentinger B.T.M., De Silva N.I., Dhotre D., Carlavilla J.R., Doungsa-ard C., Dovana F., Erhard A., Ferro L.O., Gallegos S.C., Giles C.E., Gore G., Gorfer M., Guard F.E., Hanson S.-A., Haridev P., Jankowiak R., Jeffers S.N., Kandemir H., Karich A., Kisło K., Kiss L., Krisai-Greilhuber I., Latha K.P.D., Lorenzini M., Lumyong S., Manimohan P., Manjón J.L., Maula F., Mazur E., Mesquita N.L.S., Młynek K., Mongkolsamrit S., Morán P., Murugadoss R., Nagarajan M., Nalumpang S., Noisripoom W., Nosalj S., Novaes Q.S., Nowak M., Pawłowska J., Peiger M., Pereira O.L., Pinto A., Plaza M., Polemis E., Polhorský A., Ramos D.O., Raza M., Rivas-Ferreiro M., Rodriguez-Flakus P., Ruszkiewicz-Michalska M., Sánchez A., Santos A., Schüller A., Scott P.A., Şen İ., Shelke D., Śliwa L., Solheim H., Sonawane H., Strašiftáková D., Stryjak-Bogacka M., Sudsanguan M., Suwannarach N., Suz L.M., Syme K., Taşkın H., Tennakoon D.S., Tomka P., Vaghefi N., Vasan V., Vauras J., Wiktorowicz D., Villarreal M., Vizzini A., Wrzosek M., Yang X., Yingkunchao W., Zapparoli G., Zervakis G.I. & Groenewald J.Z. (2024): Fungal Planet description sheets: 1614–1696. - Fungal Systematics and Evolution, 13: 183–440. doi.org/10.3114/fuse.2024.13.11.
Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia, Baobabopsis sabindy in leaves of Eragrostis spartinoides, Cortinarius magentiguttatus among deep leaf litter, Laurobasidium azarandamiae from uredinium of Puccinia alyxiae on Alyxia buxifolia, Marasmius pseudoelegans on well-rotted twigs and litter in mixed wet sclerophyll and subtropical rainforest. Bolivia, Favolaschia luminosa on twigs of Byttneria hirsuta, Lecanora thorstenii on bark, in savannas with shrubs and trees. Brazil, Asterina costamaiae on leaves of Rourea bahiensis, Purimyces orchidacearum (incl. Purimyces gen. nov.) as root endophyte on Cattleya locatellii. Bulgaria, Monosporascus bulgaricus and Monosporascus europaeus isolated from surface-sterilised, asymptomatic roots of Microthlaspi perfoliatum. Finland, Inocybe undatolacera on a lawn, near Betula pendula. France, Inocybe querciphila in humus of mixed forest. Germany, Arrhenia oblongispora on bare soil attached to debris of herbaceous plants and grasses. Greece, Tuber aereum under Quercus coccifera and Acer sempervirens. India, Alfoldia lenyadriensis from the gut of a Platynotus sp. beetle, Fulvifomes subramanianii on living Albizzia amara, Inosperma pavithrum on soil, Phylloporia parvateya on living Lonicera sp., Tropicoporus maritimus on living Peltophorum pterocarpum. Indonesia, Elsinoe atypica on leaf of Eucalyptus pellita. Italy, Apiotrichum vineum from grape wine, Cuphopyllus praecox among grass. Madagascar, Pisolithus madagascariensis on soil under Intsia bijuga. Netherlands, Cytosporella calamagrostidis and Periconia calamagrostidicola on old leaves of Calamagrostis arenaria, Hyaloscypha caricicola on leaves of Carex sp., Neoniesslia phragmiticola (incl. Neoniesslia gen. nov.) on leaf sheaths of standing dead culms of Phragmites australis, Neptunomyces juncicola on culms of Juncus maritimus, Zenophaeosphaeria calamagrostidis (incl. Zenophaeosphaeria gen. nov.) on culms of Calamagrostis arenaria. Norway, Hausneria geniculata (incl. Hausneria gen. nov.) from a gallery of Dryocoetes alni on Alnus incana. Pakistan, Agrocybe auriolus on leaf litter of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Rhodophana rubrodisca in nutrient-rich loamy soil with Morus alba. Poland, Cladosporium nubilum from hypersaline brine, Entomortierella ferrotolerans from soil at mines and postmining sites, Pseudopezicula epiphylla from sooty mould community on Quercus robur, Quixadomyces sanctacrucensis from resin of Pinus sylvestris, Szafranskia beskidensis (incl. Szafranskia gen. nov.) from resin of Abies alba. Portugal, Ascocoryne laurisilvae on degraded wood of Laurus nobilis, Hygrocybe madeirensis in laurel forests, Hygrocybula terracocta (incl. Hygrocybula gen. nov.) on mossy areas of laurel forests planted with Cryptomeria japonica. Republic of Kenya, Penicillium gorferi from a sterile chicken feather embedded in a soil sample. Slovakia, Cerinomyces tatrensis on bark of Pinus mugo, Metapochonia simonovicovae from soil. South Africa, Acremonium agapanthi on culms of Agapanthus praecox, Alfaria elegiae on culms of Elegia ebracteata, Beaucarneamyces stellenboschensis (incl. Beaucarneamyces gen. nov.) on dead leaves of Beaucarnea stricta, Gardeniomyces kirstenboschensis (incl. Gardeniomyces gen. nov.) rotting fruit of Gardenia thunbergia, Knufia dianellae on dead leaves of Dianella caerulea, Lomaantha quercina on twigs of Quercus suber. Melanina restionis on dead leaves of Restio duthieae, Microdochium buffelskloofinum on seeds of Eragrostis cf. racemosa, Thamnochortomyces kirstenboschensis (incl. Thamnochortomyces gen. nov.) on culms of Thamnochortus fraternus, Tubeufia hagahagana on leaves of Hypoxis angustifolia, Wingfieldomyces cypericola on dead leaves of Cyperus papyrus. Spain, Geastrum federeri in soil under Quercus suber and Q. canariensis, Geastrum nadalii in calcareous soil under Juniperus, Quercus, Cupressus, Pinus and Robinia, Hygrocybe garajonayensis in laurel forests, Inocybe cistophila on acidic soil under Cistus ladanifer, Inocybe sabuligena in a mixed Quercus ilex subsp. ballota/Juniperus thurifera open forest, Mycena calongei on mossy bark base of Juniperus oxycedrus, Rhodophana ulmaria on soil in Ulmus minor forest, Tuber arriacaense in soil under Populus pyramidalis, Volvariella latispora on grassy soils in a Quercus ilex ssp. rotundifolia stand. Sweden, Inocybe iota in alpine heath on calcareous soil. Thailand, Craterellus maerimensis and Craterellus sanbuakwaiensis on laterite and sandy soil, Helicocollum samlanense on scale insects, Leptosporella cassiae on dead twigs of Cassia fistula, Oxydothis coperniciae on dead leaf of Copernicia alba, Russula mukdahanensis on soil, Trechispora sangria on soil, Trechispora sanpatongensis on soil. Türkiye, Amanita corylophila in a plantation of Corylus avellana. Ukraine, Pararthrophiala adonis (incl. Pararthrophiala gen. nov.) on dead stems of Adonis vernalis. USA, Cladorrhinum carnegieae from Carnegiea gigantea, Dematipyriformia americana on swab from basement wall, Dothiora americana from outside air, Dwiroopa aeria from bedroom air, Lithohypha cladosporioides from hospital swab, Macroconia verruculosa on twig of Ilex montana, associated with black destroyed ascomycetous fungus and Biatora sp., Periconia floridana from outside air, Phytophthora fagacearum from necrotic leaves and shoots of Fagus grandifolia, Queenslandipenidiella californica on wood in crawlspace. Morphological and culture characteristics are supported by DNA barcodes.
36587Kamyabi A.S. [Kamyabi Abkouh A.S.], Iranbakhsh A., Moniri M.H. [Haji Moniri M.] & Asri Y. (2023): New records of five Verrucaria species (Verrucariacaea [sic!], Ascomycota) from Iran. - Feddes Repertorium, 134: 191–199. .
This study focused on the taxonomic evaluation of the genus Verrucaria Shrad (Ascomycota, Verrucariaceae) in northeast Iran. Lichen samples were collected from the Khorasan Razavi province and their morphological, anatomical, and ecological characteristics were investigated. According to the result, the species Verrucaria ahtii Pykälä, Launis and Myllys, Verrucaria cataleptoides (Nyl.) Nyl., Verrucaria dolosa Hepp., Verrucaria hochstetteri Fr., and Verrucaria muralis Ach., are new records from Iran. Keywords: Iran, Khorasan Razavi, lichens, Verrucaria, Verrucariaceae.
36586Kuusisto I. (2024): Caloplaca phaeocarpella new to Finland. - Graphis Scripta, 36(5): 106–108. https://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/36_5/GS_36_106.pdf.
Caloplaca phaeocarpella is reported first time in Finland from the biogeographical province Enontekiön Lappi in NW Finland. It was growing on reindeer droppings and had an untypical coloration (dull orange-yellow). An ITS sequence for the species is provided.
36585 Fryer E.R., Mulroy M., Hodge C., Eulensen-Wallace J.E., Dart J. & Rajakaruna N. (2024): A preliminary exploration of an understudied lichen flora: Lichens of the basin of Carrizo Plain National Monument, California. - Evansia, 41(2): 35–46. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-41.2.35.
While Carrizo Plain (California, USA) is a hotspot for rare and endangered species, little effort has been made to sample the lichen flora of the Plain. To assemble a preliminary checklist of lichens from the basin floor of Carrizo Plain, we sampled along a transect from the basin’s alkali complex to its western edge, as well as from clay slickspots with high sodium content, and a rocky site in the eastern Plain. We document a substantial lichen flora on the Plain and note several collections that were the first record for a species in the region: five species were the first in San Luis Obispo County, and nine were the first for the San Joaquin Desert. We include notable collections and observations on potential ecological patterns and highlight Carrizo Plain as a promising hotspot for research on lichen ecology, particularly for species adapted to extreme environmental conditions. Key words. Alkali, microlichens, desert, geoecology, slickspots.
36584Perlmutter G.B. & La Greca S.A. (2024): Noteworthy collections of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Piedmont Rocky River Ecosystems in central North Carolina, USA. - Evansia, 41(2): 47–56. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-41.2.47.
From recent surveys of Piedmont rocky river habitats, 22 noteworthy species of lichens and two lichenicolous fungi are presented, including 18 species new to North Carolina, three new to eastern North America, three new to North America and three potentially new to science. Most taxa here reported include amphibious lichens and lichens that otherwise are found in exposed, arid environments. Key words. Biodiversity, freshwater lichens, state records, North America, southeastern United States.
36583Daminova A.G., Leksin I.Y., Khabibrakhmanova V.R., Gurjanov O.P., Galeeva E.I., Trifonova T.V., Khamatgalimov A.R., Beckett R.P. & Minibayeva F.V. (2024): The roles of the anthraquinone parietin in the tolerance to desiccation of the lichen Xanthoria parietina: Physiology and anatomy of the pale and bright-orange thalli. - International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 25(13): 7067 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25137067.
Lichens are symbiotic organisms that effectively survive in harsh environments, including arid regions. Maintaining viability with an almost complete loss of water and the rapid restoration of metabolism during rehydration distinguishes lichens from most eukaryotic organisms. The lichen Xanthoria parietina is known to have high stress tolerance, possessing diverse defense mechanisms, including the presence of the bright-orange pigment parietin. While several studies have demonstrated the photoprotective and antioxidant properties of this anthraquinone, the role of parietin in the tolerance of lichens to desiccation is not clear yet. Thalli, which are exposed to solar radiation and become bright orange, may require enhanced desiccation tolerance. Here, we showed differences in the anatomy of naturally pale and bright-orange thalli of X. parietina and visualized parietin crystals on the surface of the upper cortex. Parietin was extracted from bright-orange thalli by acetone rinsing and quantified using HPLC. Although acetone rinsing did not affect PSII activity, thalli without parietin had higher levels of lipid peroxidation and a lower membrane stability index in response to desiccation. Furthermore, highly pigmented thalli possess thicker cell walls and, according to thermogravimetric analysis, higher water-holding capacities than pale thalli. Thus, parietin may play a role in desiccation tolerance by stabilizing mycobiont membranes, providing an antioxidative defense, and changing the morphology of the upper cortex of X. parietina. Keywords: parietin; lichen; desiccation; thallus anatomy; photosynthesis; lipid peroxidation; membrane stability index; extractable substances; thermal decomposition.
36582Masson D., Magain N. & Sérusiaux E. (2024): Small island but great diversity: thirty six species of Parmotrema (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota), including sixteen new species, on Réunion (Mascarenes), with additional data from the Western Indian Ocean. - Phytotaxa, 657(1): 1–138. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.657.1.1.
This work is part of our taxonomical and phylogenetic studies on the lichen flora of Réunion (Mascarene Archipelago, Indian Ocean). Thirty-six species belonging to the conspicuous genus Parmotrema are recognized on the island, sixteen being new to science: P. aurantioreagens, P. brachyblepharum, P. crossotum, P. eleonomum, P. intonsum (also found in Madagascar), P. mezierii, P. mascarenense (also found in Mauritius), P. mirum, P. nemorum, P. nephophilum, P. occultum, P. orarium, P. paramascarenense (also found in Madagascar), P. reunionicum, P. subdeflectens (also found in Madagascar) and P. udisilvestre (also found in Madagascar). Parmotrema mwaliense is a further new species found on the island of Mohéli (Comoros). Three new combinations are introduced: Parmotrema inexspectatum, P. meiospermum and P. odontatum. We propose synonymization of P. acrotrychum with P. subcorallinum. The following species are confirmed or reported as new to Réunion: P. austrosinense, P. cetratum, P. cf. clavuliferum, P. cooperi, P. crinitum, P. cristiferum, P. cf. deflectens, P. dilatatum, P. mellissii, P. cf. negrosorientale, P. praesorediosum, P. reticulatum, P. robustum, P. subcorallinum, P. subisidiosum, and P. tinctorum. Parmotrema appendiculatum and P. thomsonii are only known to Réunion from single reports, poorly documented, dating back to the 19th century; detailed descriptions with photographs, distribution maps and ecological data are provided for the other species. An identification key for the 36 species is provided. Parmotrema austrosinense and P. cf. negrosorientale are newly reported, and P. meiospermum confirmed, for Mauritius; the Papuan P. menyamyaense is newly reported for Mohéli (Comoros). One hundred and seventy-four new sequences for the barcode ITS loci have been produced, an increase of ca. one third for Parmotrema on GenBank. LSU, mtSSU and EF1-α loci have been added for subgroups. The molecular data highlight the existence of two pairs of ‘nearly’ cryptic species (P. crinitum/P. occultum, P. brachyblepharum/P. eleonomum), high variability in the production of vegetative propagules in two of the new species described (P. nephophilum, P. orarium), and two strongly supported clades including potential endemics to Réunion or the MIOI (Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands) biodiversity hotspot. One clade comprises 10 species (P. brachyblepharum, P. crossotum, P. eleonomum, P. intonsum, P. mezierii, P. cf. negrosorientale, P. nemorum, P. subcorallinum, P. subdeflectens and P. udisilvestre), eight described as new for science, the other five species (P. aurantioreagens, P. mascarenense, P. meiospermum, P. odontatum and P. orarium), three of them new for science. Keywords: ciliary pigments, integrative taxonomy, Lecanoromycetes, molecular phylogeny, parietin, protolichesterinic acid, species delimitation.
36581Moreno-Palacios M., Torres-Benítez A., Soto-Medina E., Sánchez M., Divakar P.K., Pereira I. & Gómez-Serranillos M.P. (2024): Corticolous lichen communities and their bioindication potential in an urban and peri-urban ecosystem in the central region of Colombia. - Land, 13(7): 932 [16 p.] . https://doi.org/10.3390/land13070932.
The richness, composition, abundance, and correlation with the atmospheric oxide concentrations of the community of corticolous lichens in the urban and peri-urban areas of the city of Ibagué (Colombia) were evaluated, selecting 25 individuals of the four most abundant phorophyte species. Twenty-nine lichen taxa grouped in 13 families and 17 genera were recorded, with a higher lichen coverage and taxa richness in the urban area. A non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed the conformation of two lichen communities associated with the urban and peri-urban areas of the city, and variation in composition among the phorophyte species. Exclusive and indicator taxa were found for both zones, as well as associations between variables through the application of a general linear model. Higher concentrations of atmospheric gases CO, SO2, NO2, and O3 were found in the urban zone, and positive/negative relationships with some lichen taxa. There is high variability in the response of the lichen assemblage of urban and peri-urban ecosystems to environmental effects, with substantial or minimal changes in the variables of richness, coverage, and phorophyte association, and according to their interaction with atmospheric oxides, the patterns of potential tolerant and/or sensitive species are formed for their implementation in bioindication studies. Keywords: lichenized fungi; cover; diversity; phorophyte; area; oxide concentrations.
36580Timdal E., Möller E.J. & Bendiksby M. (2024): Rhizocarpon vulgare, a new species in the R. badioatrum species complex. - Graphis Scripta, 36(4): 89–105. .
Herein, we revise the Rhizocarpon badioatrum species complex in the Nordic countries using molecular phylogenetics combined with morphological/anatomical and chemical data. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS, the fungal DNA barcode) reveals four strongly supported clades within the R. badioatrum species complex. Based on our assessment of the multiple sources of data included, we recognize R. badioatrum var. badioatrum and var. vulgare at the species level and describe the latter as the new species R. vulgare. Rhizocarpon vulgare receives support also from a phylogeny based on mitochondrial ribosomal small subunit (mtSSU). Rhizocarpon cinereonigrum is the phylogenetic sister species of R. vulgare in both the ITS and mtSSU trees. Rhizocarpon sinense is reported as new to Europe with specimens collected from Iceland and Norway. The secondary chemistry is shown to be largely diagnostic for the species: R. badioatrum is usually acid deficient, R. vulgare contains diffractaic acid, and R. sinense contains gyrophoric acid. However, the concept of R. cinereonigrum, which was previously based on the presence of stictic acid, is shown to be ambiguous because that compound may also occur in R. badioatrum. Lectotypes are designated for Lecidea atrobadia, Rhizocarpon badioatrum, R. rivulare, R. sinense.
36579Johnston P.R. & Park D. (2024): Historical cultures provide insights into the taxonomy of Stictis sensu lato. - Fungal Systematics and Evolution, 14: 153–170. doi.org/10.3114/fuse.2024.14.10.
Species morphologically typical of the genus Stictis are phylogenetically diverse, spread throughout Stictidaceae. Phylogenetic studies based on DNA sequences have revealed the polyphyletic nature of the morphologically defined genus, the type species Stictis radiata forming a clade phylogenetically distinct from all other sequenced species that had been placed in the genus. Some of the phylogenetic clades containing Stictis sensu lato species can be distinguished on the basis of their asexual morphs. Here we accept as the genus Ebollia a monophyletic clade that forms two monophyletic subclades, both of which contain species that form both a stictis-like sexual morph and an Ebollia asexual morph. One of these clades contains the type species of Fitzroyomyces, F. cyperacearum, here treated as a synonym of Ebollia carnea (= Stictis carnea). Three unnamed species with a stictis-like sexual morph, fall into a clade with the type species of Eriospora (E. leucostoma) and Neofitzroyomyces (N. nerii), two species known only from their asexual morphs. Morphologically these stictis-like sexual morphs differ from that previously reported for another Eriospora species, E. juncicola. The mode of conidiogenesis distinguishes Eriospora and Neofitzroyomyces from Ebollia. A group of species traditionally included in Stictis but that differ from S. radiata in having dark ascomatal walls, are accepted here as Cyclostoma, using this name at the generic rather than subgeneric level. Two of these species are described as new, Cyclostoma macroarundinacea and C. oleariae. In addition, DNA sequences are provided for the genus Delpontia for the first time. Key words: Cyclostoma; Ebollia; Fitzroyomyces; new taxa; Ostropales; Phacidiella.
36578Bogale A.T., Braun M., Bernhardt J., Zühlke D., Schiefelbein U., Bog M., Scheidegger C., Zengerer V., Becher D., Grube M., Riedel K. & Bengtsson M.M. (2024): The microbiome of the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria varies according to climate on a subcontinental scale. - Environmental Microbiology Reports, 16: e13289 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/1758-2229.13289.
The Lobaria pulmonaria holobiont comprises algal, fungal, cyanobacterial and bacterial components. We investigated L. pulmonaria's bacterial microbiome in the adaptation of this ecologically sensitive lichen species to diverse climatic conditions. Our central hypothesis posited that microbiome composition and functionality aligns with subcontinental-scale (a stretch of ~1100 km) climatic parameters related to temperature and precipitation. We also tested the impact of short-term weather dynamics, sampling season and algal/fungal genotypes on microbiome variation. Metaproteomics provided insights into compositional and functional changes within the microbiome. Climatic variables explained 41.64% of microbiome variation, surpassing the combined influence of local weather and sampling season at 31.63%. Notably, annual mean temperature and temperature seasonality emerged as significant climatic drivers. Microbiome composition correlated with algal, not fungal genotype, suggesting similar environmental recruitment for the algal partner and microbiome. Differential abundance analyses revealed distinct protein compositions in Sub-Atlantic Lowland and Alpine regions, indicating differential microbiome responses to contrasting environmental/climatic conditions. Proteins involved in oxidative and cellular stress were notably different. Our findings highlight microbiome plasticity in adapting to stable climates, with limited responsiveness to short-term fluctuations, offering new insights into climate adaptation in lichen symbiosis.
36577Kachalkin A., Tomashevskaya M., Pankratov T. & Yurkov A. (2024): Endothallic yeasts in the terricolous lichens Cladonia. - Mycological Progress, 23: 29 [31 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-024-01966-0.
Lichens are multi-component microbial communities where yeasts are common. This work was designed to address the taxonomic diversity and distribution of cultivated endothallic yeasts in terricolous lichens of the genus Cladonia. Lichens Cladonia stellaris, C. rangiferina, C. cornuta, and C. pleurota from arctic, subarctic, and continental boreal climates in Russia in a range of biotopes were studied. In total, 40 yeast species were isolated. It revealed a broad taxonomic range of endothallic yeast with a substantial proportion of basidiomycetes from subphyla Agaricomycotina and Pucciniomycotina. Many common yeast species were found within the epithallic and endothallic yeast communities of some lichens studied. The physiological and ecological characterization of 30 basidiomycetous endothallic yeasts enhances our understanding of lichen habitats and may aid in culturing seldom-isolated lichenicolous fungi. Out of 40 species in this study, 21 new yeast species were discovered, and 10 new yeast species were proposed with their formal descriptions. They are Colacogloea glushakovae sp. nov., Cyrenella lichenicola sp. nov., Microsporomyces wangii sp. nov., Microsporomyces cladoniae sp. nov., Genolevuria nadymea sp. nov., Teunia turchettiae sp. nov., Phaeotremella sibirica sp. nov., Phaeotremella endothallina sp. nov., Piskurozyma altaica sp. nov., and Piskurozyma cladoniicola sp. nov. Keywords: Cladonia · Basidiomycota · New taxa · Yeasts.
36576Gačnik J., Živković I., Kotnik J., Božič D., Tassone A., Naccarato A., Pirrone N., Sprovieri F., Steffen A. & Horvat M. (2024): Comparison of active measurements, lichen biomonitoring, and passive sampling for atmospheric mercury monitoring. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 31: 35800–35810. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-024-33582-6.
The number of atmospheric mercury (Hg) monitoring stations is growing globally. However, there are still many regions and locations where Hg monitoring is limited or non-existent. Expansion of the atmospheric Hg monitoring network could be facilitated by the use of cost-effective monitoring methods. As such, biomonitoring and passive monitoring offer a unique alternative to well-established monitoring by active measurements, since they do not require a power supply and require minimal workload to operate. The use of biomonitoring (lichens and mosses) and passive air samplers (PASs) (various designs with synthetic materials) has been reported in the literature, and comparisons with active measurement methods have also been made. However, these studies compared either biomonitoring or PASs (not both) to only one type of active measurement. In our work, we used transplanted (7 sampling sites) and in situ lichens (8 sampling sites) for biomonitoring, two PASs from different producers (3 sampling sites), and two different active measurement types (continuous and discontinuous active measurements, 1 and 8 sampling sites, respectively) to evaluate their effectiveness as monitoring methods. In the 9-month sampling campaign, 3 sampling locations with different characteristics (unpolluted, vicinity of a cement plant, and vicinity of a former Hg mine) were used. The results obtained with lichens and PASs clearly distinguished between sampling locations with different Hg concentrations; using both PASs and lichens together increased the confidence of our observations. The present work shows that biomonitoring and passive sampling can be effectively used to identify areas with elevated atmospheric Hg concentrations. The same can be said for discontinuous active measurements; however, the discrepancy between atmospheric Hg concentrations derived from PASs and discontinuous active measurements should be further investigated in the future. Keywords: Atmospheric mercury monitoring · Lichen biomonitoring · Passive sampling · Active measurement · Method comparison.
36575Mendili M., Sellami Z., Somai R. & Khadhri A. (2024): Assessing Tunisia’s urban air quality using combined lichens and Sentinel-5 satellite integration. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 196: 545 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-024-12705-z.
In Tunisia, urban air pollution is becoming a bigger problem. This study used a combined strategy of biomonitoring with lichens and satellite mapping with Sentinel-5 satellite data processed in Google Earth Engine (GEE) to assess the air quality over metropolitan Tunis. Lichen diversity was surveyed across the green spaces of the Faculty of Science of Tunisia sites, revealing 15 species with a predominance of pollution-tolerant genera. The Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) calculated from the lichen data indicated poor air quality. Spatial patterns of pollutants sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and aerosol index across Greater Tunis were analyzed from Sentinel-5 datasets on the GEE platform. The higher values of these indices in the research area indicate that it may be impacted by industrial activity and highlight the considerable role that vehicle traffic plays in air pollution. The results of the IAP, IBL, and the combined ground-based biomonitoring and satellite mapping techniques confirm poor air quality and an environment affected by atmospheric pollutants which will enable proactive air quality management strategies to be put in place in Tunisia’s rapidly expanding cities. Keywords: Air quality · Atmospheric pollutants · Biodiversity · GEE · Lichens · Sentinel-5 satellite.
36574Vo Q.V. , Hieu L.T., Hang H.T.C., Diep V.H.N., Hoa N.T., Huynh U.T.D., Trung N.Q. & Mechler A. (2024): Is lecanoric acid a good antioxidant?. - Journal of Molecular Liquids, 408: 125336 [6 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2024.125336.
Lecanoric acid (LA), an abundant chemical found in lichens, has demonstrated a wide range of biological activities, including anti-cancer cytotoxic, antibiotic, antimycobacterial, antiviral, and anti-hepatocarcinoma properties. The antioxidant capacity of this molecule, while inferred from certain experimental findings, is doubtful based on structural characteristics and therefore remains to be established. DFT calculations are used in this work to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the mechanism and kinetics governing the antiradical activity of LA in lipidic and aqueous solvent environments. Although the DPPH/ABTS+radical dot assays revealed good antioxidant activity in vitro, the modeling yielded mixed results. The data suggests that LA is an efficient scavenger of the HOradical dot radical with rate constants of 2.01 × 1010 and 2.80 × 108 M−1 s−1 in polar and lipid media, respectively, by the FHT and RAF mechanisms. However, the data also suggests that LA exhibits only weak activity against the HOOradical dot radical in all physiological environments. This is consistent with structural features that predict low activity. Keywords: Lecanoric acid; DFT calculation; Phenolic acid; Antiradical activity; Kinetic.
36573Hämäläinen A. & Fahrig L. (2024): Time-lag effects of habitat loss, but not fragmentation, on deadwood-dwelling lichens. - Landscape Ecology, 39: 111 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-024-01910-3.
Context: Landscape habitat amount is known to increase biodiversity, while the effects of habitat fragmentation are still debated. It has been suggested that negative fragmentation effects may occur with a time lag, which could explain inconsistent results. However, there is so far no empirical support for this idea. Objectives: We evaluated whether habitat amount and fragmentation at the landscape scale affect the species density of deadwood-dwelling lichens, and whether these effects occur with a time lag. Methods: We surveyed deadwood-dwelling lichens in woodland key habitats in two regions in northern Sweden, and modelled their species density as a function of past (1960s) and present (2010s) habitat amount (old forest area) and fragmentation (edge density) in the surrounding landscapes. Results: Present habitat amount generally had weak positive effects on lichen species density. Positive effects of the past habitat amount were stronger, indicating a time lag in habitat amount effects. Habitat fragmentation effects were generally weak and similar whether fragmentation was measured in the past or the present landscapes, indicating no time lag in fragmentation effects. Conclusions: We found a time lag effect of habitat amount, but not fragmentation. This result is not consistent with suggestions that time lags explain the mixed observations of fragmentation effects. Time-lag effects of habitat amount suggest that the studied lichen communities face an extinction debt. Conservation should therefore prioritize increasing the amount of old forest, for example by creating forest reserves, to maintain the current lichen diversity. More generally, our results imply that studies examining only the present habitat amount risk under-estimating its importance. Keywords: Time lags · Extinction debt · Fragmentation per se · Dead wood · Cryptogams
36572Çobanoğlu G. & Özen E. (2024): Detection of atmospheric microplastics accumulated in Xanthoria parietina: A lichen biomonitoring study on the Asian side of Istanbul. - International Journal of Environmental Research, 18: 65 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41742-024-00596-4.
Airborne microplastics have become invisible global threats to all living organisms today. This study was designed for the first time to monitor atmospheric microplastic pollution in the city of Istanbul (Turkiye) through lichens, known as air pollution biomonitors. Epiphytic foliose lichen Xanthoria parietina was sampled from forested areas in 8 different districts on the Asian side of megacity, and searched for clues of microplastics through chemical characterization and microscopic examination. Twelve compounds (aldehyde, alkene, amine, carboxylic acid, ether, hydrocarbon, hydroxide, ketone, methyl, methylene, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide) were identified as microplastic components in urban lichen samples taken from all localities with the FT-IR technique used in polymer identification. The most accumulated compound in lichen samples was amine, which is formed as a result of the chemical degradation of plastics. Building blocks of microplastic particles (MPs) such as aldehydes, carboxylic acid and methylene, as well as air pollutants such as SO2 and NO2 were also detected. Analysis data were supported by microscopic observations made by applying fluorescent staining method to lichen thalli and MPs were also detected visually. The highest number of MPs seen in the lichen thalli was detected in samples taken from touristic areas in Üsküdar district. Based on the results, in addition to human impact, intense atmospheric microplastic compounds identified by lichen monitoring on the Asian side of Istanbul suggest that these pollutants may have been transported from local plastic waste or industrial areas. This study shows that biomonitoring studies of airborne organic pollutants such as microplastics can be done through lichens. Keywords: Biomonitoring · Microplastic · Fluorescent staining · Lichen · Air pollution.
36571Khodabakhshloo N., Abbasi S., Oleszczuk P. & Turner A. (2024): Biomonitoring of airborne microplastics and microrubbers in Shiraz, Iran, using lichens and moss. - Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 46: 244 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-024-01977-6.
Highlights: Microplastics (MPs) and microrubbers (MRs) determined in lichens and mosses around Shiraz. In lichens, MPs mainly thin fibres up to 1 MP g−1; MRs were 0.1 MP g−1. In mosses, abundances were similar but with a greater fraction of larger, non-fibrous particles. Larger MPs and MRs decreased in abundance with distnce and elevation from Shiraz. Around Shiraz, the common moss, Grimmia critina, would be the most suitable biomonitor. Lichens and mosses have been employed as biomonitors of atmospheric particulate pollutants, like metals and industrial solids, for many decades. Here, we evaluated the potential of nine species of crustose and foliose lichens and a widely distributed moss (Grimmia critina) to act as biomonitors of airborne microplastics (MPs) and microrubbers (MRs). About 200 lichens and 40 mosses were sampled across different altitudinal transects in the vicinity of Shiraz City, southwest Iran, and MPs and MRs were quantified and characterised after sample peroxidation. In most species of lichen, MP and MR abundance overall was  1 g−1 and  0.1 g−1, respectively, and the majority of plastics were fibres of  10 µm in diameter and  1000 µm) and non-fibrous particles among the MPs. In both lichens and moss, there was a greater number of larger MPs and MRs at locations closest to and at the same elevation as Shiraz than at more distant and elevated locations, suggesting an inverse relationship between particle size and distance travelled. Among the lichens, members of the genus Acarospora, with their areolated form, appeared to act as the most suitable biomonitors for MPs and MRs. Overall, however, the wide distribution of the moss, G. crinita, and its ability to intercept and accumulate a broader range of sizes and shapes of MPs and MRs make this species a better choice, at least in the type of environment studied. Keywords: Bryophyte · Fibres · Particulate · Grimmia · Acarospora · Contaminants.
36570Dreyling L., Boch S., Lumbsch H.T. & Schmitt I. (2024): Surveying lichen diversity in forests: A comparison of expert mapping and eDNA metabarcoding of bark surfaces. - MycoKeys, 106: 153–172. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.106.117540.
Lichens are an important part of forest ecosystems, contributing to forest biodiversity, the formation of micro-niches and nutrient cycling. Assessing the diversity of lichenised fungi in complex ecosystems, such as forests, requires time and substantial skills in collecting and identifying lichens. The completeness of inventories thus largely depends on the expertise of the collector, time available for the survey and size of the studied area. Molecular methods of surveying biodiversity hold the promise to overcome these challenges. DNA barcoding of individual lichen specimens and bulk collections is already being applied; however, eDNA methods have not yet been evaluated as a tool for lichen surveys. Here, we assess which species of lichenised fungi can be detected in eDNA swabbed from bark surfaces of living trees in central European forests. We compare our findings to an expert floristic survey carried out in the same plots about a decade earlier. In total, we studied 150 plots located in three study regions across Germany. In each plot, we took one composite sample based on six trees, belonging to the species Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris. The eDNA method yielded 123 species, the floristic survey 87. The total number of species found with both methods was 167, of which 48% were detected only in eDNA, 26% only in the floristic survey and 26% in both methods. The eDNA contained a higher diversity of inconspicuous species. Many prevalent taxa reported in the floristic survey could not be found in the eDNA due to gaps in molecular reference databases. We conclude that, currently, eDNA has merit as a complementary tool to monitor lichen biodiversity at large scales, but cannot be used on its own. We advocate for the further development of specialised and more complete databases. Key words: Assessment, biodiversity, bioindicators, conservation, databases, floristic survey, identification, inventory, metabarcoding, monitoring.
36569Bolognini G. (1993): Records of Lecanora species (lichens) from Italy. - Bollettino della Società Adriatica di Scienze Naturali, Trieste, 73: 15–28. .
A revision of the material of the genus Lecanora (Lichens) in TSB was carried out by the author. 32 species are reported from Italy, with particular regard to the poorly known L. subfusca complex. Many records are new to several Italian regions. Two species (L. cinereofusca and L. soralifera) are new to Italy.
36568Simko P., Leskanicova A., Suvakova-Nunhart M., Koval J., Zidekova N., Karasova M., Majerova P., Verboova L., Blicharova A., Kertys M., Barvik I., Kovac A. & Kiskova T. (2024): The first in vivo study shows that gyrophoric acid changes behavior of healthy laboratory rats. - International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 25(12): 6782 [21 p.] . https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25126782.
Gyrophoric acid (GA), a lichen secondary metabolite, has attracted more attention during the last years because of its potential biological effects. Until now, its effect in vivo has not yet been demonstrated. The aim of our study was to evaluate the basic physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of GA, which are directly associated with its biological activities. The stability of the GA in various pH was assessed by conducting repeated UV-VIS spectral measurements. Microsomal stability in rat liver microsomes was performed using Ultra-Performance LC/MS. Binding to human serum albumin (HSA) was assessed using synchronous fluorescence spectra, and molecular docking analysis was used to reveal the binding site of GA to HSA. In the in vivo experiment, 24 Sprague-Dawley rats (Velaz, Únetice, Czech Republic) were used. The animals were divided as follows. The first group (n = 6) included healthy males as control intact rats (♂INT), and the second group (n = 6) included healthy females as controls (♀INT). Groups three and four (♂GA/n = 6 and ♀GA/n = 6) consisted of animals with daily administered GA (10 mg/kg body weight) in an ethanol-water solution per os for a one-month period. We found that GA remained stable under various pH and temperature conditions. It bonded to human serum albumin with the binding constant 1.788 × 106 dm3mol−1 to reach the target tissue via this mechanism. In vivo, GA did not influence body mass gain, food, or fluid intake during the experiment. No liver toxicity was observed. However, GA increased the rearing frequency in behavioral tests (p
36567Büdel B. (2024): Symbioses. - In: Büdel B., Friedl T. & Beyschlag W. (eds), Biology of Algae, Lichens and Bryophytes, p. 385–473, Springer Spektrum, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-65712-6_6.
Chapter in book
36566Büdel B. & Friedl T. (2024): Algae from primary endosymbioses. - In: Büdel B., Friedl T. & Beyschlag W. (eds), Biology of Algae, Lichens and Bryophytes, p. 101–217, Springer Spektrum, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-65712-6_4.
Chapter in book
36565Büdel B. (2024): Cyanobacteria/Blue-green algae. - In: Büdel B., Friedl T. & Beyschlag W. (eds), Biology of Algae, Lichens and Bryophytes, p. 25–99, Springer Spektrum, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-65712-6_3.
Chapter in book
36564de Vries J. & Friedl T. (2024): Endosymbioses: Origin and diversity of photosynthetic eukaryotes and their general genetic exchange modes. - In: Büdel B., Friedl T. & Beyschlag W. (eds), Biology of Algae, Lichens and Bryophytes, p. 9–23, Springer Spektrum, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-65712-6_2.
Chapter in book
36563Büdel B. & Friedl T. (2024): Introduction: The New Cryptogams. - In: Büdel B., Friedl T. & Beyschlag W. (eds), Biology of Algae, Lichens and Bryophytes, p. 1–8, Springer Spektrum, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-65712-6_1.
Chapter in book
36562Büdel B., Becker U., Follmann G. & Sterflinger K. (2020): Algae, Fungi, and Lichens on Inselbergs. - In: Porembski S. & Barthlott W. (eds), Inselbergs. Ecological Studies, vol. 146, p. 69–90, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-59773-2_5.
Chapter in book. [Conclusion: ] It is not clear whether the biofilms of the bare rock of inselbergs are old communities, but there are many reasons to believe so. First of all, cyanobacteria are the oldest organisms on earth, possessing oxygenic photosynthesis, which, in many species, is combined with the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. The second is the ability of cyanobacteria, as well as of cyanolichens, to withstand long periods of drought in a dehydrated state, showing no measurable signs of activity or energy consumption. Since the discovery of Taylor et al. (1995), we know that cyanolichens are at least 400 Ma old. It might therefore have well been that cyanolichens, together with cyanobacteria, dominated rock surfaces for a long period of time before they became out-competed by more efficient eukaryotic photosynthesizers. As a result, we find them today in habitats which are not convenient for modern algae, mosses, and higher plants. Ancient cyanobacteria and cyanolichens, with their ability to weather rock, might have contributed to soil formation, a necessary step in accommodating larger terrestrial plants. Many rock faces which are thought to be completely bare of life are thought to be extreme in conditions for life; but they are not naked; instead, they are inhabited by a community of historically "old" primary producers, of which we do not know how much they contribute to the Earth's CO2 sink. The discovery of new species shows us that even the species number of the biofilms and the vegetation patterns are only poorly understood. Further investigations will focus on this topics. In the present work, we have tried to give a first overview on species composition and ecology of biofilms of rocks on inselbergs, and with this we hope to bring the vividly living community to the awareness of the readers.
36561Baniya C.B., Shrestha K.K. & Chongbang T.B. (2024): Patterns of lichen richness across elevation in the Manaslu Conservation Area, central Nepal. - Nepal Journal of Botany, 1(1): 16–24. https://doi.org/10.3126/njob.v1i1.66511.
This study investigates the distribution of lichen richness along elevation gradients in the Manaslu Conservation Area, Central Nepal. A total of 95 lichen species, belonging to 40 genera and 18 families were recorded. The dominant growth forms were foliose, fruticose, crustose, and squamulose. Corticolous lichens were the most prevalent, followed by saxicolous, terricolous, and muscicolous species. Among the families, Parmeliaceae exhibited the highest species diversity, followed by Cladoniaceae. A hump-shaped relationship between elevation and lichen species richness was observed, with the peak occurring at approximately 3000 meters in the Manaslu Conservation Area. This pattern aligns with similar findings in other mountainous regions worldwide, indicating optimal growth conditions in the mid-elevation range. Contrasting lichen richness patterns with other regions in Nepal underscored the influence of broader environmental factors. The dominance of the Parmeliaceae and Cladoniaceae families highlights their ecological importance in shaping the lichen community structure. These findings have implications for lichen conservation and management strategies. Preserving the unique environmental conditions and microhabitats within the peak elevation range is crucial for maintaining lichen diversity. Further research is necessary to comprehend the underlying ecological processes and guide targeted conservation efforts. Keywords: Climate, Forest, hump-shaped, Species richness, Unimodal.
36560Codogno M., Lausi D. & Nimis P. L. (1985): Correlation between floristic and structural features of plant communities, an example concerning litophytic vegetation in the Julian Alps (NE-Italy). - Bollettino della Società Adriatica di Scienze, Trieste, 58: 31–44. .
This study is based on a set of 37 phytosociological relevés of lithophytic vegetation taken in the Western Julian Alps, which has been submitted to multivariate analysis. The results indicate that six vegetation types have been identified based on floristic composition. Floristic variation and vegetation types are related to two main parameters: type of substrate and potential solar irradiation. These two main ecological factors are also related to structural variation, with differences in potential solar irradiation being more important than differences in substrate in terms of structural variation. A high correlation exists between floristic and structural variation, and structural variation is highly predictive with respect to typification
36559Eichler M. & Cezanne R. (2024): Neue Publikationen die Flechtenflora Mitteleuropas betreffend. Zehnte Folge. - Herzogiella, 11: 27–36. https://blam-bl.de/images/Herzogiella/Herzogiella_2024/M._Eichler_und_R._Cezanne._Neue_Publikationen_die_Flechtenflora_MItteleuropas_betreffend_-_Zehnte_Folge.pdf.
Bibliography, Central Europe
36558Cezanne R. & Eichler M. (2024): Wiederfund von Marchantiana asserigena in Deutschland. - Herzogiella, 11: 54–58. https://blam-bl.de/images/Herzogiella/Herzogiella_2024/R._Cezanne_und_M._Eichler._Wiederfund_von_Marchantiana_asserigena_in_Deutschland.pdf.
Rediscovery of Marchantiana asserigena in Germany after more than one hubdred years [in German]
36557Brackel W. von & Stapper N. (2024): Flechte und Moos des Jahres 2024. - Herzogiella, 11: 84–89. https://blam-bl.de/images/Herzogiella/Herzogiella_2024/W._von_Brackel_und_N._Stapper._Flechte_und_Moos_des_Jahres_2024.pdf.
Presentation of the lichen and moss of the year 2024 [in German]
36556Aptroot A. (2024): Xanthoparmelia vicentei reported for the first time from central Europe from Luxembourg. - Herzogiella, 11: 52–53. https://blam-bl.de/images/Herzogiella/Herzogiella_2024/A._Aptroot._Xanthoparmelia_vicentei_reported_for_the_first_time_from_central_Europe_from_Luxembourg.pdf.
The lichen Xanthoparmelia vincentei is reported for the first time from central Europe from Luxembourg. The identity was confirmed by an almost 100% conguence in ITS sequence, but it differs from the type by the lower surface which is not yet black. This paper is meant to atract attention to the possibility that this species is more widespread in central Europe; it may have been confused with X. angustiphylla, or even been discarded as small and incomplete specimens of the common X. conspersa.
36555Яцына А.П. & Мороз Е.Л. [Yatsyna A.P. & Moroz E.L.] (2024): Лишайники и миксомицеты дубрав Национального парка «Беловежская пуща» (Республика Беларусь) [Lichens and myxomycetes of oak forests of the National Park Belovezhskaya Pushcha (Republic of Belarus)]. - Разнообразие растительного мира [Diversity of plant world], 2(21): 24–37. DOI: 10.22281/2686-9713-2024-2-24-37.
[in Belarussian with English abstract: ] As a result of the research conducted in 2016–2018, the authors compiled a list of lichens, closely related fungi and myxomycetes of oak forests of the National Park «Belovezhskaya Pushcha». The annotated list contains 188 taxa: 130 species of lichens, 51 species of myxomycetes, 3 saprotrophic non-lichenized and 4 lichenicolous fungi. For the first time, 6 species of lichens Lecanora expallens, Micarea byssacea, M. microareolata, M. soralifera, Parmelia ernstiae, Usnea intermedia and 51 species of myxomycetes are listed for the territory of the Belovezhskaya Pushcha. Lichen species included in the Red Data Book of Belarus are noted in the oak forests: Calicium adspersum, Cetrelia cetrarioides, Chaeno-theca chlorella, C. gracilenta, Lobaria pulmonaria, Menegazzia terebrata, Peltigera horizontalis and Usnea ceratina. 37 species belong to the indicator lichens of old-age oak forests. Keywords: biodiversity, lichen biota, myxomycetes, oak forests, specially protected natural areas, Belarus.
36554Schrijvers-Gonlag M. & van Dort K. (2023): A synopsis of bryophyte-lichen syntaxa in the Netherlands. - Lindbergia, 2023: e24635 [29 p.]. https://doi.org/10.25227/linbg.24635.
We present a first complete overview of the bryophyte-lichen syntaxa in the Netherlands, including diagnostic species and Red List status of vegetations representing each (sub)association. The classification is based on more than 5000 Dutch vegetation relevés, the majority recorded after the year 2000. Whenever appropriate, we integrated bryophyte and lichen syntaxonomy. The Dutch list of bryolichenosociological units consists of 168 syntaxa: 16 classes, 27 orders, 37 alliances, 82 associations and 6 subassociations. We present synoptic tables of 13 newly described syntaxa: two alliances, nine associations and two subassociations. Finally, we present ranges of the abiotic habitat variables moisture, light availabilty, nutrient richness and acidity on class level, based on estimated values of diagnostic species of individual associations in each class. Keywords: Bryophytes, lichens, syntaxonomy, phytosociology, bryolichenosociology, the Netherlands.
36553Knudsen K., Kocourková J. & Nimis P.L. (2024): Acarospora crozalsii (Lichenized Ascomycetes, Acarosporaceae), to be re-instated in the Italian lichen flora . - Borziana , 5: 41–45. https://doi.org/10.7320/Borziana.005.041.
Some samples collected in Liguria by Camillo Sbarbaro and identified as Acarospora crozalsii, a species which in the past was often synonymised with A. complanata, were analysed. The species, for which a description is provided, is a Mediterranean silicicolous lichen, known from North Africa (Algeria), southern France and Italy. It differs from the similar A. helvetica in the euamyloid hymenial gel and the thinner parathecium, and should be re-instated in the list of lichens known from Italy. Key words: Acarospora, Italy, silicicolous, Mediterranean.
36552Aptroot A. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2024): New species and records of tropical microlichens from Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Madagascar and Papua New Guinea. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 69(1): 53–68. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2024-0006.
The following tropical microlichen species are described new to science: Acanthotrema sorediatum from Brazil, Coenogonium megasporum from Papua New Guinea, Glaucotrema inspersum from Brazil, Glaucotrema negativum from Brazil, Micarea resinoides from Papua New Guinea, Micarea viridibotryoides from Papua New Guinea, Myriotrema defectofrondosum from Brazil, Ocellularia suprafricana from Brazil, Ocellularia uniseptatoides from Brazil, and Piccolia perithecioidea from Argentina. Some other species are reported new to Argentina, Brazil or one of more of its states, Ecuador, Madagascar and/or Papua New Guinea. Key words: Acanthotrema, Coenogonium, Glaucotrema, Micarea, Myriotrema, Ocellularia, Piccolia.
36551Dengler J., Biurrun I. & Dembicz I. (2021): Standardised EDGG methodology for sampling grassland diversity: second amendment. - Palaearctic Grasslands, 49: 22–26. DOI: 10.21570/EDGG.PG.49.22-26.
The EDGG methodology of sampling multi-scale biodiversity in grasslands and other open habitats is widely applied and has proven to be a highly informative and effective way of recording high-quality data allowing for a multitude of different analyses. Based on our experiences with sampling, storing and analysing such data, here we propose three additions to the protocol: (1) We recommend to record also 1000-m² plots in addition to the hitherto seven standard grain sizes of 0.0001–100 m², as 1000 m² is a standard grain size in many international studies. (2) Recording species cover also for grain sizes larger than 10 m² (where hitherto only presence-absence was recorded) can be done efficiently by noting these values only for the additional species in the larger plot and for those that show a strong deviation from the average of the two 10-m² plots. (3) Finally, sampling biomass is valuable for analyses of the productivity/disturbance and of nutrient limitations. Both aspects can be covered by harvesting aboveground biomass in two random subplots of 20 cm x 20 cm (0.08 m² in total) and fractioning the material into necromass, living bryophytes and lichens, living herbs and living woody species. While Addition 2 hardly requires any additional time and thus should be implemented always, Additions 1 and 3 come with significant addition-al effort, which normally pays off, but suggests that in case of time limitations they might be restricted to a representative subset of plots in a study. Keywords: biodiversity monitoring; biomass; cover estimate; EDGG Biodiversity Plot; grassland; multi-scale; nutrient limitation; open vegetation; productivity; scale dependence; standardised sampling; vegetation sampling.
36550Boch S., Dembicz I., Keller C. & Dengler J. (2024): Cladonia homosekikaica Nuno new to Sweden – a cup lichen found in the grey dunes of Gotland. - Palaearctic Grasslands, 61: 14–17. DOI: 10.21570/EDGG.PG.61.14-17.
While sampling the vegetation of the semi-natural grasslands with the EDGG standard methodology on the Swedish island of Gotland, the terricolous lichen species Cladonia homosekikaica Nuno from the C. pyxidata-chlorophaea complex was found in 2022. This is the first record of this species from Sweden. We provide here detailed information on its differentiation from similar Cladonia species, characterize its overall distribution and its site conditions on Gotland. The new locality is far away from the next occurrences, which are mainly in southern Europe, with isolated records in Iceland and Finland. The vegetation type was a nutrient-poor sandy grassland near the coast, belonging to the association Festucetum polesicae (alliance: Koelerion glaucae, order: Sedo acris-Festucetalia, class: KoelerioCorynephoretea canescentis). The overall distribution of Cladonia homosekikaica indicates that the species is slightly xero-thermophilous and occurs in slightly acidic grasslands. It thus might be found in other sandy dry grasslands around the Baltic Sea. Keywords: Chemotype; Cladonia homosekikaica; Cladonia pyxidata-chlorophaea complex; Festucetum polesicae; first record; Gotland; grey dune; Koelerion glaucae; sandy grassland; Sweden.
36549Armstrong R.A. (2024): Ecology of Lichens on Rock Surfaces. - , . https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.14544.07687.
Rock surfaces are one of the more extreme habitats for the development of a lichen ecosystem. By following the life cycle stages of lichens colonizing rock surfaces, this review discusses the progress made over the last 50 years in understanding the ecology of lichens on rock. First, dispersal, attachment, and establishment of lichens are hazardous processes but nevertheless, colonization of many rock surface appears highly efficient. Second, growth to maturity is influenced by many environmental factors including overall climate, local microclimatic conditions, and factors associated with the substratum such as rock type, chemistry, aspect, slope, texture, and degree of weathering. Third, lichens are 'stress-tolerant' rather than 'competitive' organisms, but they compete for space on rock surfaces and such interactions are important in determining which species will become predominant. Hence, despite the hazards of life on rock, lichens successfully develop diverse and dynamic ecosystems. To understand and preserve these ecosystems will require further experimentation as many fundamental ecological processes that occur on rock surfaces are poorly documented. Rock surfaces, Establishment, Growth, Competition, Environmental factors
36548Adamson C., McCabe S., Warke P.A., McAllister D. & Smith B.J. (2013): The influence of aspect on the biological colonization of stone in Northern Ireland. - International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 84: 357-366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2012.05.023.
The rate and type of biological colonization of stone is influenced by a wide array of environmental factors in addition to substrate characteristics. A series of experiments was designed to compare the rate and type of biological colonization of stone at varying locations over a 21-month time period. Exposure trials were set up at nine different sites across Northern Ireland that covered a wide variety of environmental conditions. To determine aspect-related differences in colonization, blocks of Peakmoor sandstone and Portland limestone were placed on the north- and south-facing sides of purpose-designed exposure racks. Colorimetry and visual analysis were carried out on collected samples at increasing time intervals. Results showed significantly different rates of darkening and greening over time between north-facing and south-facing blocks, for both sandstone and limestone. This difference is likely to be representative of the fact that in Northern Ireland's wet climate and northern-latitude position, the north face of a building will receive less direct sunlight. Therefore north-facing blocks, once wet, will remain damp for much longer than blocks on other façades. This slow-drying phenomenon is much more hospitable for biological colonization and continued growth than the hostile environment of rapid wetting and drying cycles experienced on the south face. Stone exposure trials were used to investigate the role of aspect and wetting in biocolonization. Darkening and greening of exposed sandstone occurred within a matter of months. North-facing blocks were consistently and significantly more soiled than south-facing. Considerable inter-site soiling variation was observed. Aspect, Colonization, Greening, Sandstone, Algae
36547Schwabe A., Cezanne R., Eichler M. & Storm C. (2024): Kontinuierliche Dauerflächen-Untersuchungen in beweideten und unbeweideten Sandrasen und ihren Gebüschstadien im Naturschutzgebiet „Griesheimer Düne und Eichwäldchen“ (Südhessen): floristisch-strukturelle Veränderungen in bis zu 23 Vegetationsperioden. - Botanik und Naturschutz in Hessen , 36: 119–163. .
[in German] phytosociology, terricolous lichens included
36546Voitk A., Saar I., Burzynski M. & Corriol G. (2024): The Arrhenia peltigerina complex—preliminary report. - Botany, 102: 248–267. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjb-2023-0138.
Phylogenetic study of Arrhenia peltigerina revealed a complex of seven divergent clades. Type specimens of Agaricus peltigerinus and Omphalina cupulatoides fell into separate clades; the latter was recombined as Arrhenia cupulatoides. Four clades were described as new species: Arr. baltica, Arr. fennoscandica, Arr. mohniensis, and Arr. talpoides; the fifth, with only a single specimen, was left formally undescribed. These cryptic species are uncommon——more so in North America than Scandinavia——and collections are often misidentified. Spore measurements separated Arr. baltica from the others by its narrower spores; average measurements help separate some species a bit better than ranges. So far, Arr. peltigerina was found only in North America, Arr. mohniensis and Arr. talpoides in both Europe and North America, and the remainder only in Europe. The host species of Peltigera was Peltigera hymenina for Arr. cupulatoides, Peltigera rufescens for Arr. baltica, and varied for the others. All but one collection came from soil over calcareous bedrock. Small sample size does not permit assigning high confidence to noted interspecific differences; these await confirmation by greater experience from future study. Key words: ITS, Hygrophoraceae, taxonomy.
36545Glueck D., Schiefelbein U. & Schubert H. (2024): Ecological impacts of coastal protection on the vegetation of sandy coasts at the German Baltic Sea coast. - Coasts, 4(2): 437–453. https://doi.org/10.3390/coasts4020022 .
Sand nourishments and groynes as coastal protection measures (CPM) address similar challenges on sandy coasts but take different approaches: while groynes are intended to reduce alongshore sediment transport and erosion, nourishments add new sediment to the system to compensate for erosion. The aim of this study is to compare the ecological effects of such measures on the vegetation. To this end, nutrient analysis and botanical mappings were carried out on a site with installed groynes, a site where sand nourishments are regularly carried out, and a control site without any CPM. In addition to an increase in nutrient availability after the sand nourishment, significant changes in plant species diversity and composition were also measured. The number of higher plants, mosses, and lichen species was lower at the nourishment site. The opposite impacts were observed at the groyne site: an increase in sediment cover by higher plants and mosses and a distinct increase in lichen species. The results suggest that groynes lead to a stabilization of the coastal system and enable dense vegetation growth. In contrast, sand nourishments lead to nutrient input and unstable habitat conditions, attracting certain plant communities but preventing the establishment of ground-covering vegetation. Keywords: sand nourishment; nutrient concentration; biodiversity; dune vegetation.
36544Bell-Doyon P., Mazerolle M.J., Bélanger L., Fenton N.J. & Villarreal A. J.C. (2024): Differential impact of clearcut and insect outbreak on boreal lichens and bryophytes 50 years after disturbance. - Biological Conservation, 295: 110672 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2024.110672.
Lichens and bryophytes are ubiquitous in terrestrial habitats, sensitive to environmental changes, and they contribute to ecosystem functions and biogeochemical cycles. Intact forest ecosystems host distinct biotic communities that are associated with microhabitat and structural diversity at stand and landscape scales. In the boreal region of eastern Canada, insect outbreaks and clearcutting (the dominant timber harvesting method) are common disturbances. However, while insect outbreaks from native species can maintain ecological continuity, clearcutting disrupts it and homogenizes forest structure. We compared lichen and bryophyte communities between old-growth forest stands and 50 years-old stands regenerated from clearcuts and insect outbreaks. From these communities, liverwort and deadwood specialist species richness was higher in insect outbreak and old-growth than in clearcut forest stands. Stand type explained 10.3 % and 7.0 % of the variability observed in liverwort and deadwood specialist community composition, respectively. Clearcut stands were responsible for most of this variability since communities had less unique species and lacked some of the most common species found in old-growth and insect outbreak stands. Indeed, many species associated with deadwood and ecological continuity appeared unable to recolonize forest stands between planned intervals of clearcut rotations (i.e. ~50 to 60 years in our study area). However, deadwood volume did not differ between stand types and could not explain any part of the observed variability in the composition of communities. We suggest that forests regenerating from insect outbreaks are a suitable alternative for biological conservation in regions where old-growth forests are rare, especially for liverworts and deadwood specialists. Keywords: Boreal conservation; Calicioid; Cryptogam; Extinction debt; Forest management; Natural disturbance.
36543Panov A., Prokushkin A., Korets M., Putilin I., Zrazhevskaya G., Kolosov R. & Bondar M. (2024): Variation in soil CO2 fluxes across land cover mosaic in typical tundra of the Taimyr Peninsula, Siberia. - Atmosphere, 15(6): 698 [20 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15060698.
Increased warming in the Arctic is of great concern. This is particularly due to permafrost degradation, which is expected to accelerate microbial breakdown of soil organic carbon, with its further release into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2). The fine-scale variability of CO2 fluxes across highly mosaic Arctic tundra landscapes can provide us with insights into the diverse responses of individual plant communities to environmental change. In the paper, we contribute to filling existing gaps by investigating the variability of CO2 flux rates within different landscape units for dominant vegetation communities and plant species across typical tundra of the southern part of the Taimyr Peninsula, Siberia. In general, the variability of soil CO2 flux illustrates a four-fold increase from non-vascular vegetation, mainly lichens and mosses (1.05 ± 0.36 µmol m−2 s−1), towards vascular plants (3.59 ± 0.51 µmol m−2 s−1). Barren ground (“frost boils”) shows the lowest value of 0.79 ± 0.21 µmol m−2 s−1, while considering the Arctic “browning” phenomenon, a further substantial increase of CO2 flux can be expected with shrub expansion. Given the high correlation with top soil temperature, well-drained and relatively dry habitats such as barren ground and non-vascular vegetation are expected to be the most sensitive to the observed and projected temperature growth in the Arctic. For mixed vegetation and vascular species that favor wetter conditions, soil moisture appears to play a greater role. Based on the modeled seasonal pattern of soil CO2 flux and precipitation records, and applying the rainfall simulations in situ we outlined the role of precipitation across enhanced CO2 emissions (i.e., the “Birch” effect). We found that a pulse-like growth of soil CO2 fluxes, observed within the first few minutes after rainfall on vegetated plots, reaches 0.99 ± 0.48 µmol m−2 s−1 per each 1 mm of precipitation, while barren ground shows 55–70% inhibition of CO2 emission during the first several hours. An average additive effect of precipitation on soil CO2 flux may achieve 7–12% over the entire growing season, while the projected increased precipitation regime in the Arctic may strengthen the total CO2 release from the soil surface to the atmosphere during the growing season. Keywords: climate; Arctic; tundra; vegetation; carbon dioxide; chamber measurements.
36542Farkas E., Kirika P.M., Szabó K. & Muhoro A.M. (2024): Concentration data of (+)-usnic acid enantiomer from some European and African samples of Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale (Parmeliaceae, lichenised Ascomycota) – results of a preliminary study. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 45(7): 71–82. https://doi.org/10.5252/cryptogamie-mycologie2024v45a7.
The usnic acid, cortical pigment, is generally known to protect lichens from extreme radiation. According to earlier studies, the parmelioid lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale contains (+)-usnic acid. Since the production of lichen secondary metabolites – like other physiological activities – is influenced by environmental conditions, we assumed that macroclimatic differences in temperature, radiation and humidity in European and African habitats resulted in differences in the concentrations measured in samples of this species from various geographical areas. Therefore, we analysed samples representing populations in Hungary (17), Serbia (three), Kenya (eight) and Tanzania (two). Using a chiral chromatographic method, the presence of (+)-usnic acid was confirmed in thirteen of the aforementioned specimens, with concentrations ranging from 5.08 to 26.43 mg g–1 in European samples (12) and 20.27 mg g–1 in a sample from Kenya. The usnic acid content (mg g–1 dry weight) was measured by HPLC-PDA. The content of usnic acid shows a substantial variation in both continents, ranging from 5.21 to 19.23 mg g–1 in Europe and from 6.15 to 23.54 mg g–1 in Africa. The comparison between continents did not result in significant differences. This result can be explained by the supposedly similar microclimatic conditions of the habitats (within macroclimatically different sites) that are probably consistent with the specific niche requirements of F. caperata. Keywords: Hungary, Kenya, Serbia, Tanzania, chiral properties, chiral HPLC, HPLC-PDA, lichen-forming fungi, lichen secondary metabolite content.
36541Nimis P.L., Pittao E., Caramia M., Pitacco P., Martellos S. & Muggia L. (2024): The ecology of lichenicolous lichens: a case-study in Italy. - MycoKeys, 105: 253–266. https://doi. org/10.3897/mycokeys.105.121001.
This paper, with Italy as a case-study, provides a general overview on the ecology of lichenicolous lichens, i.e. those which start their life-cycle on the thallus of other lichens. It aims at testing whether some ecological factors do exert a positive selective pressure on the lichenicolous lifestyle. The incidence of some biological traits (photobionts, growth-forms and reproductive strategies) in lichenicolous and non-lichenicolous lichens was compared, on a set of 3005 infrageneric taxa potentially occurring in Italy, 189 of which are lichenicolous. Lichenicolous lichens have a much higher incidence of coccoid (non-trentepohlioid) green algae, crustose growth-forms and sexual reproduction. A matrix of the 2762 species with phycobionts and some main ecological descriptors was subjected to ordination. Lichenicolous lichens occupy a well-defined portion of the ecological space, tending to grow on rocks in dry, well-lit habitats where a germinating spore is likely to have a short life-span, at all altitudes. This corroborates the hypothesis that at least some of them are not true “parasites”, as they are often called, but gather the photobionts - which have already adapted to local ecological conditions - from their hosts, eventually developing an independent thallus. Key words: Algal theft, host, lichenised fungi, photobiont, sexual reproduction, symbioses.
36540Damasceno Junior G.A., Oliveira M.R., Alves F.M., da Silva R.H., Pott V.J., Spielmann A.A., Aptroot A., Pereira S.R.R.S., Batista S.G., da Silva L.E., Nakamura V.A. & Pott A. (2024): Legal boundaries and conservation: The case of Seasonally Dry Forests of the Serra da Bodoquena National Park, Brazil. - Acta Botanica Brasilica, 38: e20230010 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1590/1677-941X-ABB-2023-0010.
The Serra da Bodoquena National Park is an important protected area that promotes the conservation of a threatened ecosystem, the Dry Forest. It comprises two major fragments of predominantly Seasonally Dry Forest vegetation. The two fragments are under different protection schemes because they are considered different biomes. The southern fragment is considered part of the Atlantic Forest biome, and is thus protected by the Atlantic Forest Law, while the northern one is considered part of the Cerrado biome and is protected by the Native Vegetation Protection Law of Brazil (2012). This difference affects management and threatens the conservation of the National Park. The Native Vegetation Protection Law is more permissive, thus increasing the conflicts between the park and surroundings in the northern fragment. We used floristic composition to provide a more accurate definition for the two fragments with regard to their phytogeographical domain. Our results identified high floristic similarity between the fragments, indicating the same vegetation type for both. Among the 202 plant species identified in this study, 76% belong to the Atlantic Forest biome. This relatively high proportion indicates that the predominant vegetation and species composition of the National Park is typical of the Atlantic Forest. The occurrence of fragments of the Atlantic Forest, with a representative number of species of its flora outside the area of application of the law of the Atlantic Forest, defined by Decree No. 6.660 / 2008, indicates the need to elaborate or adapt the law to protect these fragments. Keywords: Atlantic Forest; environmental policy; environmental law; Neotropical forest; Protected Area; Seasonal Forest.
36539Christy A., Sequeira S., Anilkumar A. & Joseph S. (2024): Solenopsora rhizomorpha (Catillariaceae): A new lichen species from India. - Phytotaxa, 652(3): 241–245. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.652.3.6.
A new species of Solenopsora (Lichenized fungi), S. rhizomorpha from the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India, is described and illustrated, along with its distribution map. The species is characterized by small foliose-type thallus covered with white pruina, presence of rhizines, and lacking secondary metabolites. In addition, the genus Solenopsora is recorded in India for the first time. Key words: Lichenized Ascomycota, Western Ghats, Kerala, Eravikulam National Park, Mathikettan Shola National Park.
36538Galanina I.A., Kharpukhaeva T.M. & Poryadina L.N. (2024): Rinodina riparia (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) new to Eurasia from China and Russia. - Phytotaxa, 652(2): 165–170. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.652.2.9.
Rinodina riparia was described from North America. It is here recorded for the first time in Eurasia from China and Russia. The species was collected on rough bark, plant debris and wood partly buried in sand. The paper provides data on morphology and anatomy, ecology, and comparisons with closely related species of Rinodina riparia based on the studied sample. The worldwide distribution of the species is discussed. A key for identification of Rinodina riparia and other species with Dirinaria-type spores in Buryatia is given. Key words: biodiversity, biogeography, disjunctive species, lichens, new records, North‑East Asia.
36537Zulfiqar R., Habib K., Ashgar H.S., Wahab H., Sohrabi M., Paukov A.G., Ren Q. & Khalid A.N. (2024): A new species in the genus Circinaria (Lichenized Ascomycetes: Megasporaceae) from Pakistan. - Phytotaxa, 652(2): 124–132. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.652.2.4.
A crustose species Circinaria semicontorta is described here as new to science. It is characterized by a whitish areolate to subverrucose thallus with a thinning, cracked margin, not forming true lobes, areoles with raised whitish pseudocyphellae containing black ostioles of conidiomata, and long pycnoconidia, 12–25 μm. The phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequences confirms placing the new species within Circinaria. Key words: Dassu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Kohistan, Swat, phylogeny, taxonomy.
36536Gianguzzi L., Caldarella O., Campisi P., Ravera S., Scalenghe R. & Venturella G. (2024): Plant diversity in old-growth woods: the case of the forest edges of the Favorita Park in Palermo (north-western Sicily, Italy). - Plant Sociology, 61(1): 1–29. https//doi.org/10.3897/pls2024611/01.
This article presents the results of a study on plant diversity at different levels in residual forest stands, located in the historical Favorita Park in Palermo, Italy (established and named in 1799 by King Ferdinand IV of the House of Bourbon). These forest aspects have naturally evolved for over two centuries, under minimal conditions of anthropogenic disturbance (e.g. deforestation, fires, grazing activities, etc.). This is especially true in the area known as “Bosco Niscemi”, spread over about 8.5 hectares, in the centre of the park. Bosco Niscemi is characterized by the widespread presence of old trees, abundant necromass and litter. In this study, four different soil profiles were analysed, and classified as follows: (i) Solimovic Regosol (Arenic); ii) Eutric Arenosol (Chromic); (iii) and (iv) Skeletic Regosol (Ochric). From a phytosociological point of view, four forest communities have been identified, two of which are described as new associations (Viburno tini-Phillyreetum latifoliae ass. nova and Teucrio flavi-Phillyreetum latifoliae ass. nova). The species richness was also found to be noteworthy, with the co-occurrence of several taxa (phanerogams and cryptogams) that are of biogeographic interest or rare in Sicily, including: i) vascular flora (e.g. Viburnum tinus and Arbutus unedo, both very rare throughout the western sector of Sicily); ii) bryophytes [Cryphaea heteromalla (new record of a very rare species in Sicily) as well as Hypnum cupressiforme and Leptodon smithii, also never previously found at such low altitudes]; iii) lichens (e.g. Bacidia rosella, Gyalecta derivata, Ramalina roesleri and Waynea stoechadiana); iv) mushrooms (e.g. Eichleriella leucophaea, only known location in Italy). Based on the scientific documentation produced in this study, these woods can be reported as “old-growth forests” to be included in the “National Network” that has been recently established in Italy (Ministerial Decree of 23 June 2023). This area might serve as an ideal control for urban environmental studies, given its pristine ecological setting. Keywords: Conservation of biological diversity, forest ecosystems, monumental trees, old woods, pristine ecosystems, Quercetea ilicis, rare species.
36535Ravera S., Vizzini A., Puglisi M., Totti C., Angiolini C., Azzella M.M., Bacilliere G., Boccardo F., Bonini I., von Brackel W., Brusa G., Cavallaro V., Cancellieri L., Cannucci S., Cantonati M., De Giuseppe A.B., Di Nuzzo L., Dovana F., Fanfarillo E., Fiaschi T., Filibeck G., Francesconi L., Gheza G., Giordani P., Guttová A., Hafellner J., Isocrono D., Malíček J., Mayrhofer H., Miraglia G., Nascimbene J., Nimis P.L., Ongaro S., Pandeli G., Paoli L., Passalacqua N.G., Pinault P., Pistocchi C., Potenza G., Prosser F., Puntillo D., Puntillo M., Rosati L., Sicoli G., Tiburtini M., Tretiach M. & Zedda L. (2024): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 17. - Italian Botanist, 17: 23–41. https://doi.org/10.3897/italianbotanist.17.123283.
In this contribution, new data concerning algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the algal genera Chara and Nitella, the bryophyte genera Brachythecium, Didymodon, Fissidens, Physcomitrium, and Riccia, the fungal genera Biatoropsis, Cantharellus, Coprinellus, Dacrymyces, Inosperma, Nigropuncta, Urocystis, and Xanthoriicola, and the lichen genera Arthonia, Bellemerea, Circinaria, Lecania, Lecanora, Lecidella, Mycobilimbia, Naetrocymbe, Parmelia, Peltigera, Porpidia, Scytinium, and Usnea. Keywords: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Bryidae, Charophyceae, Ricciaceae.
36534Scheirer C.N., Miller W.R. & Miller J.D. (2024): Tardigrades of North America: Additions to Montana’s biodiversity including a new species, Platicrista loloensis nov. sp. (Parachela, Hypsibioidea, Itaquasconinae). - Diversity, 16(6): 334 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d16060334.
A total of 205 tardigrades representing two orders, five families, nine genera and ten species were extracted from a moss sample (104 tardigrades) and a lichen sample (101 tardigrades) collected near Missoula, Montana, in 2016. Three of the species are new to Montana and one is new to science, Platicrista loloensis nov. sp., which is distinguished by its smooth cuticle, the presence of internal cuticular bars at the base of the claws of legs II and III and a median cuticular bar between the claws of leg IV. Keywords: tardigrade; distribution; Montana; new species. [p. 3: ] "The species of tardigrades recovered were not uniformly distributed among the two samples representing two different types of habitats (Table 1). All three members of the family Hypsibiidae were found only in the moss. Three of five Macrobiotidae species were also found only in the moss. Mesobiotus harmsworthi sensu lato, known for its intercontinental distribution, was recovered from both the moss and lichen samples. Milnesium and Ramazzottius were found only in the lichen sample. No pattern of association among the species and their habitats can be determined with only two samples."
36533Sohrabi M., Paukov A., Pérez-Ortega S., Nourozi H., Fadaie H., Favero-Longo S.E., Talebian M.H. & de los Ríos A. (2024): Circinaria persepolitana (Megasporaceae), a new lichen species from historic stone surfaces in Persepolis, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Iran. - The Lichenologist, 56(2-3): 93-106. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0024282924000070.
Persepolis, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in south-western Iran, dates back to more than 2500 years ago, and is colonized by a great diversity of lichen-forming fungi. A survey of the lichen-forming fungi revealed a species abundant in different areas of the cultural site, which turned out to be a new species of the genus Circinaria. The new species, Circinaria persepolitana, is introduced and described on the basis of morphological and molecular data. Circinaria persepolitana is characterized by having a crustose thallus, rimose to areolate, usually with bullate areoles, with an olive green to olive-brown surface and angular to elongate areoles in the marginal zone. Phylogenetic analyses including other species of the genus showed that the new species is phylogenetically close to C. mansourii, C. ochracea and C. reptans. We propose a new combination of Circinaria reptans (Looman) Sohrabi, Owe-Larsson & Paukov. The bioweathering capacity of the new species was also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, examining the interface between the lichen thallus and the lithic substratum to assess its potential threat to the conservation of heritage surfaces. We found this species to be a potential biodeteriogenic agent, as thalli were closely attached to the lithic substratum and biogeophysical and biogeochemical changes at the rock surface could be associated with the colonization. Persia, biodeterioration, cultural heritage, lichens, lithobionts, microbial communities, new species
36532Sanders W.B., de los Ríos A. & Pérez-Ortega S. (2024): Chloroidium phycobionts (Watanabeales, Trebouxiophyceae) partner with lecanoralean mycobionts in foliicolous lichen communities of Tenerife (Canary Islands) and Navarra (Iberian Peninsula), Spain. - The Lichenologist, 56(2-3): 107-119. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0024282924000069.
While the diversity of foliicolous lichen-forming fungi has been explored in substantial depth, relatively little attention has been paid to their algal symbionts. We studied the unicellular green phycobionts of the lecanoralean lichens Bacidina (Ramalinaceae), Byssoloma, Fellhanera and Tapellaria (Pilocarpaceae) and graphidalean Gyalectidium (Gomphillaceae) from two extratropical foliicolous communities in continental Spain and the Canary Islands. We examined the pyrenoids of algal symbionts within thalli using TEM, and obtained several algal nrSSU and rbcL sequences from whole thalli, and also from cultures isolated from some of these lichens. Pyrenoid structure and molecular sequence data provided support for recognizing Chloroidium (Watanabeales, Trebouxiophyceae) as phycobiont in thalli of Byssoloma subdiscordans and Fellhanera bouteillei (Pilocarpaceae) in both communities. Bacidina apiahica (Ramalinaceae) and Tapellaria epiphylla (Pilocarpaceae) likewise appeared to partner with Chloroidium based on the presence of the same pyrenoid type, although we were able to obtain a phycobiont sequence only from a culture isolate of the latter. These results contrast with those obtained previously from a foliicolous lichen community in southern Florida, which revealed only strains of Heveochlorella (Jaagichlorella) as phycobiont of foliicolous Pilocarpaceae and Gomphillaceae. On the other hand, the pyrenoid we observed in the phycobionts associated with Gyalectidium setiferum and G. minus corresponded to that of Heveochlorella (Jaagichlorella). However, the poor quality of the phycobiont sequence data obtained from G. minus, probably due to the presence of epibiontic algae, could not provide additional perspective on the pyrenoid structure observations. Nonetheless, clear differences in pyrenoid ultrastructure can allow Chloroidium and Heveochlorella phycobionts to be distinguished from each other in TEM. Our results indicate a greater diversity of unicellular green-algal symbionts in foliicolous communities from Spain than previously observed in other geographical areas, and suggest that further studies focused on symbiont pairing in these communities might reveal distinctive and varied patterns of phycobiont preference. Heveochlorella, Jaagichlorella, photobiont, phycobiont, symbiosis
36531Ruprecht U., Avci F.N., Candan M. & Halıcı M.G. (2024): Two new species of the genus Lecidella (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota) from maritime Antarctica, southern South America and North America. - The Lichenologist, 56(2-3): 83-92. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0024282924000033.
Two new species of the genus Lecidella, one with a North American-maritime Antarctic distribution and one with a so far exclusively southern South American-maritime Antarctic distribution, are described using molecular and morphological tools. Lecidella ayazii is a species growing on soil and also on mosses and has so far been found on the Antarctic Peninsula, as well as in the alpine areas of the La Sal Mountains, Utah, USA and in the Kivalliq Region (Nunavut) in the north of Canada, whereas L. drakensis occurs mainly on siliceous rocks, rarely on mosses, and has been recorded on both sides of the Drake Passage in southern Patagonia and the Antarctic Peninsula. Phylogenetic analysis of the nrITS sequence data shows that both species belong in the L. elaeochroma clade, each forming a highly supported and distinct group. Furthermore, they also differ in morphological and chemical characters from the species described so far in this clade. In addition, five further accessions were recorded from the maritime Antarctic, which were placed in the cosmopolitan and heterogeneous L. stigmatea clade, of which one could be assigned to the bipolar species L. siplei. biodiversity, bipolar distribution, crustose lichens, subantarctic subregion, taxonomy
36530Poengsungnoen V., Nirongbut P., Buaruang K., Boonpragob K., Lumbsch H.T. & Polyiam W. (2024): Three new species of thelotremoid lichens (lichenized Ascomycota: Ostropales) with 15 new records of lichenized fungi from Thailand and a worldwide key to species of the genus Ampliotrema. - The Lichenologist, 56(2-3): 73-82. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0024282924000094.
Three new species of thelotremoid lichens, Ampliotrema subglobosum Poengs. & Lumbsch, Ocellularia lichexanthonica Poengs. & Lumbsch and O. saxiprotocetrarica Poengs. & Lumbsch, are described and illustrated based on specimens from southern Thailand. Ampliotrema subglobosum is similar to A. globosum but differs by having larger ascospores with more septa. Ocellularia lichexanthonica differs from O. subdolichotata in ascomata diameter and by containing lichexanthone. Ocellularia saxiprotocetrarica is similar to O. gentingensis in ascospore length and the number of ascospore septa but has narrower ascospores and contains protocetraric acid. Fifteen species are reported for the first time for Thailand: Austrotrema bicinctulum (Nyl.) I. Medeiros et al., Baeomyces heteromorphus Nyl. ex C. Bab. & Mitt., Chapsa niveocarpa Mangold, Chiodecton sphaerale Ach., Erythrodecton malacum (Kremp.) G. Thor, Lecanora subjaponica L. Lü & H. Y. Wang, Leucodecton subcompunctum (Nyl.) Frisch, Myriotrema concretum (Fée) Hale, M. neoterebrans Frisch, Ocellularia khasiana (Patw. & Nagarkar) Kraichak et al., O. upretii S. Joshi et al., Pseudotopeliopsis scabiomarginata (Hale) Parnmen et al., Sulzbacheromyces sinensis (R. H. Petersen & M. Zang) Dong Liu & Li S. Wang, Thelotrema diplotrema Nyl., and T. isidiophorum (Kremp.) Zahlbr. Ampliotrema globosum (Hale) Poengs. & Lumbsch is proposed as a new combination. The genus Erythrodecton G. Thor is a new genus for the lichen flora of Thailand. South-East Asia, biodiversity, taxonomy, tropical rainforest
36529Lebreton E., Ertz D., Lücking R., Simon A., Smith C. & Sérusiaux E. (2024): Further expansion of morphological variability in the Porinaceae (Ascomycota, Ostropales) with the placement of the enigmatic genus Gallaicolichen. - The Lichenologist, 56(2-3): 61-71. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0024282924000124.
The foliicolous lichen Gallaicolichen pacificus exhibits unique goniocystangia-like structures named peltidiangia and peltidia. Its taxonomic classification within the Ascomycota has been unclear due to the absence of ascomata and lack of molecular data. Here we clarify the phylogenetic affinities of Gallaicolichen pacificus by analyzing mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA (mtSSU) sequences obtained from specimens collected in New Caledonia. Ascomata and ascospores of G. pacificus, previously unknown, are described and illustrated for the first time. The results from the molecular and morphological analyses clearly indicate that Gallaicolichen pacificus belongs to the Porinaceae and is closely related to Porina guianensis. This is a remarkable extension of the already known, wide morphological diversity of thalli and diaspores produced within this family. Australasia, New Caledonia, foliicolous, goniocystangia, lichen, peltidiangia, phylogeny
36528Adhikari R., Ngangom R., Ingle K.K., Joseph S. & Nayaka S. (2024): New species and additional records in the lichen genus Malmidea from India. - The Lichenologist, 56(2-3): 47-59. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0024282924000082.
A detailed examination of Malmidea specimens deposited in the herbarium LWG and freshly collected samples resulted in the description of 10 new species. Malmidea glabromarginata has a finely verrucose thallus and granifera-type whitish apothecial margins. Malmidea globosa is characterized by having a strongly verrucose thallus with almost spherical warts and piperis-type apothecial margins. Malmidea incrassatispora has a thalline excipulum and ascospores with end wall thickenings. Malmidea kalbii has a thalline excipulum, dark brown to black apothecial discs and ascospores mostly < 15 μm in length. In Malmidea lutea the medulla of the thallus and verrucae is white to cream-coloured, with beige-coloured apothecial discs. Malmidea palghatensis has a thalline excipulum and with medulla of verrucae pink-coloured. Malmidea rubra has an irregularly verrucose thallus, with the medulla of verrucae orange-red and whitish apothecial margins. Malmidea subindica has light to dark orange-brown apothecial discs, 2–4-spored asci, and broadly ellipsoid ascospores mostly exceeding 30 μm in length. Malmidea upretii has prominent and confluent verrucae with an orange-red medulla, and ascospores exceeding 25 μm in length. Malmidea verrucosa has a characteristic whitish grey, densely verrucose thallus, dark reddish brown apothecial discs and contains atranorin. Additionally, seven species, viz. Malmidea fenicis (Vain.) Kalb et al., M. leptoloma (Müll. Arg.) Kalb & Lücking, M. piae (Kalb) Kalb, M. piperina (Zahlbr.) Aptroot & Breuss, M. reunionis Kalb, M. sulphureosorediata Cáceres et al. and M. vinosa (Eschw.) Kalb et al., are reported as new distributional records for the Indian lichen biota. The world key of Malmidea by Breuss & Lücking () has been updated with all the species discovered after 2015 by mentioning specific couplets. Himalaya, Lecidea, Malmideaceae, Sunderdhunga, biodiversity, piperis-type
36527Vijayakumar V.R., Rajendran P.J., Poornimaa M․, Ramanathan K․, Saha T., Das S. & Dharumadurai D. (2024): Structural geometry, electronic properties and pre-clinical evaluation of antibacterial compounds from lichen-associated Streptomyces mobaraensis DRM1 and Nocardiopsis synnemataformans DRM2. - Journal of Molecular Structure, 1312: 138561 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2024.138561.
Antibacterial compounds Phenol, 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) and Lupeol obtained from lichen-associated Streptomyces mobaraensis DRM1 and Nocardiopsis synnemataformans DRM2 respectively. The geometry, electronic properties and binding affinities of antibacterial compound Phenol, 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) and Lupeol was determined. The in silico molecular mechanics of bacterial growth inhibition by Phenol, 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) and Lupeol was established in Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Salmonella typhi by molecular docking, molecular simulation approach. The bacterial growth is inhibited by inactivating the vital enzyme PqsA and actin in bacterial system of Pseudomonas and Salmonella. The antibacterial compound produced by lichen associated actinobiont are adhere to Lipinski rule 5 and established criteria for drug likeness with the acceptable ADME properties and expand our understanding of their pharmacological approach. Further it also revels the adaptation and survival lichen in adverse climatic condition through the antimicrobials in lichen-associated actinobiont. Keywords: Phenol; 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl); Lupeol; Lichen; Actinobiont; NBO analysis; Molecular dynamic simulation.
36526Saikia P., Borah D., Debnath R., Gogoi D., Goswami K.J., Rout J., Ghosh N.N. & Bhattacharjee C.R. (2024): Green sustainable synthesis of Ag doped SnO2 decorated reduced graphene oxide hierarchical nanohybrid material: An excellent mesoporous catalyst for efficient reduction of nitroaromatics. - Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 12(4): 113137 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2024.113137.
A foliose lichen species, Lobaria retigera mediated environmentally sustainable, economically viable green synthesis procedure to access Ag doped SnO2 (Ag@SnO2) and hierarchical Ag doped SnO2 decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO-Ag@SnO2) nanohybrid material is reported. Carbohydrate, a primary metabolite present in the aqueous lichen extract is presumed to be responsible for the reduction and stabilization of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were mostly spherical with brid material. The reduction of nitroaromatics to amino-compounds were confirmed by UV–visible spectroscopy and LC-MS study. The recyclability of the catalysts were confirmed by performing repeated reduction reactions with virtually no loss of its catalytic features. BET study of the hybrid materials revealed a type IV with H3 hysteresis loop indicating a high mesoporous nature with significant extended surface area. The dispersed Ag doped rutile-SnO2 over rGO sheet could be clearly discerned from TEM and SEM micrographs. Elemental mapping distinctly revealed the homogeneous distribution of the constituent elements in the hybrid materials. Keywords: Green synthesis; RGO; Lobaria retigera; Nitroaromatics; Catalysis.
36525Chen R., Yin B., Yang W., Li J., Li Z., Zhang Y. & Chen J. (2024): Mapping the successional stages of biological soil crusts at 3-m resolution in the Gurbantunggut Desert, China through hydration-induced spectral response. - Remote Sensing of Environment, 310: 114230 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2024.114230.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are essential components of desert ecosystems and provide diverse ecological services that benefit both the environment and human society. Biocrusts exhibit varying ecological functions as they pass through several successional stages—cyanobacteria, lichens, semi-mosses, and mosses. Remote sensing has been widely applied to monitor the spatial and temporal distributions of biocrusts. However, previous efforts have focused primarily on identifying biocrusts while disregarding their distinct successional stages. Additionally, biocrusts remain dormant or inactive for most of the year, resulting in biocrusts at different successional stages with similar spectral characteristics, making them challenging to distinguish. Fortunately, biocrusts at different successional stages exhibit distinct spectral responses to hydration events. By leveraging imagery with high temporal (1-day) and spatial (3-m) resolutions from the PlanetScope constellation, this study attempts to map biocrust successional stages on a regional scale using transient spectral responses induced by a snowmelt event. We employed a two-stage mapping framework utilizing the random forest (RF) model. The aim of the first stage was to identify biocrusts, while the second stage was focused on mapping their distinct successional stages. The results showed that snowmelt induces noticeable changes in biocrust spectra, helping to distinguish between biocrusts and other background components and among different stages of biocrust succession. Our mapping framework achieved overall accuracies of 0.96 (252 out of 263 correctly identified samples) and 0.8 (85 out of 106 correctly identified) in the above two stages, respectively, highlighting its ability to delineate spatial patterns of successional stages across landscape and regional scales. This study lays a foundation for future in-depth exploration of desert ecosystem dynamics, including structure, ecological services, and responses to climate change and human activities. Furthermore, we suggest that event-induced spectral responses could improve classification accuracy, especially when spectral features are similar under general conditions. Keywords: Biological soil crusts; Successional stages; Hydration events; Spectral response; Random forest (RF) model.
36524Cometto A., Ametrano C.G., De Carolis R., Leavitt S.D., Grube M., Pallavicini A. & Muggia L. (2024): Highly heterogeneous mycobiota shape fungal diversity in two globally distributed lichens. - Fungal Ecology, 69: 101331 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2024.101331.
Lichens are multi-kingdom symbioses in which fungi, algae and bacteria interact to develop a stable selection unit. In addition to the mycobiont forming the symbiosis, fungal communities associated with lichens represent the lichen mycobiota. Because lichen mycobiota diversity is still largely unknown, we aimed to characterize it in two cosmopolitan lichens, Rhizoplaca melanophthalma and Tephromela atra. The mycobiota were investigated across a broad distribution using both a culture-dependent approach and environmental DNA metabarcoding. The variation of the mycobiota associated with the two lichen species was extremely high, and a stable species-specific core mycobiota was not detected with the methods we applied. Most taxa were present in a low fraction of the samples, and no fungus was ubiquitously present in either lichen species. The mycobiota are thus composed of heterogeneous fungi, and some taxa are detectable only by culture-dependent approaches. We suspect that lichens act as niches in which these fungi may exploit thallus resources and only a few may establish more stable trophic relationships with the major symbiotic partners. Keywords: Ascomycota; Basidiomycota; DNA metabarcoding; Ecology; Fungal community; Symbiosis.
36523Loureiro L., Morais J., Silva R., Martins J.T., Geada P., Vasconcelos V. & Vicente A.A. (2024): Isolation and identification of lichen photobionts collected from different environments in north of Portugal and evaluation of bioactivities of their extracts. - Foods, 13(11): 1759 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111759.
Lichens are organisms constituted by a symbiotic relationship between a fungus (mycobiont) and a photoautotrophic partner (photobiont). Lichens produce several bioactive compounds; however, the biotechnological exploitation of this organism is hampered by its slow growth. To start studying the possibility of exploiting lichens as alternative sources of bioactive compounds, eighteen lichens were collected in the north of Portugal in order to isolate and study the bioactivity of their photobionts. It was possible to isolate and cultivate only eight photobionts. Three of them, LFR1, LFA2 and LCF3, belong to the Coelastrella genus, the other two (LFA1 and LCF1) belong to the Chlorella genus and for the remaining three photobionts, LFS1, LCA1 and LCR1, it was impossible to isolate their microalgae. These only grow in consortium with bacteria and/or cyanobacteria. All extracts showed antioxidant activity, mainly at a concentration of 10 mg.mL−1. LFS1, a consortium extract, showed the highest antioxidant power, as well as the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (5.16 ± 0.53 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE).g−1). The extracts under study did not show significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Listeria or Salmonella. The Coelastrella sp. and LFA1 extracts showed the highest hyaluronidase inhibition. The LFR1 extract at a concentration of 5 mg.mL−1 showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity (79.77 ± 7.66%). The extracts of Coelastrella sp. and LFA1 also showed greater antidiabetic activity, demonstrating the high inhibitory power of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. LFR1 at a concentration of 5 mg.mL−1, due to its selective cytotoxicity inhibiting the growth of cancer cells (Caco-2 cells), is a promising anticancer agent. Keywords: lichens; photobionts; Coelastrella sp.; bioactivity; biotechnology.
36522Zhang Y., Wang W., Wang Y., Zhong C. & Hu L. (2024): Rhizocarpon sichuanense, a new species from Southwest China. - Guihaia, 44(4): 635–645. DOI: 10.11931/guihaia.gxzw202308033.
In this paper, we study in Rhizocarpon Ramond ex DC. species by the method of combining phenotypic characteristics (morphology, anatomy and chemistry) with genotypic characteristics (ITS sequence). The aims of this present paper are to clarify the status of some species and explore the relationship between phenotype and genotype in Rhizocarpon. During the study on Rhizocarpon species from southwest China, R. sichuanense Y. M. Zhang, L. Hu & W. C. Wang sp. nov. is described as a new species in this genus. The new species is morphologically similar to R. cinereonigrum Vain and R. sinense Zahlbr., which also produces brown thallus, medulla I-, 8-spored ascus and brown ascospores with 1-septa. But it can be distinguished by the scattered, areolate to subsquamulose thallus, a distinct black prothallus, large ascospores are [(27-)32-42.5] μm × [12.5-17.5(-20)] μm and the presence of barbatic acid is in the thallus. In phylogenetic trees, it is also similar to R. badioatrum (Flörke ex Spreng.) Th. Fr. which can be distinguished by the more continuous thallus with diffractaic acid or without secondary products, and the smaller spores [(23-36) μm ×(13-16) μm] than this new species. The phylogenic results are as follows: (1) The new species R. sichuanense belongs to badioatrum group which belongs to Rhizocarpon subg. Phaeothallus;(2)It is unsuitable to classify some groups only based on anatomical characteristics(spore size and separation type) in Rhizocarpon, the chemical characteristics should also be considered. In this paper, the achievement of ITS sequences provide the basic data for an establishment of a more reasonable and natural classification system. In addition, we provide high resolution pictures of morphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics as well as detailed descriptions of the new species. The key to the species of Rhizocarpon subg. Phaeothallus with 1-septa brown spore (Badioatrum group) in the world is also provided, which will provide basic data for the further studies in this group.
36521Jiang S. & Jia Z. (2024): A new species of the lichen genus Phaeophyscia (Physciaceae). - Guihaia, 44(4): 621–628. DOI:10.11931/guihaia.gxzw202312059.
Based on morphological, anatomical, chemical and molecular systematic methods, a taxonomic study was carried out on the lichen genus Phaeophyscia collected from Mount Tai. One species, P. taishanensis is reported as new to science. It is characterized by the following characters: white or hyaline cortical hairs sparsely on the upper surface of the marginal peripheral zones of the lobes; white medulla; black lower surface with sometimes white or pale brown ends; sparse cortical hairs occasionally on upper portion of thalline margin; and ascospores brown, Physcia-type, sized (18.0-20.5) μm × (9.0-10.0) μm. Based on phenotypical characteristics, the similarities and differences between the new species and similar species were discussed. the maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was constructed with ITS sequence, and the sequence analysis was carried out. A detailed morphological description and pictures of the characteristics of this new species are provided. The discovery of this new species has accumulated basic data for the study of Physciaceae biodiversity.
36520原田 浩 [Harada H.] (2024): 八重山諸島西表島の地衣類相 (1). 岩上生および樹皮着生マルゴケ属 (Porina)[Contributions to the lichen flora of Iriomote Island of Yaeyama Islands, Ryukyu Archipelago, southwesternmost Japan (1). Saxicolous and corticolous species of the genus Porina]. - Lichenology, 23: 53–72. .
[in Japanese, in part in English] Key words: lichenized Ascomycota, Asia, Okinawa, subtropical, biodiversity, new record.
36519Rethinavelu G., Manoharan L., Krishnamoorthy S., Baskaran N. & Sivanandham V. (2023): Edible lichens and its unique bioactives: A review of its pharmacological and food applications. - Food and Humanity, 1: 1598–1609. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foohum.2023.11.007.
Edible lichens are nutritious sources of health-promoting bioactive compounds utilized as ethnic foods and traditional medicine for ages and documented across universal pharmacopoeia. The nutritional, pharmacological and organoleptic features of lichen research are increasing, and new perspectives on its applications allow the development of novel functional foods and drugs. This review highlights the secondary metabolites of edible lichen, biological activities, and major applications in the pharma and food sectors. The potential of lichen as a natural factory for nanomaterial fabrication is discussed with prospective biological mechanisms. The food processing techniques reduce the native acerbity and bitterness in lichens and enhance the volatile flavour ingredients to support the development of new food formulations. Future research should envisage the edibility of lichens and in-depth molecular pharmacological mechanisms using multidisciplinary approaches and techniques that can potentially resolve the challenges in lichen consumption. Keywords: Edible lichen ; Bioactive compounds ; Food ; Nanoparticles ; Polysaccharide.
36518Tingstad L., Sandercock B. & Nybø S. (2024): Steep declines in radioactive caesium after 30 years of monitoring alpine plants in mountain areas of central Norway. - Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 272: 107352 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2023.107352.
The Chernobyl accident exposed large areas of northern Europe to radiocaesium (137Cs). We investigated temporal and spatial variation in concentrations of radiocaesium among five functional groups of alpine plants at two mountain areas in central Norway over a 31-year period from 1991 to 2022. Average concentrations of radiocaesium were initially high in lichens and bryophytes at around 4600–6400 Bq/kg dry weight during 1991–1994 but then decreased dramatically over three decades to current concentrations of ed with higher concentrations among non-vascular than vascular plants. Common heather Calluna vulgaris was unusual among woody plants with high concentration of radiocaesium, especially in the new shoots. Our new estimates of concentrations and dynamics of radiocaesium for alpine plants in natural environments will be useful for modelling herbivore exposure and evaluating potential impacts on wildlife and human health. Keywords: Chernobyl ;vPlant uptake ; Lichens ; Mosses ; Radiocaesium ; Time series ; Vascular plants.
36517Andrzejowska A., Hájek J., Puhovkin A., Harańczyk H. & Barták M. (2024): Freezing temperature effects on photosystem II in Antarctic lichens evaluated by chlorophyll fluorescence. - Journal of Plant Physiology, 294: 154192 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2024.154192.
This study explores and compares the limits for photosynthesis in subzero temperatures of six Antarctic lichens: Sphaerophorus globosus, Caloplaca regalis, Umbilicaria antarctica, Pseudephebe minuscula, Parmelia saxatilis and Lecania brialmontii combining linear cooling and chlorophyll fluorescence methods. The results revealed triphasic S-curves in the temperature response of the maximum quantum yield (FV/FM) and effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) for all species. All investigated species showed a high level of cryoresistance with critical temperatures (Tc) below −20 °C. However, record low Tc temperatures have been discovered for L. brialmotii (−54 °C for FV/FM and −40 °C for ΦPSII) and C. regalis (−52 °C for FV/FM and −38 °C for ΦPSII). Additionally, the yield differentials (FV/FM − ΦPSII) in functions of temperature revealed one or two peaks, with the larger one occurring for temperatures below −20 °C for the above-mentioned species. Finally, Kautsky kinetics were measured and compared at different temperatures (20 °C, 10 °C, 0 °C and −10 °C and then −10 °C after 1 h of incubation). This research serves as a foundation for further developing investigations into the biophysical mechanisms by which photosynthesis is carried out at subzero temperatures. Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence ; Linear cooling ; Antarctic lichens ; Kautsky kinetic ; Freezing tolerance ; Photosynthesis.
36516Zhou Z., Li G., Gao L., Zhou Y., Xiao Y., Bi H. & Yang H. (2024): Lichen pectin-containing polysaccharide from Xanthoria elegans and its ability to effectively protect LX-2 cells from H2O2-induced oxidative damage. - International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 265(1): 130712 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2024.130712.
Xanthoria elegans, a drought-tolerant lichen, is the original plant of the traditional Chinese medicine “Shihua” and effectively treats a variety of liver diseases. However, thus far, the hepatoprotective effects of polysaccharides, the most important chemical constituents of X. elegans, have not been determined. The aim of this study was to screen the polysaccharide fraction for hepatoprotective activity by using free radical scavenging assays and a H2O2-induced Lieming Xu-2 cell (LX-2) oxidative damage model and to elucidate the chemical composition of the bioactive polysaccharide fraction. In the present study, three polysaccharide fractions (XEP-50, XEP-70 and XEP-90) were obtained from X. elegans by hot-water extraction, DEAE-cellulose anion exchange chromatography separation and ethanol gradient precipitation. Among the three polysaccharide fractions, XEP-70 exhibited the best antioxidant activity in free radical scavenging capacity and reducing power assays. Structural studies showed that XEP-70 was a pectin-containing heteropolysaccharide fraction that was composed mainly of (1 → 4)-linked and (1 → 4,6)-linked α-D-Glcp, (1 → 4)-linked α-D-GalpA, (1 → 2)-linked, (1 → 6)-linked and (1 → 2,6)-linked α-D-Manp, and (1 → 6)-linked and (1 → 2,6)-linked β-D-Galf. Furthermore, XEP-70 exhibited effectively protect LX-2 cells against H2O2-induced oxidative damage by enhancing cellular antioxidant capacity by activating the Nrf2/Keap1/ARE signaling pathway. Thus, XEP-70 has good potential to protect hepatic stellate cells against oxidative damage. Keywords: Antioxidant activity ; Hepatic stellate cells ; Lichen ; Pectin ; Xanthoria elegans.
36515Winkler S., Beylich A.A., Laute K., Matthews J.A., Mourne R.W. & Wilson P. (2024): Implications of an Early Holocene climax in solifluction and related periglacial activity on Juvflye, Jotunheimen (southern Norway), as revealed by Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating. - Geomorphology, 458: 109247 [25 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2024.109247.
Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) was applied to ~180 medium- to large-scale solifluction features on the northern edge of Juyflye, Jotunheimen (southern Norway) using an electronic Schmidt-hammer (RockSchmidt) and an improved local SHD age-calibration equation. Age estimates from four different types of solifluction landforms were analysed and compared with those from recalibrated estimates from patterned ground previously investigated on Juvflye. Average SHD-age estimates are c. 9.8 and 9.3 ka for the two dominant morphological types of solifluction features (‘type A’ boulder tongues and ‘type B’ stone-banked solifluction lobes) and c. 8.6 ka for sorted stripes and circles. Our results indicate that active formation of all investigated types of solifluction features, sorted stripes, and sorted circles ceased in the Early Holocene, prior to the onset of the regional Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) at c. 7.7 ka. Formation of all of these periglacial landforms appears to have commenced shortly after local deglaciation (c. 11.4 ka) in water-saturated till. Alternative origins are rejected, including the possibility of development before the last glaciation, survival beneath cold-based glaciers, and exhumation in the Early Holocene. Cessation of activity is attributed to changing ground conditions affecting active layer processes, particularly reduced soil moisture and pore water pressure. Temporal variations of the altitudinal permafrost limits had little or no impact on the timing of either the Early Holocene climax in activity or subsequent stabilisation. Caution is therefore urged in the utilisation of large-scale solifluction and patterned ground landforms as palaeoclimatic indicators.
36514Liao K., Chen C., Ye W., Zhu J., Li Y., She S., Wang P., Tao Y., Lv A., Wang X. & Chen L. (2024): The adaptability, distribution, ecological function and restoration application of biological soil crusts on metal tailings: A critical review. - Science of the Total Environment, 927: 172169 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.172169.
A large amount of metal tailings causes many environmental issues. Thus, the techniques for their ecological restoration have garnered extensive attention. However, they are still in the exploratory stage. Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are a coherent layer comprising photoautotrophic organisms, heterotrophic organisms and soil particles. They are crucial in global terrestrial ecosystems and play an equal importance in metal tailings. We summarized the existing knowledge on BSCs growing on metal tailings. The main photosynthetic organisms (cyanobacteria, eukaryotic algae, lichens, and mosses) of BSCs exhibit a high heavy metal(loid) (HM) tolerance. BSCs also have a strong adaptability to other adverse conditions in tailings, such as poor structure, acidification, and infertility. The literature about tailing BSCs has been rapidly increasing, particularly after 2022. The extensive literature confirms that the BSCs distributed on metal tailings, including all major types of metal tailings in different climatic regisions, are common. BSCs perform various ecological functions in tailings, including HM stress reduction, soil structure improvement, soil nutrient increase, biogeochemical cycle enhancement, and microbial community restoration. They interact and accelerate revegetation of tailings (at least in the temperate zone) and soil formation. Restoring tailings by accelerating/inducing BSC formation (e.g., resource augmentation and inoculation) has also attracted attention and achieved small-scale on-site application. However, some knowledge gaps still exist. The potential areas for further research include the relation between BSCs and HMs, large-scale quantification of tailing BSCs, application of emerging biological techniques, controlled laboratory experiments, and other restoration applications.
36513Pouillé S., Talbot J., Tamalavage A.E., Kessler-Nadeau M.É. & King J. (2024): Impacts of Mineral Dust on Trace Element Concentrations (As, Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb) in Lichens and Soils at Lhù’ààn Mân’ (Yukon Territory, Canada). - Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 129(6): e2023JG007927 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1029/2023JG007927.
Dust is a mineral aerosol of the atmosphere that often contains trace elements such as As, Cd, and Pb. Lhù’ààn Mân’ (Kluane Lake), located in southwestern Yukon, is a region of frequent dust activity. In 2016, the lake level fell due to a dramatic decrease in inflow from glacier meltwater, and the delta of the lake became an important source of dust to surrounding ecosystems. To determine the impacts of dust deposition on vegetation and soil trace element concentrations and characteristics, we sampled the lichen Peltigera canina and soil layers at 57 sites along a deposition gradient located 1.4–33.6 km downwind from the principal dust source. Arsenic, Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb in lichens were negatively correlated with the distance away from the dust source, with the highest correlations in Ni and Pb (r2 = 0.50 and 0.48, respectively). Lichen and tree abundances were negatively impacted by dust deposition, suggesting that dust can affect ecosystem vegetation composition. Starting 8 km away from the dust source, the concentrations of As, Ni, and Pb decreased by more than 50% per km, while Cd and Cu concentrations decreased by more than 40% per km. Overall, within the sampled ecosystems, soil pH is 1.4 times higher in the first 8 km from the dust source while carbon content and nutrients are lower, which implies changes in nutrient availability and cycling in dust-affected ecosystems.
36512Vassilev K., Bergmeier E., Boch S., Pedashenko H., Sopotlieva D., Tsiripidis I., Apostolova I., Fotiadis G., Ganeva A., Genova B., Natcheva R., Pirini C., Shivarov V., Tichý L., Vrahnakis M. & Dengler J. (2024): Classification of the high-rank syntaxa of the Central and Eastern Balkan dry grasslands with a new hierarchical expert system approach. - Applied Vegetation Science, 27(2): e12779 [29 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12779.
Aims: Developing a hierarchical classification system for classes, orders and alliances of the diverse dry grasslands of the Central and Eastern Balkan Peninsula and translating this into an electronic expert system (ES) for the automatic assignment of plots. Location: Serbia, Kosovo, North Macedonia, Bulgaria and northern Greece. Methods: We extracted 5734 plots from the Balkan Dry Grassland Database corresponding to eight classes of dry grasslands reported from the region, using the EuroVegChecklist ES. This data set and later the plots within each derived subunit were subjected to a new numerical approach: starting with an initial partitioning (expert-interpreted TWINSPAN classification), diagnostic species were determined based on their phi-values for the target vegetation type and the differences in phi-values to the next similar types. These diagnostic species were fed into an ES to create a new partitioning, a procedure which was iterated until diagnostic species and species of the ES converged. Then the same approach was applied within each of the derived units to define the units of the next-lower level. Results: The iterative cluster optimisation (ICO) converged in all cases. The resulting hierarchical expert system (HES) classified 95% of all plots to alliances. We distinguished four classes with eight orders and 12 alliances: (1) Tuberarietea guttatae (Romuleion); (2) Stipo-Brachypodietea distachyi (Clinopodio alpini-Thymion striati); (3) Festuco-Brometea with Brachypodietalia pinnati (Chrysopogono-Danthonion calycinae and Cirsio-Brachypodion pinnati), Festucetalia valesiacae (Festucion valesiacae), an unnamed order of rocky steppes (with Pimpinello-Thymion zygioidis) and Koelerietalia splendentis (Centaureo-Bromion fibrosi, Saturejion montanae and Diantho haematocalycis-Festucion hirtovaginatae); (four) Koelerio-Corynephoretea with Sedo acris-Festucetalia (Festucion vaginatae) and Trifolio arvensis-Festucetalia ovinae (Armerio rumelicae-Potentillion and Minuartio montanae-Poion molinerii all. nov.). Conclusions: We created a unified hierarchical classification with an electronic ES using diagnostic species defined by phi-values. Our new approach (ICO-HES: iterative cluster optimisation for hierarchical expert systems) allows dividing large data sets into meaningful units at several hierarchical levels, and thus has high potential for complex classifications. Importantly, it overcomes the divide between ES species and diagnostic species and re-unites them into one concept.
36511Óskarsdóttir G., Ágústsdóttir K., Thórisson S.G., Guðmundsdóttir G. & Jónsdóttir G.Á. (2024): Decadal vegetation changes in a subarctic-alpine ecosystem: Can effects of Iceland's largest hydropower reservoir, climate change, and herbivory be detected?. - Applied Vegetation Science, 27(2): e12772 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12772.
Aims: While plot-based vegetation surveys provide means to precisely track changes in plant species abundance and distribution, ecosystems are continuously influenced by numerous drivers, confounding interpretation of monitoring results. Following the making of Iceland's largest hydropower reservoir in 2006, a decadal vegetation monitoring was set up. Relating our results to those of different types of environmental monitoring associated with the hydropower project, we aimed to gain insights into the forces driving the spatio-temporal vegetation pattern. Location: Subarctic-alpine area near Hálslón reservoir, East Iceland. Methods: At the time of its making, we conducted a baseline plant survey in a total of 72 plots, spread around Hálslón reservoir's vicinity (each containing ten 0.25 m2 subplots). Plots were located in three different habitat types (heathlands, wetlands, poorly vegetated land), at three different sites regarding direction and distance from the reservoir. A decade later, we resurveyed the plots and reviewed the results of other environmental monitoring projects in the area, mostly presented in the gray literature. Results: Temporal changes in vegetation were mostly inconsistent between and within habitat types, but some general trends were noticed, that is, decreased lichen and fern cover in heathlands. Distance from the reservoir did not significantly affect changes in vegetation cover. The greatest overall changes were detected where great changes in herbivore land usage had been recorded during the study. Conclusions: Direct effects of Hálslón reservoir on vegetation in our study plots were not noticed. Most likely, the reservoir indirectly impacted vegetation in our study through loss of grazing area, affecting herbivore land usage, coupled with an unrelated population growth of two of the area's main wild herbivores before and during the study period. Response to climate change was not detected, potentially concealed by substantial land-use change and a short study period.
36510Strgulc Krajšek S., Gey S., Eichler M. & Cezanne R. (2024): Report on the annual excursion of BLAM to Slovenia from September 13th to 17th, 2023. - Herzogiella, 11: 13–26. .
Report on bryological and lichenological excursion in the Julian Alps (Triglav National park) and the area of the Škocjan caves.
36509Fanfarillo E., Loppi S., Angiolini C., Bacaro G., Bianchi E., Bonari G., Bonini I., Canali G., Cangelmi G., Cannucci S., Cogoni A., De Giorgi P., Di Nuzzo L., de Simone L., Fiaschi T., Fontana D., Franzoni J., Giacò A., Giordani P., Grattacaso M., Lazzaro L., Martellos S., Mazza I., Mugnai M., Pandeli G., Perini C., Pinzani L., Poponessi S., Ravera S., Salerni E., Stinca A., Tiburtini M., Vallese C. & Maccherini S. (2024): Bryophyte, lichen, and vascular plant communities of badland grasslands show weak cross-taxon congruence but high local uniqueness in biancana pediments. - Ecological Indicators, 165: 112171 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2024.112171.
Cross-taxon congruence, i.e., using certain taxonomic groups as surrogates for others, is receiving growing interest since it may allow decreasing efforts in biodiversity studies. In this work, we investigated the patterns of cross-taxon congruence in species richness and composition between communities of bryophytes, lichens, and vascular plants in different biancana grasslands of a Special Area of Conservation (SAC) of central Italy. We recorded species presence and abundance in 16 plots of 1 × 1 m size and analyzed the data using Procrustes correlation, co-correspondence analysis, and indicator species analysis. We did not highlight any correlation in species richness and composition between the three taxonomic groups. Conversely, the species composition of bryophyte communities was predictive of the species composition of lichen communities. Moreover, lichen richness was negatively correlated with the total cover of vascular plants. Indicator species analysis evidenced the presence of species from the three biotic communities being particularly related, at least at the local scale, to biancana pediments, like the bryophytes Didymodon acutus and Trichostomum crispulum, the lichens Enchylium tenax, Cladonia foliacea, and Psora decipiens, and the vascular plants Brachypodium distachyon, Parapholis strigosa, and Artemisia caerulescens subsp. cretacea. In the biancana pediments, acrocarp mosses, squamulose lichens, therophyte plants and chamaephyte plants coexisted. In spite of the weak cross-taxon congruence between the three taxonomic groups, this study could highlight a locally unique diversity of bryophytes, lichens, and vascular plants related to the extreme environment of biancana pediments, selected by high soil salinity and deposition from the upper eroded slope. Soil erosion and deposition in biancana badlands supports the increase of local multi-taxonomic plant diversity by creating unique ecosystems. Such biodiversity should be considered locally at risk of disappearance, due to the ongoing vanishing of biancana badlands in central Italy. Keywords: Biodiversity surrogate; Cryptogams; Community ecology; Mosses; Multi-taxon.
36508Fałtynowicz W. & Seaward M.R.D. (2024): Prof. dr hab. Ewa Bylińska (1933–2023) . - Wiadomości Botaniczne, 68: 185246 [5 p.]. https://doi.org/10.5586/wb/185246.
[in Polish] obituary; biography, bibliography
36507Hachułka M., Rutkowski K., Kubiak D., Kossowska M., Fałtynowicz W., Kościelniak R., Betleja L., Darmostuk V., Sira O., Bohdan A., Grajewska A., Szymczyk R., Kowalewska A. & Kukwa M. (2024): Materials for the distribution of lichens and lichenicolous fungi in Poland, 4. - Wiadomości Botaniczne, 68: 188210 [25 p.]. https://doi.org/10.5586/wb/188210.
The paper presents new localities of 40 species of lichens and 12 species of lichenicolous fungi (marked by an asterisk), which are endangered in Poland or are regionally rare. In addition, the paper includes a new record of the non-lichenized fungus Naevia punctiformis (Ach.) A. Massal. (marked by a plus), which, due to its similarity to the lichenized representatives of the Arthonia Ach. s.l. genus is often included in lichenological publications. The name of each taxon is followed by data on its diagnostic features and distribution in Poland. Provided lists of localities contain geographic coordinates and ATPOL grid squares, modified by S. Cieśliński and W. Fałtynowicz for the purposes of the Atlas of the Geographical Distribution of Lichens in Poland (published by W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, 1993). Kezwords: lichenized fungi; lichenicolous fungi; biodiversity; rare species;cdistribution in Poland.
36506Yang Z., Yuan Y., Guo J., Li J., Li J., Yu H., Zeng W., Huang Y., Yin L. & Li F. (2024): Responses of soil C, N, P and enzyme activities to biological soil crusts in China: A meta-analysis. - Plants, 13(11): 1525 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13111525.
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are often referred to as the “living skin” of arid regions worldwide. Yet, the combined impact of BSCs on soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and enzyme activities remains not fully understood. This study identified, screened and reviewed 71 out of 2856 literature sources to assess the responses of soil C, N, P and enzyme activity to BSCs through a meta-analysis. The results indicated that BSC presence significantly increased soil C, N, P and soil enzyme activity, and this increasing effect was significantly influenced by the types of BSCs. Results from the overall effect showed that soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), available nitrogen (AN), total phosphorus (TP), and available phosphorus (AP) increased by 107.88%, 84.52%, 45.43%, 27.46%, and 54.71%, respectively, and four soil enzyme activities (Alkaline Phosphatase, Cellulase, Sucrase, and Urease) increased by 93.65–229.27%. The highest increases in SOC, TN and AN content occurred in the soil covered with lichen crusts and moss crusts, and significant increases in Alkaline Phosphatase and Cellulase were observed in the soil covered with moss crusts and mixed crusts, suggesting that moss crusts can synergistically enhance soil C and N pool and enzyme activity. Additionally, variations in soil C, N, P content, and enzyme activity were observed under different environmental settings, with more pronounced improvements seen in coarse and medium-textured soils compared to fine-textured soils, particularly at a depth of 5 cm from the soil surface. BSCs in desert ecosystems showed more significant increases in SOC, TN, AN, and Alkaline Phosphatase compared to forest and grassland ecosystems. Specifically, BSCs at low altitude (≤500 m) with an annual average rainfall of 0–400 mm and an annual average temperature ≤ 10 °C were the most conducive to improving soil C, N, and P levels. Our results highlight the role of BSCs and their type in increasing soil C, N, P and enzyme activities, with these effects significantly impacted by soil texture, ecosystem type, and climatic conditions. The implications of these findings are crucial for soil enhancement, ecosystem revitalization, windbreak, and sand stabilization efforts in the drylands of China. Keywords: BSCs; soil nutrients; enzyme activity; meta-analysis; influence factor.
36505Muriel S., Aragón G., Martínez I. & Prieto M. (2024): Gypsum lichens: a global data set of lichen species from gypsum ecosystems. - Ecology, 105(4): e4271 [2 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.4271.
Lichens are significant components of the biological soil crust communities in gypsum ecosystems and are involved in several processes related to ecosystem functioning, such as water and nutrient cycles or protection against soil erosion. Although numerous studies centered on lichen taxonomy and ecology have been performed in these habitats, global information about lichen species from gypsum substrates or their distributional ranges at a global scale is lacking. Thus, we compiled a global data set of recorded lichen species growing on gypsum. This review is based on systematic searches in two bibliographic databases (Web of Science and the more specialized database Mattick’s Literature Index) using various keywords related to the substrate or ecology (i.e., gypsum, gypsiferous, semiarid, saxicolous, terricolous). In addition, we revised lichen literature from countries with gypsum soils using Mattick’s, Hamburg University’s Worldwide checklist, and different national lichen checklists. Ultimately the review includes a total of 321 studies. This data set included 6114 specimen records belonging to 336 recorded lichen species from 26 countries throughout the world. The results showed large differences in the number of species recorded among countries, reflecting differences in the sampling effort. We provide a table with the number of studies and species in relation to gypsum surface in order to account for the bias produced by sampling effort. The number of studies carried out per country was not related to the gypsum surface but probably to other factors, such as accessibility to field sampling, economic or political factors, or the presence of a wider community of lichenologists. Thus, Spain and Germany hosted the highest number of recorded species (160 and 114 species, respectively). Outside the European continent, only a few countries had a large number of species: Morocco (46), United States (42), and Iran (37). Remarkably, countries from the southern hemisphere (i.e., Australia, Chile, Namibia, and South Africa) showed a low number of studies from gypsum lands, supporting the stated biases observed in sampling efforts among countries. Considering the most studied countries, the results show that Teloschistaceae was the most represented family in gypsum ecosystems followed by Verrucariaceae and Cladoniaceae. Regarding particular species, Psora decipiens and Squamarina lentigera were some of the most widespread and abundant species in these habitats. This data set constitutes a basic and first step toward a much more comprehensive database, to be periodically updated in future releases, which also serves to identify countries or territories where future studies should be accomplished. There are no copyright restrictions on the data; please cite this data paper if the data are used in publications and teaching events. Keywords: arid, biological soil crust, BSC, gypsiferous, gypsophiles, gypsovags, occurrences, saxicolous, terricolous.
36504Villagra J., Raggio J., Alors D. & Sancho L.G. (2024): Desiccation tolerance of epiphytic macrolichens in an evergreen temperate rain forest (Alerce Costero National Park, Chile). - Plants, 13(11): 1519 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13111519.
The Valdivian region has a temperate rainy climate with differences in rainfall throughout the year. This heterogeneity results in periods of summer drought that expose the poikilohydric epiphytes to desiccation. With this research, we aim to answer different research questions related to phorophyte preference, response to desiccation, and response to radiation. How does the diversity of macrolichens vary at a local and microclimate scale in three tree species within an evergreen forest? What is the tolerance limit of macrolichens against prolonged desiccation, according to evaluation of the maximum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and pigment concentration? What is the tolerance limit against a potential increase in radiation? We found that macrolichen communities are determined by tree species, which regulate the suitability of the substrate by modifying the temperature and humidity conditions. In addition, our results show a rapid photosynthetic alteration in temporal exposure to desiccation, measured through Fv/Fm and pigment concentration. Our results showed that the most sensitive lichens to radiation and desiccation are not coincident. We confirm the low tolerance of macrolichen species to high radiation, reflected in the saturation profile obtained for the set studied. The lichen community in the evergreen forest showed high complexity and vulnerability, pointing to the importance of more research. Keywords: epiphytic macrolichens; desiccation tolerance; chlorophyll fluorescence; Alerce Costero National Park.
36503Puginier C., Libourel C., Otte J., Skaloud P., Haon M., Grisel S., Petersen M., Berrin J.-G., Delaux P.-M., Dal Grande F. & Keller J. (2024): Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary origins of lichenization in chlorophyte algae. - Nature Communications, 15: 4452 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-024-48787-z.
Mutualistic symbioses have contributed to major transitions in the evolution of life. Here, we investigate the evolutionary history and the molecular innovations at the origin of lichens, which are a symbiosis established between fungi and green algae or cyanobacteria. We de novo sequence the genomes or transcriptomes of 12 lichen algal symbiont (LAS) and closely related non-symbiotic algae (NSA) to improve the genomic coverage of Chlorophyte algae. We then perform ancestral state reconstruction and comparative phylogenomics. We identify at least three independent gains of the ability to engage in the lichen symbiosis, one in Trebouxiophyceae and two in Ulvophyceae, confirming the convergent evolution of the lichen symbioses. A carbohydrate-active enzyme from the glycoside hydrolase 8 (GH8) family was identified as a top candidate for the molecular-mechanism underlying lichen symbiosis in Trebouxiophyceae. This GH8 was acquired in lichenizing Trebouxiophyceae by horizontal gene transfer, concomitantly with the ability to associate with lichens fungal symbionts (LFS) and is able to degrade polysaccharides found in the cell wall of LFS. These findings indicate that a combination of gene family expansion and horizontal gene transfer provided the basis for lichenization to evolve in chlorophyte algae.
36502Sun J., Yu K., Chen N., Munson S.M., Li X. & Jia R. (2024): Biocrusts modulate carbon losses under warming across global drylands: A bayesian meta-analysis. - Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 188: 109214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2023.109214.
Biocrusts are critical biological components of drylands and play an important role in soil carbon (C) cycling. However, the effect of biocrusts on soil CO2 exchange across global gradients of temperature and moisture is poorly understood. Moreover, their response to climate change remains highly uncertain. Bayesian hierarchical meta-analyses were performed on 47 published studies to quantify the impact of biocrusts on net soil exchange (NSE) of carbon- the difference between respiration and photosynthesis. Meta-analyses were also used on 23 studies to examine the effects of experimental warming on NSE in biocrusts. Meta-regressions further explored the thermal and wetness sensitivities of biocrust NSE and potential adaptation of biocrust responses to climate change. The development of biocrusts in dryland soils significantly increased NSE by 66.5 [22.2, 112.2] g C m−2yr−1, despite seasonal fluctuations, indicating a net loss of carbon to the atmosphere. Experimental warming, on average, increased biocrust NSE by 22.9 [-0.1, 40.8] g C m−2yr−1 per °C. However, across the spatial climate gradient, aridity limited the effects of warming, while high temperature decreased the thermal sensitivity of biocrust NSE, thus supporting the thermal adaptation of biocrusts. These results emphasize the critical role of biocrusts in modulating soil carbon exchange in response to climate warming across drylands, with particularly high thermal sensitivity in cool and moist regions. This highlights the need to incorporate biocrusts into global carbon budgets and models for a comprehensive understanding of their impact on the carbon cycle. Carbon cycling and emissions, Net soil exchange, Climate change and warming, Drylands, Bayesian model, Meta-analysis
36501Xu L., Li C.A., Xiong W.J., Kou Y.P., Zou P., Jiao B.J., Yao M.J., Wang J.M., Zhang B.C. & Li X.Z. (2024): The composition of soil fungal communities is more dependent on biocrust type than on shrub cover in the Mu Us Desert. - Fungal Ecology, 2024: 70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2024.101352.
Desertification-control policies have been applied in the Mu Us Desert since the 1950s. The landscape there is characterized by patches of shrub plants and well-developed lichen and moss crusts, some covered by shrub canopies and some in interspace soils. Little is known about how shrub cover and biocrusts shape soil fungal community structure in this ecosystem. Using high-throughput amplicon sequencing, the effects of biocrust types and shrub cover on soil fungal communities were analyzed. The results showed that biocrust types were more important than shrub cover in affecting soil properties and shaping soil fungal communities. Among all the measured soil properties, significant effects of shrub cover on soil pH and available P were observed. Biocrust types had significant effects on soil total organic carbon, C:N, and C:P ratios. Fungal taxa relating to plant pathogens and formation of lichens, (e.g., the Eurotiomycetes and Dothideomycetes and the of genera Endocarpon and Knufia) were dominant across biocrust types and shrub cover. Furthermore, although relative abundances of dominant fungal taxa were statistically similar among microhabitats, abundances of lichenized and pathogenic fungi differed significantly among biocrust types, with the former showing higher abundances in lichen crusts, and the latter exhibiting higher abundances in moss crosts. Soil total nitrogen and C:N were correlated with fungal community structure. Our results highligh the dominant role of biocrust types over shrub cover in shaping soil fungal communities in the Mu Us Desert. With the succession from lichen to moss crusts, increasing N limitation (soil TOC:TN ratio) may drive higher abundances of pathogenic fungi in lichen crusts and fewer lichenized fungi in moss crusts. Microhabitat, Biological soil crust, Shrub, Lichen, Moss, ITS gene, DIVERSITY, PATTERNS, NITROGEN, CRUSTS, COEXISTENCE, TOOL
36500Meng X., Zhang X., Li Y., Jiao Y., Fan L., Jiang Y., Qu C., Filimonenko E., Jiang Y., Tian X., Shi J. & Kuzyakov Y. (2024): Nitrogen fertilizer builds soil organic carbon under straw return mainly via microbial necromass formation. - Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 188: 109223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2023.109223.
Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) inputs strongly influence the formation, turnover and sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural ecosystems. It is not clear, however, how N input regulates the contribution of plant- and microbial-derived C to SOC sequestration under straw return. To fill this gap, plant and microbial biomarkers, as well as enzyme activities were determined in a long-term (18 years) field experiment. Straw return and N fertilization increased SOC content by 20% and 10%, respectively. Specifically, straw return increased the proportion of total lignin (mainly vanillyl and syringyl) phenols in SOC by 16%, but decreased the proportion of cinnamyl in SOC by 7.5%. This implied that some plant residues were selectively preserved, while the compounds that were less stable than cinnamyl were easily decomposed. The increased phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) content and enzyme activities with straw return indicated the acceleration of straw decomposition. Based on amino sugar content, straw return did not alter the proportion of microbial necromass to SOC. Together, lignin and amino sugars co-determined the stable contribution of plant- and microbial-derived C to SOC sequestration under straw return. N fertilization increased the portion of microbial necromass (especially bacterial necromass) C in SOC by 6% and thus decreased the plant residue contribution to SOC. Accordingly, N fertilization accelerated the microbial utilization of straw and consequently microbial necromass formation. In terms of PLFA composition, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, Actinobacteria, and Gram-negative bacteria were the key groups forming microbial necromass and thus SOC. N fertilization increased N-acquiring enzyme activities and boosted the involvement of microbial necromass in nutrient cycling, which in turn may stimulate plant and microbial growth. Overall, straw return simultaneously increased plant- and microbial-derived C, while N fertilization stimulated microbial growth and enzyme activity and thus increased straw conversion to microbial necromass. Nitrogen fertilization and residue management, Organic matter sources, Amino sugars, Lignin phenols, Plant and microbial biomarkers
36499Petrova S., Velcheva I. & Nikolov B. (2024): Nature-based solutions to reduce air pollution: A case study from Plovdiv, Bulgaria, using trees, herbs, mosses and lichens. - Forests, 15(6): 928 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f15060928.
Nature-based solutions (NBSs) are becoming more and more recognized as useful instruments to address the challenges that urban areas are currently facing, i.e., climate change adaptation, flood mitigation, etc. In the present study, we aimed to: (1) compare the efficiency of mosses, lichens, herbs and trees in removing pollutants from the urban air using their biomonitoring potential; (2) assess their efficiency as nature-based solutions to mitigate urban air pollution; and (3) propose a framework for implementing such NBSs in urban areas. The first step involved analyses of the concentrations of 20 potentially toxic elements in eight selected biomonitors. After that, an assessment of their removal capacity was made on the basis of elements accumulation. This is the first complex study in an urban area involving the simultaneous application of organisms of eight different species and four different systematic groups (lichenized fungi, mosses, herbaceous plants, woody species) as well as such a large number of potentially hazardous elements. The present study sheds new light on some well-known biomonitors in the context of their application for air pollution mitigation. The great potential of the eight studied plant species for efficient removal of potentially toxic elements is highlighted and their implementation into NBS frameworks is recommended. Keywords: biomonitoring; heavy metals; moss-bags; lichen-bags; ecosystem services; potentially toxic elements.
36498Conway S.N., McCune B. & Henkel T.W. (2024): Lichen diversity in serpentine habitats of the North Coast Range, California. - Bryologist, 172(2): 220–232. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-127.2.220.
Macrolichen diversity and community composition were determined for an area of high botanical interest in the Coast Ranges of Northern California – the Horse Mountain Botanical Area (HMBA) in Six Rivers National Forest. The Coast Ranges have been suggested to have high lichen diversity, yet detailed site-specific macrolichen surveys are lacking for the area. The HMBA is characterized by the presence of ultramafic (serpentine) soils, contributing to its diverse assemblage of conifers. Here we present comprehensive data on macrolichens of the HMBA integrated with environmental variables at the landscape level. Twenty 0.4 ha sampling plots were positioned across the varying habitats of the HMBA and macrolichens were intensively sampled from all substrata. Out of 888 total collections, 119 macrolichen species in 52 genera were identified, 63 species were sequenced for the mycobiont internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and all species were vouchered. Microenvironmental influences on lichen community composition were ordinated with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS). Within-plot measured environmental variables with strongest correlations to ordination Axis 1 were 1) total tree basal area, 2) proportion of conifer basal area relative to hardwoods, and 3) distance between plot center and nearest stream. Distinct macrolichen communities were found in plots containing primarily conifers versus mixed hardwood-conifer plots. All plots contained both nitrogen-fixing and pendulous forage macrolichens; in each of the three hardwood-dominated plots, nitrogen-fixing lichens composed nearly a third of the species total. When epiphytic macrolichen species richness and dominance within the HMBA were compared to data from other regional forests, the HMBA showed comparable community composition but averaged 39% higher species richness. Results from this study can help inform management of the HMBA as well as future taxonomic and ecological research on regional macrolichens. Keywords: Cupressaceae, biodiversity, lichen biota, nonmetric multidimensional scaling, Pacific Northwest, Pinaceae, Quercus.
36497Pérez Valcárcel C. & López de Silanes M.E. (2024): Líquenes saxícolas de ambientes acuáticos del género Caloplaca s.l. de la península Ibérica. - Nova Acta Científica Compostelana, 31: 1–19. https://doi.org/10.15304/nacc.id9126.
[in Spanish with English abstract:] Species of the genera Athallia, Blastenia, Calogaya, Caloplaca, Flavoplaca, Gyalolechia, Kuettlingeria, Pyrenodesmia, Rufoplaca, Sanguineodiscus, Variospora, and Xanthocarpia, of the family Teloschistaceae, formerly all belonging to the genus Caloplaca s.l, of aquatic environments with greater or lesser resistance to immersion, are studied. All of them with scarce presence in papers on this type of habitats. We intend to better know its ecology by studying the enclosed species considered as indicative for the different zones of these environments. The specimens were collected in beds and margins of rivers and streams, belonging to 41 localities of the Iberian Peninsula, 36 Spanish and 5 Portuguese. Twenty species were obtained in these environments, thirteen of which resist well the immersion, while seven are episodic or accidentally submerged. Pyrenodesmia micromontana and Xanthocarpia diffusa are new records for the Iberian Peninsula. A key of determination, based on morphological characteristics, is also proposed. Keywords: Lichenized fungi; Teloschistaceae; Europe; riverbanks; inland waters. Note: a typographic error of the first author's surname as "Valcárce".
36496Bjerke J.W., Magnussen K., Bright R.M., Navrud S., Erlandsson R., Finne E.A. & Tømmervik H. (2024): Synergies and trade-offs between provisioning and climate-regulating ecosystem services in reindeer herding ecosystems. - Science of the Total Environment, 927: 171914 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.171914.
Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) pastoralism utilizes vast boreo-arctic taiga and tundra as grazing land. Highly fluctuating population sizes pose major challenges to the economy and livelihood of indigenous herder communities. In this study we investigated the effect of population fluctuations on core provisioning and regulating ecosystem services in two Sámi reindeer herding districts with contrasting fluctuation trends. We compared 50-year long time series on herd size, meat production, forage productivity, carbon footprint, and CO2-equivalence metrics for surface albedo change based on the radiative forcing concept. Our results show, for both districts, that the economic benefits from the provisioning services were higher than the costs from the regulating services. Still, there were major contrasts; the district with moderate and stable reindeer density gained nearly the double on provisioning services per unit area. The costs from increasing heat absorption due to reduction in surface albedo caused by replacement of high-reflective lichens with low-reflective woody plants, was 10.5 times higher per unit area in the district with large fluctuations. Overall, the net economic benefits per unit area were 237 % higher in the district with stable reindeer density. These results demonstrate that it is possible to minimize trade-offs between economic benefits from reindeer herding locally and global economic costs in terms of climate-regulating services by minimizing fluctuations in herds that are managed at sustainable densities. Keywords: Albedo ; Climate mitigation ; Pastoralism ; Radiative forcing ; Rangeland management ; Vegetation change.
36495Taurozzi D., Gallitelli L., Cesarini G., Romano S., Orsini M. & Scalici M. (2024): Passive biomonitoring of airborne microplastics using lichens: A comparison between urban, natural and protected environments. - Environment International, 187: 108707 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2024.108707.
Currently, natural and urban ecosystems are affected by different types of atmospheric deposition, which can compromise the balance of the environment. Plastic pollution represents one of the major threats for biota, including lichens. Epiphytic lichens have value as bioindicators of environmental pollution, climate change, and anthropic impacts. In this study, we aim to investigate the lichen bioaccumulation of airborne microplastics along an anthropogenic pollution gradient. We sampled lichens from the Genera Cladonia and Xanthoria to highlight the effectiveness of lichens as tools for passive biomonitoring of microplastics. We chose three sites, a “natural site” in Altipiani di Arcinazzo, a “protected site” in Castelporziano Presidential estate and an “urban site” in the centre of Rome. Overall, we sampled 90 lichens, observed for external plastic entrapment, melt in oxygen peroxide and analysed for plastic entrapment. To validate the method, we calculated recovery rates of microplastics in lichen. Particularly, 253 MPs particles were detected across the 90 lichen samples: 97 % were fibers, and 3 % were fragments. A gradient in the number of microplastic fibers across the sites emerged, with increasing accumulation of microplastics from the natural site (n = 58) to the urban site (n = 116), with a direct relationship between the length and abundance of airborne microplastic fibers. Moreover, we detected the first evidences of airborne mesoplastics entrapped by lichens. On average, the natural site experienced the shortest fibre length and the centre of Rome the longest. No differences in microplastics accumulation emerged from the two genera. Our results indicated that lichens can effectively be used for passive biomonitoring of microplastic deposition. In this scenario, the role of lichens in entrapping microplastics and protecting pristine areas must be investigated. Furthermore, considering the impact that airborne microplastics can have on human health and the effectiveness of lichens as airborne microplastic bioindicators, their use is encouraged. Keywords: Mesoplastics; Pollution; Health; Urbanization; Ecological threat; Entrapment.
36494Temu S.G., Tibell S., Tibuhwa D.D. & Tibell L. (2024): Coniocybe Ach. revisited. - Journal of Fungi, 10(5): 363 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof10050363.
Calicioids form a research field that has encompassed ascomycetous fungi with stalked ascomata similar to those of the lichen genus Calicium. Early generic circumscriptions of calicioid lichens and fungi were mainly based on morphological and secondary chemistry information. After the introduction of molecular data, taxonomy in the group has been reconsidered. Here, based on a broad geographical sampling, Coniocybe Ach. was revised using molecular and morphological features. Three loci (ITS, LSU and rpb1) were compared to infer its phylogenetic position, and a total of 52 new sequences (14 ITS, 24 LSU and 14 rpb1) were produced. Apart from its type C. furfuracea, Coniocybe was revised and emended to also include C. brachypoda and C. confusa. In addition, a new species, Coniocybe eufuracea, was described, and a key to the species of Coniocybe was provided. Keywords: taxonomy; molecular phylogeny; nomenclature; new species.
36493Tomović J., Kočović A., Anđić M., Bradić J., Zubić N., Jakovljević V., Sovrlić M., Vasiljević P. & Manojlović N. (2024): Bioactive components analysis and pharmacological properties of extracts and metabolites of lichen Umbilicaria crustulosa. - Scientia Pharmaceutica, 92(2): 27 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm92020027.
Lichens, a diverse group of organisms, have a unique structure consisting of fungal filaments and photosynthetic partner cells. This research conducted a comprehensive chemical analysis and evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of methanolic and acetone extracts from Umbilicaria crustulosa lichen, along with its isolated metabolites. The process involved separating atranorin and chloratranorin fractions, physodic acid, and gyrophoric acid. Secondary metabolites were identified using chromatographic and spectroscopic data. The total polyphenols content was determined spectrophotometrically. This study examined the antioxidant activity of extracts of the lichen U. crustulosa and the isolated fractions using three methods: DPPH scavenging activity, ABTS scavenging activity, and reducing power. This study also evaluated the acute oral toxicity and the anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts in Wistar albino rats. A higher content of the total phenolic compounds was found in the acetone extract, but antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were more prominent in the methanolic extract. The isolated atranorin and chloratranorin fractions and compound physodic acid showed the highest antioxidant activity. No toxic effects were noted in the acute oral toxicity study. This study highlights the potential of the investigated lichen as a valuable source of novel biological agents. Keywords: lichen; Umbilicaria crustulosa; chemical analysis; antioxidant activity; anti-inflammatory activity.
36492Baczewska I., Strzemski M., Feldo M., Hanaka A. & Dresler S. (2024): Green extraction of depsidones and depsides from Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. using natural deep eutectic solvents. - International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 25(10): 5500 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25105500.
Various studies have shown that Hypogymnia physodes are a source of many biologically active compounds, including lichen acids. These lichen-specific compounds are characterized by antioxidant, antiproliferative, and antimicrobial properties, and they can be used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The main aim of this study was to optimize the composition of natural deep eutectic solvents based on proline or betaine and lactic acid for the extraction of metabolites from H. physodes. The design of the experimental method and the response surface approach allowed the optimization of the extraction process of specific lichen metabolites. Based on preliminary research, a multivariate model of the experiment was developed. For optimization, the following parameters were employed in the experiment to confirm the model: a proline/lactic acid/water molar ratio of 1:2:2. Such a mixture allowed the efficient extraction of three depsidones (i.e., physodic acid, physodalic acid, 3-hydroyphysodic acid) and one depside (i.e., atranorin). The developed composition of the solvent mixtures ensured good efficiency when extracting the metabolites from the thallus of H. physodes with high antioxidant properties. Keywords: lichen; design of experiment; physodalic acid; 3-hydroxhyphysodic acid; physodic acid; atranorin; proline; betaine; lactic acid.
36491Anonymous (2023): Recent literature on australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 93: 24-24. .
bibliography
36490Knight A., Bannister J.M., Aldridge T.E. & Fryday A.M. (2023): Distinguishing features and new distributions of three similar species of Pertusaria. - Australasian Lichenology, 93: 14-23. .
Three species of superficially similar white, saxicolous, verruciform, large-spored Pertusaria occurring in New Zealand are compared: Pertusaria knightiana Müll.Arg., Pertusaria otagoana D.J.Galloway and Pertusaria subverrucosa Nyl. Fresh and herbarium specimens were examined, their salient distinguishing features tabulated and illustrated, and significant extensions of geographical distribution recorded
36489Elix J.A. (2023): Buellia oevstedalii (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota), a new buellioid lichen from Antarctica. - Australasian Lichenology, 93: 8-10. .
Buellia oevstedalii Elix is described as new to science from Graham Land, Antarctica.
36488Elix J.A. (2023): Further information on species of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from the Subantarctic islands. - Australasian Lichenology, 93: 3-7. .
The new combinations Amandinea bouvetii (Øvstedal) Elix, A. conioptoides (Nyl.) Elix and A. parasemopsis (Nyl.) Elix are made for Buellia bouvetii Øvstedal, Lecidea conioptoides Nyl. and Lecidea parasemopsis Nyl., respectively. In addition, Buellia falklandica Darb. is lectotypyfied. Falkland Islands
36487Elix J.A. (2023): A new combination and new record of Cratiria (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from Papua New Guinea. - Australasian Lichenology, 93: 11-13. .
The corticolous Cratiria confusa (Awasthi) Elix comb. nov. is recorded from Papua New Guinea for the first time.
36486da Silva B.F., Pereira I.M.C., de Melo J.C., Martins M.C.B., Silva A.K.O., Lima D.N.S., Silva-Botelho J.B.S. & Pereira E.C. (2023): Effects of exhaustion gases from biodiesel blends on the lichen Cladonia verticillaris: A complimentary evaluation. - Revista Brasileira de Geografia Física, 16(4): 2003-2012. .
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of gases emitted by blends of biodiesel with petroleum diesel at intermediate concentrations (between 10 % and 40 %) on the biochemistry of the lichen Cladonia verticillaris (Raddi) Fr. Samples of the respective species were exposed to the gases during a period of sixty minutes, using a stationary engine, with blends of 20 % (B20), 25 % (B25) and 30 % (B30) of biodiesel, from the oil from cotton, to petroleum diesel. In the period of 30, 60 and 90 days, the concentrations of primary metabolites (chlorophylls and pheophytins) and secondary (protocetraric acid and fumarprotocetraric acid) were determined. A control group was used for comparison purposes. The gases emitted during the combustion process were also evaluated at three times (0 minutes, 30 minutes and 60 minutes). The results did not show significant differences for chlorophylls, when all treatments and control materials were compared, however, variations were observed for the other metabolites. The concentration of protocetraric acid was higher compared to fumarprotocetraric acid, indicating that there were blocks in the synthesis of the metabolic pathway. Cluster analysis showed that for groups B20 and B25, pheophytins are related to CO2, while for B30 their chlorophylls are related to NO2. The results demonstrate that the respective mixtures do not affect the integrity of the species, confirming the recommendation to use mixtures of biodiesel with petroleum diesel up to 40 %.
36485Csiky J., Deme J., Erzberger P., Kovács D., Németh C. & Sipos A. (2023): Multiclavula mucida (Basidiomycota) a Pannon régióban és más adatok a magyarországi lopvanősző flórához. - Kitaibelia, 28(2): 173-184. .
A cikk a 2023-ban végzett kriptogám flóratérképezés során talált, florisztikai, taxonó­miai és/vagy természetvédelmi szempontból érdekesebb fajokkal foglalkozik. Két Magyarországon ritkának tűnő Trapeliopsis faj bükki adatain kívül közöljük az Európában is ritkának tűnő, hegyvidéki bazídiumos gombás zuzmó, a Multiclavula mucida első előfordulását a Pannon régióban. Bemutatjuk az újabban entomofilnak tartott moha, az Anacamptodon splachnoides egyetlen aktuális dél-dunántúli állományát, illetve az atlanti-mediterrán jellegű Leptodon smithii első magyarországi alföldi előfordulá­sát. Számos adattal bizonyítjuk, hogy a kéreglakó Neckera pennata-nak Magyarországon Baranyában, az Alföldön van az elterjedési súlypontja, illetve újabb, bükki adatokkal szemléltetjük, hogy a Buxbau­mia viridis a Pannon-medencében elsősorban a mészkerülő bükkösök talajlakó faja. Ismertetjük az Európá­ban veszedelmesen terjedő, idegenhonos, korhadéklakó Sematophyllum adnatum első alföldi, egyben a Pannon-medence egyik legerősebb állományát. Beszámolunk továbbá a tőzegmohás lápokon szintén terjedőben lévő Callicladium haldanianum harmadik (Vendvidék), valamint a szilikátos kőten­gerekre jellemző Racomitrium lanuginosum második (Mátra) magyarországi előfordulásáról is. Fotóval doku­mentáljuk a Phegopteris connectilis egyetlen aktuális dél-dunántúli adatát és vitatjuk az első me­cseki közlésének pontosságát, helyességét. Az elterjedési adatok felsorolásán túl, a dolgozatban érintő­lege­sen foglalko­zunk a klímaváltozás és a fajok elterjedési adatainak összevethetőségével, egyes ha­rasztok, mint az Asplenium adiantum-nigrum agg. és a Dryopteris affinis agg. kisfajainak elkülönítési nehézségei­vel, valamint korrigáljuk egy korábban tévesen közölt Hedwigia stellata adatunkat is. A fentieken túl a Leu­cobryum glaucum, Palustriella commutata, Tetraphis pellucida, Gymnocarpium rober­tianum és az Ophioglossum vulgatum néhány érdekesebb adatáról is beszámolunk.
36484Pshegusov R., Khanov Z. & Chadaeva V. (2024): Distribution factors of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. at local and regional spatial scales in the Caucasus: combining species distribution modelling and ecological niche theory. - iForest, 17: 120–131. https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor4406-017.
For the rare epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., there is a lack of data on ecological niche parameters and distribution factors in the Caucasus, which are necessary to develop an effective system of the species preservation during forest management. The aim of this study was to identify the influence of abiotic, biotic and movement factors on the potential distribution of Lobaria pulmonaria in the Caucasus forests, depending on the spatial scale. We combined species distribution modelling and ecological niche theory based on the BAM (Biotic-Abiotic-Movement) concept. A total of 174 occurrence data were retained in the modelling using Maxent ver. 3.4.3 in R. The distribution models of the main lichen phorophytes in the Caucasus (Pinus sylvestris L. and Fagus orientalis Lipsky) were used as biotic layers in models. The raster of distances from optimal sites, where the probability of the lichen occurrence remained above 0.5, was used as a movement-layer. Different abiotic predictors were significant in the lichen distribution in the Central Caucasus (terrain) and throughout the Caucasus (macroclimate). Interspecific relationships (lichen-phorophyte) were more significant at the local scale. The movement factor contributed most to the local model (80% of the contribution) and limited the lichen distribution to a radius of 20 m in the Central Caucasus and 30 m throughout the Caucasus. Field verification of the local model showed an 85.7% success rate of presence prediction with cutoff values of 0.8. The combination of SDM modelling and ecological niches theory is an effective method for studying the potential localisation and the ecological niches of epiphytic lichens. Keywords: Lobaria pulmonaria, Caucasus Forest, Species Distribution Modelling, Ecological Niche, Biotic-Abiotic-Movement Concept, Spatial Scale.
36483Urbanavichene I.N. & Urbanavichus G.P. (2024): First record of Parmelia asiatica (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) in Europe. - Nature Conservation Research. Заповедная наука, 9(2): doi:10.24189/ncr.2024.014. https://dx.doi.org/10.24189/ncr.2024.014.
The lichen Parmelia asiatica (Parmeliaceae), described in 2011 from China (Yunnan province), is reported for the first time in Europe, in European Russia. Since 2013, the species has been recorded in the Russian Far East and Baikal Siberia. The majority of the records are in Protected Areas located in regions with a humid climate, where the preferred habitats are mainly foothill/mountain, humid, mixed or dark coniferous old-growth forests. A critical analysis of the herbarium specimens from the Kerzhensky State Nature Reserve (Nizhny Novgorod Region, Russia) collected by the authors in 2020 allowed us to identify a specimen as Parmelia asiatica. Before this study, only six species of the genus Parmelia were known in European Russia. The present paper contains data on the new record of P. asiatica, its morphology, the species distribution range, and its ecology. The diversity of data collected in Russian state nature reserves (including the new record) proves the need and importance of studying the lichen flora of these territories, since they represent the best-preserved, rare and unique habitats. In particular, the Kerzhensky State Nature Reserve is believed to be located near the contact zone between European and Siberian vascular and lichen flora, which is also confirmed by the here reported record of P. asiatica. Key words: European Russia, Kerzhensky State Nature Reserve, lichen, new locality, Nizhny Novgorod Region.
36482Brodo I.M., Lendemer J.C., Harris R.C., McMullin R.T., López de Silanes M.E., van Miltenburg N., Bull R., Paradis M. & Ginter A. (2024): Xanthosyne (Lecanoraceae), a new genus for Lecidea varians and related species in Europe and North America. - Bryologist, 127(2): 169–219. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-127.2.169.
Lecidea varians is among the most common and abundant bark-dwelling crustose lichens in temperate eastern North America. As presently delimited, it is highly variable, including chemical and morphological diversity well beyond that currently accepted for most lichen species. The generic placement of L. varians has also been questioned for decades. It has long been recognized as aberrant in Lecidea and Pyrrhospora, excluded from Lecidella, and more recently transferred to Traponora. Drawing from the results of extensive chemical, molecular phylogenetic and morphological studies, we show that L. varians and its relatives represent a previously unrecognized lineage within the speciose lichen family Lecanoraceae. The lineage appears to occupy an isolated position, distinct from the aforementioned genera, and is newly described as the genus Xanthosyne (typified by L. varians). The chemical and morphological variation within L. varians is mirrored by, but not entirely correlated with, considerable molecular diversity. A new taxonomy is proposed for L. varians and its relatives to serve as a framework for future studies. Three species are recognized: X. varians (≡ Lecidea varians), common and widespread in parts of North America; X. granularis, a new species from the Atlantic Coast of eastern North America that differs morphologically from X. varians in having a leprose thallus; and X. sharnoffiorum, a new species also found mainly along the Atlantic Coast of eastern North America, which has a coarsely granular, non-leprose thallus and produces a unique, unidentified xanthone. Multiple well-supported lineages were recovered within X. varians that correlate to varying degrees with chemical and morphological variability, as well as geographic distribution. Eight subspecies are recognized to accommodate the variation within X. varians: X. varians subsp. exigua comb. nov. (≡ Lecidea exigua) characterized by the presence of atranorin and a consistent set of three xanthones, is widespread in southern Europe and western North America (coastal California); X. varians subsp. varians (≡ Lecidea varians) is distributed mainly in northeastern North America and produces thuringione and arthothelin; X. varians subsp. morsei subsp. nov. is morphologically and chemically variable, with one chemotype (thiophanic acid) with a northeastern distribution, and the other with a unique and unidentified xanthone, found mainly in the interior U.S.A.; X. varians subsp. obscura subsp. nov. occurs mainly in the central U.S.A. and North Temperate regions, produces a unique, unidentified xanthone and generally has black apothecia with green epihymenial pigments; X. varians subsp. pseudomorsei subsp. nov. and X. varians subsp. submorsei subsp. nov. resemble X. varians subsp. morsei but differ in molecular sequence characters; X. varians subsp. subtilis comb. nov. (≡ Lecidea subtilis) and X. varians subsp. subexigua subsp. nov. occur in the Appalachian Mountains, the former producing atranorin and the latter lacking atranorin, both with thiophanic acid with or without other xanthones. In an addendum, Lecidella subviridis is discussed with respect to the genus Xanthosyne. An identification key is provided for all species and their subspecies within Xanthosyne.
36481Gueidan C., Mead O.L., Nazem-Bokaee H. & Mathews S. (2023): First draft of an annotated genome for a lichenised strain of the green alga Diplosphaera chodatii (Prasiolales, Trebouxiophyceae). - European Journal of Phycology, 58(4): 427-437. .
Although genome sequences of lichenized fungi are increasingly becoming available, genome sequences of microalgae involved in the lichen symbiosis are still scarce. For lichenized eukaryotic algae, genome sequencing has focused mostly on Trebouxia and Asterochloris, with little genomic data available for Stichococcus-like algae, such as Diplosphaera. The genus Diplosphaera is a common component of biological soil crusts, and often occurs associated with lichens of the family Verrucariaceae. It is characterized by cylindrical to spherical cells containing a plate-like chloroplast, and more specifically by a vegetative cell division that leads to the formation of typical two- to four-celled clusters. Here, we present a draft genome sequence for the algal partner of an Australian lichen specimen of Endocarpon pusillum. The genome was sequenced with Pac Bio long read and Illumina short read technologies, and transcriptome data were generated to inform the structural annotations. This algal strain is here identified as Diplosphaera chodatii based on nuSSU and ITS data. Compared with closely related lichenized and non-lichenized algae, the genome of D. chodatii stands out for its large size (85.6 Mb) and gene content (21,261 protein-encoding regions), as well as its high rate of duplicated genes (60% of the BUSCO genes are duplicated). These results suggest that whole genome duplication or large-scale segmental duplications may have occurred in the evolutionary history of this algal species.
36480Haldeman M. & Darmostuk V. (2024): Trichonectria fragmospora comb. nov. (Hypocreales), a new lichenicolous fungus record for North America. - Evansia, 41(1): 19–27. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-41.1.19.
We provide the first North American report of the lichenicolous fungus Pronectria fragmospora. Based on multigene phylogenetic analyses we found this species to be nested within the genus Trichonectria and the new combination Trichonectria fragmospora is proposed. We provide a description and photos of the North American material on Evernia prunastri and a phylogenetic tree showing its placement within the genus. We also compare this species to related species of Trichonectria and similar species of Pronectria. Key words. Evernia prunastri, new combination, Pronectria, Washington, Whatcom County.
36479van der Kolk H.-J., Boers J., Schrier T., Schrier N. & Diederich P. (2024): New lichenicolous fungi from the Netherlands, including the descriptions of Echinothecium micareae and Lichenochora verrucariae. - Lindbergia, 2024: e026005 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.25227/linbg.026005.
Recent finds of lichenicolous fungi from the Netherlands are described and discussed. Echinothecium micareae spec. nov. and Lichenochora verrucariae spec. nov. are described as new for science. An additional 31 species are reported for the first time from the Netherlands: Abrothallus cladoniae, Arthonia diploiciae, A. rinodinicola, Cladophialophora cladoniae, Dacampia cyrtellae, Dactylospora microspora, Didymocyrtis cladoniicola, D. consimilis, D. physciae, Diplotomma parasiticum, Epithamnolia pertusariae, Gonatophragmium lichenophilum, Lichenohendersonia varians, Lichenostigma chlaroterae, L. cosmopolites, Nectria brutia, Nectriopsis physciicola, Niesslia cladoniicola, Opegrapha hochstetteri, O. opaca, Phaeoseptoria peltigerae, Phaeospora lecanorae, Polycoccum aksoyi, P. laursenii, Pronectria diplococca, Pseudocercospora lichenum, Stigmidium fuscatae, Tremella candelariellae, T. occultixanthoriae, Trimmatostroma acetabuli and Zwackhiomyces diederichii. Notes are provided on these and some other interesting lichenicolous fungi. There are currently 240 species of lichenicolous fungi known from the Netherlands. Keywords: Ascomycetes, biodiversity, fungi, lichens, taxonomy.
36478Kondratyuk S.Y., Lőkös L., Persson P.-E., Hansson M., Schiefelbein U., Kärnefelt I. & Thell A. (2024): New and noteworthy lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi 13. A revision of the Xanthoria ectaneoides complex (Xanthorioideae, Teloschistaceae) including the new species Xanthoria pylyporlykii. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 66: 47–77. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.66.2024.1-2.3.
Xanthoria ectaneoides , usually recognised by its secondary sublobules, is circumscribed in a strict sense using spore size and a molecular phylogeny based on ITS-sequences. The species, earlier considered a synonym of X. aureola , forms a subclade with X. coomae and the new species X. pylyporlykii , described here, whereas X. aureola is positioned in the Xanthoria calcicola subclade. The new species X. pylyporlykii is characterised by a combination of characters typical either for Xanthoria ectaneoides or X. coomae.
36477Blázquez M., Pérez-Vargas I., Garrido-Benavent I., Villar-dePablo M., Turégano Y., Frías-López C., Sánchez-Gracia A., de los Ríos A., Gasulla F. & Pérez-Ortega S. (2024): Endless forms most frustrating: disentangling species boundaries in the Ramalina decipiens group (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota), with the description of six new species and a key to the group. - Persoonia, 52: 44–93. https://doi.org/10.3767/persoonia.2024.52.03.
Oceanic islands have been recognized as natural laboratories in which to study a great variety of evolutionary processes. One such process is evolutionary radiations, the diversification of a single ancestor into a number of species that inhabit different environments and differ in the traits that allow them to exploit those environments. The factors that drive evolutionary radiations have been studied for decades in charismatic organisms such as birds or lizards, but are lacking in lichen-forming fungi, despite recent reports of some lineages showing diversification patterns congruent with radiation. Here we propose the Ramalina decipiens group as a model system in which to carry out such studies. This group is currently thought to be comprised of five saxicolous species, all of them endemic to the Macaronesian region (the Azores, Madeira, Selvagens, Canary and Cape Verde islands). Three species are single-island endemics (a rare geographic distribution pattern in lichens), whereas two are widespread and show extreme morphological variation. The latter are suspected to harbor unrecognized species-level lineages. In order to use the Ramalina decipiens group as a model system it is necessary to resolve the group's phylogeny and to clarify its species boundaries. In this study we attempt to do so following an integrative taxonomy approach. We constructed a phylogenetic tree based on six molecular markers, four of which are newly developed and generated competing species hypotheses based on molecular (species discovery strategies based on both single locus and multilocus datasets) and phenotypic data (unsupervised clustering algorithms based on morphology, secondary chemistry and geographic origin). We found that taxonomic diversity in the Ramalina decipiens group has been highly underestimated in previous studies. In consequence, we describe six new species, most of them single-island endemics and provide a key to the group. Phylogenetic relationships among species have been reconstructed with almost full support which, coupled with the endemic character of the group, makes it an excellent system for the study of island radiations in lichen-forming fungi. Key words: island; lichen; Macaronesia; new taxa; radiation; species delimitation.
36476Bjelland T. (2023): Practical conservation action on a Critically Endangered lichen species. - JOURNAL FOR NATURE CONSERVATION, 75: 126474. .
To save a species on the verge of extinction, an urgent practical conservation action was performed on the Critically Endangered lichen species Leptogium hibernicum in Norway. A transplantation experiment at two localities was carried out in close cooperation with the responsible authorities. An alarming problem for L. hibernicum is the imminent challenge of a habitat under threat. A parallel experiment with a comparable yet common species, Leptogium saturninum, was performed to exclude variables related to the experimental method. Four years after transplantation of lichen fragments, the rate of survival has levelled off to about 12% for L. hibernicum and 19% for L. saturninum. The decrease in surviving material is largest one year after transplantation, while the amount of surviving material stabilises over the following three years. Transplantation is here shown as a promising tool for the practical conservation of red-listed lichens. conservation
36475Arcadia L. (2023): Lichens of the area around Karpenisi, Evritania, Central Greece. - Parnassiana Archives, 11: 3-17. .
Study of eight sites in the vicinity of the town of Karpenisi in the nomos of Evritanias, in September 2021, yielded records of 195 taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi. Nine of them: Biatora globulosa, Candelariella oleaginescens var. glebulosa, Chaenothecopsis hospitans, Micarea globulosella, Taeniolella delicata, Toniniopsis dissimilis, Trapelia elacista, Xanthoparmelia angustiphylla and Xanthoparmelia sublaevis are new to Greece. The list includes 4 species of non-lichenised, lichenicolous fungi: Chaenothecopsis hospitans, Endococcus macrosporus, Stigmidium congestum and Taeniolella delicata, which is more than is usually found in Greece in a survey of this kind. A summary of all previous reports for Evritania is also included, and the total for the nomos now stands at 211 taxa.
36474Aadaj J., Tabit A., Algouti A., El Myr A., Elhamdi S.B., Tabet C.B., Lakhlili M., Oudour K., Nidsaid Z. & Laadimi Y. (2023): Mapping of lichen biomarkers of atmospheric pollution in the Agadir urban area. - Proceeding Book of 3rd International Conference on Scientific and Academic Research ICSAR 2023, 1(7): 489-493. .
Air pollution refers to a combination of gases and suspended particles present in the atmosphere, whose concentration levels vary depending on emissions and weather conditions. These substances are harmful to human health and the environment. Analyzing air pollution is a key to assess the level of the pollution in an area. Commonly, the spatial distribution of some plants serves as bio-indictorfor air pollution monitoring. Citing for example, lichens, are autotrophic and symbiotic living organisms composed of a beneficial association between an alga and a fungus, as well as "Nicotianaglauca" tobacco plants.
36473Nag P., Rai H., Upreti D.K. & Gupta R.K. (2022): Lichenological studies in Nepal: A critical review. - Cryptogam Biodiversity and Assessment, 6(1): 59–69. .
Lichens are some of the ubiquitously distributed symbionts with a circumpolar distribution. The Himalayan habitats are lichenologically among the most researched region in Asia. European and Japanese researchers initiated the lichenological research in the Nepal Himalayas, which was later carried out predominantly by Indian lichenologists. The cumulative diversity of lichens in Nepal constitutes 882 species belonging to 186 genera and 61 families. Though the lichenological studies in Nepal largely constitute taxonomic and diversity enumeration studies, works in other applied fields have started in the last decade. The present review refers to the various taxonomical studies on lichens of Nepal by various researchers. The review also investigates the works done in the field of biomonitoring and bioprospection. The review conclusively discusses the prospects of lichen research in the country regarding the rich lichen biodiversity recorded so far and the various developments in the field of modern lichenology. Keywords: Biomonitoring, Bioprospection, Diversity, Lichen, Lichen taxonomy, Nepal.
36472Титов А.Н., Давыдов Е.А. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Titov A.N., Davydov E.A. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2002): Новые данные о редких микокалициенвых грибах из родов Phaeocalicium и Stenocybe (Mycocaliciaceae, Caliciales s.l.) [New data on rare species from genera Phaeocalicium and Stenocybe (Mycocaliciaceae, Caliciales s.l.)]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskii Zhurnal], 87(6): 60–67. .
[In Russian; the Russian abstract translated: ] New data on the distribution of rare species of the family Mycocaliciaceae are presented. Stenocybe flexuosa is reported for the first time for Eurasia, Phaeocalicium betulinum, P. boreale, P. interruptum and P. praecedens for Asia, P. ahtii for Russia and P. pinaceum for the Far East and China. The problem of differentiating the genera Phaeocalicium and Stenocybe is discussed, and a brief ecological and geographical characterisation is given. A key for the identification of 14 species of Phaeocalicium and Stenocybe occurring in Russia and neighbouring areas is given.
36471Søchting U. & de Lange P. (2024): Sirenophila macquariensis (Teloschistaceae) – a new name for the lichen Caloplaca maculata. - Perspectives in Biodiversity, 2: 42–49. https://doi.org/10.34074/pibdiv.002105.
A new combination for Caloplaca macquariensis C.W. Dodge is made in Sirenophila Søchting, Arup & Frödén, S. macquariensis (C.W. Dodge) Søchting & de Lange. In the process we reduce the Aotearoa / New Zealand Caloplaca maculata D.J. Galloway into synonymy within the new combination, noting the lack of morphological distinctions between that species and S. macquariensis. Very little is known about S. macquariensis which is known only from the type collected from Macquarie Island, however, we offer an update on the species ecology based on collections and observations of the species on the Chatham Islands – the eastern most extension of the Aotearoa / New Zealand archipelago. Keywords: Teloschistaceae, Sirenophila, Caloplaca, C. macquariensis, C. maculata, new combination.
36470Atni O.K., Munir E., Siregar E.S. & Saleh M.N. (2024): Lichen diversity and taxonomy in Bukit Barisan Grand Forest Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia. - Biodiversitas, 25: 1623–1630. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d250431.
Located in Bandar Baru Village, Deli Serdang District, North Sumatra, Bukit Barisan Grand Forest Park stands out for its uniqueness and high biodiversity, including lichens. This study aims to identify and map lichen diversity in the research area. Surveys were conducted from January to February 2024 using an exploratory method along designated tracks. Therefore, 57 lichen species from 23 families and 38 genera were found. Based on their thallus types, 26 lichen species were identified as crustose, 17 as foliose, 6 as squamulose, 5 as fruticose, and 3 as filamentous. Reproductive structures varied, 13 species possessed apothecia, soredia, and lacked distinguishable reproductive structures, 10 had lirellae, 7 had perithecia, and 2 had isidia. Graphidaceae emerged as the most prevalent family with 8 species, predominantly growing on bark substrates. Although lichen distribution correlated with pH levels, its correlation with the preference for lower pH levels was low. Host trees from the Pinaceae and Lauraceae families were the most populated by lichens in this study. Research on lichen diversity in Bukit Barisan Grand Forest Park is crucial, considering the increasing development and deforestation in North Sumatra. A more comprehensive study of lichens is urgently required. Keywords: Diversity, lichen, taxonomy.
36469García Jiménez J., Hernández Del Valle J.F., Valenzuela R., Raymundo T., Huereca A., Bautista Hernández S., Guevara Guerrero R., Garza Ocañas F., García Morales L.J., Sánchez Flores M., Guzmán Guillermo J. & de la Fuente López J.I. (2024): Hongos. - In: La biodiversidad en Tamaulipas. Estudio de Estado. Vol. II, p. 31–50, Conabio, México. .
[in Spanish] chapter in book; biodiversity, Mexico
36468Jannah M. & Untari L.F. (2019): Taxonomy of crustose lichens in the forest of Tahura R. Soeryo, Batu, east Java. - Biotropic, 3(1): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.29080/biotropic.2019.3.1.1-12.
Lichen is a symbiotic organism consisting of a photobiont (green algae or cyanobacterium) and a mycobiont (fungal). A taxonomic study of the crustose lichens in the forest of TAHURA R. Soeryohad been conducted based on morphological, anatomical, and chemical characters. In this research we used the method of descriptive exploration to identify the crustose lichens and to study the distribution of the species in the forest of TAHURA R. Soeryo. Twenty species of crustose lichens with one unidentified species and one specimen identified to the group of family are reported. They are Graphina, Graphis, Phaeographis, Pertusaria, Pachyphiale, Phlyctis, Lepraria, Lecanora, Lecania, Cyphellium, and Megalospora. This research also found the new record species of Megalospora kalbii in Java. Crustose lichens are found in the areas with high light intensity of ≥ 1000 lux, average humidity of ≤ 90%, average temperature of18-190C, and at altitudes of ±1640 dpl. Graphina ruiziana could only be found at the altitude of ± 1780 dpl. The identification key to its species and distributions of other species are presented also in the article. Key words: Diversity, Crustose Lichen, Forest of Tahura R. Soeryo.
36467Bukabayeva Z., Abiyev S., Silybayeva B. & Ivachshenko O. (2024): The impact of climate aridification on rare lichen communities. - Biosystems Diversity, 32(1): 142-149. https://doi.org/10.15421/012414.
The global diversity of approximately 25,000 lichen species (e.g., from the genera Usnea, Cladonia, and Peltigera), including rare and endangered ones, highlights the importance of preserving their population in the State National Nature Park “Burabay”. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of rare lichen species in the territory of the State National Nature Park “Burabay,” located in the Akmola region of Kazakhstan, in the period from 2018 to 2022, with a particular focus on understanding how aridification may have influenced their presence and abundance. In the course of the study, methods such as route expeditions, the comparative morphological method, as well as some other special methods were used. The collection of information to systematize the taxonomic composition of lichens (genera Lobaria, Rhizocarpon, and Xanthoria) was carried out during route expeditions. The study identified 56 lichen species, with a focus on rare and protected species. Established in 2000, the park's rich biodiversity is showcased, including the discovery of three very rare species (Dermatocarpon miniatum, Psora lurida, and Verrucaria nigrescens) and four species requiring protection (Peltigera spuria, Cladonia coccifera, Haematomma ventosum, and Caloplaca aurantiaca). These findings are significant, considering the absence of data on these species since the 1982 Red Book of Kazakhstan (including genera such as Lecanora, Lecidea, and Pertusaria). The sensitivity of lichens to environmental changes (indicated by genera like Alectoria, Bryoria, and Cetraria) makes them ideal for monitoring ecological health through a cost-effective method known as lichen indication. The increase in the species count over the past five years (highlighting genera such as Stereocaulon, Solorina, and Thamnolia) suggests effective conservation efforts and underlines the park's ecological importance. The study's findings reveal that aridification is reshaping lichen communities in the park, emphasizing their sensitivity to climate change and the need for conservation strategies to address these changes and ensure the preservation of lichen biodiversity in the face of global climate change. The research contributes valuable data for future conservation planning and environmental assessments in the region, emphasizing the need to protect diverse lichen genera (e.g., Evernia, Ramalina, and Parmotrema) for ecological monitoring and conservation. natural ecosystems, Drude scale, thallus, lichen biodiversity, symbiotic relationships, environmental indicators
36466Partemi R., Debortoli N., Martínez A., Kamburska L., Souffreau C., Matheve H., Vantieghem P., De Meester L., van Doninck K., Merckx T. & Fontaneto D. (2024): Weak effect of urbanization on bdelloid rotifers living in lichens. - R Soc Open Sci, 11(4): 231978. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.231978.
Human activities have an overwhelming impact on the natural environment, leading to a deep biodiversity crisis whose effects range from genes to ecosystems. Here, we analysed the effect of such anthropogenic impacts on bdelloid rotifers (Rotifera Bdelloidea), for whom these effects are poorly understood. We targeted bdelloid rotifers living in lichen patches across urbanization gradients in Flanders and Brussels (Belgium). Urbanization was measured as the percentage of built-up area (BU) across different spatial scales, at circles from 50 to 3200 m of radius around the lichen. Urbanization effects on biodiversity were assessed on abundance, species richness and community-weighted mean body size of bdelloid rotifers, as well as on genetic diversity of a mitochondrial marker (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) of one of the most common and widespread bdelloid species, Adineta vaga. Overall, no negative effect of urbanization was found at any diversity level and any spatial scale. Counterintuitively, the BU area quantified at the largest spatial scale had a positive effect on abundance. These results leave open the question of whether negative effects of urbanization are present for bdelloid rotifers, if they are mediated by other unexplored drivers, or if such effects are only visible at even larger spatial scales. Rotifera Bdelloidea, anthropogenic effects, biodiversity, community ecology, urban ecology
36465Muchnik E., Cherepenina D., Tsurykau A., Blagoveschenskaya E. & Gudkova E. (2024): New, rare, and interesting lichenological records in Moscow and Moscow Region (European Russia). - Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii, 58: L69–L80. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2024.58.1.L69.
This paper provides data on 26 new, rare, and interesting species of lichens discovered in the city of Moscow and Moscow Region during the field studies in 2014–2022, of which 21 species are new to the study area. Fellhaneropsis vezdae is new to the European part of Russia, and Briancoppinsia cytospora, Thelidium minimum, and Verrucaria inaspecta are new to the Central Russia. The list of lichens and allied fungi of the city of Moscow and Moscow Region currently includes 493 species.
36464Rakhimova Y., Kyzmetova L., Sypabekkyzy G. & Myrzakhan A. (2024): Current state of the species composition of mycobiota in South-East Kazakhstan. - BIO Web of Conferences, 100: 04038. https://doi.org/10.1051/bioconf/202410004038.
To date, no information has been available on the species composition of fungi in southeastern Kazakhstan, the center of agrobiodiversity but also home to rare and endemic species. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the diversity of fungi, fungus-like organisms, and lichens in southeastern Kazakhstan. The scientific and practical significance of the work is to obtain data on the species composition of mycobiota, which will allow planning measures for its monitoring, protection and restoration. The material for the article served as the authors’ own collections, conducted in 2021-2023. The study and identification of fungi were carried out according to the standard methodology. In the study area 2864 species of fungi, fungus-like organisms and lichens from 3 kingdoms, 22 classes, 84 orders, 260 families and 770 genera were found. Among them, 36 species were new to southeastern Kazakhstan, and 8 species were new to Kazakhstan. It is worth noting that the Karasay region had the largest number of species (1547) when analyzing the distribution of fungi, fungus-like organisms, and lichens. The study’s value and practical significance lies in the data obtained on the species composition of fungi, fungus-like organisms, and lichens, including their distribution and confinement to different types of substrates.
36463Reyhangul M., Haiying Y., Dolathan T. & Tumur A. (2024): Diversity of macrolichens in the Barluk Mountain National Nature Reserve in Xinjiang, China. - BIO Web of Conferences, 100: 02024. https://doi.org/10.1051/bioconf/202410002024.
The Barluk Mountain National Nature Reserve of Xinjiang, China is known as a paradise of wildlife, that includes a great diversity of lichens attributed to its unique geology and geography that enhances the value for study and conservation. From 2021 to 2023, surveys were undertaken to determine the diversity of macrolichens in relation to altitude in all parts of the Nature Reserve. A total of 670 macrolichens were collected of which 106 taxa were identified as distinct and comprised of of 102 species, 2 subspecies and 2 varieties within 31 lichen genera, Cladonia had the highest number of species with 21, followed by Peltigera (14 species). The greatest number of macro lichens was found between 1200 to 1800 m elevation. (69 species, 65.1% of the total number of species) followed by 900m to 1199m (56 species, 52.8% of the total). Foliose lichens comprised 67.9% of the total number of species, with 452 specimens, squamulose were 21.7%, with 152 specimens, and fruticose were 10.4%, with 66 specimens.
36462Li M., Meng J., Lin D., Xu P., Wang L., Hu Y., Qin C., Zhao L., Xia Y., Zhang L. & Liu H. (2024): Active Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Element Deposition in the Heating Period of Tangshan Using Ramalina sinensis. - POLISH JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES, 33(4): 1-12. https://doi.org/10.15244/pjoes/183500.
Tangshan is known as a typical heavy industrial city with serious atmospheric pollution. It suffers the most serious atmospheric pollution during the winter heating period. This study aims to explore the level and spatial distribution of atmospheric element deposition in the study area and validate the suitability of Ramalina sinensis (RSI) as an active biomonitor in North China cities. RSI was transplanted to Tangshan in winter (Dec. 2016- Mar. 2017) and exposed for 17 weeks. The concentration of 51 elements was tested using an ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer). The results showed that the exposure concentration of all elements but Ag was significantly higher than the background value. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that K, P, and Rb were separated into the group G5, and these nutrients have a lower level of bioaccumulation than other groups. The remaining 47 elements were classified into groups G1 (Al, Be, Co, Cr, Cs, Ge, Li, Nb, Ni, Si, Th, Ti, U, V, and 16 rare earth elements La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Y, and Sc) of crustal origin, G2 (Ca, Cd, Cu, Mg, Mn, Mo, S, Sb, Sr, and Zn) and G3 (Bi, Pb, and Sn) of atmospheric origin, and G4 (As, Fe, Se, and Tl) of crustal-atmospheric origin. The overall bioaccumulation in Tangshan is moderate (PLIzone = 2.010 for the combined groups G1-4), with the highest bioaccumulation level (high to severe) for the atmospheric group G2. The most concerned elements are Ca and S, which are of high bioaccumulation at the regional scale. All element groups show a similar spatial pattern characterized by decreasing atmospheric deposition from east to west and from rural to urban areas. These results indicate that RSI is a good active biomonitor for most elements, barring some nutrients. The importance of G2 elements should be emphasized as an indicator of anthropogenic emissions in lichen-active biomonitoring techniques in North China cities. The study area experienced a certain degree of atmospheric pollution, contributed mainly by the frequent industrial and agricultural activities and coal combustion for heating in the east of the city and the rural areas around. This study is the first to monitor atmospheric deposition in industrial cities in North China using the active lichen biomonitoring method.
36461Koch N.M., Díaz Dominguez R., Fávaro A. & Stanton D. (2024): Thallus hydrophobicity: A low-cost method for understanding lichen ecophysiological responses to environmental changes. - Appl Plant Sci, 12(2): e11565. https://doi.org/10.1002/aps3.11565.
PREMISE: Methods to evaluate lichen thalli hydrophobicity have previously been described, but only recently has hydrophobicity been shown to be an important functional trait related to water regulation dynamics that could be used to predict future climate change effects. We describe a novel protocol to measure lichen thallus hydrophobicity that aims to be an easier and more affordable approach. METHODS AND RESULTS: Our protocol requires only a micropipette, distilled water, a tripod, and a smartphone or camera. Hydrophobicity is inferred from multiple metrics associated with the absorption times of standardized droplets (initial and total absorption time). We used a data set of 93 lichen taxa with different growth forms and from different biomes and demonstrated that this method is well suited for capturing different levels of hydrophobicity, including very hydrophilic species. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that this new protocol to measure lichen hydrophobicity is a rapid and low-cost method to assess an ecophysiologically based functional trait that can be used with almost no limitations, including in different climates, lichen species, and growth forms. ecophysiology, functional traits, hydration, lichens, water absorption, wettability
36460Condon L.A., Bradford J.B. & Coates P.S. (2024): Biological soil crusts are more prevalent in warmer and drier environments within the Great Basin ecoregion: implications for managing annual grass invasion. - Restoration Ecology, n/a(n/a): e14150. https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.14150.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) can thrive under environmental conditions that are stressful for vascular plants such as high temperatures and/or extremely low moisture availability. In these settings, and in the absence of disturbance, cover of biocrusts commonly exceeds cover of vascular plants. Arid landscapes are also typically slow to recover from disturbance and prone to altered vegetation and invasion by exotic species. In the sagebrush ecosystems, cover of annual, exotic, invasive grasses are lower where cover of biocrusts and vascular plants are greater, suggesting that biocrusts play a role in helping arid sites avoid conversion to dominance by invasive grasses. The conceptual framework for assessing ecological resistance and resilience (R&R) is used across the region to estimate the risk of invasion by annual grasses and the likelihood of recovery of native plants following disturbance. However, this framework does not currently account for biocrusts. We used data collected by the Bureau of Land Management Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring program to relate biocrusts, specifically the presence of lichens and mosses, to the R&R framework. Lichens frequently occur on warm, dry sites, classified as lower R&R. Mosses frequently occur on sites classified as moderate or moderately low R&R. Without management practices that favor biocrusts in low-moderate R&R, these areas may be more vulnerable to transitioning from being dominated by shrubs to annual grasses. Under climate change scenarios, the area occupied by lower R&R sites is likely to increase, suggesting that the role of biocrusts in maintaining site resistance to invasion may also increase. biocrusts, BLM AIM data, climate change, landscape monitoring framework, lichens, mosses, sagebrush ecosystems
36459Boonpeng C., Pischom M., Butrid P., Noikrad S. & Boonpragob K. (2024): Laboratory and field measurements of water relations, photosynthetic parameters, and hydration traits in macrolichens in a tropical lower montane rainforest in Thailand. - Journal of Plant Research, 137: 641–658. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10265-024-01542-3.
Ecophysiological studies of lichens in tropical Asia are rare, and additional studies can increase the understanding of lichen life in this region. The main aim of this study was to observe the relationships between water availability and photosynthetic parameters, as well as hydration trait parameters, in macrolichens during the rainy and dry seasons in a tropical forest. A total of 11 lichen species growing in a lower montane rainforest in Thailand were collected and studied. The results clearly showed that the specific thallus mass (STM), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), the potential quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Fv/Fm), chlorophyll content, and carotenoid content of almost all lichens were lower in the dry season than in the rainy season. Field measurements in the dry season revealed that only the foliose chlorolichen Parmotrema tinctorum was metabolically active and exhibited slight carbon assimilation. In the rainy season, all lichens started their photosynthesis in the early morning, reached maximal values, declined, and ceased when the thalli desiccated. The photosynthetically active period of the lichens was approximately 2-3 h in the morning, and the activities of the cyanolichens ended approximately 30 min after the chlorolichens. The hydration trait parameters, including the STM, maximal water content (WC(max)), and water holding capacity (WHC), were greater in the cyanolichens. In addition, the maximal Pn (Pn(max)) and optimal water content (WC(opt)) for Pn were also greater in the cyanolichens, but the maximal Fv/Fm (Fv/Fm(max)) was lower. The cyanolichens compensated for their inability to use humid air to restore photosynthesis by having higher water content and storage, higher photosynthetic rates, and longer photosynthetically active periods. This study provides additional insights into lichen ecophysiology in tropical forests that can be useful for lichen conservation. Keywords: CO2 gas exchange, Chlorolichen, Cyanolichen, Ecophysiology, Photosystem II, Poikilohydric organism, Water stress.
36458Zakhozhiy I.G. & Shelyakin M.A. (2024): Accumulation and localization of metals in lichen thallus under conditions of dust pollution during open mining of boxite deposits. - Russian Journal of Ecology, 55: 32–41. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1067413624010090.
We studied the accumulation and localization of metals in the foliose lichens Lobaria pulmonaria, Hypogymnia physodes, and Peltigera aphthosa, living in the impact zone of the Sredne-Timansky bauxite mine. A significant accumulation of Al (16–19 g/kg), Fe (16–20 g/kg), and Ti (0.3–0.7 g/kg) by thalli was revealed. From 29 to 82% of the total content of these metals is localized in dust particles weakly attached to the surface of the thalli. The total proportion of intra- and extracellularly bound Al, Fe, and Ti did not exceed 11%, 15–56% of these metals were found in the residual fraction. An increase in the content of Cu, Pb, Co, and Ni was detected in thalli collected in the impact area. It has been shown that the localization of metals in thalli depends both on the studied element and on the morphological and anatomical characteristics of the thalli: in L. pulmonaria, fine mineral particles were localized on the surface of the thalli; in the thalli of P. aphthosa, which do not have a lower cortex, mineral inclusions were found throughout the entire thickness of the thalli. Keywords: lichenized fungi, Komi Republic, Middle Timan, bauxite, pollutants, metals, accumulation, sequential extraction, electron microscopy.
36457Pushpavathi D. & Krishnamurthy Y.L. (2024): Study on endolichenic fungal assemblage in Parmotrema and Heterodermia lichens of Shivamoga, Karnataka. - Molecular Biological Reports, 51: 549 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-024-09497-3.
Background: Lichen is a symbiotic association of algae and fungi, recognized as a self-sustaining ecosystem that constitutes an indeterminant number of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, and protozoa. We evaluated the endolichenic fungal assemblage given the dearth of knowledge on endolichenic fungi (ELFs), particularly from part of the Central Western Ghats, Karnataka, and conducted a phylogenetic analysis of xylariaceous fungi, the most diversified group of fungi using ITS and ITS+Tub2 gene set. Results: Out of 17 lichen thalli collected from 5 ecoregions, 42 morphospecies recovered, belong to the class Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Leotiomycetes, Saccharomycetes. About 19 and 13 ELF genera have been reported from Parmotrema and Heterodermia thallus. Among the ecoregions EC2 showing highest species diversity (Parmotrema (1-D) = 0.9382, (H) = 2.865, Fisher-α = 8.429, Heterodermia (1-D) = 0.8038, H = 1.894, F-α = 4.57) followed the EC3 and EC1. Xylariales are the predominant colonizer reported from at least one thallus from four ecoregions. The morphotypes ELFX04, ELFX05, ELFX08 and ELFX13 show the highest BLAST similarity (> 99%) with Xylaria psidii, X. feejeensis, X. berteri and Hypoxylon fragiforme respectively. Species delimitation and phylogenetic position reveal the closest relation of Xylariaceous ELFs with plant endophytes. Conclusions: The observation highlights that the deciduous forest harness a high number of endolichenic fungi, a dominant portion of these fungi are non-sporulating and still exist as cryptic. Overall, 8 ELF species recognized based on phylogenetic analysis, including the two newly reported fungi ELFX03 and ELFX06 which are suspected to be new species based on the present evidence. The study proved, that the lichen being rich source to establish fungal diversity and finding new species. Successful amplification of most phylogenetic markers like RPB2, building of comprehensive taxonomic databases and application of multi-omics data are further needed to understand the complex nature of lichen-fungal symbiosis. Keywords: Diversity · Xylariaceous endolichenic fungi · Phylogeny · Species delimitation · ITS · Beta-tubulin.
36456Farkas E., Xu M., Muhoro A.M., Szabó K., Lengyel A., Heiðmarsson S., Viktorsson E.Ö. & Ólafsdóttir E.S. (2024): The algal partnership is associated with quantitative variation of lichen specific metabolites in Cladonia foliacea from Central and Southern Europe. - Symbiosis, 92: 403–419. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-024-00982-8.
Lichen specific metabolites (LSMs) have interesting biological activities and quantitative variations may be present intraspecifically. For example, variations in medullary fumarprotocetraric acid (FA) and cortical usnic acid (UA) were observed in the lichen Cladonia foliacea, but the mechanism of variation is not well understood. The current study aimed to characterise the quantitative variation of FA and UA and to investigate the association between lichen metabolite content and ecological / biological variables. Fungal and algal trees were constructed using fungal (nrITS, RPB2) and algal (nrITS) loci, respectively. Using a chiral chromatographic method, the contents of (-)-UA were determined in 29 C. foliacea specimens and range from 6.88 to 34.27 mg/g dry wt. The FA contents were lower and varied from 1.44 to 9.87 mg/g dry wt. Although the fungal tree showed two well resolved clades, no significant differences of UA or FA contents were found between the two fungal clades. However, a significantly higher UA/FA ratio as well as a unique habitat were found to be associated with specimens which contained the alga Asterochloris lobophora than those specimens associated other Asterochloris algae. Taking all predictive variables into account (i.e. substrate type, elevation, collection season, photobiont identity), the multivariate data analysis indicated that photobiont identity explained most of the variance of LSM contents in C. foliacea. Thus future LSM biosynthetic studies should take the photobiont into consideration when dealing with intraspecific quantitative variation. Keywords: Asterochloris photobionts · Cladonia convoluta · Fumarprotocetraric acid · HPLC-PDA · UHPLC-PDA-MS · Usnic acid enantiomers.
36455Puolasmaa A. & Kuusisto I. (2024): Report of 27 lichenicolous fungi species and three genera new to Finland. - Karstenia, 61(2): 9–19. doi:10.29203/ka.2023.520.
We studied systematically herbaria lichen specimens collected from Finland and from former Finnish parts of Russia to detect lichenicolous fungi. In total, 3355 lichen specimens were found with lichenicolous fungi from 160 taxa. We report here 27 species and three genera that are new to Finland. Three of these, Cercidospora epithamnolia, Cyclothyrium sp. and Roselliniella stereocaulorum, are reported as also new to Scandinavia. Three taxa are reported from a new host. Keywords: lichenicolous fungi, new records, herbarium specimens.
36454Lackner R.M., Ferron S., Boustie J., Le Devehat F., Lumbsch H.T. & Shibayama N. (2024): Unraveling a historical mystery: Identification of a lichen dye source in a fifteenth century medieval tapestry. - Heritage, 7(5): 2370–2384. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7050112.
As part of a long-term campaign to document, study, and conserve the Heroes tapestries from The Cloisters collection at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, organic colorant analysis of Julius Caesar (accession number 47.101.3) was performed. Analysis with liquid chromatography– quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-qToF-MS) revealed the presence of several multiply chlorinated xanthones produced only by certain species of lichen. Various lichen dye sources have been documented in the literature for centuries and are classified as either ammonia fermentation method (AFM) or boiling water method (BWM) dyes based on their method of production. However, none of these known sources produce the distinctive metabolites present in the tapestry. LC-qToF-MS was also used to compare the chemical composition of the dyes in the tapestry with that of several species of crustose lichen. Lichen metabolites, including thiophanic acid and arthothelin, were definitively identified in the tapestry based on comparison with lichen xanthone standards and a reference of Lecanora sulphurata, confirming the presence of a lichen source. This finding marks the first time that lichen xanthones have been identified in a historic object and the first evidence that BWM lichen dyes may have been used prior to the eighteenth century. Keywords: lichen dye; xanthones; medieval art; textiles; LC-qToF-MS; dye analysis.
36453Touchette D., Gostinčar C., Whyte L.G. & Altshuler I. (2023): Lichen-associated microbial members are prevalent in the snow microbiome of a sub-arctic alpine tundra. - FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 99(12): fiad151. https://doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiad151.
Snow is the largest component of the cryosphere, with its cover and distribution rapidly decreasing over the last decade due to climate warming. It is imperative to characterize the snow (nival) microbial communities to better understand the role of microorganisms inhabiting these rapidly changing environments. Here, we investigated the core nival microbiome, the cultivable microbial members, and the microbial functional diversity of the remote Uapishka mountain range, a massif of alpine sub-arctic tundra and boreal forest. Snow samples were taken over a two-month interval along an altitude gradient with varying degree of anthropogenic traffic and vegetation cover. The core snow alpine tundra/boreal microbiome, which was present across all samples, constituted of Acetobacterales, Rhizobiales and Acidobacteriales bacterial orders, and of Mycosphaerellales and Lecanorales fungal orders, with the dominant fungal taxa being associated with lichens. The snow samples had low active functional diversity, with Richness values ranging from 0 to 19.5. The culture-based viable microbial enumeration ranged from 0 to 8.05 × 103 CFUs/mL. We isolated and whole-genome sequenced five microorganisms which included three fungi, one alga, and one potentially novel bacterium of the Lichenihabitans genus; all of which appear to be part of lichen-associated taxonomic clades.
36452Hodkinson T. (2011): Integrating ecology and systematics in climate change research. – In: Hodkinson T., Jones M., Waldren S. & Parnell J. [eds.]: Climate Change, Ecology and Systematics. - Cambridge University Press, 2011, 524 p. ISBN-978-0-521-76609-8 Hardback, p. 3-43. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511974540.
Climate change has shaped life in the past and will continue to do so in the future. Understanding the interactions between climate and biodiversity is a complex challenge to science. With contributions from 60 key researchers, this book examines the ongoing impact of climate change on the ecology and diversity of life on earth. It discusses the latest research within the fields of ecology and systematics, highlighting the increasing integration of their approaches and methods. Topics covered include the influence of climate change on evolutionary and ecological processes such as adaptation, migration, speciation and extinction, and the role of these processes in determining the diversity and biogeographic distribution of species and their populations. This book ultimately illustrates the necessity for global conservation actions to mitigate the effects of climate change in a world that is already undergoing a biodiversity crisis of unprecedented scale.
36451Aartsma P., Asplund J., Odland A., Reinhardt S. & Renssen H. (2020): The decline of alpine lichen heaths generates atmospheric heating but subsurface cooling during the growing season. - Biogeosciences, 2024: 1-31. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2020-407.
Lichen heaths are declining in abundance in alpine and arctic areas partly due to an increasing competition with shrubs. This shift in vegetation types might have important consequences for the microclimate and climate on a larger scale. The aim of our study is to measure the difference in microclimatic conditions between lichen heaths and shrub vegetation during the growing season. With a paired plot design, we measured the net radiation, soil heat flux, soil temperature, and soil moisture on an alpine mountain area in south Norway during the summer of 2018 and 2019. We determined that the daily net radiation of lichens was on average 3.15 MJ (26 %) lower than for shrubs during the growing season. This was mainly due to a higher albedo of the lichen heaths, but also due to a larger longwave radiation loss. Subsequently, we estimate that a shift from a lichen heath to shrub vegetation leads to an average increase in atmospheric heating of 3.35 MJ per day during the growing season. Surprisingly, the soil heat flux and soil temperature were higher below lichens than below shrubs during days with high air temperatures. This implies that the relatively high albedo of lichens does not lead to a cooler soil compared to shrubs during the growing season. We hypothesize that the thicker litter layer, the presence of soil shading, and a higher evapotranspiration rate at shrub vegetation are far more important factors in explaining the variation in soil temperature between lichens and shrubs. Our study shows that a shift from lichen heaths to shrub vegetation in alpine and arctic areas will lead to atmospheric heating, but has a cooling effect on the subsurface during the growing season, especially when air temperatures are relatively high.
36450Varli M., Bhosle S.R., Kim E., Yang Y., Tas I., Zhou R., Pulat S., Gamage C.D.B., Park S.Y., Ha H.H. & Kim H. (2024): Usnic Acid Targets 14-3-3 Proteins and Suppresses Cancer Progression by Blocking Substrate Interaction. - JACS AU, 4(4): 1521-1537. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacsau.3c00774.
The anticancer therapeutic effects of usnic acid (UA), a lichen secondary metabolite, have been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism underlying the anticancer effect of UA remains to be clarified. In this study, the target protein of UA was identified using a UA-linker-Affi-Gel molecule, which showed that UA binds to the 14-3-3 protein. UA binds to 14-3-3, causing the degradation of proteasomal and autophagosomal proteins. The interaction of UA with 14-3-3 isoforms modulated cell invasion, cell cycle progression, aerobic glycolysis, mitochondrial biogenesis, and the Akt/mTOR, JNK, STAT3, NF-kappa B, and AP-1 signaling pathways in colorectal cancer. A peptide inhibitor of 14-3-3 blocked or regressed the activity of UA and inhibited its effects. The results suggest that UA binds to 14-3-3 isoforms and suppresses cancer progression by affecting 14-3-3 targets and phosphorylated proteins. usnic acid, lichen secondary metabolite, cancer, energy metabolism, target protein, 14-3-3, INTERACTION INHIBITORS, CELL-MIGRATION, DELTA-CATENIN, PHOSPHORYLATION, IDENTIFICATION, KINASE, GROWTH, DISCOVERY, PEPTIDE, AKT
36449Maurya A.K., Mishra G.K. & Upreti D.K. (2024): New Lichenicolous Phyllopsora (Ramalinaceae) Species on Phaeophyscia from India. - Biology Bulletin, 2024: 1-3. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1062359023605657.
Phyllopsoraphaeophysciae sp. nov., having a lichenicolous habitat is growing on thallus of lichen Phaeophyscia and distinguished by white prothallus, globose to cylindrical isidia and thallus containing atranorin. Based on the previously published literature, Phylloposra species mostly reported to grow on bark, rock, soil and sometimes in association of mosses, however the new taxa is exhibit a unique lichenicolous habitat, luxuriantly growing on Phaeophyscia hispidula species in temperate region the country. In India, this is the first Phyllopsora species which is growing on Physciaceae family member. squamulose, taxonomy, new species, Western Himalaya, GENUS PHYLLOPSORA
36448Maurya A.K., Mishra G.K., Joseph S. & Upreti D.K. (2024): New records of lichenicolous fungi inhabiting Cladonia from India. - Biology Bulletin, 51: 546–549. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1062359023606055.
Two species of lichenicolous fungi viz. Didymocyrtis cladoniicola (Diederich, Kocourk. and Etayo) Ertz and Diederich, and Epicladonia simplex D. Hawksw., inhabiting Cladonia species are discovered as new records for India, besides four species known earlier from India. Cladonia, a dimorphic genus is one of the most suitable hosts for the fungal spores to colonize easily for the growth of lichenicolous fungi. The brief taxonomic descriptions of species, distribution and illustrations are provided to facilitate their identification. Keywords: Ascomycetes, diversity, secondary fungi, lichen parasites, taxonomy.
36447Tarish M., Ali R.T., Shan M., Amjad Z., Rui Q., Akher S.A. & Al Mutery A. (2024): Plant tissues as biomonitoring tools for environmental contaminants. - International Journal of Plant Biology, 15(2): 375–396. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15020030.
Environmental toxins pose significant threats to ecosystems and human health. Monitoring and assessing these toxins are crucial for effective environmental management and public health protection. Recently, plant species have garnered increasing attention as potential bioindicators for identifying and evaluating ecological toxins. Since plants often come into touch with harmful compounds in soil, water, and the atmosphere, they are particularly valuable for analyzing how human activities influence the terrestrial ecosystem, the aquatic system, and the atmosphere. This review paper emphasizes using plant species as a resource for tracking environmental pollution and analyzing contaminants. We focused on plants because they are significant indicators of soil, water, and air quality changes. Many plants have been used as bio-indicators to assess and predict pollution, toxicity, and environmental changes. These include Allium cepa, Vicia faba, Pisum sativum, Zea mays, Nicotiana tabacum, lichens, and mosses. The idea of bioindicators is discussed in the current paper, with a focus on plants as possible candidates for bioindicators for toxin assessment and related outcomes. Keywords: bioindicator; environmental toxins; air pollutants; organic pollutants; plant response; biomonitoring.
36446Isocrono D. & Ravera S. (2024): Typification of the name Arthopyrenia parolinii Beltr. (Ascomycota, Dothideomycetes, Pleosporales, Arthopyreniaceae). - MycoKeys, 104: 1–8. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.104.109420.
Arthopyrenia parolinii Beltr. is one of the few species of the lichen genus Arthopyrenia A. Massal. described by Italian authors of the XIX century, lacking type formal association. In this regard, the name Arthopyrenia parolinii is hereby lectotypified using a specimen stored in the lichen herbarium of A.B. Massalongo at VER. Additional original material was found only at M, while another specimen at MSNVE, labelled as Spermatodium parolinii, although referable to this species, should not be considered as original material. Arthopyrenia parolinii is among the least well-known species in the genus. Given the genus Arthopyrenia is still very poorly known, it is important to clarify the original material of the species and propose the lectotyping. The selected lectotype is the only sample among the analyzed ones reporting complete data on the locus classicus; it conforms to the characters described in the protologue and comes from the Herbarium Beltramini. Key words: A.B. Massalongo Herbarium, Beltramini, lectotype, lichen, nomenclature.
36445Ossowska E.A., Moncada B., Lücking R., Flakus A., Rodriguez-Flakus P., Olszewska S. & Kukwa M. (2024): Additional new species and new records of the genus Sticta (lichenised Ascomycota, lobarioid Peltigeraceae) from Bolivia. - MycoKeys, 105: 21–47. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.105.120810.
Four species of the genus Sticta are described as new from Bolivia, based on morphological examination and phylogenetic analysis of the fungal ITS barcoding marker. Additionally, two species are reported as new to Bolivia (their identification confirmed by molecular data) and one previously reported species is confirmed by molecular data for the first time. Detailed morphological and anatomical descriptions are provided for all new species. Two of the new species, S. isidiolobulata Ossowska, B. Moncada, Lücking & Kukwa and S. madidiensis Ossowska, B. Moncada, Lücking & Kukwa belong to clade I, as defined in previous studies. In contrast, S. montepunkuensis Ossowska, B. Moncada, Lücking & Kukwa and S. macrolobata Ossowska, B. Moncada, Lücking & Kukwa, also described here as new to science, belong to clade III. Sticta isidiolobulata has an irregular to suborbicular thallus of medium size, with isidia developing into spathulate lobules, cyanobacterial photobiont and apothecia with entire to weakly-crenate margins. The large irregular thallus of the cyanobacteria-associated S. macrolobata has broad lobes, apothecia with verrucous to tomentose margins and cyphellae with raised margins, whereas S. madidiensis has a medium-sized, palmate to irregular thallus with a stipe, but without vegetative propagules and apothecia. Sticta montepunkuensis has large and irregular thalli with green algae as photobiont, apothecia with crenate to verrucous margins and urceolate cyphellae with a wide pore and a scabrid basal membrane. Two species, S. beauvoisii Delise and S. riparia Merc.-Díaz are reported as new to Bolivia (the latter also as new to South America) and belong to clade III. Sticta tomentosa (Sw.) Ach., species confirmed from Bolivia by molecular data, belongs to clade II. Sticta beauvoisii is characterised by a smooth yellowish-brown upper surface with darker apices and abundant, marginal isidia and a brown lower surface with golden-chocolate brown primary tomentum and sparse, golden-brown rhizines. Sticta riparia has a strongly branched thallus, with undulate lobes and abundant, marginal, palmate, grey to dark brown phyllidia and greyish-brown lower surface with the primary tomentum absent towards the margins. Sticta tomentosa has palmate, bluish thalli with white cilia and abundant, submarginal apothecia and creamy-white lower surface with a sparse, white primary tomentum. Key words: Diversity, lichens, molecular barcoding, new species, taxonomy.
36444Marshall A.J., Aptroot A., Vlůanchon D.J., James C.J. & de Lange P.J. (2024): New Zealand Lithothelium (Pyrenulaceae) — description of a new species Lithothelium kiritea sp. nov., with notes on L. australe. - Український ботанічний журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 81(2): 145–154. https://doi.org/10.15407/ukrbotj81.02.145.
Lithothelium kiritea A.J. Marshall, Aptroot, de Lange & Blanchon sp. nov. (Pyrenulaceae) is described from Aotearoa / New Zealand. The new species has a mainly coastal and mostly westerly distribution in Aotearoa / New Zealand and is thus far known only from the bark of living Cordyline australis (Asparagaceae). The new species is separated from Lithothelium australe (treated here as endemic to the Chatham Islands), by its corticolous, rather than saxicolous habit, white to pale buff (when fresh) thallus and large ascospores (measuring 32−40 × 12−15 μm). Lithothelium kiritea is easily recognised and usually abundant in the locations where it has been found, yet it seems to have not been collected until 1973 when it was sampled once and then not collected again until 2018. Currently, specimens matching L. kiritea have not been reported from Australia, so we recommend it be searched for there. Within Aotearoa / New Zealand, we propose that the species be assessed as ‘Not Threatened’ using the New Zealand Threat Classification System. Keywords: lichen taxonomy, lichenized mycobiota, Lithothelium, Lithothelium kiritea sp. nov., New Zealand.
36443 Hirschheydt G. von, Kéry M., Ekman S., Stofer S., Dietrich M., Keller C. & Scheidegger C. (2024): Occupancy model reveals limited detectability of lichens in a standardised large-scale monitoring. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 35: e13255 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvs.13255.
Question: What are the extent and the possible causes of imperfect detection in lichens? Because lichens are sessile and lack seasonality, they should be easier to survey than animals that can move or plants and fungi with seasonal morphology, and one could therefore expect relatively high detection probabilities. Location: 826 standardised sampling plots across Switzerland. Methods: Using repeated detection/non-detection data from a national lichen survey conducted by professional lichenologists, we estimated the mean and variation in detectability for 373 tree-living species with a multi-species occupancy model. We also quantified the effect of species conspicuousness, identifiability and observer experience on detection probability. Results: The average detection probability for a single survey was unexpectedly low with an average of 0.49 (range across species: 0.25–0.74). Conspicuous species showed higher average detectability (0.56) than inconspicuous species (0.41), and identifiability as well as previous experience with a species substantially increased the probability of a person detecting it. Accounting for experience, the mean detection probabilities of observers ranged from 0.32 to 0.69. Conclusions: Our study confirms that detection probability per survey is often far below 1 also in sessile organisms, even when a standardised survey is conducted by experts. When species are seasonal (plants, fungi, etc.), survey areas are larger, or field personnel are less experienced, as is the case for many surveys and monitoring programs, detectabilities are likely to be substantially lower. We therefore argue that imperfect detection should systematically be considered in the survey design and data analysis also for sessile organisms. Keywords: detection probability, epiphytic lichens, imperfect detection, lichen, monitoring, observer error, occupancy model, repeated surveys, sampling error, sessile organism, Switzerland.
36442Bergner W. (2019): Neu- und Wiederfunde von Flechten, flechtenbewohnenden und flechtenähnlichen Pilzen im Raum Augsburg. - Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins für Schwaben, Augsburg, 123: 50–60. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Ber-Naturwiss-Ver-fuer-Schwaben_123_0050-0060.pdf.
[in German with English summary: ] A list of 53 lichens, lichenicolous and allied fungi, new and rediscovered for the area of Augsburg, is presented.
36441Schultz M. & Paul P.-F. (2021): Die Flechten des Eichenparks: Auch kleine städtische Parks können ökologisch wertvoll sein. - Berichte des Botanischen Vereins zu Hamburg, 32: 3–14. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Ber-Bot-Ver-Hamburg_32_0003-0014.pdf.
[in German] The lichens of the oak park: even small urban parks can be ecologically valuable. Im Eichenpark in Hamburg-Harvestehude werden 55 borkenbewohnende Flechtenarten sowie 16 Arten auf Gestein nachgewiesen. Das nur 2 ha große Areal am westlichen Ufer der Alster unmittelbar an der Einmündung in die Außenalster weist eine für die Hamburger Innenstadt bemerkenswert hohe Vielfalt auf und belegt damit den Wert selbst kleinerer städtischer Parkanlagen als Refugien überwiegend licht- und feuchte-liebender sowie wenig bis mäßig düngungstoleranter borkenbewohnender Flechtenarten.
36440Lendemer J.C. (2024): Recent literature on lichens—272. - Bryologist, 127(1): 157–167. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-127.1.157.
bibliography
36439Frisch A., Darmostuk V., Diederich P., Holien H., Ihlen P.G. & Suija A. (2024): Lichenicolous fungi mainly from the Dovre Mountains, Norway. - Graphis Scripta, 36(3): 50–88. https://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/36_3/GS_36_50.pdf.
Based on results from a 5-days field workshop held at Hjerkinn, we report new distribution data for 110 species of lichenicolous fungi from the Dovre Mountains area in central Norway. Additional eight species were collected in humid spruce forests near Trondheim. Including literature reports, 134 species of lichenicolous fungi are currently known from the Dovre Mountains. Our material includes a surprisingly large number of 11 species new to Fennoscandia (Clypeococcum cetrariae, Didymocyrtis melanelixiae, Echinothecium hypogymniae, Endococcus alectoriae, E. hafellneri, Epibryon solorinae, Epithamnolia xanthoriae, Katherinomyces cetrariae, Kukwaea pubescens, Stigmidium pseudopeltideae, Tremella cetrariae) and 6 species new to Norway (Arthonia subclemens, Arthrorhaphis olivacea, Bacidia killiasii, Didymocyrtis epiphyscia, Epicladonia simplex, Rhymbocarpus geographici). Many species are new findings for Oppland or Sør-Trøndelag counties. The anamorphic stage of Kukwaea pubescens is described.
36438Taer E.C., Dal Forno M., Aptroot A., Moncada B., Amoroso V.B. & Coritico F.P. (2024): New records of pyrenocarpous lichens from the Philippines. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 61: 39–44. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2024.61.05.
Pyrenocarpous lichens are an important component of the forest ecosystem, yet remain understudied. Following the recent field surveys of the lichen biota in Mt. Musuan, four pyrenolichen species previously unreported from the Philippines were collected, namely: Porina exocha, Pyrenula pyrenuloides, P. subsoluta, and Nigrovothelium inspersotropicum. Each species is briefly described with morphology and chemistry, distribution, ecology, notes, and illustrations. These collections underscore the need for expanded research attention to fully catalogue the lichen diversity in the Philippines. Keywords: Asia, Porinaceae, pyrenolichens, Pyrenulaceae, Trypetheliaceae.
36437Michlig A., Moreno S., Rodríguez M.P., Niveiro N. & Neffa V.S. (2024): The genera Hypotrachyna and Remototrachyna (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) in northeastern Argentina. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 61: 13–24. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2024.61.02.
Pyrenocarpous lichens are an important component of the forest ecosystem, yet remain understudied. Following the recent field surveys of the lichen biota in Mt. Musuan, four pyrenolichen species previously unreported from the Philippines were collected, namely: Porina exocha, Pyrenula pyrenuloides, P. subsoluta, and Nigrovothelium inspersotropicum. Each species is briefly described with morphology and chemistry, distribution, ecology, notes, and illustrations. These collections underscore the need for expanded research attention to fully catalogue the lichen diversity in the Philippines. Keywords: lichens, dichotomous rhizines, taxonomy, phylogeny.
36436Boggess L.M., McCain C.M., Manzitto-Tripp E.A., Pearson S.M. & Lendemer J.C. (2024): Disturbance and diversity: Lichen species richness decreases with increasing anthropogenic disturbance. - Biological Conservation, 293: 110598 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2024.110598.
Anthropogenic disturbance is rapidly increasing through habitat degradation, development, and deforestation. Gaps remain in understanding the effects of this disturbance on diverse and ecologically important organisms such as lichens. In North America, studies have focused on epiphytic macrolichens and catastrophic disturbance, largely ignoring microlichens and less severe disturbances. The Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis predicts these moderate disturbances will lead to higher species richness. Here we examine the effects of anthropogenic disturbance in the form of land management on overall lichen richness, including microlichens, and on the species richness of eight lichen functional groups. The study draws on a comprehensive data set of 872 species, in 208 one-hectare plots throughout the Southern Appalachian Mountains, a global biodiversity hotspot in eastern North America. A habitat quality index based on an established forestry metric was used as a proxy for anthropogenic disturbance and was quantified using a 10-part score including categories such as percent native tree canopy cover and degree of fragmentation. Linear models were used to compare habitat quality scores to overall species richness and to species richness of functional groups. Rather than following the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis, all groups uniformly follow a negative linear relationship: as disturbance increases, species richness decreases. This pattern held even for widely variable functional groups such as morphotype. Effective conservation of lichen richness should prioritize the maintenance of existing older, less-disturbed stands within large, contiguously forested areas. Keywords: Biodiversity ; Intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH) ; Forest management ; Land-use change ; Lichen community ecology, Old-growth forest.
36435Cui C., Dou M., Jiang S. & Jia Z. (2024): The lichen genus Letrouitia (Brigantiaeaceae, Ascomycota) in China. . - Diversity, 16(5): 254 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d16050254.
Based on morphological, chemical and molecular studies, two new species of the lichen genus Letrouitia are newly described from China. Letrouitia arcuata is distinguished by its arcuate ascospores [8–10(–12)-locular, (28–)33–50(–62.5) × (8–)10–14.5 µm] and L. sinuosa by its ascomata with wavy margins and ascospores with lens-shaped locules [6–8-locular, (18–)19.5–32(–34) × (6.5–)8–14 μm]. In addition, L. magenta is reported for the first time as a new record in China, characterized by small and round ascomata. The descriptions, distribution and phylogenetic analysis of the respective species have been actualized and a key to the Letrouitia species known from China is provided. Keywords: lichenized fungi; Teloschistales; taxonomy; phylogeny.
36434Viola A., Newington N., Riley J., Selva S. & Proulx L. (2024): Bursting the stubble bubble: citizen scientists measure ecological continuity near Goldsmith Lake, Nova Scotia using calicioid lichens and fungi. - Evansia, 41(1): 9–18. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-41.1.9.
In an effort to protect a forest on provincial land near Goldsmith Lake in Annapolis County, Nova Scotia, from timber harvest operations, a group of citizen scientists began documenting the biodiversity of the area. In December 2022, the group invited Dr. Steven Selva, a lichenologist specializing in calicioid lichens and fungi, to visit and teach them how to locate and collect calicioid specimens. We found 27 calicioid species, one of which was new to the Maritimes, providing additional evidence that the forest is rich in biodiversity and that the areas recognized as old-growth were larger than the provincial government had previously realized. Key words. Conservation, Calicium, Chaenotheca, Sclerophora, Sphaerophorus.
36433Gheza G. & Nascimbene J. (2024): Lichens from the aurifodinae of the upper Ticino river valley (N Italy). - Natural History Sciences [Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale in Milano], 11(1): 53–60. DOI: 10.4081/nhs.2024.734.
Aurifodinae were open-pit gold mines of the Roman age which left behind them elongated heaps of rounded stones. They are located in lowland semi-natural landscapes, and can be seen as screes at a lower altitude and in a milder climate than typical mountain screes. We investigated the lichen biota of the aurifodinae remains in the upper Ticino river valley (western Po Plain, Northern Italy), in a small, discontinuous, 6.5 ha wide area. Metamorphic siliceous stones prevail, while calcareous stones are rare and scattered. We recorded 35 infrageneric taxa, including three species new to Piemonte: Cladonia conista, C. cryptochlorophaea, and Placidiopsis cinerascens. Several taxa are also new to the submediterranean ecoregion and/or to the Ticino river valley. The function of aurifodinae as a refugium for saxicolous lichens in the lowlands and their potential role in creating wide areas with open dry habitats in the past centuries are discussed. Keywords: archaeological sites, biodiversity, lichen inventories, Po Plain.
36432Manzitto-Tripp E. A., Lendemer J. C. & McCain C. M. (2022): Most lichens are rare, and degree of rarity is mediated by lichen traits and biotic partners. - Diversity and Distributions, 28: 1810-1819. https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.13581.
Aim Understanding ecological distributions of global biodiversity is stymied by incomplete knowledge of drivers of species rarity. These include trade-offs among life-history traits that impact dispersability, competition, reproductive output and speciation and extinction. In this study, we aim to understand potential drivers of rarity in North American lichens. Location and methods With nearly 5500 species and a third of global species richness, North America is a hotspot for lichen biodiversity. Here, we employ a continental-scale dataset on North American lichens to test potential drivers of species rarity. For all species, we determined coarse-scale geographical distribution along with the mode of reproduction, substrate, growth form and photobiont type. Results Our analyses found that most lichens are rare and known only from one or two ecoregions. Rare species are not equally distributed across ecoregions: the Eastern temperate hardwood forests and wet tropical forests of southern Florida harbour the vast majority of rare species. Wet to seasonally wet ecoregions of western North America are home to most remaining narrowly distributed lichen species. In contrast, northern ecoregions along with drier ecoregions including the Great Plains and deserts harbour primarily widespread species. Lichen rarity is significantly associated with species that live on bark or leaves, those with a Trentepohlia photobiont, those that are small, crustose and live closely appressed to their substrates, and those that reproduce sexually, dispersing only the mycobiont. North American lichens are represented unevenly across trait categories, with 65% of them having a crustose growth form, 73% bearing a Trebouxia or other green algal photobiont, 78% living on bark or rock and 77% reproducing sexually. Main conclusions Our study, spanning an entire continental-scale biota, helps to establish a generalized relationship among life-history traits and rarity in lichens and highlights the significance of biotic interactions in structuring biogeographical distributions. biotic, correlate, distribution, driver, geographical range size, lichen, rarity, symbiosis
36431Behera P. K., Joseph S., Nayaka S. & Chauhan R. S. (2024): New additions of lichens from Assam, India. - Plant Science Today, 11: 333-340. https://doi.org/10.14719/pst.3310.
An account of 7 lichen species new to lichen biota of Assam is presented. The species are Bactrospora paludicola, Buellia pleiotera, Byssolecania deplanata, Graphis urandrae, Gyalidea fritzei, Mycobilimbia philippina and Staurothele fissa. Among them, B. paludicola and G. fritzei are being reported for the first time from India. The lichen samples were collected from various protected areas of Assam and a detailed systematic account is provided. Biodiversity, Lichenized fungi, North-East, Taxonomy, Roccellaceae
36430Zalewska A. & Szymczyk R. (2023): Puszcza Borecka. - In: Obidziński A.(ed.), Śladami Mistrzów. Miejsca fascynacji prekursorów polskiej geobotaniki. Polskie Towarzystwo Botaniczne i Wydawnictwo SGGW, p. 21–25, Polskie Towarzystwo Botaniczne, Warszawa. .
[in Polish]; chapter in book, Poland, history of research
36429Конорева Л.А., Чесноков С.В., Зуева А.С. & Холод С.С. [Konoreva L.A., Chesnokov S.V., Zueva A.S. & Kholod S.S.] (2024): Новые для России находки лишайников и лихенофильного гриба с острова Колгуев (Российская Арктика) [New to Russia records of lichens and a lichenicolous fungus from the Kolguev Island (Russian Arctic)]. - Turczaninowia, 27(1): 66–71. DOI: 10.14258/turczaninowia.27.1.9.
Two species of lichens, Buellia insularis and Polyblastia cataractae, as well as a lichenicolous fungus [in Russian with English summary: ] Lasiosphaeriopsis lecanorae, were identified as new for Russia during the comprehensive studies of vegetation on the Kolguev Island. For each species, a brief description is given based on the specimens studied, differences from closely related species, ecological features, and global distribution are shown. Keywords: Arctic, floristic records, lichenicolous and lichenized fungi, lichens, Nenets Autonomous Area, rare species.
36428Davydov E.A., Yakovchenko L.S., Kharpukhaeva T.M., Zheludeva E.V., Chesnokov S.V., Konoreva L.A., Kataeva O.A., Kuznetsova E.S., Storozhenko Yu.V., Ryzhkova P.Yu. & Himelbrant D.E. (2024): Umbilicaria aprina and U. rhizinata (Umbilicariaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in Russia. - Turczaninowia, 27(1): 92–101. DOI: 10.14258/turczaninowia.27.1.12.
The distribution of Umbilicaria aprina and U. rhizinata in Russia was revised basing on morphological and molecular-phylogenetic data. Umbilicaria aprina is new to Alexandra Land Island (Franz Josef Land Archipelago), Sverdrup Island (Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets District), the republics of Altai, North Ossetia-Alania and Sakha-Yakutia. Umbilicaria rhizinata is new to the republics of Tyva and Buryatia, Putorana Plateau, Kamchatka Peninsula, and the Magadan Region and is therefore reported for the first time to the Asian Subarctic. New localities of the species in other regions are cited. The ITS\5.8S phylogenetic tree supports the distinctness of U. aprina and U. rhizinata. The distribution map is drawn and patterns of distribution of two species are discussed. Umbilicaria aprina occurs in the high Arctic between 74°N and 81°N, whereas the northernmost locality of U. rhizinata is in the vicinity of Norilsk on the Putorana Plateau (ca. 70°N). In mountains U. aprina grows at higher maximal elevations compared to U. rhizinata. Keywords: Arctic, biogeography, ITS nrDNA, phylogeny, thalloconidia.
36427Fryday A., Cannon P., Coppins B., Aptroot A., Sanderson N. & Simkin J. (2024): Lecideales, including Amygdalaria, Bellemerea, Bryobilimbia, Cecidonia, Clauzadea, Farnoldia, Immersaria, Koerberiella, Lecidea, Lecidoma, Porpidia, Porpidinia and Romjularia (Lecideaeae) and Lopadium (Lopadiaceae). - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 40: 1–51. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/Lecideales.pdf.
36426Bartylak T., Kayastha P., Polishchuk A., Roszkowska M., Bartylak M.M., Rutkowski T., Zacharyasiewicz M. & Kaczmarek Ł. (2024): Terrestrial Tardigrada (water bears) of the Słowiński National Park (Northern Poland). - Diversity, 16(4): 239 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d16040239.
In this paper, samples of mosses, lichens and cryptogams (mosses mixed with lichens) collected from Słowiński National Park (northern Poland) were studied for water bears (Tardigrada). In total, 27 tardigrade taxa were identified: 21 to the species level, one identified as „cf.” and three to the genus level, with six species (Eremobiotus ginevrae, Hypsibius dujardini, Hypsibius scabropygus, Milnesium beasleyi, Minibiotus intermedius and Notahypsibius pallidoides) being new records for Poland. Two possibly new for science species were also found, belonging to genera Diphascon and Mesobiotus. Additionally, a very rare eutardigrade Pseudohexapodibius degenerans has been found in the samples analyzed in the present study for the first time outside of the type locality. The effects of habitat and substrate on species richness were also investigated and showed no significant differences between mosses and lichens, as well as all substrates except for concrete walls. Keywords: Europe; sand dunes; tardigrades; new records; xerophilous species; biodiversity.
36425Bomble F.W. (2024): Cladonia rangiformis – Falsche Rentierflechte (Cladoniaceae) und Tortella inclinata – Geneigtes Spiralzahnmoos (Pottiaceae), Flechte und Moos des Jahres 2023. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 15: 233–247. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jahrb-Bochumer-Bot-Ver_15_0233-0247.pdf.
[in German : ] lichen and moss of the year 2023 presented
36424Stapper N. (2024): Exkursion: Düsseldorf-Oberbilk, Flechten und Moose im Volksgarten. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 15: 149–151. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jahrb-Bochumer-Bot-Ver_15_0149-0151.pdf.
[in German: ] Report on lichenological and bryological excursion in area of Düsseldorf (Rhine-Palatine)
36423Stephan J. (1923): Moos- und Flechtenfresser unter den Raupen. - Entomologisches Jahrbuch, 1923: 95–100. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Ent-Jb-Krancher_1923_0095-0100.pdf.
Moss and lichen eaters among the caterpillars
36422Yenigun S., Ipek Y., Marah S., Demirtas I. & Ozen T. (2024): DNA protection, molecular docking, antioxidant, antibacterial, enzyme inhibition, and enzyme kinetic studies for parietin, isolated from Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.. - Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, 42(2): 848–862. https://doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2023.2196693.
Parietin was isolated from Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.’ (methanol:chloroform) extract, using a silica column. 13 C NMR and 1H NMR were used to confirm the structure of the isolated parietin. For the first time, parietin was investigated for its antioxidant, antibacterial and DNA protective activities. Molecular docking was carried out to determine the binding affinity and interactions between the enzymes and our molecule. Inhibition and kinetic mechanism studies for the action of the enzymes were performed too. Parietin exhibited high metal chelating activity. The MIC values of parietin were sufficient to inhibit different bacterial strains; E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus. Molecular docking applications exhibited that acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), lipase, and tyrosinase have high potential for binding with the parietin. Especially, the parietin’s highest binding affinity was recorded with AChE and tyrosinase. These results were confirmed by the inhibition and kinetics results, where, parietin observed a potent inhibition with an IC50 values between 0.013-0.003 mM. Moreover, parietin acts’ as a non-competitive inhibitor against AChE, BChE, and lipase, and as a competitive inhibitor against tyrosinase with a high rate of inhibition stability. The promising biological properties of parietin revealed its effectiveness in terms of suitability in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Keywords: Xanthoria parietina; parietin; antioxidant; antimicrobial; DNA protective; enzyme inhibition; kinetic mechanism; molecular docking.
36421Bourman R.P., Murray-Wallace C.V., Panda D., Buckman S., Banerjee D., Ryan D.D. & White L.T. (2024): Tsunami or storm? A high-level coastal boulder field on the southern tip of Eyre Peninsula, South Australia. - Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 71(1): 52–66. https://doi.org/10.1080/08120099.2023.2272678.
A high-level coastal boulder field at Whalers Way, southern Eyre Peninsula, South Australia, occurs at elevations of 20–30 m above present sea-level on a gently seaward-sloping, karst-weathered calcretecapped structural bench, formed on the Upper Pleistocene Bridgewater Formation and underlying Carnot Gneisses (Archean–Paleoproterozoic Sleaford Complex). More than 1000 ex situ boulders, cobbles and pebbles of gneiss and mafic igneous rocks, as well as fragments of calcrete, occur within the boulder field and cover an area >6000m2. All the crystalline rock clasts are derived locally from bedrock outcrops along the adjacent coastline, where metasedimentary granulite-facies of the Carnot Gneisses crop out along shore platforms and their backing cliffs, close to present sea-level. The boulder field is younger than Marine Isotope Sub-Stage 5a (MIS 5a; ca 80 ka) based on amino acid racemisation ‘whole-rock’ analyses of calcarenite of the Bridgewater Formation, which forms the calcrete bench on which the boulder field rests. The boulder field wraps around the western extremity of clifftop dunes dated at 18–17 ka by optically stimulated luminescence, implying that the boulder deposit post-dates the formation of the cliff-top dunes. Given that the clasts in the boulder field show minimal weathering rinds, sea-level during the Last Glacial Maximum was some 125 m lower than present and that between 80 and 7 ka ago, sea-level never attained present levels within the region, emplacement of the boulder field by a high-energy wave event in the Holocene highstand, following the 7000 years BP culmination of post-Glacial sea-level rise, is suggested. Storm waves, rather than a tsunami, most likely explain the emplacement of the boulder field. KEY POINTS 1. Amino acid racemisation and optically stimulated luminescence dating suggest a Holocene age younger than 7000 years for a high-level (20–30 m above present sea-level) coastal boulder field at Whalers Way, Eyre Peninsula, southern Australia. 2. Gravity-influenced sedimentation, tectonic uplift and glacial action (relict Permian or Cretaceous glacigene sediment) fail to explain the origin of the enigmatic boulder deposit. 3. The boulder deposit formed by storm waves, rather than a tsunami origin, following the 7000 year BP culmination of post-Glacial sea-level rise and onset of the Holocene sea-level highstand. Keywords: Whalers Way; Eyre Peninsula; Carnot Gneisses; coastal boulder field; storm waves; tsunami; Bridgewater Formation; Last Glacial Maximum; Holocene highstand.
36420Miettinen J., Hallikainen V., Valkonen S., Hökkä H., Hyppönen M. & Rautio P. (2024): Natural regeneration and early development of Scots pine seedlings after gap cutting in northern Finland. - Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 39(2): 89–100. https://doi.org/10.1080/02827581.2024.2303022.
In the northern boreal region, tree growth, timber yields and economic returns are low, meaning low regeneration costs are the basis of profitable forestry. If natural regeneration is successful, it may be favoured over expensive planting or seeding. We studied the regeneration success and early growth of Scots pine in gaps in terms of seedling density and height 10 years after gap cuttings in central Finnish Lapland. Three gap sizes (diameters of 20, 40, and 80 m) were studied on patch scarified xeric and sub-xeric sites in six random blocks and a total of 18 replicates of each. The number of pine seedlings was high across the gap sizes. The proportion of empty regeneration plots (size 5 m2) was ∼ 2%. Site preparation substantially increased the number of seedlings. The growth of seedlings was faster in larger gaps, but a high proportion of exposed mineral soil decreased it. The results suggest that all studied gap sizes regenerated naturally well, and that soil scarification exposing 10–20% of the surface area or even less can be enough to achieve regeneration goals. Gaps of a diameter of 40 m or more are required to achieve an optimal balance between seedling density and growth. Keywords: Gaps; site preparation; Pinus sylvestris; uneven-aged management; continuous cover forestry.
36419Haukenes V.L., Åsgård L., Asplund J., Nybakken L., Rolstad J., Storaunet K.O. & Ohlson M. (2022): Spatial variation of surface soil carbon in a boreal forest – the role of historical fires, contemporary vegetation, and hydro-topography. - Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 37: 287–294. https://doi.org/10.1080/02827581.2022.2104364.
Knowledge about the spatial variation of boreal forest soil carbon (C) stocks is limited, but crucial for establishing management practices that prevent losses of soil C. Here, we quantified the surface soil C stocks across small spatial scales, and aim to contribute to an improved understanding of the drivers involved in boreal forest soil C accumulation. Our study is based on C analyses of 192 soil cores, positioned and recorded systematically within a forest area of 11 ha. The study area is a southcentral Norwegian boreal forest landscape, where the fire history for the past 650 years has been reconstructed. Soil C stocks ranged from 1.3 to 96.7 kg m−2 and were related to fire frequency, ecosystem productivity, vegetation attributes, and hydro-topography. Soil C stocks increased with soil nitrogen concentration, soil water content, Sphagnum- and litter-dominated forest floor vegetation, and proportion of silt in the mineral soil, and decreased with fire frequency in site 1, feathermoss- and lichen-dominated forest floor vegetation and increasing slope. Our results emphasize that boreal forest surface soil C stocks are highly variable in size across fine spatial scales, shaped by an interplay between historical forest fires, ecosystem productivity, forest floor vegetation, and hydro-topography. Keywords: Organic surface carbon stocks; forest fire history; hydro-topography; spatial fine-scale variation.
36418Dufour B., Hébert F. & Boucher J.-F. (2024): Temporal changes in forest floor carbon stocks following scarification in boreal lichen woodlands. - Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 39(2): 101–109. https://doi.org/10.1080/02827581.2024.2305186.
Uncertainties remain regarding the carbon (C) loss due to scarification in afforested lichen woodlands (LW), which originate from regeneration failures of closed-crown black spruce- feathermoss stands due to compounded disturbances. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the C stock changes in the forest floor of scarified, unharvested LWs. Ten afforestation trials were established from 1999 to 2014 in LWs in the managed boreal forest of Québec. Ground surface layers were sampled in 2017 for different microsites. From 3 to 18 years after treatment, scarified floors exhibited ≈ 2 Mg ha−1 C loss, due to opposite trends in the furrow and ridge microsites. Both gradually approached the undisturbed C density level of forest floor between furrow pairs and between skidder trails microsites without reaching it after 18 years. This suggests that microsite C density continued to evolve afterward, and that losses due to scarification might be recovered, due to a higher potential gain in the furrow microsites combined with a lower expected loss in the ridge microsites. Carbon managers should use a permanent 2 Mg ha−1 C loss in the forest floor due to scarification in LWs, acknowledging that this is offset by the growth of planted trees. Keywords: Afforestation; plantation; Picea mariana; climate warming; disc trenching.
36417Vitória N.S., Silva M.S.R.C., Santos M.A.L., Cáceres M.E.S., Aptroot A. & Bezerra J.L. (2024): Ascomycota in the Shallow Ecoregion of Catarina, Caatinga, Brazil: Part 1 . - Revista de Gestão Social e Ambiental, Miami, 18(7): e06047 [20 p.]. .
Objective: Inventories of fungi are essential, but they are rarely carried out, especially in areas of the Caatinga biome. It is therefore important to carry out surveys and mapping to make knowledge more accessible. In this context, the aim of this work was to organize and discuss the information and data related to the fungi of Raso da Catarina, cataloguing and presenting the first checklist of Ascomycota in an insufficiently researched locality, adding knowledge from scientific collections, publications, and field expeditions. Method: Literature searches were carried out on the Ascomycota of the Raso da Catarina Ecoregion; consultations of the Fungal Databases, U.S. National Fungus Collections, the EMBRAPA database (Fungi Reported on Plants in Brazil) and the Mycology Collections Portal; consultations of the speciesLink networks that integrate data from scientific collections; consultations of the Reflora Virtual Herbarium and the INCT-Herbário Virtual da Flora e dos Fungos. In addition to field expeditions in areas of the Raso da Catarina in the municipalities of Paulo Afonso, Jeremoabo and Glória. Results and conclusion: A total of 243 taxa comprising 75 asexual fungi, 85 lichenized sexual fungi and 73 nonlichenized sexual fungi, distributed in 148 genera, were catalogued. This work represents an initiative to systematize research carried out in Raso da Catarina, with the aim of adding knowledge to the estimate of Ascomycota species in the Caatinga. Originality/value: Work on fungi in areas of the Raso da Catarina is still incipient. Some data is scattered in a few publications and many taxa are in scientific collections without being published. This is therefore the first checklist of Ascomycota for the Ecoregion and provides relevant information. Keywords: Northeastern Semi-Arid Region, Fungi, Taxonomy, Checklist.
36416Miguel-Vázquez M.I., Simijaca D., Pérez-Pérez R.E. & Ocampo G. (2022): Lichenized fungi of the arid zones of central Mexico: new records for the country and the state of Aguascalientes. - Sydowia, 74: 15–31. DOI 10.12905/0380.sydowia74-2021-0015.
The lichen biota of several regions of Mexico is scarcely known, including the central part of the country, where the state of Aguascalientes is located. Before this study, lichen records of Aguascalientes were almost nonexistent. The aim of this work was to catalogue the lichen biota from arid environments of Aguascalientes, a widespread habitat in this part of Mexico. A total of 253 samples were collected and 20 families, 44 genera, and 56 lichen species were detected. The families with the highest species richness are Physciaceae (13) and Verrucariaceae (nine); the genus with the highest number of species is Physcia (Physciaceae; five). The lichenized fungi identified up to species level were found growing mainly on rock (33) and bark (14). The most common growth forms were crustose (55 %) and foliose (43 %). All species (56) are new records for Aguascalientes; Phaeophyscia hirtella (Physciaceae) and Scytinium subaridum (Collemataceae) are, in addition, new records for the country, and seven species represent the second collection documented for Mexico. This is the first work on the lichens of Aguascalientes. The results contribute to the biodiversity knowledge of Mexico and remark the need to increase efforts to improve the Mexican lichen biota inventory. Keywords: arid environments, diversity, illustrated checklist, lichen collection, North America.
36415Xue J., Cai Y. & Zhang L. (2024): The phylogeny and taxonomy of Cryptothecia (Arthoniaceae, Ascomycota) and Myriostigma (Arthoniaceae, Ascomycota), including three new species and two new records from China. - Journal of Fungi, 10(4): 274 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof10040274.
Cryptothecia and Myriostigma are important elements of crustose lichen communities in tropical to subtropical forests, but little research has been done on these two genera in China. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic approaches to investigate species diversity of Cryptothecia and Myriostigma from Southern China were carried out in this study. We find five species of Cryptothecia and Myriostigma in our study, including three new species (M. flavescens, M. hainana and M. laxipunctata) and two new records (C. bartlettii and C. inexspectata). In addition, a phylogenetic tree based on mtSSU, RPB2 and nLSU illustrates the placement of the five species and supports the delimitation of the three new taxa. Detailed descriptions of morphological, ecological and chemical characteristics and illustrations are provided for every species. A key to all known Chinese Cryptothecia and Myriostigma species is also provided. Keywords: lichenized fungi; crustose thallus; diversity; identification key; phylogenetic analysis.
36414Fałowska P., Dziurowicz P., Waszkiewicz K., Wietrzyk-Pełka P. & Węgrzyn M.H. (2024): The impacts of sunlight on the lichen Scots pine forest community. - Forests, 15(4): 675 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f15040675.
The habitat of the lichen Scots pine forest is currently one of the communities that requires attention and active protection due to its rapid disappearance. In our study, we identified factors that can be modified to preserve this habitat. The primary focus of our research was on the significance of tree height and sunlight in fostering the development of a lichen-rich layer within the lichen Scots pine forest. Additionally, we investigated the environmental factors influencing the presence of specific species of lichens and bryophytes, including those that form communities and those that displace species characteristic of the lichen Scots pine forest community. Our study was conducted in Bory Tucholskie National Park (N-W Poland) using 20 experimental sites and 248 point-frame plots from spring 2021 to winter 2022. Fieldwork involved species surveys, measurements of photosynthetic activity in lichens and bryophytes, and collection of environmental data. Through parametric testing, modeling, and mapping, our main findings confirmed that light availability, influenced by tree height, is a critical factor in maintaining a well-preserved lichen-rich layer and facilitating habitat reintroduction. Keywords: Cladonio-Pinetum complex; tree height; environmental factors; Bory Tucholskie National Park; photosynthetic activity; habitat reintroduction; lichens; bryophyte.
36413Razzaq F., Usman M., Habib K. & Khalid A.N. (2023): Some Additions to the Lecanoraceae from Diamir Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan. - Biology Bulletin, 50(SUPPL 4): S617-S622. https://doi.org/10.1134/S106235902360280X.
As part of comprehensive study of lichen diversity of northern areas of Pakistan using molecular and morphological approaches, we found three species of family lecanoraceae belonging to genus Omphalodina and Rhizoplaca. The analyses revealed one new record in the lichen biota of Pakistan namely Rhizoplaca parilis while the other two Omphalodina chrysoleuca and Rhizoplacamelanophthalma are reported for the first time on basis of ITS data, represent new records for Gilgit, Baltistan. Brief descriptions and phylogenetic analyses of the taxa are given. lichenized fungi, taxonomy, phylogeny, Deong Basti, Diamir
36412Gupta V., Gupta N., Nayaka S. & Lavania S. (2024): Delineating biomonitoring potential of two crustose lichens Bacidia convexula and B. submedialis through elemental accumulation and microstructural parameters. - Nucleus, 2024: 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13237-024-00468-4.
Lichens possess unique characteristics, relying on a protective cortex and a filtration mechanism for absorption in the absence of roots, enabling efficient mineral nutrition. However, this distinctive feature also renders them susceptible to accumulating airborne pollutants, particularly metal, beyond optimal levels. The current investigation focuses on elemental accumulation in two crustose lichen species, namely Bacidia convexula and B. submedialis, aiming to highlight their potential as biomonitoring tools and assess the impact of anthropogenic activities, disturbed environment surrounding brick-kilns as an illustrative example. Microstructural changes, surface sorption and fibrous deposition of elemental ions were scrutinized through the application of SEM-EDX microscopy and advanced analytical techniques such as ICP-MS and FTIR. The SEM images unveiled alterations in the lichen's microstructure, entrapment of gas bubbles as well as fibrous deposition and surface sorption of elemental ions. The highest mean concentration of Ag (0.36 +/- 0.01), Al (1194.87 +/- 67.6), As (0.6 +/- 0.02), Cd (0.29 +/- 0.01), Cr (107.79 +/- 0.39), Cu (17.12 +/- 0.07), Fe (1722.73 +/- 8.48), Mg (1995.13 +/- 31.28), Mn (235.06 +/- 0.67), Ni (9.09 +/- 0.05), and Zn (87.63 +/- 0.84 mg kg(-1)) were estimated in the thalli of B. submedialis, whereas B. convexula accumulated highest concentration of Co (1.34 +/- 0.02), Li (3.67 +/- 0.35), Pb (11.92 +/- 0.13), and Se (0.27 +/- 0.01 mg kg(-1)). In both the lichens, FTIR analysis identified the functional groups such as, alcohol (O-H), alkenes (C-H), alkyl halides (C-Br), aromatic (C = C), methoxy (O-CH3) and octahedral groups (AlO8). The analytical results of EDX showed a higher weight of O with 46.11%, Mg (0.43%), Al (0.9%), Fe (0.38%), Si (1.62%), Zr (1.67%) in B. submedialis. Whereas, B. convexula revealed higher weight of C with 62.36% and Ca (0.62%). As such differential response was observed to metal ion stress, showing B. submedialis to be more tolerant than B. convexula. The information generated could be used as biomonitoring indicator of air quality and pollution. Keywords: Air pollution, Lichen biomonitoring, Ecosystem health, Heavy metal, Lichenized fungi.
36411 Din A.U., Iqbal M.S., Khalid A.N. & Niazi A.R. (2024): Chlorangium ahmadii sp. nov. and Circinaria darelensis sp. nov. two new species of lichenized Ascomycetes from Pakistan. - Plant Systematics and Evolution, 310: 13 [8 p.] . https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-024-01893-3.
Chlorangium ahmadii sp. nov. and Circinaria darelensis sp. nov. are described as new species from Pakistan. A comparative morpho-anatomical, chemical study and ITS-based molecular analyses confrmed the positions of these species within the genera Chlorangium and Circinaria. Chlorangium ahmadii sp. nov. difers from its closely related species, C. alpicola in having light brown to whitish-brown thallus (vs. brownish-grey to greyish-green), fat to concave apothecial disc (vs. concave to convex when young, becoming more fat when old), smaller exciple 20–35 μm (vs. 65–85 μm) and larger ascospores 27–40×22–25 μm (vs. 19–24×19–23 μm). Circinaria darelensis sp. nov. is distinguished from its closely related species, C. maculata in having crustose-areolate light brown to greyish-brown thallus (vs. areolate, brown, olive brown to dark olive), absence of lobes (vs. presence), taller hymenium 120–190 μm (vs. 100–125 µm) and smaller ascospores 14–17×6–10 μm (vs. 22.5–27.5×15–20 µm). Keywords: Balochistan · Darel · Gilgit Baltistan · Killa Saifullah · Phylogenetic study.
36410Fałtynowicz W., Czarnota P., Krzewicka B., Wilk K., Jabłońska A., Oset M., Ossowska E.A., Śliwa L. & Kukwa M. (2024): Lichens of Poland. A fifth annotated checklist. - W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, 751 p. .
The current lichen checklist of Poland contains 1687 species and more than a dozen subspecies. At the same time, as a result of detailed analyses, as many as 130 species from the earlier lists of lichens of Poland (Fałtynowicz 2003, Fałtynowicz & Kossowska 2016) have been excluded; they were incorrectly reported from the country, or were found to have a negligible probability of occurrence, or the lack of herbarium specimens makes it impossible to verify the correctness of the designations. The present list includes lichen-forming fungi and does not include lichenicolous and lichen-allied fungi, the most comprehensive list of which is in a work by Czyżewska and Kukwa (2009); that publication is in urgent need of supplementation, as numerous new species have been found in the country in more recent years (cf. Czyżewska 2020). The present checklist is based primarily on literature data published up to and including the year 2022; the reference list contains about 1800 items. Unpublished data available in dozens of masters and doctoral theses, various reports, as well as several articles submitted for publication in 2023, were also used. With a few exceptions, the checklist authors did not verify herbarium collections; instead, references to voucher specimens are provided in monographic works on selected genera: Umbilicaria (Krzewicka 2004a), Micarea (Czarnota 2007), Ochrolechia (Kukwa 2011), Porpidia (Jabłońska 2012), Verrucaria (Krzewicka 2012), Stereocaulon (Oset 2014), Opegrapha (Wieczorek 2018) and Parmelia (Ossowska 2021). In addition to the Polish herbaria, the largest collection of lichens from the country, including duplicates of some published records, can be found in the following European herbaria: the Berlin Herbarium (B), Herbarium der Universität Greifswald (GFW), World Museum Liverpool Herbarium (LIV), Charles University in Prague Herbarium (PRC), Uppsala University Herbarium (UPS), Naturhistorisches Museum Wien Herbarium (W) and Universität Wien Herbarium (WU). We note, however, that most of these collections require critical revision.
36409Cannon P., Fryday A., Coppins B., Aptroot A., Sanderson A. & Simkin J. (2024): Umbilicariales, including Elixia (Elixiaceae), Fuscidea (Fuscideaceae), Hypocenomyce and Ophioparma (Ophioparmaceae), Ropalospora (Ropalosporaceae) and Lasallia, Umbilicaria and Xylopsora (Umbilicariaceae). - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 39: 1–24. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/Umbilicariales.pdf.
36408Cannon P., Coppins B., Aptroot A., Sanderson N. & Simkin J. (2024): Ostropales genera I, including Absconditella, Belonia, Clathroporinopsis, Corticifraga, Cryptodiscus, Cryptolechia, Francisrosea, Gomphillus, Gyalecta, Gyalidea, Gyalideopsis, Jamesiella, Karstenia, Nanostictis, Neopetractis, Pachyphiale, Petractis, Phialopsis, Phlyctis, Ramonia, Sagiolechia, Secoliga, Sphaeropezia, Spirographa, Stictis, Thelopsis, Thrombium and Xerotrema. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 38: 1–60. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/Ostropales%201.pdf.
36407Cannon P., Coppins B., Aptroot A., Sanderson A. & Simkin J. (2023): Perithecial genera I, including Acrocordia, Alloarthopyrenia, Anisomeridium, Antennulariella, Arthopyrenia, Celothelium, Cyrtidula, Dichoporis, Eopyrenula, Julella, Leptorhaphis, Leptosillia, Lithothelium, Mycomicrothelia, Mycoporum, Naetrocymbe, Pyrenula, Rhaphidicyrtis, Sarcopyrenia, Swinscowia and Tomasellia. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 37: 1–59. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/Perithecial%20genera%20I.pdf.
36406van Middelkoop R. & van der Kolk H.-J. (2021): Thelidium papulare (reuzenschotstippelkorst) nieuw in Nederland [Thelidium papulare new to the Netherlands]. - Buxbaumiella, 122: 30–31. .
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] Thelidium papulare is reported for the first time in the Netherlands. It was found on an old brick wall of a former sea dike near Amsterdam.
36405van Dort K. & Horsthuis M. (2021): Ongenerfd hunebedmos (Andreaea rupestris) in Gelderland [Andreaea rupestris is reported for the first time from the Province of Gelderland (The Netherlands)]. - Buxbaumiella, 122: 25–29. .
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] A fertile population of Andreaea rupestris was discovered on a shaded boulder within the Veluwezoom National Park in the Dutch province of Gelderland. Like most other ‘iconic hunebed species’ Andreaea rupestris showed a strong decline over the years in The Netherlands. Only about six moribund populations remain on slabs of ‘hunebedden’ (a type of dolmen), in the province of Drenthe. To facilitate the spread of Andreaea rupestris, two potentially suitable boulders were placed downwind in the vicinity of the newly discovered vital population. Will Andreaea rupestris colonise the stones? [lichens on photographs and included on a list from a phytosociological relevé]
36404Hellemans K. (2021): Reactie op ‘Update Nederlandse namen korstmossen’ [Comment on ‘Update of Dutch names of lichens’]. - Buxbaumiella, 122: 22–24. .
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] Recently an update of the official list of Dutch names for lichens was published (Kolk et al. 2021). In my opinion, the authors missed a good opportunity to improve the list more thoroughly by renaming, at long last, all lichens with misleading names. In Dutch, two words for ‘lichen’ are in use: ‘licheen’ and ‘korstmos’. Translated literally into English, the latter word would become ‘crust moss’. ‘Korstmos’ is confusing for beginners, as this word wrongly suggests that lichens and bryophytes (the Dutch ‘mos’ also refers to liverworts and hornworts) are closely related. Therefore, it would be much better to replace ‘korstmos’ or ‘-mos’ by ‘licheen’, not only when referring to this taxonomic group as a whole, but also in the Dutch names of individual species.
36403van Dort K. & Verboom L. (2021): Geelberijpt boomspijkertje (Calicium adspersum), grof schorssteeltje (Chaenotheca phaeocephala) en andere bijzondere epifyten bij Paterswolde (Drenthe) [Calicium adspersum, Chaenotheca phaeocephala and many more rare and interesting epiphytic lichens on veteran trees near the village of Paterswolde, Province of (Drenthe (The Netherlands)]. - Buxbaumiella, 122: 17–21. .
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] A day trip to Paterswolde, a village in the very north of the province of Drenthe, once again demonstrated the exceptional importance of veteran trees for epiphytic diversity. In total about 80 species were recorded from veteran trees. Especially oak (Quercus robur) is exceptionally rich in coniocarpous ‘rain shadow specialists’ (Caliciaceae), among which six members of the genus Chaenotheca and the four currently known Dutch Calicium species: C. adspersum, C. glaucellum, C. salicinum and C. viride. Calicium adspersum and Chaenotheca phaeocephala were found for the second time in The Netherlands. Former great rarities such as Arthonia didyma, A. ruana and especially Normandina pulchella are rather common these days. Also the newcomers Coniocarpon cinnabarinum and Porina byssophila appear to be rapidly spreading.
36402van der Kolk H.-J., van Dort K., van Herk K., Aptroot A., Van den Broeck D. & Sparrius L. (2021): Update Nederlandse namen korstmossen [Update Dutch lichen names]. - Buxbaumiella, 121: 31–33. .
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] A Dutch name is provided for lichen species that were found new in the Netherlands during the last two decades. For a few other species the Dutch name was changed. An overview of the new names and name changes is presented in a table.
36401Toetenel H. (2021): Korstmosdubbelgangers op vlier [Lichen doubles on elderberry]. - Buxbaumiella, 121: 25–30. .
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] On elderberry bushes in the dune area between The Hague and Hoek van Holland, many similar-looking lichens can be found. In the article the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of three kinds of doubles are compared.
36400Klasberg M. (2021): De opmars van rood dooiermos (Rusavskia elegans) in Maastricht onder de loep genomen. Lichenometrisch en ecologisch onderzoek naar een zuidelijke soort [Rusavskia elegans colonizes Maastricht – lichenometric and ecological investigation of a southern lichen species]. - Buxbaumiella, 121: 1–24. .
[in Dutch with English summary: ] In 2020, lichenometric research was performed on Elegant sunburst lichen (Rusavskia elegans) to reconstruct the colonization of Maastricht (Netherlands). Maastricht, in the southernmost tip of the Netherlands, lies in a hilly countryside and borders the Meuse (‘Maas’ in Dutch), a rain river. To be able to estimate the age of the populations, the first step was calibrating the growth rate. That was not an unnecessary action, as the growth rate of 1.9 mm per year turned out to be four times higher than the current standard. The moderate climate and nitrogen deposition may play a role in this. The lichenometric research shows that colonization started around the year 1980 from the Meuse valley. Only from the year 2000 onward a clear increase in the number of branches has been noticeable. An accurate trend has also been determined for each location by measuring and dating each thallus. There appears to be a positive relationship between growth peaks and warm years. 47 locations have now been discovered within an area of 6 by 10 kilometres. Not only the oldest but also the largest populations – with hundreds of specimens – are situated in the Meuse valley. The urban centre is avoided, the conditions here may be too dry. From an ecological point of view, Elegant sunburst lichen follows the books. In our regions, this kind of lichen also prefers acidic to basic, warm, and sunny rocks of both natural and anthropogenic origin. The number of sites is enormous and varies from boulders, tombstones, brick walls, concrete bridges and posts to roof tiles and even iron. It is unusual that no clear relationship has been found with natural fertilization. It is possible that nitrogen deposition provides the necessary nutrients.
36399Łuniewski S., Rogowska W., Łozowicka B. & Iwaniuk P. (2024): Plants, microorganisms and their metabolites in supporting asbestos detoxification—A biological perspective in asbestos treatment. - Materials, 17(7): 1644 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17071644.
Many countries banned asbestos due to its toxicity, but considering its colossal use, especially in the 1960s and 1970s, disposing of waste containing asbestos is the current problem. Today, many asbestos disposal technologies are known, but they usually involve colossal investment and operating expenses, and the end- and by-products of these methods negatively impact the environment. This paper identifies a unique modern direction in detoxifying asbestos minerals, which involves using microorganisms and plants and their metabolites. The work comprehensively focuses on the interactions between asbestos and plants, bacteria and fungi, including lichens and, for the first time, yeast. Biological treatment is a prospect for in situ land reclamation and under industrial conditions, which can be a viable alternative to landfilling and an environmentally friendly substitute or supplement to thermal, mechanical, and chemical methods, often characterized by high cost intensity. Plant and microbial metabolism products are part of the green chemistry trend, a central strategic pillar of global industrial and environmental development. Keywords: asbestos-containing wastes; naturally occurring asbestos; detoxification; biological treatment; siderophores.
36398Brenning M., Longstaffe F.J. & Fraser D. (2024): Variation in stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope compositions along antlers of Qamanirjuaq caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus). - Ecology and Evolution, 14: e11006 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.11006.
Annual antler growth begins in the spring and is completed by late summer for male caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) from the Qamanirjuaq herd (Nunavut, Canada), aligned with both the spring migration and a seasonal dietary shift. Antlers may provide a non-lethal means of studying short- and long-term changes in caribou ecology through incorporated isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N). We sampled the antlers of 12 male caribou from the Qamanirjuaq herd culled in September 1967. We predicted that serial sampling of antlers would reflect the known seasonal dietary change from lichen to grass-like and shrub diet based on rumen contents from individuals culled during the same period. The δ13C and δ15N were analyzed in food sources and every 3 cm along each antler's length. The carbon isotope compositions of collagen (δ13Ccol) varied by ~0.5‰ among individuals and within antlers, while the carbon isotope compositions of antler bioapatite (δ13CCO3) increased by 1–1.5‰ from pedicle to tip. Values of δ15Ncol increased within antlers by 1–3‰ from pedicle to tip and varied by 3‰ among the individuals sampled. Antler collagen was lower in δ15Ncol by ~1‰ relative to bone collagen. Bayesian mixing models were conducted to test for changes in dietary proportions from antler isotope compositions. Mixing models did not indicate significant dietary shifts for any individual during antler formation, showing consistently mixed diets of fungi, horsetail, lichen, and woody plants. Increases in δ15Ncol in antler tissue could, therefore, correspond to subtle seasonal dietary changes and/or the physiological stress of antler tissue development.
36397Wilk K. & Lücking R. (2024): Quantitative integrative taxonomy informs species delimitation in Teloschistaceae (lichenized Ascomycota): the genus Wetmoreana as a case study. - IMA Fungus, 15: 9 [42 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43008-024-00140-1.
The genus Wetmoreana was studied using quantitative integrative taxonomy methods to resolve the genus delimitation and explore its taxonomy diversity at the species level. As a result, the genus Fulgogasparrea is synonymized with Wetmoreana, and the latter includes 15 formally described species, one subspecies, and three further, thus far undescribed species: W. appressa, W. awasthii comb. nov., W. bahiensis sp. nov., W. brachyloba comb. nov., W. brouardii, W. chapadensis comb. nov., W. circumlobata sp. nov., W. decipioides, W. intensa comb. nov., W. ochraceofulva comb. nov., W. rubra sp. nov., W. sliwae sp. nov., W. sliwae ssp. subparviloba subsp. nov., W. subnitida comb. nov., W. texana, and W. variegata sp. nov. Eleven of 19 examined taxa are newly placed within this genus or confirmed to belong to it. Two species, W. awasthii and W. intensa, are transferred to Wetmoreana without additional analysis but based on previous studies. The W. brouardii and W. ochraceofulva species complexes are discussed in detail. Additionally, Caloplaca muelleri and C. rubina var. evolutior are transferred to Squamulea, and the latter is elevated to the species rank. Keywords: Phylogenetic binning, MRPP, PCA, South America, 6 New species, 8 New combinations.
36396Tälle M., Ranius T. & Öckinger E. (2023): The usefulness of surrogates in biodiversity conservation: A synthesis. - Biological Conservation, 288: 110384 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2023.110384.
Preserving biodiversity requires extensive information on species distributions and effectiveness of conservation actions. A surrogate approach, where a small number of species act as surrogates for broader groups of species, can simplify this task. Types of surrogates include indicator, umbrella, keystone and flagship species, and using diversity of higher taxonomic levels to represent species diversity. An overview of the empirical evidence of the usefulness of surrogates as a conservation tool is missing. We synthesised knowledge on if and when surrogate species are useful by systematically searching for meta-analyses and literature reviews assessing this. Results from 34 reviews revealed weak correlations between diversity of indicator species and other species and that umbrella species were not consistently useful for prioritising conservation actions. However, diversity of higher taxonomic levels can be representative of species diversity. No reviews have assessed the usefulness of keystone or flagship species. Thus, surrogate taxa often do not represent biodiversity or threatened species, and conservation actions aimed at surrogates might not necessarily benefit other species. However, surrogates are more likely to be useful when using a higher-taxon approach, when strong ecological similarities exists between a surrogate and other species, when surrogates are used at regional or landscape rather than local scales, and when using sets of multiple species as surrogates. As some use of surrogate species will always be necessary, surrogates should be carefully selected and their usefulness and cost-effectiveness should be assessed, including the risk that conservation actions aimed at that surrogate have unintended effects on other species.
36395Kidron G.J., Starinsky A. & Xiao B. (2024): The enigmatic enrichment of potassium and magnesium in runoff and floodwater in the Negev: Do biocrusts hold the key?. - Science of The Total Environment, 911: 168753 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.168753.
Hypothesizing that rock-dwelling (lithobionts) or soil (loess)-dwelling biocrusts may shed light on the phenomena, we conducted sprinkling experiments in the Negev Highlands. Sprinkling was conducted on 4 types of lithobionts: cyanobacteria which inhabit the south-facing bedrock (ENC), epilithic lichens, inhabiting the inclined (EPIi) and the flat (EPIf) north-facing bedrocks, and endolithic lichens (ENL) inhabiting south-facing boulders. Additional sprinkling took place on two types of soil biocrusts, a mixed crust composed of cyanobacteria, lichens and mosses at the north-facing footslope and a cyanobacterial crust at the more xeric south-facing footslope. The runoff water (of 5 and for 4 plots for each lithobiont and soil biocrust type, respectively) was analyzed for the ionic composition of Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+, Cl−, SO42−, and NO3−, whereas HCO3− was calculated. In comparison to rainwater, all habitats (except for K+ in ENL) showed high enrichment ratios (ERs) in K+ and Mg2+, which, unlike the high ERs of the other ions (such as SO42− that may stem from gypsum dissolution), could not have been explained by the rock lithology, clay or dust composition. It is suggested that following wetting, K+, serving for osmoregulation of cells, is released by the crust organisms, being thus responsible for K+ enrichment, while chlorophyll degradation is responsible for Mg2+ enrichment. It is suggested that rock- and soil-dwelling microorganisms may explain K+ and Mg2+ enrichment in runoff and floodwater and subsequently in groundwater of the Negev, and possibly in other arid zones worldwide, affecting in turn the quality of irrigation and drinking water.
36394Liang X., Chen W., Jiang B. & Xiao C.-J. (2024): Dibenzofurans from nature: Biosynthesis, structural diversity, sources, and bioactivities. - Bioorganic Chemistry, 144: 107107 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2024.107107.
Dibenzofurans are a small class of natural products with versatile biological activities that used to be thought to come mainly from lichens and ascomycetes. In fact, they are also distributed widely in higher plants, especially in the families Rosaceae and Myrtaceae. Dibenzofurans and derivatives from lichens and ascomycetes have been well reviewed, but dibenzofurans from all biological sources in nature have not been reviewed. In this review, dibenzofurans from all natural sources have been comprehensively reviewed, and a total of 211 dibenzofurans isolated and identified from organisms between 1843 and March 2023 are categorized and discussed, including their biosynthesis, structural diversity, sources, and bioactivities. Keywords: Lichen dibenzofurans; Non-lichen dibenzofurans; Biosynthesis; Structural diversity; Biological sources; Biological activities.
36393He L., Chen W., Fraser R.H., Schmelzer I., Arsenault A., Leblanc S.G., Lovitt J., White H.P., Plante S. & Brodeur A. (2024): Satellite-detected decreases in caribou lichen cover, Cladonia (Cladina) spp., over Eastern Canada during the last three decades. - Forest Ecology and Management, 556: 121753 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2024.121753.
Caribou lichens, Cladonia (Cladina) spp., are a slow-growing, vital winter forage for caribou that are likely to be influenced by global warming. However, the large-scale response of caribou lichens to changing global climate remains unclear. Here, we derived caribou lichen cover maps for two time periods ∼30 years apart (i.e., the late 1980 s, and 2020 s) using Landsat satellite imagery for a region (0.59 million km2) in Eastern Canada that includes all or portions of several boreal caribou population ranges. We restricted our assessment to regions with at least 10% lichen cover and evaluated differences between the two time periods. Results show that since the 1980 s satellite-derived lichen cover declined in 62% of the region evaluated, remained constant in 27%, and increased in 11%. Twenty-three percent of the lichen cover decrease occurred in areas that burned after 1980, while 77% of the decrease remains unexplained, with warming-induced shrub encroachment, and caribou presence and grazing both possible causes. Caribou lichen regeneration occurs within regions burned before the 1980 s. Given that shrubification and wildfire frequency are projected to continue increasing, further monitoring of the scale and scope of ongoing changes will help to clarify future patterns. However, our results strongly suggest that the amount of caribou lichens has declined overall. Keywords: Lichen cover decrease; Landsat; Caribou; Reindeer; Cladonia spp; Eastern Canada; Change detection; Shrubification; Fire.
36392Allain A., Alexis M.A., Bridoux M.C., Shirokova L.S., Payandi-Rolland D., Pokrovsky O.S. & Rouelle M. (2024): The specific molecular signature of dissolved organic matter extracted from different arctic plant species persists after biodegradation. - Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 193: 109393 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2024.109393.
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a small but very reactive pool of organic matter (OM) in the environment. Its role is related to its composition, which depends on its source. In soils, vegetation is the main source of DOM, and biodegradation is the main regulating mechanism. This study aims to characterise DOM produced by contrasted arctic vegetation species and their biodegradation products. The water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) was produced from C. stellaris (lichen), E. vaginatum (sedge), A. polifolia (dwarf evergreen shrub) and B. nana (deciduous dwarf shrub). The WEOM were inoculated with a common aerobic heterotrophic soil bacteria (P. aureofaciens) and incubated for 7 days. During the experiment, WEOM was characterised through a wide range of analytical methods (TOC, UV–Vis absorbance, high-performance ion chromatography and HRMS Orbitrap). The results showed bacteria consumed a significantly greater proportion of WEOM produced by C. stellaris than by A. polifolia and B. nana at the end of the experiment (p
36391Buril M.L.L., de Oliveira Silva A.K., Martins M.C.B., Silva H.P.B., Aptroot A., da Silva B.F. & Pereira E.C. (2024): Species of Peltula (lichenized Ascomycota) are shown to tolerate rock substrate rich in natural γ-radiation in NE Brazil. - Total Environment Advances, 10: 200099 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.teadva.2024.200099.
Pedra Municipality in Pernambuco State (Northeastern Brazil) is known for encompassing areas with high natural radiation from 238U sources, contaminating soil, atmosphere, water, vegetation, and animals, including rural activities. A lichen survey was performed in the area, and species belonging to 19 genera were identified. The diversity is considered very low when compared to nearby municipalities and other similar regions, which might indicate the effect of radiation on the environment. The lichen genus viz. Peltula seems uranium-resistant since its three species: Peltula obscurans (Nyl.) Gyeln., Peltula euploca (Ach.) Poelt and Peltula impressa (Vain.) Swinscow & Krog were the only ones found on rocks rich in this radionuclide. In this study, we show the first report of the occurrence of different Peltula species on anomalous rocks rich in natural radionuclides. In addition, it is the first official reference of P. obscurans and P. impressa to Pernambuco state. The confirmation of the preference of Peltula for substrata radionuclides-rich can indicate this genus as a radioactivity bioindicator. Keywords: Uranium; Pernambuco; Radionuclide; Bioaccumulation; Anomalous rocks.
36390Manninen O.H., Myrsky E., Tolvanen A. & Stark S. (2024): N-fertilization and disturbance exert long-lasting complex legacies on subarctic ecosystems. - Oecologia, 204: 689–704. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-024-05524-z.
Subarctic ecosystems are subjected to increasing nitrogen (N) enrichment and disturbances that induce particularly strong effects on plant communities when occurring in combination. There is little experimental evidence on the longevity of these effects. We applied N-fertilization (40 kg urea-N ha−1 year−1 for 4 years) and disturbance (removal of vegetation and organic soil layer on one occasion) in two plant communities in a subarctic forest-tundra ecotone in northern Finland. Within the first four years, N-fertilization and disturbance increased the share of deciduous dwarf shrubs and graminoids at the expense of evergreen dwarf shrubs. Individual treatments intensified the other’s effect resulting in the strongest increase in graminoids under combined N-fertilization and disturbance. The re-analysis of the plant communities 15 years after cessation of N-fertilization showed an even higher share of graminoids. 18 years after disturbance, the total vascular plant abundance was still substantially lower and the share of graminoids higher. At the same point, the plant community composition was the same under disturbance as under combined N-fertilization and disturbance, indicating that multiple perturbations no longer reinforced the other’s effect. Yet, complex interactions between N-fertilization and disturbance were still detected in the soil. We found higher organic N under disturbance and lower microbial N under combined N-fertilization and disturbance, which suggests a lower bioavailability of N sources for soil microorganisms. Our findings support that the effects of enhanced nutrients and disturbance on subarctic vegetation persist over decadal timescales. However, they also highlight the complexity of plant–soil interactions that drive subarctic ecosystem responses to multiple perturbations across varying timescales. Keywords: Treeline ecotone · Plant recovery · Functional types · Microbial nitrogen · Vegetation change.
36389Berner L.T., Orndahl K.M., Rose M., Tamstorf M., Arndal M.F., Alexander H.D., Humphreys E.R., Loranty M.M., Ludwig S.M., Nyman J., Juutinen S., Aurela M., Happonen K., Mikola J., Mack M.C., Vankoughnett M.R., Iversen C.M., Salmon V.G., Yang D., Kumar J., Grogan P., Danby R.K., Scott N.A., Olofsson J., Siewert M.B., Deschamps L., Lévesque E., Maire V., Morneault A., Gauthier G., Gignac C., Boudreau S., Gaspard A., Kholodov A., Bret-Harte M.S., Greaves H.E., Walker D., Gregory F.M., Michelsen A., Kumpula T., Villoslada M., Ylänne H., Luoto M., Virtanen T., Forbes B.C., Hölzel N., Epstein H., Heim R.J., Bunn A,, Holmes R.M., Hung J.K.Y., Natali S.M., Virkkala A.-M. & Goetz S.J. (2024): The Arctic Plant Aboveground Biomass Synthesis Dataset. - Scientific Data, 11: 305 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-024-03139-w.
Plant biomass is a fundamental ecosystem attribute that is sensitive to rapid climatic changes occurring in the Arctic. Nevertheless, measuring plant biomass in the Arctic is logistically challenging and resource intensive. Lack of accessible field data hinders efforts to understand the amount, composition, distribution, and changes in plant biomass in these northern ecosystems. Here, we present The Arctic plant aboveground biomass synthesis dataset, which includes field measurements of lichen, bryophyte, herb, shrub, and/or tree aboveground biomass (g m−2) on 2,327 sample plots from 636 field sites in seven countries. We created the synthesis dataset by assembling and harmonizing 32 individual datasets. Aboveground biomass was primarily quantified by harvesting sample plots during mid- to late-summer, though tree and often tall shrub biomass were quantified using surveys and allometric models. Each biomass measurement is associated with metadata including sample date, location, method, data source, and other information. This unique dataset can be leveraged to monitor, map, and model plant biomass across the rapidly warming Arctic.
36388Andersen R., Fernandez-Garcia P., Martin-Walker A., Klein D., Marshall C., Large D.J., Hughes R. & Hancock M.H. (2024): Blanket bog vegetation response to wildfire and drainage suggests resilience to low severity, infrequent burning. - Fire Ecology, 20: 26 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s42408-024-00256-0.
Background: In 2019, a wildfire impacted an area of blanket bog and wet heath > 60 km2 in the Flow Country peatlands of northern Scotland, a site of global significance. Unusually the footprint of the wildfire included discrete areas of degraded, restored, and near-natural blanket bogs. Following the wildfire, we surveyed vegetation in 387 quadrats in burnt and unburnt areas. The study aimed to determine whether and how proximity to human-made drains and microtopography affected fire-vegetation interactions and included older wildfire sites and unburnt control sites for context. Results: Overall, our study suggests that the 2019 Flow Country wildfire caused mostly superficial burning; except in the most degraded area, which burned more severely and where we recorded more profound impacts on the vegetation. We found higher cover of litter, which in turn led to increased localized fire damage in quadrats close to drains compared with quadrats away from the influence of drains. We also found greater fire impacts (e.g., proportions of moss burnt and Sphagnum discoloration) on hummocks, particularly where they were higher relative to the hollows. Overall, vegetation both near and away from drains largely resembled nearby unburnt sites within 20 years. Conclusions: Overall, our study suggests that the 2019 Flow Country wildfire caused mostly superficial burning, except in the most degraded areas. Vegetation communities of blanket bogs associated with conservation and restoration areas in the region appear to be largely resilient to occasional, low severity wildfires. This implies that management interventions that maintain wet conditions in peatlands have the potential to help reduce the risks of severe wildfires. Keywords: Peatland restoration, Sphagnum, Vegetation communities, Post-fire plant succession, Wildfire ecology.
36387Best I.N., Brown L., Elkin C., Finnegan L., McClelland C.J.R. & Johnson C.J. (2024): Cut vs. fire: a comparative study of the temporal effects of timber harvest and wildfire on ecological indicators of the boreal forest. - Landscape Ecology, 39: 81 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-024-01882-4.
Context: Large-scale natural disturbances are crucial drivers of ecosystem function and composition for many forested ecosystems. In the last century, the prevalence of anthropogenic disturbances has increased across Canada’s boreal forest. Habitat disturbance from timber harvest and wildfire is linked to declines of boreal species, including woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou). Objectives: We tested how disturbances influenced the recovery trajectory of ecological indicators of timber, biodiversity, and wildlife habitat through time following timber harvest and wildfire across the boreal forest of Alberta, Canada. Methods: During 2021 and 2022, we collected field data from 251 timber harvested and 264 burned stands (0–40 years since disturbance), as well as 256 older forest stands used by caribou (> 40 years since disturbance). Field data included metrics of stand attributes (e.g., basal area, stems per hectare), coarse woody debris (CWD), and abundance of forage for caribou, moose (Alces americanus), and bears (black bear: Ursus americanus, grizzly bear: Ursus arctos). Results: Basal area of trees and stems per hectare recovered more quickly in timber harvest sites when compared to wildfire sites, but as time since disturbance increased there were no differences in these attributes among timber harvest, wildfire, and caribou use sites. CWD was greatest in recently burned sites, but declined over time to be similar in quantity as in harvested stands and older forest stands. Terrestrial lichens, important forage for caribou, were most abundant in the older caribou use sites, whereas forage for moose and bears, including shrubs, was most abundant in younger timber harvest and wildfire sites. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that timber harvesting may result in a quicker development of timber volume when compared to wildfire. However, this anthropogenic disturbance is less advantageous for the development of caribou habitat.
36386Beck K., Glew K., Hardman A., Lavdovsky N., McCune B., Nelson N., Ponzetti J., Rhoades F., Rosentreter R., Stone D., Theden T., Tønsberg T. & Villella J. (2024): Lichens of Cypress Island, Washington – the seen and the unseen. - Evansia, 40(4): 136–155. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-40.4.136.
A group of Northwest Lichenologists explored the lichen biodiversity on Cypress Island in the San Juan Islands on the Pacific coast north of Seattle, hosted by the Washington Department of Natural Resources. We compiled our observations separately by habitat: (1) uplands with serpentine bedrock, (2) uplands with basalt bedrock, and (3) rocky saltwater shorelines. Combining our results with previous efforts, we report 243 lichen species from Cypress Island. Despite the respectable species list, we were struck by the absence of numerous species that are regionally common. We report those here, but were unable to be convinced by various hypotheses for their absence. They fall in several functional groups, including nitrophiles, cyanolichens, oceanic species, and widespread green algal foliose species. In addition to a traditional species list, we present two artistic expressions of the lichen biota. Key words: Lichenized fungi, Pacific Northwest, San Juan Islands, serpentine, species inventory.
36385Barbosa B.M.C., Santos L.A., Oliveira Junior I., Oliveira Lima D., Aptroot A. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2024): New records of Polymeridium (Müll.Arg.) R.C.Harris from Brazil with description of a new species from the Caatinga, and a checklist of the Brazilian species. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 45(4): 39–46. https://doi.org/10.5252/cryptogamiemycologie2024v45a4.
A new species is described, Polymeridium stromatocorticatum B.Barbosa, Aptroot, L.A.Santos & M.Cáceres, sp. nov. found in the Caatinga Biome, collected at Raso da Catarina Ecological Station (Bahia, Brazil). The new species is characterized by the combination of a corticated thallus and aggregated ascomata, while the ascospores exhibit the typical characteristics of a Polymeridium (Müll.Arg.) R.C.Harris. The genus has its greatest absolute world diversity in this region of NE Brazil, especially in areas of the Caatinga. Most of the species found in this region express peculiar characteristics related to the chemistry of the thallus, due to the presence of lichexanthone and the lack of inspersion of hamathecium. In addition, an updated checklist of Brazilian species is provided.
36384Cui C., Li Y., Xu J., Zhao X. & Jia Z. (2024): Diorygma tiantaiense sp. nov. and a checklist and key to Diorygma species from China. - Diversity, 16(4): 213 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d16040213.
A new species Diorygma tiantaiense Z.F. Jia, sp. nov. was found, which is characterized by a corticolous thallus with norstictic acid, oval or oblong apothecia, immersed to ± raised discs with white pruina, and large muriform ascospores (120–210 × 35–60 µm). Detailed morphological descriptions, photographs, and a comparison and discussion of similar species are provided. A checklist and key to the species of Diorygma known from China is presented. Keywords: lichenized fungi; lecanoromycetes; graphidales; graphidaceae; taxonomy.
36383Wijesinghe S.N., Zucconi L., Camporesi E., Wanasinghe D.N., Boonmee S., Samarakoon M.C., Chethana K.W.T., Puwakpitiya Gedara C., Maharachchikumbura S.S.N., Wang Y. & Hyde K.D. (2022): An updated account of Fagales-inhabiting Italian Ascomycota and mycogeography, with additions to Pezizomycotina. - Asian Journal of Mycology, 5(2): 79–186. Doi 10.5943/ajom/5/2/7.
Studies of plant-associated Ascomycota are topical, as they have varied life modes depending on their hosts in different ecosystems. In Italy, Fagales are economically and ecologically important plants, especially in the Alps and Apennine mountain ranges. Fagales species host numerous ascomycetous species, comprising endophytes, saprobes, or pathogens. We retrieved data from 308 publications from 1873 to 2021 and listed 776 Ascomycota on Fagales in Italy. Among these, 696 were identified at the species level and 80 at the genus level. Documented taxa belong to Pezizomycotina (746), Saccharomycotina (2), Taphrinomycotina (5), and Ascomycota genera incertae sedis (23). Sordariomycetes are dominant (34%), followed by Dothideomycetes (24%), Lecanoromycetes (16%), and Leotiomycetes (11%). Distribution maps were provided for the occurrence of Fagales trees and Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Leotiomycetes, Pezizomycetes, and Sordariomycetes taxa. Lichenized taxa were excluded from the mapping. We provided additions to Valsariaceae (Valsaria rudis) in Dothideomycetes, Coryneaceae (Coryneum modonium), Melanconiellaceae (Melanconiella flavovirens and M. meridionalis), and Woswasiaceae (Woswasia atropurpurea) in Sordariomycetes. These taxa represent a novel host record, a provincial record, and four regional records in Italy. Species boundaries were defined using polyphasic approaches. In addition, taxonomic notes were provided for each reported class, including incertae sedis genera. The study provides information on the taxonomy, hosts, and distribution of Ascomycota in Italy to encourage further research related to important plant species. Keywords: checklist – host-fungal distribution – morphology – phylogeny – taxonomy.
36382Tibell L. & Knutsson T. (2016): Calicium episcalaris (Caliciaceae), a new lichen species from Sweden. - Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses, 38: 49–52. .
A new species of lichen, Calicium episcalaris Tibell & Knutsson, is described from Sweden. It is one of few Calicium species being parasitic or ‘Jugendparasit’, occurring on Hypocenomyce scalaris (Ach.) M.Choisy growing on an old wooden building in South Sweden.
36381Lendemer J.C. (2023): Studies in Lichens and Lichenicolous Fungi – No. 23: Notes on Appalachian taxa including newly reported disjunctions and multiple species new to North America. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 22: 81–97. .
Arthonia ligniariella is reported for the first time from eastern North America based on a collection growing on lignum in North Carolina, U.S.A. Biatora appalachensis, an Appalachian endemic, is shown to be widespread throughout the Appalachian Mountains, primarily at high elevations. The only report of Fellhanera parvula from North America (Tennessee, U.S.A.) is considered to be F. bouteillei. Fellhanera subtilis, previously reported in North America from the Pacific Northwest, is reported for the first time from eastern North America (southern Appalachian Mountains). Gyalideopsis mexicana, previously reported in North America from the Yukon, Canada and New Mexico, U.S.A. is newly reported from eastern North America (southern Appalachian Mountains, North Carolina, U.S.A.). Lepra ouahensis, a sorediate species with lichexanthone and stictic acid, is reported from disjunct areas of the southern Appalachian Mountains and the Southeastern Coastal Plain. Its distribution is compared to the lichexanthone producing chemotypes of L. trachythallina and Varicellaria velata. Rockefellera crossophylla, a rare species considered extinct in Pennsylvania, U.S.A. is reported to be extant in that state. Psoronactis dilleniana is newly reported from North America from high elevations of the central and southern Appalachian Mountains (North Carolina and Virginia U.S.A.). Xenonectriella streimannii is newly reported for North America based on a collection found growing on Sticta beauvoisii in Georgia, U.S.A. Keywords: Biodiversity hotspot, biodiversity inventory, biogeography, floristics, natural history collections.
36380Wirth V. & Hertel E. (2009): Die Serpentinit-Flechte Porpidia nadvornikiana in Deutschland nachgewiesen. - Hoppea, 70: 283–285. .
36379Lorenz C., Bianchi E., Alberini A., Poggiali G., Benesperi R., Papini A. & Brucato J.R. (2024): UV photo-degradation of the secondary lichen substance parietin: A multi-spectroscopic analysis in astrobiology perspective. - Life Sciences in Space Research, 41: 191–201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lssr.2024.03.004.
The cortical anthraquinone yellow-orange pigment parietin is a secondary lichen substance providing UVshielding properties that is produced by several lichen species. In our work, the secondary metabolite has been extracted from air-dried thalli of Xanthoria parietina. The aims of this study were to characterize parietin absorbance through UV–VIS spectrophotometry and with IR spectroscopy and to evaluate its photodegradability under UV radiation through in situ reflectance IR spectroscopy to understand to what extent the substance may have a photoprotective role. This allows us to relate parietin photo-degradability to the lichen UV tolerance in its natural terrestrial habitat and in extreme environments relevant for astrobiology such as Mars. Extracted crystals were UV irradiated for 5.59 h under N2 flux. After the UV irradiation, we assessed relevant degradations in the 1614, 1227, 1202, 1160 and 755 cm− 1 bands. However, in light of Xanthoria parietina survivability in extreme conditions such as space- and Mars-simulated ones, we highlight parietin UV photo-resistance and its relevance for astrobiology as photo-protective substance and possible bio-hint. Keywords: Astrobiology ; Lichens ; Parietin ; UV radiation ; IR spectroscopy ; Biomarkers ; Life detection.
36378Hofmeister J., Pouska V., Palice Z., Šoun J., Gloor R., Brabec M. & Vondrák J. (2024): Hot-spots of epiphytic and epixylic lichens in fragmented temperate forests are underpinned by microhabitat heterogeneity and spatiotemporal habitat continuity. - Biological Conservation, 292: 110563 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2024.110563.
Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation are major causes of the ongoing decline of epiphytic and epixylic lichen species in temperate forests throughout Europe. We investigated how extant species richness and composition of epiphytic and epixylic lichen communities in ten hot-spots of lichen diversity in the Czech Republic reflected the occurrence and properties of potentially suitable microhabitats and habitats. At each hot-spot, we surveyed a pair of 1-ha square plots, one in (over-)mature managed and the second in unmanaged forest. In total, we recorded 513 epiphytic and epixylic lichen species which represent a substantial part of lichen biota in Central Europe. Species richness and composition of lichen communities were explained by microhabitat heterogeneity, and also by the area of near-natural forest habitats (habitat extent) at the landscape scale. In addition, lichen species richness and number of red-listed species were explained by a categorial variable distinguishing mature managed and unmanaged plots, used as a proxy of temporal continuity of natural succession. This finding illustrates that temporal continuity of natural succession in unmanaged forests likely had an extra stimulus for lichen communities that may not be reflected by observed aspects of forest habitats. Hence, we confirmed indispensable positive effects of (micro)habitat heterogeneity, and spatial and temporal continuity for preserved hot-spots of lichen diversity in Central Europe. Due to generally slow colonization-extinction dynamics of epiphytic and epixylic lichens we call for strengthening microhabitat heterogeneity, and the spatial and temporal continuity of European temperate forests at the landscape scale. Keywords: Biodiversity; Forest management; Microhabitat; Near-natural forest; Species richness; Species turnover.
36377Meng Q.-F., Thiyagaraja V., Ertz D., Worthy F.R., Saichana N. & Fu S.-B. (2024): Sclerococcum glaucomarioides: a new geographical record from China. - Phytotaxa, 642(1): 95–103. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.642.1.8.
The lichenicolous species Sclerococcum glaucomarioides growing on the lichen Ochrolechia akagiensis is newly reported from China. This study provides an illustration and morphological description for this species, complemented by phylogenetic analyses based on ITS, LSU and mtSSU sequence data. The taxon is characterized by adpressed to sessile apothecia that are round to angular with black disc, hymenium with brownish color, 25–40 μm high, broadly cylindrical to subclavate 8-spored asci, 20–30 × 10–15 μm, with euamyloid apical cap and brown ascospores with 2–3 transverse septa. Key words: Dactylosporaceae, multi-gene, new record, taxonomy.
36376Mironeasa S. & Ungureanu-Iuga M. (2024): Plants, lichens, fungi and algae ingredients for nutrition and health. - Applied Sciences, 14(7): 2800 [5 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/app14072800.
editorial
36375Hudon A.T. & Horton T.R. (2024): A survey of fungi and fungus-like organisms at the Albany Pine Bush Preserve, a globally rare inland pine barren system. - Northeastern Naturalist, 31(1): 72–91. https://doi.org/10.1656/045.031.0107.
The Albany Pine Bush Preserve (APBP) in east-central New York is a fire-managed, globally rare inland pine barrens ecosystem supporting numerous rare or declining species. The open landscape of the APBP is comprised of Pinus rigida (Pitch Pine) with an understory dominated by Quercus ilicifolia (Scrub Oak). Urban development and fire suppression have negatively impacted fire-adapted species. Prescribed fires were introduced in 1990 to restore the native plant community. Here we present the first thorough fungal survey at the APBP. We identified samples by morphology and DNA barcoding. We collected 117 species representing genera from 52 non-lichenized fungi, 10 lichens, and 2 Myxogastria (formerly Myxomycetes).
36374Moore G. (2024): A preliminary review of North American material in Rafinesque’s herbarium. - Rhodora, 124: 333–360. https://doi.org/10.3119/22-12.
North American material from the herbarium of Constantin Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (1783– 1840) is reviewed. From this effort 585 specimens were identified from 15 public herbaria, including 450 specimens recorded in online herbarium databases. Future research is planned that will expand this effort to: 1) include all material, not just North American, from Rafinesque’s herbarium; 2) determine the original material and type status of each specimen; and 3) develop a Rafinesque herbarium database allowing users to readily search for Rafinesque material. Key words: bryophytes, database, lichens, nomenclature, type, vascular plants, Robert Wilbur.
36373Quilhot W., Rubio C., Bernal M. & Wedin M. (2002): Estructura de comunidades liquénicas en Embothrium coccineum (Proteaceae) en Laguna San Rafael, Chile. - Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Chile, 51: 85–96. DOI: 10.54830/bmnhn.v51.2002.323.
The communities structure of lichens growing in Embothrium coccineum (Proteaceae) in Laguna San Rafael, Chile. Epiphytic lichen composition, richness, diversity and biomass on basal trunks of Embothrium coccineum were surveyed in a forestry site in Laguna San Rafael, southern Chile. Samples were taken from ten trees in three sites, in a microclimatic gradient, where lichens species were completely removed till 2 m height. 45 lichen species were recorded in November 1997. Significant diferences were observed in the selected sites; the species number and biomass increased with the increasing moisture availabily of the habitat. Sampled trees were identified with plastic labels and controlled three years and four months later. An important recovery of lichen diversity was observed, 16 species were recorded in February 2001, and biomass ranged between 35.27 % and 49,83 % in the selected sites. The highest biomass was recorded for Lepolichen coccophorus. Key words: Lichens, Communities, Biomass, Embothrium coccineum.
36372Yakovchenko L.S. & Davydov E.A. (2024): Arthonia phaeobaea (Arthoniaceae, Ascomycota) new to Asia and Russia from the Sakhalin Region. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 58(1): L55–L60. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2024.58.1.L55.
During the study of the lichen biota of Sakhalin Island, Arthonia phaeobaea was identified basing of morphological and anatomical data. This is the first record of this rare saxicolous coastal lichen in Asia and Russia; the species was previously recorded only in Central and Northern Europe (including Arctic) and North America. The species is characterized by its thin, smooth, brown-gray continuous thallus without lichen compounds, usually with numerous black pycnidia and small, black, rounded to elongated, weakly convex apothecia, dark brown epithecium K–, pale hypothecium, colorless, (2)3–4 cross-septate ascospores constricted centrally and usually with unequal cells, hyaline conidia, narrowly ellipsoid or oblong. The maritime distribution of the species has been noted. The differences from other coastal saxicolous Arthonia species in a global scale, as well as saxicolous Arthonia, known in Russia, are discussed. Keywords: biogeography, coastal lichens, new records, Russian Far East, Sakhalin Island.
36371Zueva A.S., Chesnokov S.V. & Konoreva L.A. (2024): Addition to the lichen biota of Paramushir Island (Northern Kuril Islands, Russian Far East). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 58(1): L35–L53. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2024.58.1.L35.
The paper provides data on 143 species, one subspecies, and one variety of lichens, 13 species of lichenicolous fungi and one species of non-lichenized saprobic fungus from Paramushir Island. One hundred thirty-eight taxa are reported for this territory for the first time. Of them, Lecanora confusa is reported for the first time for Russia, eight species are new to the Russian Far East, 36 species and one variety are new to the Sakhalin Region, 20 species are listed for the first time for the Kuril Islands, and 72 species for Paramushir Island. Substrates and coordinates of collection sites are given for all species. The nearest known localities are given for species first found in the Kuril Islands, the Sakhalin Region or the Russian Far East. Keywords: distribution, lichens, lichenicolous fungi, new records, rare species, Asia.
36370Rodionova A.A., Timofeeva E.A., Himelbrant D.E., Stepanchikova I.S., Zueva A.S., Tsurykau A.G., Frolov I.V. & Chesnokov S.V. (2024): The first survey of the lichen diversity of Seskar Island (Gulf of Finland, Leningrad Region). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 58(1): L1–L25. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2024.58.1.L1.
The revealed lichen diversity of Seskar Island has a total of 292 species, including 263 lichenized, 20 lichenicolous, and nine non-lichenized saprobic fungi. Stigmidium microcarpum is new to European Russia, Caloplaca alcarum, Cryptodiscus muriformis, C. pini, and C. tabularum are new to North-Western European Russia; Lecidella subviridis and Pyrenidium actinellum are new to the Le­ningrad Region. The most interesting result of the investigation is the discovery of the single modern population of the red-listed Flavocetraria nivalis in the Leningrad Region. The lichen biota of Seskar Island is moderately rich compared to other islands of the Gulf of Finland. Keywords: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, new records, protected species, North-West European Russia, State Nature Reserve “Vostok Finskogo Zaliva”.
36369Löffler J. & Pape R. (2020): Thermal niche predictors of alpine plant species. - Ecology, 101(1): e02891. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2891.
Within the context of species distribution models, scrutiny arises from the choice of meaningful environmental predictors. Thermal conditions are not the sole driver, but are the most widely acknowledged abiotic driver of plant life within alpine ecosystems. We linked long-term measurements of direct, plant-relevant, near-surface temperatures to plant species frequency. Across 47 sites located along environmental gradients within the Scandinavian mountain chain, the thermal preferences of 26 focal species of vascular plants, lichens, and bryophytes were explored. Based on partial least-squares regression, we applied a relative importance analysis to derive inductively the thermal variables that were best related to a spe- cies’ frequency. To discover potential seasonal variability of thermal controls, analyses were both differentiated according to meteorological season and integrated across the entire year. The pronounced interspecies and temporal variability of thermal constraints revealed the ther- mal niches were much more nuanced and variable than they have commonly been represented. This finding challenges us to present, interrogate, and interpret data representing these thermal niches, which seems to be required in order to move beyond purely probabilistic and correlative descriptions of species’ range limits. Thus, this information will help improve predictions of species distributions in complex arctic-alpine landscapes. arctic-alpine ecosystems; boundary-layer climatology; bryophytes; climate envelope modeling; lichens; near-ground temperatures; thermal threshold hours; vascular plants
36368Paquette H.A., McMullin R.T. & Wiersma Y.F. (2024): The importance of taxonomy for determining species distribution: a case study using the disjunct lichen Brodoa oroarctica. - Botany, 102(1): 10-18. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjb-2023-0096.
Species-focused conservation requires a thorough understanding of species’ distributions. Delineating a species’ distribution requires taxonomic knowledge and adequate occurrence data. For plants and fungi, herbaria represent a valuable source of large-scale occurrence data. Advances in digital technology mean that data from many herbarium collections worldwide are now easily accessible. However, species concepts can change over time requiring herbarium records to be re-examined and databases updated, which does not always occur synchronously across all collections. Therefore, non-critical use of these data can promote inaccuracies in understanding species distributions. Taxonomic revisions are common in understudied organisms, such as lichens. Here, we illustrate how changing taxonomy and non-critical acceptance of online data affects our understanding of disjunct distributions, using the lichen Brodoa oroarctica (Krog) Goward as an example. Defining the distribution of the arctic lichen B. oroarctica is confounded by changing taxonomy and uncertainty of herbarium records that pre-date taxonomic revisions. We review the distribution of this species in the literature and in aggregate occurrence databases, and verify herbarium specimens that represent disjunct occurrences in eastern North America to present an updated account of its distribution and frequency in eastern North America. We show that knowledge of changing species taxonomy is essential to depicting accurate species distributions. aggregated datasets, occurrence data, Arctic–alpine affinity, collections-based research, GBIF, CLH
36367Bjerke J.W., Gwynn-Jones D. & Callaghan T.V. (2005): Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation in the field on the concentration of phenolics and chlorophyll fluorescence in two boreal and arctic–alpine lichens. - Environmental and Experimental Botany, 53(2): 139-149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2004.03.009.
Lichens constitute a prominent part of the vegetation at high latitudes and altitudes, but the effects of UV-B radiation on these symbiotic organisms are not well known. In a northern boreal site (Abisko, northern Sweden), the usnic acid-producing lichens Flavocetraria nivalis and Nephroma arcticum were exposed to enhanced UV-B radiation, corresponding to 25% ozone depletion, for two and one growing seasons, respectively. They were compared with lichens grown under ambient UV-B and harvested fresh from the field. The treated thalli of F. nivalis had been transplanted from a site 24km from the treatment site. From this source locality, untreated thalli were also harvested. Enhanced UV-B did not affect concentrations of usnic acid and the two depsides phenarctin and nephroarctin. A gradual decline of usnic acid, probably coupled to unusually long periods of dry, sunny weather, was observed both under enhanced and ambient UV-B and in untreated thalli. Photosystem II efficiency in both species was slightly reduced by enhanced UV-B. However, differences between seasons were larger than differences between treatments, which indicate that UV-B effects are minor in comparison to other climatic variables. Concentrations of UV-B-absorbing phenolics in lichens do not show a simple relationship to UV-B dose and therefore cannot be used as bioindicators of UV-B levels. Ultraviolet-B; Lichen; UV-absorbing substances; Usnic acid; Depsides; Photosystem II efficiency; Seasonal trends
36366Pérez-Ortega S., Verdú M., Garrido-Benavent I., Rabasa S., Green T.G.A., Sancho L.G. & de los Ríos A. (2023): Invariant properties of mycobiont-photobiont networks in Antarctic lichens. - Global Ecology and Biogeography, 32: 2033–2046. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.13744.
Aim: Lichens are often regarded as paradigms of mutualistic relationships. However, it is still poorly known how lichen-forming fungi and their photosynthetic partners interact at a community scale. We explored the structure of fungus-alga networks of interactions in lichen communities along a latitudinal transect in continental Antarctica. We expect these interactions to be highly specialized and, consequently, networks with low nestedness degree and high modularity. Location: Transantarctic Mountains from 76° S to 85° S (continental Antarctica). Time Period: Present. Major Taxa Studied: Seventy-seven species of lichen-forming fungi and their photobionts. Methods: DNA barcoding of photobionts using nrITS data was conducted in 756 lichen specimens from five regions along the Transantarctic Mountains. We built interaction networks for each of the five studied regions and a metaweb for the whole area. We explored the specialization of both partners using the number of partners a species interacts with and the specialization parameter d'. Network architecture parameters such as nestedness, modularity and network specialization parameter H2' were studied in all networks and contrasted through null models. Finally, we measured interaction turnover along the latitudinal transect. Results: We recovered a total of 842 interactions. Differences in specialization between partners were not statistically significant. Fungus-alga interaction networks showed high specialization and modularity, as well as low connectance and nestedness. Despite the large turnover in interactions occurring among regions, network parameters were not correlated with latitude. Main Conclusions: The interaction networks established between fungi and algae in saxicolous lichen communities in continental Antarctica showed invariant properties along the latitudinal transect. Rewiring is an important driver of interaction turnover along the transect studied. Future work should answer whether the patterns observed in our study are prevalent in other regions with milder climates and in lichen communities on different substrates.
36365Berlinches de Gea A., Verdú M., Villar-dePablo M. & Pérez-Ortega S. (2024): The combined effects of habitat fragmentation and life history traits on specialisation in lichen symbioses. - Journal of Ecology, 112: 200–216. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.14229.
Interactions between organisms are determined by life-history traits. Ecological strategies regarding species specialisation range from generalist to highly specialised relationships. Although it is expected that habitat fragmentation's effect on species abundance and survival depends on their degree of specialisation and life-history traits, few studies have delved into the interplay between interaction specialisation, life-history traits and habitat fragmentation.Here, we investigate the combined effect of habitat fragmentation, forest structure and life-history traits (growth form and reproductive mode) on the specialisation of lichen-forming fungi (mycobionts) toward their photosynthetic partners (photobionts) in lichen symbioses.We studied mycobiont specialisation in epiphytic lichen communities present in 10 fragments of Quercus rotundifolia forest embedded in an agricultural matrix. Both mycobionts and photobionts were identified DNA barcoding and mycobiont specialisation was measured through interaction parameters calculating the relative number of interactions (normalised degree; ND) and the specialisation of each species based on its discrimination from a random selection of partners (d'). Phylogenetic generalised linear mixed models were used to analyse the effect of patch size as well as the life history traits growth form (crustose, foliose, fruticose) and reproduction mode (sexual vs. asexual) on mycobiont specialisation.Both mycobiont and photobiont richness along the patch size gradient followed a hump-back pattern, which was more pronounced in photobionts. Mycobionts forming crustose thalli established the largest number of interactions. Mycobiont specialisation (d') was larger for fruticose and foliose forms and species with vegetative reproduction. Along the gradient of fragment size, the relative number of interactions decreased and the specialisation of mycobionts with vegetative reproduction increased.Synthesis. The study of mycobiont specialisation towards their photobionts in epiphytic lichen communities in a fragmented Mediterranean forest revealed a complex interaction between species' life history traits and habitat fragmentation. In particular, this interplay had a significant impact on the specialisation of mycobionts. The results show the ability of some species to modulate their specialisation according to habitat conditions, suggesting that some species may be more resilient to abiotic changes than expected.
36364Nikolić N., Zotz G. & Bader M.Y. (2024): Modelling the carbon balance in bryophytes and lichens: Presentation of PoiCarb 1.0, a new model for explaining distribution patterns and predicting climate‐change effects. - American Journal of Botany, 111: e16266 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajb2.16266.
Premise: Bryophytes and lichens have important functional roles in many ecosystems. Insight into their CO2‐exchange responses to climatic conditions is essential for understanding current and predicting future productivity and biomass patterns, but responses are hard to quantify at time scales beyond instantaneous measurements. We present PoiCarb 1.0, a model to study how CO2‐exchange rates of these poikilohydric organisms change through time as a function of weather conditions. Methods: PoiCarb simulates diel fluctuations of CO2 exchange and estimates long‐term carbon balances, identifying optimal and limiting climatic patterns. Modelled processes were net photosynthesis, dark respiration, evaporation and water uptake. Measured CO2‐ exchange responses to light, temperature, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and thallus water content (calculated in a separate module) were used to parameterize the model's carbon module. We validated the model by comparing modelled diel courses of net CO2 exchange to such courses from field measurements on the tropical lichen Crocodia aurata. To demonstrate the model's usefulness, we simulated potential climate‐change effects. Results: Diel patterns were reproduced well, and the modelled and observed diel carbon balances were strongly positively correlated. Simulated warming effects via changes in metabolic rates were consistently negative, while effects via faster drying were variable, depending on the timing of hydration. Conclusions: Reproducing weather‐dependent variation in diel carbon balances is a clear improvement compared to simply extrapolating short‐term measurements or potential photosynthetic rates. Apart from predicting climate‐change effects, future uses of PoiCarb include testing hypotheses about distribution patterns of poikilohydric organisms and guiding conservation strategies for species. Keywords: bryophytes, carbon balance, climate change, CO2 exchange, Crocodia.
36363Fetzer J., Moiseev P., Frossard E., Kaiser K., Mayer M., Gavazov K. & Hagedorn F. (2024): Plant–soil interactions alter nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in an advancing subarctic treeline . - Global Change Biology, 30: e17200 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.17200.
Treelines advance due to climate warming. The impacts of this vegetation shift on plant–soil nutrient cycling are still uncertain, yet highly relevant as nutrient availability stimulates tree growth. Here, we investigated nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in plant and soil pools along two tundra–forest transects on Kola Peninsula, Russia, with a documented elevation shift of birch-dominated treeline by 70 m during the last 50 years. Results show that although total N and P stocks in the soil–plant system did not change with elevation, their distribution was significantly altered. With the transition from high-elevation tundra to low-elevation forest, P stocks in stones decreased, possibly reflecting enhanced weathering. In contrast, N and P stocks in plant biomass approximately tripled and available P and N in the soil increased fivefold toward the forest. This was paralleled by decreasing carbon (C)-to-nutrient ratios in foliage and litter, smaller C:N:P ratios in microbial biomass, and lower enzymatic activities related to N and P acquisition in forest soils. An incubation experiment further demonstrated manifold higher N and P net mineralization rates in litter and soil in forest compared to tundra, likely due to smaller C:N:P ratios in decomposing organic matter. Overall, our results show that forest expansion increases the mobilization of available nutrients through enhanced weathering and positive plant–soil feedback, with nutrient-rich forest litter releasing greater amounts of N and P upon decomposition. While the low N and P availability in tundra may retard treeline advances, its improvement toward the forest likely promotes tree growth and forest development. Keywords: biogeochemistry, climate change, elevation gradient, extracellular enzymatic activity, forest, microbial biomass, nutrient cycling, stoichiometry, tundra.
36362Rautiainen M., Kuusinen N. & Majasalmi T. (2024): Remote sensing and spectroscopy of lichens. - Ecology and Evolution, 14: e11110 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.11110.
Lichens are combinations of two symbiotic organisms, a green alga or cyanobacterium and a fungus. They grow in nearly all terrestrial ecosystems and survive in habitats, which are very dry or cold, or too poor in nutrients to maintain vegetation growth. Because lichens grow on visible surfaces and exhibit spectral properties, which are clearly different from, for example, vegetation, it is possible to distinguish them in remote sensing data. In this first systematic review article on remote sensing of lichens, we analyze and summarize which lichen species or genera, and in which habitats and geographical regions, have been remotely sensed, and which remote sensing or spectroscopic technologies have been used. We found that laboratory or in situ measured spectra of over 70 lichen species have been reported to date. We show that studies on remote sensing of lichens fall under seven broad themes: (1) collection of lichen spectra for quantification of lichen species or characteristics, (2) pollution monitoring with lichens as ecological indicators, (3) geological and lithological mapping, (4) desert and dryland monitoring, (5) animal habitat monitoring, (6) land cover or vegetation mapping, and (7) surface energy budget modeling. Keywords: airborne, biocrust, cryptogam, lichen, reflectance, satellite image, spectra, UAV.
36361Meysurova A.F., Notov A.A., Pungin A.V. & Skrypnik L.N. (2024): Application of optical spectroscopy for the analysis of physiological characteristics and elemental composition of lichens of the genus Hypogymnia with different degrees of anthropotolerance. - Journal of Applied Spectroscopy, 91(1): 64–75. DOI 10.1007/s10812-024-01691-2.
[Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi Spektroskopii, Vol. 91, No. 1, pp. 74–86] The main physiological and biochemical characteristics and elemental composition of three lichen species of the genus Hypogymnia (Nyl.) Nyl. in one habitat were studied using spectroscopic methods. The model species were placed in the following order of decreasing degree of anthropotolerance: H. physodes (L.) Nyl. → H. tubulosa (Schaer.) Hav. → H. vittata (Ach.) Parrique. The contents of chlorophylls a and b, phenolic compounds, pheophytinization quotient, and antiradical activity were determined by a spectrophotometric method. The antioxidant activity was determined by an amperometric method. The physiological and biochemical parameters for each of the three species corresponded to those for background ecotopes. These parameters and the integrity of the system of correlations between the parameters were lower in species with a low degree of anthropotolerance. Twenty-three elements were found in thalli of the model species using atomic emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma. They included macro- and microelements, heavy metals, and metalloids. The maximum concentrations of most elements were found in H. vittata; the minimum concentrations, in H. physodes. An analysis of the interaction between the physiological and biochemical characteristics and the contents of the elements indicated the presence of a complex system of correlations in each species. Differences in this system of correlations may have been due to the specific composition of secondary metabolites, which determine the features of adaptive reactions. The use of various optical spectroscopy methods enabled an evaluation of not only the functional specificity of the studied species but also its connection to their anthropotolerance level. Low resistance to anthropogenic influences was combined with lower coordination of physiological and biochemical characteristics and low integrity of the system of correlations. The most vulnerable species H. vittata had the minimal values of the main functional parameters, a poorer correlation of them with the elemental composition, and higher concentrations of some toxic elements. The use of a complex analysis of the physiological and biochemical characteristics and elemental compositions using various spectral methods was crucial for the bioindication and ecological physiology of lichens. Keywords: optical method, spectroscopic method, atomic emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma, biomonitoring, elemental analysis, heavy metal, metalloid, Hypogymnia physodes, Hypogymnia tubulosa, Hypogymnia vittata, epiphytic lichen, indicator species, chlorophyll, phenolic compound, pheophytinization quotient, antioxidant activity, antiradical activity.
36360 He Z., Naganuma T., Nakai R., Uetake J. & Hahn M.W. (2024): Microbiomic analysis of bacteria associated with rock tripe lichens from alpine areas in eastern Alps and equatorial Africa. - Current Microbiology, 81: 115 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-024-03626-8.
The diversity of bacteria associated with alpine lichens was profiled. Lichen samples belonging to the Umbilicariaceae family, commonly known as rock tripe lichens, were gathered from two distinct alpine fellfelds: one situated on Mt. Brennkogel located in the Eastern European Alps (Austria), and the other on Mt. Stanley located in the Rwenzori mountains of equatorial Africa (Uganda). The primary aim of this research was to undertake a comparative investigation into the bacterial compositions, and diversities, identifying potential indicators and exploring their potential metabolisms, of these lichen samples. Bulk genomic DNA was extracted from the lichen samples, which was used to amplify the 18S rRNA gene by Sanger sequencing and the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene by Illumina Miseq sequencing. Examination of the fungal partner was carried out through the analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences, belonging to the genus Umbilicaria (Ascomycota), and the algal partner affiliated with the lineage Trebouxia (Chlorophyta), constituted the symbiotic components. Analyzing the MiSeq datasets by using bioinformatics methods, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were established based on a predetermined similarity threshold for the V3-V4 sequences, which were assigned to a total of 26 bacterial phyla that were found in both areas. Eight of the 26 phyla, i.e. Acidobacteriota, Actinomycota, Armatimonadota, Bacteroidota, Chlorofexota, Deinococcota, Planctomycetota, and Pseudomonadota, were consistently present in all samples, each accounting for more than 1% of the total read count. Distinct differences in bacterial composition emerged between lichen samples from Austria and Uganda, with the OTU frequency-based regional indicator phyla, Pseudomonadota and Armatimonadota, respectively. Despite the considerable geographic separation of approximately 5430 km between the two regions, the prediction of potential metabolic pathways based on OTU analysis revealed similar relative abundances. This similarity is possibly influenced by comparable alpine climatic conditions prevailing in both areas.
36359 Motiejūnaitė J. (2024): Lithuanian lichens and lichenicolous fungi in the herbaria of the University of Tartu (Estonia) and the University of Latvia. - Botanica, 30(1): 23–30. https://doi.org/10.35513/Botlit.2024.1.3.
Herbarium collections are particularly significant in countries where systematic studies of specific taxonomic groups have not been carried out, such as in the case of lichens in Lithuania. Collections prior to the 1990s are scarce, so all historical material is of great value. This paper presents the results of a study of lichen collections in the herbaria of the University of Tartu (TU) and the University of Latvia (RIG). A total of 425 herbarium envelopes (84 RIG and 341 TU) were examined. A total of 170 species were identified, including 157 lichen species, 12 lichenicolous and one non-lichenized saprobic fungi species. Nine lichen species were identified from envelopes that did not indicate the exact location except for the country (Lithuania). Two lichenicolous fungi, Endococcus nanellus and Stigmidium lecidellae, are new records for the country. Keywords: historical collections, lichenized Ascomycota, lichenicolous Ascomycota, lichenicolous Basidiomycota.
36358Синичкин Е.А. & Димитриев А.В. [Sinichkin E.A. & Dimitriev A.V.] (2019): Эколого-субстратная характеристика лихенофлоры государственного природного заказника «Заволжский» (Чувашская Республика) [Ecological and substrate characteristics of lichenoflora of the State Nature Reserve «Zavolzhsky» (Chuvash Republic)]. - Самарский научный вестник [Samara Scientific Bulletin], 8(4): 82–89. DOI 10.24411/2309-4370-2019-14115.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The paper provides an ecological and substrate analysis of lichens of the State Nature Reserve «Zavolzhsky» (Chuvash Republic). In the specified reserve 134 species of lichens were found. The ecological and substrate analysis showed that lichens were found on 20 substrates: on the bark of Populus tremula, Tilia cordata, Quercus robur, Acer platanoides, Betula pubescens, Padus avium, Sorbus aucuparia, Frangula alnus, Salix cinerea, S. pentandra, Alnus glutinosa, on the bark and branches of Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Abies sibirica, Betula pendula, on soil, on a dead organic substrate, on an anthropogenic substrate (on slate, concrete, wheel rubber). 6 main and 4 intermediate ecological groups of lichens were revealed: 1) epiphytic, growing on the bark of trees and shrubs; 2) epixylic, living on decaying wood; 3) epigeidic (ground lichens); 4) epibriophytic, living on mosses; 5) epiphytic-epixylic, growing on the bark of trees and a dead organic substrate; 6) epixylic-epigeidic, living on a dead organic substrate and soil; 7) lichens growing on the bark of trees and anthropogenic substrate; 8) epiphytic-epigeidic, growing on tree bark and soil surface 9) multisubstrate lichens that live on different substrates; 10) lichens of anthropogenic substrate. The largest number of lichens (61,2%) belong to epiphytic, 16,5% – to epiphytic-epixylic, 5,2% – to epixylic-epigeidic, 4,5% – to epigeidic, 3,7% – to epixylic, 2,3% – to epibriophytic, 0,7% – to multisubstrate lichens, 0,7% – to epiphytic-epigeidic. 3 species of lichens were found (2,3%) on the anthropogenic substrate. Epiphytic lichens were found on 15 forophytes. The largest number of taxa (40 species) were found on Pinus sylvestris’s bark, 35 species – on Populus tremula’s bark, 33 species – on Betula pendula’s bark. 56 species of lichens were found on only one forophyte. The analysis of the confinement to phorophyte showed that the highest level of similarity in the species composition of lichens was found between Padus avium and Frangula alnus – 50%, Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies – 49%, Populus tremula and Sorbus aucuparia – 44%, Tilia cordata and Acer platanoides – 41%, Salix cinerea and S. pentandra – 37%. Keywords: lichen; state nature reserve «Zavolzhsky»; specially protected natural area; ecological and substrate analysis; ecological groups; substrate confinement; phorophytes; lichen similarity level; Chuvash Zavolzhye; Chuvash Republic.
36357Arcadia L. in, Ahti T., Benesperi R., de Paz G.A., Divakar P.K. & Hawksworth D.L. (2024): (3013) Proposal to conserve the name Lichen pullus Schreb. (Parmelia pulla, Xanthoparmelia pulla) against L. pullus Neck. (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) with a conserved type. - Taxon, 73(2): 633–634. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.13153.
The well-established name Xanthoparmelia pulla (Schreb.) O. Blanco & al. (or sometimes Neofuscelia pulla (Schreb.) Essl.) has been used to refer to a common, brown, foliose saxicolous lichen. The basionym had, however, long been considered to be Parmelia pulla Ach. (Syn. Meth. Lich.: 206. 1814), and so the type had been assumed to be an Acharian collection. A specimen of Parmelia pulla in H-ACH 1420D (= H9502152) conforming to current usage was therefore designated as lectotype by Esslinger & Ahti (in Revista Fac. Ci. Univ. Lisboa, ser. 2, C, Ci. Nat. 17: 728 & fig. 1. [“1973”] 1975). However, one of us (L.A.) pointed out that this was incorrect, as Acharius’s species name was intended as a new combination based on Lichen pullus Schreb. (Spic. Fl. Lips.: 131. 1771) as that name was listed as a synonym. It is therefore necessary to address the status and typification of the intended basionym to fix the application of Acharius’s name.
36356Lackovičová A., Fačkovcová Z. & Paoli L. (2022): [Životné jubileá:] Mgr. Anna Bérešová (rod. Guttová), PhD. – 50 rokov činorodého života. - Bulletin Slovenskej botanickej spoločnosti, 44: 121–136. .
Anniversary; Biography; Bibliography.
36355Paulsen J., Allen J.L., Morris N., Dorey J., Walke J.B. & Alter S.E. (2024): Geography, climate, and habitat shape the microbiome of the endangered Rock Gnome Lichen (Cetradonia linearis). - Diversity, 16(3): 178 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d16030178.
Bacterial symbionts are essential components of healthy biological systems. They are increasingly recognized as important factors in the study and management of threatened species and ecosystems. Despite management shifts at the ecosystem level, microbial communities are often neglected in discussions of holobiont conservation in favor of the primary members of a symbiosis. In this study, we addressed the bacterial community knowledge gap for one of two federally endangered lichen species in the United States, Cetradonia linearis (Cladoniaceae). We collected 28 samples of the endangered rock gnome lichen (Cetradonia linearis) from 13 sites and characterized bacterial communities in thalli using 16S rRNA metabarcoding to investigate the factors influencing the microbiome composition and diversity within the thallus. We found that Proteobacteria (37.8% ± 10.3) and Acidobacteria (25.9% ± 6.0) were the most abundant phyla recovered. Cyanobacteria were a major component of the microbiome in some individuals, despite this species associating with a green algal symbiont. Habitat, climate, and geography were all found to have significant influences on bacterial community composition. An analysis of the core microbiome at a 90% threshold revealed shared amplicon sequence variants in the microbiomes of other lichens in the family Cladoniaceae. We concluded that the bacterial microbiome of Cetradonia linearis is influenced by environmental factors and that some bacterial taxa may be core to this group. Further exploration into the microbiomes of rare lichen species is needed to understand the importance of bacterial symbionts to lichen diversity and distributions. Keywords: Appalachian Mountains; conservation genetics; endemic species; rare species.
36354Svensson M., Ekman S., Arup U., Eide Ekman L., Hammarström O., Isaksson R., Jonsson F., Palice Z., Vicente R. & Westberg M. (2024): Further additions to the Swedish flora of lichenised fungi. - Graphis Scripta, 36(2): 15–49. .
We report 22 lichenised fungi as new to Sweden, of which nine are also new to Fennoscandia and one new to Europe. The newly reported species are Agonimia flabelliformis, Carneothele sphagnicola, Lecania madida, Lecanora horiza, L. subravida, L. subsaligna, Lecidea subhumida, L. toensbergii, Micarea coppinsii, M. isidioprasina, M. microsorediata, M. pseudotsugae, M. substipitata, Miriquidica majae, Protoblastenia calvella, P. szaferi, Ptychographa xylographoides, Ramboldia subcinnabarina, Verrucaria hydrophila, V. prominula, and V. rosula. We revised Swedish specimens of Normandina acroglypta and found that all but one belong to N. chlorococca, which is reported as new to Sweden. We also publish new records of the anamorphic, possibly lichenised fungus Sphaeronaema truncatum, a long-forgotten taxon originally described from Sweden 200 years ago.
36353Francesconi L., Conti M., Gheza G., Martellos S., Nimis P.L., Vallese C. & Nascimbene J. (2024): The Dolichens database: the lichen biota of the Dolomites. - MycoKeys, 103: 25–35. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.103.115462.
The Dolichens project provides the first dynamic inventory of the lichens of the Dolo- mites (Eastern Alps, Italy). Occurrence records were retrieved from published and grey literature, reviewed herbaria, unpublished records collected by the authors, and new sampling campaigns, covering a period from 1820 to 2022. Currently, the dataset con- tains 56,251 records, referring to 1,719 infrageneric taxa, reported from 1820 to 2022, from hilly to nival belts, and corresponding to about half of the species known for the whole Alpine chain. Amongst them, 98% are georeferenced, although most of them were georeferenced a posteriori. The dataset is available through the Global Biodiversity In- formation Facility (GBIF; https://www.gbif.org/es/dataset/cea3ee2c-1ff1-4f8e-bb37- a99600cb4134) and through the Dolichens website (https://italic.units.it/dolichens/). We expect that this open floristic inventory will contribute to tracking the lichen diversity of the Dolomites over the past 200 years, and providing the basis for future taxonomic, biogeographical, and ecological studies. Key words: Georeferencing, herbarium specimens, historical records, lichen diversity, occurrence, open inventory.
36352Conti M., Martellos S., Moro A., Nimis P.L. & Puntillo D. (2024): The dataset of the CLU lichen herbarium (Calabria, Italy). - Biodiversity Data Journal, 12: e116965 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.12.e116965.
Background: Calabria, the southernmost tip of the Italian Peninsula, is a biogeographically very interesting region for lichenologists, characterised by the abundance of oceanic and suboceanic species with subtropical affinities, but also by the presence of the southernmost outposts of several boreal species on the highest peaks. The lichen biota of Calabria, which began to be intensively studied only from the 1980s, hosts more than 1000 infrageneric taxa. The lichen herbarium of the Botanical Garden of the University of Calabria (CLU) is the most relevant lichen collection from this region. It was established in 1985 and it presently includes 16926 specimens, most of which were collected in Calabria, although there are also several specimens from other parts of Italy and from abroad. New information: This dataset contains 16926 records of lichens for a total of 1316 species. Of the 15219 georeferenced specimens, 10254 were collected in Calabria, while 4965 in other administrative regions of Italy. The dataset is available through GBIF, as well as in ITALIC, the Information System of Italian Lichens. Keywords: occurrence, Calabria, Italy, lichenised fungi, specimen.
36351Iacovelli R., He T., Allen J.L., Hackl T. & Haslinger K. (2024): Genome sequencing and molecular networking analysis of the wild fungus Anthostomella pinea reveal its ability to produce a diverse range of secondary metabolites. - Fungal Biology and Biotechnology, 11: 1 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40694-023-00170-1.
Background: Filamentous fungi are prolific producers of bioactive molecules and enzymes with important applications in industry. Yet, the vast majority of fungal species remain undiscovered or uncharacterized. Here we focus our attention to a wild fungal isolate that we identified as Anthostomella pinea. The fungus belongs to a complex polyphyletic genus in the family of Xylariaceae, which is known to comprise endophytic and pathogenic fungi that produce a plethora of interesting secondary metabolites. Despite that, Anthostomella is largely understudied and only two species have been fully sequenced and characterized at a genomic level. Results: In this work, we used long-read sequencing to obtain the complete 53.7 Mb genome sequence including the full mitochondrial DNA. We performed extensive structural and functional annotation of coding sequences, including genes encoding enzymes with potential applications in biotechnology. Among others, we found that the genome of A. pinea encodes 91 biosynthetic gene clusters, more than 600 CAZymes, and 164 P450s. Furthermore, untargeted metabolomics and molecular networking analysis of the cultivation extracts revealed a rich secondary metabolism, and in particular an abundance of sesquiterpenoids and sesquiterpene lactones. We also identified the polyketide antibiotic xanthoepocin, to which we attribute the anti–Gram-positive effect of the extracts that we observed in antibacterial plate assays. Conclusions: Taken together, our results provide a first glimpse into the potential of Anthostomella pinea to provide new bioactive molecules and biocatalysts and will facilitate future research into these valuable metabolites. Keywords: Fungal genomics, Natural products, Sesquiterpenes, Molecular networking, Antibiotics, Lichen.
36350Hernández J.M., de la Fournière E.M., Ramos C.P., Debray M.E., Plá R.R., Jasan R.C., Invernizzi R., Rodríguez Brizuela L.G. & Cañas M.S. (2024): Contribution of Mine‑Derived Airborne Particulate Matter to Ca, Fe, Mn and S Content and Distribution in the Lichen Punctelia hypoleucites Transplanted to Bajo de la Alumbrera Mine, Catamarca (Argentina). - Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 86: 140–151. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-024-01053-1.
The aim of this work was to relate the contribution of mine-derived airborne particulate matter to Ca, Fe, Mn and S content and distribution in Punctelia hypoleucites transplanted to Bajo de la Alumbrera, an important open-pit mine in Catamarca, Argentina. Lichen samples were transplanted to four monitoring sites: two sites inside the mine perimeter and two sites outside the mine. After three months, elemental distribution in samples was analyzed by microparticle-induced X-ray emission (microPIXE), and elemental concentration was determined by specifc techniques: Ca and Fe by instrumental neutron activation analysis, Mn by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and S by a turbidimetric method. A diferential distribution of S and Ca in thalli transplanted in-mine sites was detected compared to that of samples transplanted outside-mine sites. An overlap of Fe and S in the upper cortex of the apothecium section was observed, leading to infer a mineral association of both elements. Similar association was observed for Ca and S. In addition to these results, the signifcantly higher concentration detected for S and Mn in in-mine site samples suggests a contribution of Fe, S, Ca and Mn of mining origin to the content and distribution of these elements in P. hypoleucites. MicroPIXE complemented with Mössbauer spectroscopy analysis determined the presence of pyrite particles together with other iron-bearing minerals displaying diferent degrees of oxidation. These results point to a mining origin of the airborne particulate matter trapped by the lichen thalli transplanted to Bajo de la Alumbrera. These fndings indicate that P. Hypoleucites acts as an excellent air quality biomonitor in the Bajo de la Alumbrera mine area.
36349Asghar H.S., Nadeem M., Oryakhil N., Fayyaz I., Niazi A.R., Afshan N.-S., Naseer A. & Khalid A.N. (2024): Two new species of Lecaimmeria (lichenized Ascomycota, Lecideaceae) from Asia. - Mycological Progress, 23: 13 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-024-01954-4.
Two new species of the lichen genus Lecaimmeria are described and illustrated from Pakistan, namely, Lecaimmeria asiatica and L. crispula. The former taxon is characterized by pale brown to dark brown thallus, up to 2-mm large areoles, fat to strongly convex apothecial disc, taller hymenium 120–150 µm, apically branched, not anastomosing paraphyses, large conidia 5–7×1.1–1.4 µm, with respect to ecology, and the absence of secondary metabolites, whereas L. crispula can be characterized by having a light brown to chocolate brown thallus, apothecia having fat to slightly concave discs with wavy margins that curl inward, a tall hymenium150–180 μm, branched and anastomosing paraphyses, large ascospores 25–33×12–17 μm, and absence of secondary metabolites. A phylogenetic analysis is provided based on nrITS and nrLSU sequences that support the separation of both novel species. Comparative analyses with related species of Lecaimmeria are provided to confrm the status of these species. Keywords: Khyber Pakhtunkhwa · Phylogeny · Taxonomy · Lecideaceae · Lichens · Sharan.
36348Cho M., Lee S.J., Choi E., Kim J., Choi S., Lee J.H. & Park H. (2024): An Antarctic lichen isolate (Cladonia borealis) genome reveals potential adaptation to extreme environments. - Scientific Reports, 14: 1342 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-024-51895-x.
Cladonia borealis is a lichen that inhabits Antarctica’s harsh environment. We sequenced the whole genome of a C. borealis culture isolated from a specimen collected in Antarctica using long-read sequencing technology to identify specific genetic elements related to its potential environmental adaptation. The final genome assembly produced 48 scafolds, the longest being 2.2 Mbp, a 1.6 Mbp N50 contig length, and a 36 Mbp total length. A total of 10,749 protein-coding genes were annotated, containing 33 biosynthetic gene clusters and 102 carbohydrate-active enzymes. A comparative genomics analysis was conducted on six Cladonia species, and the genome of C. borealis exhibited 45 expanded and 50 contracted gene families. We identified that C. borealis has more Copia transposable elements and expanded transporters (ABC transporters and magnesium transporters) compared to other Cladonia species. Our results suggest that these differences contribute to C. borealis’ remarkable adaptability in the Antarctic environment. This study also provides a useful resource for the genomic analysis of lichens and genetic insights into the survival of species isolated from Antarctica.
36347Bakacsy L. & Szepesi Á. (2024): A case study on the early stage of Pinus nigra invasion and its impact on species composition and pattern in Pannonic sand grassland. - Scientific Reports, 14: 5125 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-024-55811-1.
Alien woody species are successful invaders, frequently used for aforestation in regions like semi-arid lands. Shrubs and trees create important microhabitats in arid areas. Understorey vegetation in these habitats has unique species composition and coexistence. However, the impact of solitary woody species on understorey vegetation is less understood. This study evaluated the effect of native (Juniperus communis) and invasive solitary conifers (Pinus nigra) on surrounding vegetation, where individuals were relatively isolated (referred to as solitary conifers). The field study conducted in Pannonic dry sand grassland in 2018 recorded plant and lichen species presence around six selected solitary conifers. Composition and pattern of understorey vegetation were assessed using 26 m belt transects with 520 units of 5 cm× 5 cm contiguous microquadrats. Compositional diversity (CD) and the number of realized species combinations (NRC) were calculated from the circular transects. Results showed native conifer J. communis created more complex, organized microhabitats compared to alien P. nigra. CD and NRC values were significantly higher under native conifers than invasive ones (p = 0.045 and p = 0.026, respectively). Native species also had more species with a homogeneous pattern than the alien species. Alien conifers negatively afected understorey vegetation composition and pattern: some species exhibited significant gaps and clusters of occurrences along the transects under P. nigra. Based on our study, the removal of invasive woody species is necessary to sustain habitat diversity.
36346Wierzcholska S., Łubek A., Dyderski M.K., Horodecki P., Rawlik M. & Jagodziński A.M. (2024): Light availability and phorophyte identity drive epiphyte species richness and composition in mountain temperate forests. - Ecological Informatics, 80: 102475 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2024.102475.
Bryophytes and lichens are the most species-rich groups of epiphytes in temperate forests. They colonise different tree species that create a wide variety of microhabitats, and conditions in these microhabitats are modulated by different factors. We assessed drivers that create and maintain epiphyte species richness and diversity of bryophytes and lichens along tree species composition gradients. We hypothesised that tree species composition influences the diversity of lichens and bryophytes. The study was conducted on 31 plots along the Kudowski Potok River (SW Poland). Each plot was a 500 m2 circle (r = 12.62 m), along the banks of the stream. These sites are among the best-preserved remnants of a mountain landscape with a high diversity of forest types, representing a transition from the planted Picea abies secondary communities to broadleaved forests (potential natural vegetation). We analysed the tree species composition gradient using PCA, and we measured diffuse light availability. We assessed differences in epiphyte species richness among tree species using generalized linear mixed-effects models and species composition gradients of epiphytes using redundancy analysis. We found that tree species composition and light availability affected the composition of both bryophyte and lichen species. Moreover, lichen and bryophyte species richness were positively correlated. Broadleaved trees such as Acer pseudoplatanus and Fraxinus excelsior clearly increase the number of epiphytic bryophytes and lichen species in spruce stands. Deciduous trees left in management forests serve as a reservoir for epiphytic bryophytes and lichens. Our results indicate the importance of refuges composed of diverse deciduous trees that increase the biodiversity in commercial forests.
36345Schmidt M., Kriebitzsch W.-U. & Ewald J. (2011): Waldartenlisten der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen, Moose und Flechten Deutschlands – Einführung und methodische Grundlagen. - In: Schmidt M., Kriebitzsch W.-U. & Ewald J. (eds), Waldartenlisten der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen, Moose und Flechten Deutschlands. BfN-Skripten, 299: 1–13. .
36344Schmidt M., Culmsee H., Boch S., Heinken T., Müller J. & Schmiedel I. (2011): Anwendungsmöglichkeiten von Waldartenlisten für Gefäßpflanzen, Moose und Flechten. - In: Schmidt M., Kriebitzsch W.-U. & Ewald J. (eds), Waldartenlisten der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen, Moose und Flechten Deutschlands. BfN-Skripten, 299: 25–45. .
36343Schmidt M., Kriebitzsch W.-U. & Ewald J. (2012): Anwendungsperspektiven für Waldartenlisten der Gefäßpflanzen, Moose und Flechten Deutschlands. - Forstarchiv, 83: 155–159. DOI 10.4432/0300-4112-83-155.
Key words: lists of forest plant species, assessment, conservation, forest affinity, vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens.
36342Bültmann H., Scholz P., Teuber D., Feuerer T., Fischer P., Boch S., Bradtka J.H., Cezanne R., Dolnik C., Drehwald U., Eichler M., Ewald J., Heinken T., Hobohm C., Jansen F., Kriebitzsch W.-U., Loos G.H., Otte V, Paul A., Printzen C., Schmidt M., Sparrius L. & Waesch G. (2011): Waldartenliste der Flechten Deutschlands. - In: Schmidt M., Kriebitzsch W.-U. & Ewald J. (eds), Waldartenlisten der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen, Moose und Flechten Deutschlands. BfN-Skripten, 299: 89–107. .
Die nachfolgende Waldartenliste der Flechten Deutschlands umfasst 1.002 Taxa und damit 51 % der bundesweit nach WIRTH et al. (2010) vorkommenden Flechtensippen. Die Benennung richtet sich grundsätzlich nach SCHOLZ (2000), mit Ausnahme folgender Taxa, bei denen die Nomenklatur WIRTH et al. (2010) folgt: Agonimia opuntiella (Buschardt & Poelt) Vĕzda, Arthopyrenia carneobrunneola Coppins, Bacidia carneoglauca (Nyl.) A. L. Smith, Bacidina brandii (Coppins & van den Boom) M. Hauck & V. Wirth, Biatora ligni-mollis T. Sprib. & Printzen, Bryoria furcellata (Fr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw., Bryoria simplicior (Vain.) Brodo & D. Hawksw., Fellhanera ochracea Sparrius & Aptroot, Gyalidea diaphana (Körber ex Nyl.) Vĕzda, Heterodermia japonica (M. Satô) Swinscow & Krog, Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta (Krog & Swinscow) Krog & Swinscow, Lecania croatica (Zahlbr.) Kotlov, Lecanora filamentosa (Stirt.) Elix & Palice, Lecanora ramulicola (H. Magn.) Printzen & P. F. May, Lecanora thysanophora R. C. Harris, Lecidea grisella Flörke, Lepraria bergensis Tønsberg, Lepraria crassissima (Hue) Lettau, Lepraria obtusata Tønsberg, Menegazzia subsimilis (H. Magn.) R. Sant., Micarea micrococca (Körb.) Gams ex Coppins, Micarea viridileprosa Coppins & van den Boom, Myochroidea porphyrospoda (Anzi) Printzen, T. Sprib. & Tønsberg, Parmelia ernstiae Feuerer & A. Thell, Parmelia serrana A. Crespo, M. C. Molina & D. Hawksw., Peltigera monticola Vitik., Ramonia interjecta Coppins, Thelenella pertusariella (Nyl.) Vain., Thelocarpon saxicola (Zahlbr.) H. Magn., Trapeliopsis glaucolepidea (Nyl.) Gotth. Schneid., Usnea silesiaca Motyka, Vezdaea stipitata Poelt & Döbbeler, Xanthoparmelia protomatrae (Gyeln.) Hale und Zahlbrucknerella calcarea (Herre) Herre. Taxonomischer Bezug für Bacidia adastra ist SPARRIUS & APTROOT (2003). Die methodischen Grundlagen sind ausführlich bei SCHMIDT et al. (2011) dargestellt.
36341Kubiak D. (2024): “Sosny Taborskie” nature reserve as a refuge for rare and threatened forest lichens. - Folia Forestalia Polonica, Series A – Forestry, 66(1): 8–21. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7266-0647.
The article presents the results of a lichenological inventory carried out in the “Tabórz Pine” nature reserve, which protects a unique old-growth forest dominated by Scots pine and European beech. The aim of the research was to document the taxonomic and ecological diversity of the lichen biota in the reserve and, on this basis, determine the role and importance of this site as a refuge for stenoecious forest lichens. In an area of 95.32 ha, 118 species of lichens were found, including 43 species included in the Polish national Red List along with 17 species having the status of lowland old-growth forests in Poland. These values allow the reserve to be included in the group of important forest lichen refuges in north-eastern Poland. The obtained results also prove that mixing tree species with complementary ecological features can modify the functioning of the forest not only in terms of its economic features, but also its ecological role in shaping and protecting the species diversity of forest lichens. Key words: lichenized fungi, old-growth forest, protected area, species list.
36340Maccarelli L., Schaeffer T.T., Smith G.D. & Chen V.J. (2024): Components of mid-nineteenth- and mid-twentieth-century cudbears. - Heritage, 7(3): 1357–1371. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7030065.
Analysis of purple dyestuff from a tin labeled “1 oz. Cudbear, No. 1 N. F. Powdered”, marketed by the American business S. B. Penick & Company, “Manufacturers of fine drugs and chemicals”, confirmed that the material was indeed a lichen dyestuff. It contains the same major orcein components identified in several other lichen dyes and dyed samples dating from the mid-19th century to today. These dyestuffs were analyzed using several analytical techniques. Fluorescence and fiber optic reflectance spectroscopic data for all the samples were similar. High performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to mass spectrometry confirmed that this commercial American cudbear was very similar to the samples from the United Kingdom but rather different from the archil-dyed reference yarns from Europe. The significance of the observations is discussed, and chemical structures are proposed for several of the unknown dye components detected in this study. Keywords: lichen dyes; HPLC–DAD–MS; UV/Vis spectroscopy; fluorescence spectroscopy; historic sample book.
36339Moya P., Chiva S., Pazos T., Barreno E., Carrasco P., Muggia L. & Garrido-Benavent I. (2024): Myco–phycobiont interactions within the “Ramalina farinacea group”: A geographical survey over Europe and Macaronesia. - Journal of Fungi, 10(3): 206 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof10030206.
Ramalina farinacea is a widely distributed epiphytic lichen from the Macaronesian archipelagos to Mediterranean and Boreal Europe. Previous studies have indicated a specific association between R. farinacea and Trebouxia microalgae species. Here, we examined the symbiotic interactions in this lichen and its closest allies (the so-called “R. farinacea group”) across ten biogeographic subregions, spanning diverse macroclimates, analyzing the climatic niche of the primary phycobionts, and discussing the specificity of these associations across the studied area. The most common phycobionts in the “R. farinacea group” were T. jamesii and T. lynnae, which showed a preference for continentality and insularity, respectively. The Canarian endemic R. alisiosae associated exclusively with T. lynnae, while the other Ramalina mycobionts interacted with both microalgae. The two phycobionts exhibited extensive niche overlap in an area encompassing Mediterranean, temperate Europe, and Macaronesian localities. However, T. jamesii occurred in more diverse climate types, whereas T. lynnae preferred warmer and more humid climates, often close to the sea, which could be related to its tolerance to salinity. With the geographical perspective gained in this study, it was possible to show how the association with different phycobionts may shape the ecological adaptation of lichen symbioses. Keywords: Ascomycota; climatic niche; haplotype; lichenized fungi; Macaronesia; microalgae; Trebouxia jamesii; Trebouxia lynnae.
36338Pląskowska E., Patejuk K., Lorenc M.W. & Grzeszczuk J. (2024): Lichens and Fungi on Sandstone Tombs at the Historical Jewish Cemetery in Wrocław (Poland). - Studies in Conservation, 69(1): 58–66. https://doi.org/10.1080/00393630.2023.2174396.
Microflora inhabiting rock surfaces, including bacteria, fungi, algae, and lichens, form a specific kind of an ecosystem. Unique and not well known forms of this environment are old cemetery tombs. To better understand such environments, lichenological and mycological studies were conducted in the old Jewish cemetery in Wrocław, Poland. The research covered 13 tombstones made of several varieties of sandstone. This research shows that some gravestones made of sandstone from Wartowice were strongly populated by fungi. Physical and chemical properties of the stone as well as the quality of the starting raw material were favourable for this deterioration process to occur. The most frequently recorded lichens were: Psilolechia lucida, Verrucaria nigricans, and Lepraria sp. The species of fungi most frequently found on the monuments were: Cladosporium herbarium, Aspergillus niger, and Alternaria alternata. The aim of the study was to detect the mycobiota living on tombstones in the historical Jewish cemetery in Wrocław, which contains stones originating from Lower Silesian quarries that now exhibit traces of biodegeneration. Keywords: Cemetery; biodeterioration; decay; fungi; lichens; sandstone; tombs.