Notice: session_start(): Ignoring session_start() because a session is already active in /www/sites/8/site10968/public_html/admin/auth.php on line 4
Last records


36302Crous P.W., Costa M.M., Kandemir H., Vermaas M., Vu D., Zhao L., Arumugam E., Flakus A., Jurjević Ž., Kaliyaperumal M., Mahadevakumar S., Murugadoss R., Shivas R.G., Tan Y.P., Wingfield M.J., Abell S.E., Marney T.S., Danteswari C., Darmostuk V., Denchev C.M., Denchev T.T., Etayo J., Gené J., Gunaseelan S., Hubka V., Illescas T., Jansen G.M., Kezo K., Kumar S., Larsson E., Mufeeda K.T., Piątek M., Rodriguez-Flakus P., Sarma P.V.S.R.N., Stryjak-Bogacka M., Torres-Garcia D., Vauras J., Acal D.A., Akulov A., Alhudaib K., Asif M., Balashov S., Baral H.-O., Baturo-Cieśniewska A., Begerow D., Beja-Pereira A., Bianchinotti M.V., Bilański P., Chandranayaka S., Chellappan N., Cowan D.A., Custódio F.A., Czachura P., Delgado G., De Silva N.I., Dijksterhuis J., Dueñas M., Eisvand P., Fachada V., Fournier J., Fritsche Y., Fuljer F., Ganga K.G.G., Guerra M.P., Hansen K., Hywel-Jones N., Ismail A.M., Jacobs C.R., Jankowiak R., Karich A., Kemler M., Kisło K., Klofac W., Krisai-Greilhuber I., Latha K.P.D., Lebeuf R., Lopes M.E., Lumyong S., Maciá-Vicente J.G., Maggs-Kölling G., Magistà D., Manimohan P., Martín M.P., Mazur E., Mehrabi-Koushki M., Miller A.N., Mombert A., Ossowska E.A., Patejuk K., Pereira O.L., Piskorski S., Plaza M., Podile A.R., Polhorský A., Pusz W., Raza M., Ruszkiewicz-Michalska M., Saba M., Sánchez R.M., Singh R., Śliwa L., Smith M.E., Stefenon V.M., Strašiftáková D., Suwannarach N., Szczepańska K., Telleria M.T., Tennakoon D.S., Thines M., Thorn R.G., Urbaniak J., van der Vegte M., Vasan V., Vila-Viçosa C., Voglmayr H., Wrzosek M., Zappelini J. & Groenewald J.Z. (2023): Fungal Planet description sheets: 1550–1613. - Persoonia, 51: 280–417.
Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Argen- tina, Neocamarosporium halophilum in leaf spots of Atriplex undulata. Australia, Aschersonia merianiae on scale insect (Coccoidea), Curvularia huamulaniae isolated from air, Hevansia mainiae on dead spider, Ophiocordyceps poecilometigena on Poecilometis sp. Bolivia, Lecanora menthoides on sandstone, in open semi-desert montane areas, Sticta monlueckiorum corticolous in a forest, Trichonectria epimegalosporae on apothecia of corticolous Mega- lospora sulphurata var. sulphurata, Trichonectria puncteliae on the thallus of Punctelia borreri. Brazil, Catenomargarita pseudocercosporicola (incl. Catenomargarita gen. nov.) hyperparasitic on Pseudocercospora fijiensis on leaves of Musa acuminata, Tulasnella restingae on protocorms and roots of Epidendrum fulgens. Bulgaria, Anthracoidea umbrosae on Carex spp. Croatia, Hymenoscyphus radicis from surface-sterilised, asymptomatic roots of Microthlaspi erraticum, Orbilia multiserpentina on wood of decorticated branches of Quercus pubescens. France, Calosporella punctatispora on dead corticated twigs of Acer opalus. French West Indies (Martinique), Eutypella lechatii on dead corticated palm stem. Germany, Arrhenia alcalinophila on loamy soil. Iceland, Cistella blauvikensis on dead grass (Poaceae). India, Fulvifomes maritimus on living Peltophorum pterocarpum, Fulvifomes natarajanii on dead wood of Prosopis juliflora, Fulvifomes subazonatus on trunk of Azadirachta indica, Macrolepiota bharadwajii on moist soil near the forest, Narcissea delicata on decaying elephant dung, Paramyrothecium indicum on living leaves of Hibiscus hispidissimus, Trichoglossum syamviswanathii on moist soil near the base of a bamboo plantation. Iran, Vacuiphoma astragalicola from stem canker of Astragalus sarcocolla. Malaysia, Neoeriomycopsis fissistigmae (incl. Neoeriomycopsidaceae fam. nov.) on leaf spots on flower Fissistigma sp. Namibia, Exophiala lichenicola lichenico- lous on Acarospora cf. luederitzensis. Netherlands, Entoloma occultatum on soil, Extremus caricis on dead leaves of Carex sp., Inocybe pseudomytiliodora on loamy soil. Norway, Inocybe guldeniae on calcareous soil, Inocybe rupestroides on gravelly soil. Pakistan, Hymenagaricus brunneodiscus on soil. Philippines, Ophiocordyceps philippinensis parasitic on Asilus sp. Poland, Hawksworthiomyces ciconiae isolated from Ciconia ciconia nest, Plectosphaerella vigrensis from leaf spots on Impatiens noli-tangere, Xenoramularia epitaxicola from sooty mould community on Taxus baccata. Portugal, Inocybe dagamae on clay soil. Saudi Arabia, Diaporthe jazanensis on branches of Coffea arabica. South Africa, Alternaria moraeae on dead leaves of Moraea sp., Bonitomyces buffels- kloofinus (incl. Bonitomyces gen. nov.) on dead twigs of unknown tree, Constrictochalara koukolii on living leaves of Itea rhamnoides colonised by a Meliola sp., Cylindromonium lichenophilum on Parmelina tiliacea, Gamszarella buffelskloofina (incl. Gamszarella gen. nov.) on dead insect, Isthmosporiella africana (incl. Isthmosporiella gen. nov.) on dead twigs of unknown tree, Nothoeucasphaeria buffelskloofina (incl. Nothoeucasphaeria gen. nov.), on dead twigs of unknown tree, Nothomicrothyrium beaucarneae (incl. Nothomicrothyrium gen. nov.) on dead leaves of Beaucarnea stricta, Paramycosphaerella proteae on living leaves of Protea caffra, Querciphoma foliicola on leaf litter, Rachicladosporium conostomii on dead twigs of Conostomium natalense var. glabrum, Rhamphoriopsis synnematosa on dead twig of unknown tree, Waltergamsia mpumalanga on dead leaves of unknown tree. Spain, Amanita fulvogrisea on limestone soil, in mixed forest, Amanita herculis in open Quercus forest, Vuilleminia beltra- niae on Cistus symphytifolius. Sweden, Pachyella pulchella on decaying wood on sand-silt riverbank. Thailand, Deniquelata cassiae on dead stem of Cassia fistula, Stomiopeltis thailandica on dead twigs of Magnolia champaca. Ukraine, Circinaria podoliana on natural limestone outcrops, Neonematogonum carpinicola (incl. Neonematogonum gen. nov.) on dead branches of Carpinus betulus. USA, Exophiala wilsonii water from cooling tower, Hygrophorus aesculeticola on soil in mixed forest, and Neocelosporium aereum from air in a house attic. Morphological and culture characteristics are supported by DNA barcodes. Key words: ITS nrDNA barcodes; LSU; new taxa; systematics.
36301Pinna D. (2024): Physical and mechanical methods for the removal of lithobionts—A review. - Coatings, 14(3): 272 [21 p.].
This paper describes and discusses the results of scientific experiences of the physical and mechanical methods used to control and inhibit the growth of lichens and biofilms that grow on indoor and outdoor historical stone artworks. It provides an extensive selection and examination of international papers published in the last two decades on the issue. The great advantage of physical and mechanical methods lies in the lack of potential risks associated with the irreversible application of microbicides. Indeed, they do not introduce any harmful chemicals to humans, to the environment, or to heritage objects. This review focuses on the application of (i) electromagnetic radiation, (ii) high temperatures, (iii) lasers, and (iv) mechanical tools, and includes the main achievements, limitations, and potential applications of the examined studies. Keywords: biofilms; lichens; stone artworks; electromagnetic radiation; high temperatures; lasers; mechanical tools.
36300Köhler L., Tobón C., Frumau K.F.A. & Bruijnzeel L.A.(S.) (2007): Biomass and water storage dynamics of epiphytes in old-growth and secondary montane cloud forest stands in Costa Rica. - Plant Ecology, 193: 171–184.
Epiphytic biomass, canopy humus and associated canopy water storage capacity are known to vary greatly between old-growth tropical montane cloud forests but for regenerating forests such data are virtually absent. The present study was conducted in an old-growth cloud forest and in a 30-year-old secondary forest (SF) on wind-exposed slopes in the Cordillera de Tilarán (Monteverde area) in northern Costa Rica. Epiphytic vegetation in both forests was dominated by bryophytes. Epiphyte mat weight (epiphyte biomass and canopy humus) at the stand level was 1,035 kg ha−1 in the SF and 16,215 kg ha−1 in the old-growth forest (OGF). The water contents of epiphytic bryophytes in the OGF were determined gravimetrically in situ and showed maximum values of 418% ± 74 (SD)% of dry weight and minimum values of 36% ± 10 (SD)%. Maximum stand water storage of non-vascular epiphytes and canopy humus at Monteverde was estimated at 0.36 mm for the SF and 4.95 mm for the OGF. Epiphytic bryophytes exhibited more dynamic wetting and drying cycles compared to canopy humus. Maximum water loss through evaporation was 251% of dry weight (bryophytes) and 117% of dry weight (canopy humus) within 3 days of sunny weather without precipitation. Despite the high potential water storage capacity of epiphytic bryophytes and canopy humus the actually available storage is likely to be much smaller depending on antecedent rainfall and evaporative conditions. Keywords: Bryophytes ; Canopy ; Rain forest ; Rainfall interception ; Succession ; Water storage capacity.
36299Kubiak D. (2024): Notes on Candelariella reflexa s. str. (Ascomycota, Candelariaceae) in Poland. - Acta Mycologica, 58: 183018 [5 p.]. DOI: 10.5586/am/183018.
This paper presents new localities of the epiphytic lichen Candelariella reflexa (Nyl.) Lettau found in NE Poland. The species has been reported in Poland for over two decades, but the progress of research on the taxonomy of this genus requires confirmation of the data by the currently accepted taxonomic approach. The paper also discusses the diagnostic features of the species that help distinguish it from other similar taxa. Keywords: lichens; Candelinella; Opeltiella; new localities; NE Poland.
36298Pérez-Vargas I., Tuero-Septién J., Rancel-Rodríguez N.M., Pérez J.A. & Blázquez M. (2024): Patterns of endemism in lichens: another paradigm-shifting example in the lichen genus Xanthoparmelia from Macaronesia. - Journal of Fungi, 10(3): 166 [18 p.].
It has long been assumed that lichen-forming fungi have very large distribution ranges, and that endemic species are rare in this group of organisms. This is likely a consequence of the “everything small is everywhere” paradigm that has been traditionally applied to cryptogams. However, the description of numerous endemic species over the last decades, many of them in oceanic islands, is challenging this view. In this study, we provide another example, Xanthoparmelia ramosae, a species that is described here as new to science on the basis of morphological, chemical, and macroclimatic data, and three molecular markers (ITS rDNA, nuLSU rDNA, and mtSSU). The new species is endemic to the island of Gran Canaria but clusters into a clade composed exclusively of specimens collected in Eastern Africa, a disjunction that is here reported for the first time in lichen-forming fungi. Through the use of dating analysis, we have found that Xanthoparmelia ramosae diverged from its closely related African taxa in the Pliocene. This result, together with the reproductive strategy of the species, points to the Relict theory as a likely mechanism behind the disjunction, although the large gap in lichenological knowledge in Africa makes this possibility hard to explore any further. Keywords: lichens; Canary Islands; biogeography; disjunctions; new species.
36297Timdal E., Evankow A.M., Opedal V. & Fjelde M.O. (2024): Lecania lepidota, a new lichen species from pollarded Fraxinus excelsior in oceanic, old-growth deciduous forests in Norway. - Graphis Scripta, 36(1): 1–14.
The new lichen species Lecania lepidota is described from two localities in oceanic, old-growth, deciduous forests (boreo-nemoral rainforest) in SW Norway, growing near the base of pollarded Fraxinus excelsior. The generic placement is uncertain, as the ITS marker differs significantly from all other available ITS sequences and the mtSSU marker indicates sister relationship with Lecania croatica, a species of uncertain position in the Ramalinaceae. The species is morphologically most similar to Phyllopsora rosei, but differs, e.g., in having a negative PD reaction due to the lack of lichen substances.
36296Gunnarsson B., Hake M. & Hultengren S. (2004): A functional relationship between species richness of spiders and lichens in spruce. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 13: 685–693. .
Modern forestry has created stands with even age distribution of trees and fragmentation of the habitat. In boreal forests, the effects on biodiversity within many taxa need to be examined. We tested the hypothesis that species richness of foliose and fruticose lichens and spiders is positively related in the lower canopy of spruce (Picea abies) in forests with, or without, management in central Sweden. High species richness of lichens may increase the structural complexity of the microhabitat on spruce branches, and bring a higher species richness also in the spider community. In six areas, spruce branches were sampled in old-growth and managed boreal forest stands, respectively. Forest management did not affect the species richness of spiders or lichens, but an effect due to sampling area was found in the latter taxon. There was a significant covariation between species richness of lichens and spiders, and the hypothesised positive correlation was confirmed by separate analyses for each area and combining the probabilities. Moreover, regression analysis on mean values from each site revealed a positive relationship. We conclude that species richness of lichens and spiders covary on spruce branches for functional reasons, i.e. more lichen species promotes a more diverse spider community by increasing the structural heterogeneity. Our results might provide a ‘shortcut’ for assessing biodiversity in boreal forests. Key words: Biodiversity, Boreal forest, Canopies, Epiphytes, Forestry, Indicators, Monitoring, Old-growth.
36295Hämäläinen A., Runnel K., Mikusiński G., Himelbrant D., Fenton N.J. & Lõhmus P. (2023): Living Trees and Biodiversity. - In: Girona M.M., Morin H., Gauthier S. & Bergeron Y. (eds), Boreal Forests in the Face of Climate Change, Advances in Global Change Research 74, p. 145–166, Springer, Cham.
chapter in book
36294Molenaar M., van der Kolk H.-J. & van den Boom P. (2023): Een overzicht van de boombewonende knoopjeskorsten van Nederland [Corticolous Bacidia and Bacidina species in The Netherlands]. - Buxbaumiella, 128: 8–23. .
[in Dutch with English abstract:] An identification key and overview of the corticolous Bacidia and Bacidina species occurring in The Netherlands is presented. Pictures of the thallus and apothecia are provided for most species, as well as detailed pictures of sections of apothecia and drawings of ascospores. Following the recent paper on Bacidina by Ekman (2023), the occurrence of Bacidina caerulea and Bacidina friesiana in The Netherlands is discussed. Bacidia circumspecta, Bacidia incompta and Bacidina phacodes were discovered on several new growth sites. Bacidia arceutina and Bacidia laurocerasi mainly inhabit young deciduous forests and are currently spreading rapidly.
36293Šoun J. (2023): Revize historických položek rodu Parmotrema z území ČR uložených v herbáři PRM [Revision of historical specimens of the genus Parmotrema from the Czech Republic stored in the PRM herbarium]. - Bryonora, 72: 23–33. .
Old specimens of the genus Parmotrema (Parmeliaceae) from the territory of the Czech Republic stored in the National Museum in Prague (PRM) were revised. They were collected mainly by J. Suza, and further by A. Hilitzer, A. Oborny, R. Picbauer, and V. Spitzner from the end of the 19th century to 1924. P. arnoldii (1 specimen), P. crinitum (3 specimens), P. perlatum (10 specimens) and P. stuppeum (1 specimen) were found in the herbarium. P. arnoldii is reported here as new to the Czech Republic. An identification key to the Czech species of the genus Parmotrema is included. Key words: Beskydy Mts, biodiversity, lichenized fungi, lichens, macrolichens.
36292Ghlimová H., Bouda F., Hauser T., Hlisnikovský D., Jerhot Š., Konečná E., Peksa O., Smolková A., Svoboda D. & Syrovátková L. (2023): Lišejníky zaznamenané během 28. jarního setkání bryologicko-lichenologické sekce ČBS u Mariánských Lázní [Lichens recorded during the 28th Spring Meeting of the Bryological and Lichenological Section of the Czech Botanical Society near Mariánské Lázně]. - Bryonora, 72: 11–22. .
We present a list of 189 lichenised and two non- or semi-lichenised fungi recorded in western Bohemia in April 2023 during the 28th Spring Meeting of the Bryological and Lichenological Section of the Czech Botanical Society. We focused on various habitats including a uranium mine heap, old limestone quarries, a quaternary volcano, a quarzite ridge as well as old trees in allees, and a chateau park. Several rare and remarkable species were found in the region, for example Acarospora versicolor, Calicium viride, Caloplaca limonia, Cetraria sepincola, Chaenotheca phaeocephala, Cladonia cariosa, Melanohalea exasperata, Micarea deminuta, M. nigella, Parmotrema perlatum, Ramalina fraxinea, Rhizocarpon eupetraeum, Sarcogyne hypophaeoides, Sclerophora peronella, and Stereocaulon condensatum. Keywords: biodiversity, rare species.
36291Malíček J. & Konečná E. (2023): Lišejníky PR Bažantník v Českém ráji [Lichens of Bažantník Nature Reserve, Bohemian Paradise (Český ráj) Region]. - Bryonora, 72: 1–10. .
The Bažantník Nature Reserve (14.06 ha; alt. 256–269 m) preserves a deciduous lowland forest with c. 240-year old oak trees. The locality is very rich in phorophytes (>20 species) but strongly affected by acid rain in the past. During a survey in 2022, 94 lichen species and 8 non-lichenised fungi were recorded in the reserve. This number includes 17 species of calicioid (= pin-head) lichens and fungi. Most of the rare lichens occur on old oaks and their snags. In the area of Český ráj (Bohemian Paradise) and its surroundings, the reserve belongs to the most valuable localities for epiphytic and epixylic lichens. Bacidia arceutina, Biatora veteranorum, Buellia schaereri, Calicium adspersum, Chaenotheca brachypoda, C. chlorella, Chaenothecopsis nigra, Lecidella subviridis, Leptorhaphis atomaria, Ochrolechia arborea, Rinodina freyi, and Sclerophora pallida represent the most valuable records. Identifications of three specimens are supported by molecular ITS or mtSSU data, including one potentially undescribed Psoroglaena species. Key words: biodiversity, calicioid lichens and fungi, natural lowland forests, oak trees.
36290Bérešová A. (2023): Jonáš Gruska 2021. Petržalské lišajníky. LOM. Typografia Plus. 194 pp. ISBN 978-80-974055-0-2. - Bryonora, 72: 51. .
Book review [in Slovak]
36289Bérešová A. (2023): Bačkor M., Goga M. & Marcinčinová M. 2020. Atlas lišajníkov Slovenska I. Epifytické druhy. Univerzita Pavla Jozefa Šafárika v Košiciach, Košice 2020. 144 pp. ISBN 978-80-8152-903-0. Účelová, nepredajná publikácia. - Bryonora, 72: 49–51. .
Book review [in Slovak]
36288Ptach-Styn Ł., Guzow-Krzemińska B., Lendemer J.C., Tønsberg T. & Kukwa M. (2024): Phylogeny of the genus Loxospora s.l. (Sarrameanales, Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota), with Chicitaea gen. nov. and five new combinations in Chicitaea and Loxospora. - MycoKeys, 102: 155–181.
Loxospora is a genus of crustose lichens containing 13 accepted species that can be separated into two groups, based on differences in secondary chemistry that correlate with differences in characters of the sexual reproductive structures (asci and ascospores). Molecular phylogenetic analyses recovered these groups as monophyletic and support their recognition as distinct genera that differ in phenotypic characters. Species containing 2’-O-methylperlatolic acid are transferred to the new genus, Chicitaea Guzow-Krzem., Kukwa & Lendemer and four new combinations are proposed: C. assateaguensis (Lendemer) Guzow-Krzem., Kukwa & Lendemer, C. confusa (Lendemer) Guzow-Krzem., Kukwa & Lendemer, C. cristinae (Guzow-Krzem., Łubek, Kubiak & Kukwa) Guzow-Krzem., Kukwa & Lendemer and C. lecanoriformis (Lumbsch, A.W. Archer & Elix) Guzow-Krzem., Kukwa & Lendemer. The remaining species produce thamnolic acid and represent Loxospora s.str. Haplotype analyses recovered sequences of L. elatina in two distinct groups, one corresponding to L. elatina s.str. and one to Pertusaria chloropolia, the latter being resurrected from synonymy of L. elatina and, thus, requiring the combination, L. chloropolia (Erichsen) Ptach-Styn, Guzow-Krzem., Tønsberg & Kukwa. Sequences of L. ochrophaea were found to be intermixed within the otherwise monophyletic L. elatina s.str. These two taxa, which differ in contrasting reproductive mode and overall geographic distributions, are maintained as distinct, pending further studies with additional molecular loci. Lectotypes are selected for Lecanora elatina, Pertusaria chloropolia and P. chloropolia f. cana. The latter is a synonym of Loxospora chloropolia. New primers for the amplification of mtSSU are also presented. Key words: Lichenised fungi, mtSSU, nuITS, phylogeny, RPB1, Sarrameanaceae, secondary metabolites, sorediate lichens, sterile lichens, taxonomy.
36287Marcano V. & Castillo L. (2023): Displacement of the habitat of the macrolichens of the montane forest under a global warming scenario in the northeastern Venezuelan Andes. - Anales Del Jardín Botánico De Madrid, 80(2): e143.
In order to quantify the risks of total and local habitats loss of the Andean lichens due to the global warming projected for the end of the century and the associated upward migration, we carried out lichenological collections in the undergrowth forest at the National Park Sierra Nevada de Merida, Venezuela. We focus on an elevation gradient from the montane forest (2100–3000 m). A total of 1200 individuals, 401 lichenological samples, 38 genera and 145 species were registered; 94 species from the low montane forest and 90 species from the high montane forest. For the purpose of demonstrating the representativeness of the sampling, performance of non-parametric estimators Chao 1 and 2, Jacknife 1 and 2 was evaluated. Assuming a projected temperature increase of 4°C by the end of the century, lichen taxa would require an upward displacement of near 725 m a.s.l for maintain its habitat. The results indicate a total of 56.86% species would be threatened of disappearing by habitat loss having an increase ≤ 0.5°C; 69.60% species will lose its habitat having thermal increase ≤ 1°C; 92.15% species will lose its habitat having thermal increase ≤ 4°C whereas 11% (endemic) species will lose its total habitat having thermal increase ≤ 1°C. Risk of massive disappearance in all the scenarios would be expected
36286Solhaug K.A., Eiterjord G., Løken M.H. & Gauslaa Y. (2024): The lichen genus Pseudopyrenula (Trypetheliaceae) in India. - The Lichenologist, 56(1): 1-6.
A survey of the lichen genus Pseudopyrenula in India is presented, with morphotaxonomic accounts of all six accepted species. Two species, P. himalayana and P. megaspora, are new to science. Both species resemble P. staphyleae but have a lichenized thallus and eccentric ostiole. Furthermore, P. himalayana differs from P. staphyleae in having immersed perithecia and narrower ascospores, while P. megaspora differs in the larger ascospores. Detailed descriptions of the new species are presented, together with notes on their chemistry, distribution, ecology and taxonomy. A key to all known species of Pseudopyrenula from India is also presented
36285Solhaug K.A., Eiterjord G., Løken M.H. & Gauslaa Y. (2024): Non-photochemical quenching may contribute to the dominance of the pale mat-forming lichen Cladonia stellaris over the sympatric melanic Cetraria islandica. - Oecologia, 204: 187–198.
The mat-forming fruticose lichens Cladonia stellaris and Cetraria islandica frequently co-occur on soils in sun-exposed boreal, subarctic, and alpine ecosystems. While the dominant reindeer lichen Cladonia lacks a cortex but produces the light-reflecting pale pigment usnic acid on its surface, the common but patchier Cetraria has a firm cortex sealed by the light-absorbing pigment melanin. By measuring reflectance spectra, high-light tolerance, photosynthetic responses, and chlorophyll fluorescence in sympatric populations of these lichens differing in fungal pigments, we aimed to study how they cope with high light while hydrated. Specimens of the two species tolerated high light equally well but with different protective mechanisms. The mycobiont of the melanic species efficiently absorbed excess light, consistent with a lower need for its photobiont to protect itself by non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). By contrast, usnic acid screened light at 450–700 nm by reflectance and absorbed shorter wavelengths. The ecorticate usnic species with less efficient fungal light screening exhibited a consistently lower light compensation point and higher CO2 uptake rates than the melanic lichen. In both species, steady state NPQ rapidly increased at increasing light with no signs of light saturation. To compensate for less internal shading causing light fluctuations with a larger amplitude, the usnic lichen photobiont adjusted to changing light by faster induction and faster relaxation of NPQ rapidly transforming excess excitation energy to less damaging heat. The high and flexible NPQ tracking fluctuations in solar radiation probably contributes to the strong dominance of the usnic mat-forming Cladonia in open lichen-dominated heaths. Light stress, Melanin, Photosynthesis, Screening pigments, Usnic acid
36284Shamblin Z. & Puppo P. (2024): Developing a 3D digitization protocol at the Marshall University Herbarium using free, open-source 3D reconstruction software. - Castanea, 88(2): 191–204.
Herbarium specimen digitization and transcription initiatives have led to revitalized use of plant collections making them more accessible than ever. Most digitization is done by producing 2D images of herbarium sheets; however, herbaria also include 3D collections such as fungi, mosses, and dry fruits, among others. Here we present a 3D digitization protocol developed at the Marshall University Herbarium (MUHW) using free photogrammetry software. We tested four freely available software applications, Meshroom, 3DF Zephyr Free, ColMap, and Regard3D on five types of 3D specimens, fungi, a moss, a lichen, a pinecone, and a compound fruit. Using 40–50 images and equipment already available in our herbarium such as a camera and light box, we produced 3D images in less than one hour per specimen. From the four applications tested, 3DF Zephyr Free gave the best results across the different specimens. Specimens that are bilaterally symmetrical or asymmetrical, such as fungi and compound fruit yielded detailed 3D images. Radially symmetrical specimens or specimens with repetitive patterns, such as the pinecone, moss, and lichen, resulted in poor or incomplete 3D images, which indicates that this workflow may be best suited for objects with differentiation in surfaces. Our workflow provides an effective, low-cost method of producing 3D images of 3D herbarium specimens that can be easily implemented in other herbaria. Key words: digitization, herbarium, Photogrammetry, 3DF Zephyr Free, 3D specimens.
36283Herring B. (2024): Status survey of the federally endangered Perforate Reindeer Lichen (Cladonia perforata) throughout its known range in Florida. - Castanea, 88(2): 241–279.
A range wide status survey of the perforate reindeer lichen (Cladonia perforata) was performed by revisiting known extant and historical sites and searching for new populations. Size of each popula- tion was determined and the extent of invasive plant species in the vicinity of Cladonia perforata was also documented. The data was used to update the global and state NatureServe conservation status rank of this species and provide the current information to the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Department of Defense (DOD), state agencies, and land managers. Twenty-five existing element occurrence records were updated, and seven new element occurrences were doc- umented. Based on several rank factors such as area of occupancy, number of both viable and protected populations, and threats, the rank of Cladonia perforata was recalculated to G2G3/S2S3 from the previous rank of G1/S1 (NatureServe 2022). This change in rank indicates a reduction in conservation status from Critically Imperiled to Imperiled/Vulnerable. Key words: endangered species, Florida endemic, invasive species, scrub.
36282Dou M., Liu S., Li J., Aptroot A. & Jia Z. (2024): Three new Pyrenula species with 3-septate ascospores with red or orange oil when over-mature (Ascomycota, Pyrenulales, Pyrenulaceae) from China. - MycoKeys, 102: 107–125.
The lichenised fungal genus Pyrenula is a very common crustose lichen element in tropical to subtropical forests, but little research has been done on this genus in China. During our study on Pyrenula in China, based on morphological characteristics, chemical traits and molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS and nuLSU), three new 3-septate species with red or orange oil in over-mature ascospores were found: Pyrenula inspersa sp. nov., P. thailandicoides sp. nov. and P. apiculata sp. nov. Compared to the known 3-septate species of Pyrenula with red or orange oil, P. inspersa is characterised by the inspersed hamathecium; P. thailandicoides is characterised by the IKI+ red hamathecium and the existence of an unknown lichen substance; and P. apiculata is characterised by the absence of endospore layers in the spore tips and the absence of pseudocyphellae. It is reported for the first time that the presence of a gelatinous halo around the ascospores of Pyrenula is common. A word key for the Pyrenula species with red or orange oil in over-mature ascospores is provided. Key words: morphology, new species, phylogeny, Pyrenulaceae, taxonomy.
36281Aptroot A., Lücking R. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2024): New species, records and combinations of Graphidaceae (lichenized fungi) from Brazil. - Bryologist , 127(1): 22–55.
We describe 43 new lichen species in the family Graphidaceae, mainly from the Amazon basin: Fissurina bispora, F. diamantica, F. endothallina, F. lirelloreagens, F. reticulolirellina, Graphis inspersonorstictica, G. polystriatosubmuriformis, G. viridithallina, Heiomasia hypostictica, Leucodecton aurantiacum, Mangoldia thallolomoides, Myriochapsa negativa, M. triseptata, Myriotrema inspersosticticum, M. reticulatum, M. roseum, M. xanthonicum, Ocellularia coronatoverrucosa, O. griseosorediata, O. inspersomuriformis, O. inspersulascens, O. microschizidiata, O. norsorediata, O. pallidocolumellata, O. pedicellata, O. pertusella, O. pseudocyphellata, O. psorinspersa, O. psorsorediata, O. roseoisidiata, O. sorediopseudochapsa, O. verruciinspersa, O. vulcanica, O. wirthiotremoides, Phaeographis aureopruinosa, P. coccinea, P. fuscobilabiata, P. macrocephalica, P. norscalpturata, P. pallidoxanthonica, Rhabdodiscus lineatus, Stegobolus negativus, and Thalloloma xanthohypoleptum (the last species also from Puerto Rico). Relatively many are fertile but also form vegetative propagules. A few of the species contain no mature ascospores, but are so deviating from any other described species that we decided to describe them nonetheless. Also, we propose the following 22 new combinations for species of Graphidaceae that were previously described from Brazil and currently are accepted species but were so far assigned to the other genera: Allographa basaltica (≡ Graphis basaltica Kremp.), A. brevissima (≡ Graphis brevissima Fée), A. byrsonimae (≡ Graphina byrsonimae Redinger), A. heteroplaca (≡ Graphina heteroplaca Müll.Arg.), A. platypoda (≡ Phaeographina platypoda Zahlbr.), A. pseudoserpens (≡ Graphis pseudoserpens Chaves & Lücking), A. subargentata (≡ Graphis subargentata S.C.Feuerst., Dal Forno & Eliasaro), A. tricolorata (≡ Graphina tricolorata Redinger), Diorygma album (≡ Graphina alba Müll.Arg.), Fissurina adscripturiens (≡ Graphis adscripturiens Nyl.), F. egenella (≡ Graphina egenella Müll.Arg.), Graphis fasciata (≡ Ustalia fasciata Eschw.), Mangoldia lecideicarpa (≡ Graphina lecideicarpa Zahlbr.), O. endocrocea (≡ O. cinchonarum var. endocrocea Müll.Arg.), O. minarum (≡ Thelotrema minarum Vain.), Phaeographis atrolabiata (≡ Phaeographina atrolabiata Redinger), Phaeographis cheilomegas (≡ Graphis cheilomegas Fée), P. coriaria (≡ Phaeographina coriaria M.Wirth & Hale), P. crassa (≡ Platygramme crassa Fée), P. oxalifera (≡ Phaeographina oxalifera Redinger), P. scriptitata (≡ Phaeographina scriptitata C.W.Dodge), and Stegobolus trachodes (≡ Thelotrema trachodes Nyl.). Finally, we report several species new to Brazil or to one of the states: Allographa pitmanii new to Amapá, Cryptoschizotrema minus new to Alagoas, Glaucotrema glaucophaenum new to Amapá, Graphis pyrrhocheiloides new to Amapá, Graphis subserpentina new to Pará, Melanotrema astrolucens new to Brazil in Amazonas and Pará, Myriotrema hartii new to Amazonas, O. bullata new to Brazil in Pará, O. inspersipallens new to Brazil in Rondônia, O. jutaratiae new to Amapá, O. parvidisca new to Brazil in Amapá, O. rondoniana new to Alagoas, and Thelotrema wilsoniorum new to Brazil in Amapá. Key words: Lichens, biodiversity, thelotremoid, graphoid, Fissurina, Glaucotrema, Graphis, Heiomasia, Leucodecton, Mangoldia, Myriochapsa, Myriotrema, Ocellularia, Phaeographis, Pseudotopeliopsis, Ramonia, Rhabdodiscus, Stegobolus, Thalloloma, Wirthiotrema.
36280Aptroot A., dos Santos L.A., Oliveira Junior I., Fraga Junior C.A.V., Spielmann A.A. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2024): New lichen species from south Brazil. - Bryologist , 127(1): 66–87.
Lichens were investigated in two upland areas in Brazil from which lichens were described in historical times. The main aim was to recollect topotypes, but 37 species turned out to be new records for Brazil. Also, 25 new lichen species are described, all from South Brazil: Acarospora aggregata, Allographa triangularis, Arthotheliopsis corticola, Astrothelium flavocrystallinum, Astrothelium flavoinspersum, Astrothelium macrostromaticum, Caloplaca fuscospora, Caloplaca marginireflectans, Cladonia sticticocrustosa, Cladonia xanthozebrina, Dichosporidium fibrosum, Dichosporidium lanosum, Fissurina aggregata, Fuscidea lobata, Gyalidea concava, Gyalideopsis crenata, Gyalideopsis hyalinocoronata, Hypotrachyna aurantiacoreagens, Hypotrachyna cauliflora, Jamesiella clavata, Jamesiella elongata, Porina lateralis, Pseudopyrenula muriformis, Rhizocarpon sorediosubmuriforme, and Thelidium mucosoides. The collection includes two further crustose Cladonia species in this mostly fruticose genus, and almost doubles the number of species in Jamesiella. Furthermore, 149 species are reported from São Paulo state for the first time, 74 from Rio de Janeiro, 10 from Minas Gerais, and four from Espírito Santo.
36279Silva I., Salvador C., Arantes S., Miller A.Z., Candeias A. & Caldeira A.T. (2024): The decorated garden Grotto of Condes de Basto Palace in Évora, Portugal: microbial community characterization and biocide tests for conservation. - Micro, 14: 117–131.
The Eugénio de Almeida Foundation’s Casa de Fresco is a historical monument of valuable historic–artistic significance, which currently reveals an assortment of biofilms due to the proliferation of microorganisms in the stone and rocaille elements. The biodeterioration in this area was studied as part of the Conservation and Restoration Project. We effectively characterized the local microbial community using modern high-throughput DNA analysis. Our results suggested the existence of a variety of lichens or lichenized fungi, including genera such as Variospora, Verrucaria, Circinaria, and Caloplaca. Furthermore, we detected several prokaryote microorganisms related to the identification of these lichens. To properly deal with this microbiological issue and avoid fungal recolonization, we evaluated available commercial antimicrobial treatments. Keywords: stone monuments; patrimony biodeterioration; metagenomic approach; lichenized fungi; antimicrobial activity; heritage conservation.
36278Makhnykina A.V., Vaganov E.A., Panov A.V., Koshurnikova N.N. & Prokushkin A.S. (2024): The pulses of soil CO2 emission in response to rainfall events in Central Siberia: revisiting the overall frost-free season CO2 flux. - Forests, 15(2): 355 [16 p.].
Boreal forests nowadays act as a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide; however, their sequestration capacity is highly sensitive to weather conditions and, specifically to ongoing climate warming. Extreme weather events such as heavy rainfalls or, conversely, heat waves during the growing season might perturb the ecosystem carbon balance and convert them to an additional CO2 source. Thus, there is an urgent need to revise ecosystem carbon fluxes in vast Siberian taiga ecosystems as influenced by extreme weather events. In this study, we focused on the soil CO2 pulses appearing after the rainfall events and quantification of their input to the seasonal cumulative CO2 efflux in the boreal forests in Central Siberia. Seasonal measurements of soil CO2 fluxes (both soil respiration and net soil exchange) were conducted during three consecutive frost-free seasons using the dynamic chamber method. Seasonal dynamics of net soil exchange fluxes demonstrated positive values, reflecting that soil respiration rates exceeded CO2 uptake in the forest floor vegetation layer. Moreover, the heavy rains caused a rapid pulse of soil emissions and, as a consequence, the release of additional amounts of CO2 from the soil into the atmosphere. A single rain event may cause a 5–11-fold increase of the NSE flux compared to the pre-rainfall values. The input of CO2 pulses to the seasonal cumulative efflux varied from near zero to 39% depending on precipitation patterns of a particular season. These findings emphasize the critical need for more frequent measurements of soil CO2 fluxes throughout the growing season which capture the CO2 pulses induced by rain events. This approach has inevitable importance for the accurate assessment of seasonal CO2 soil emissions and adequate predictions of response of boreal pine forests to climatic changes. Keywords: soil emissions; net soil exchange; boreal forest; precipitation; soil temperature; soil moisture; lichen; CO2 fluxes; Siberia.
36277Pradhan S., Dash S., Sahoo B., Parida S. & Rath B. (2024): Screening and characterization of bioactive compounds from two epiphytic microlichen and evaluation of their in vitro antioxidant activity. - Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 10: 10 [19 p.].
Background: Lichens in symbiosis produce a wide range of primary and secondary fne compounds in extreme environmental conditions that have a broad range of biological properties as well as antioxidant potential and can be used in future pharmaceuticals as a natural source of antioxidant molecules. Results: The two microlichen species collected are identifed based on morphological and molecular techniques; further studies are carried out by analyzing phytochemicals (FTIR, GC MS), and antioxidant assays are evaluated. The nonenzymatic antioxidant activity is evaluated by DPPH and FRAP assays. The methanol extract of both lichens showed virtuous DPPH scavenge with IC50 of P. nitida (125.76±0.023 µg/ml) and G. scripta IC50 (176.90±0.058 µg/ml). FRAP activity was prominent in the methalonic extract. The enzymatic antioxidant activity is observed by SOD and catalase activity. The cytosolic (Cu–Zn-SOD and Fe-SOD) and mitochondrial SOD (Mn-SOD) are detected in lichens, though P. nitida shows mitochondrial Mn-SOD and cytosolic Cu–Zn-SOD and Fe-SOD, whereas G. scripta has a single cytosolic Cu–Zn-SOD; however, two isoforms of catalase were reported. GC–MS analysis screened bioactive metabolites such as phenols, Quinons, heterocyclic compounds, benzofurans, fatty acids, pyrans, carboxylic acid, aliphatic aldehydes, organic alcohol, fuorinated aliphatic substances, ketones, terpenes and fatty alcohols in P. nitida, whereas, in G. scripta screened fatty acids, alcohols, hydrocarbons, carbonyl compounds, polyols, terpenes, glycosides, phenols, and sugar alcohols detected in the chromatogram peak. FTIR analysis revealed functional groups like Alcohols, Amines, Amides, Alkanes, Aldehydes, Carboxylic acid, Alkynes, Esters, Ketones, Anhydrides, Acid chlorides, Alkenes, Aromatic compounds, Nitro compounds, Alkyl and Aryl Halides in both lichens. Conclusions: The results obtained in the present study proved that P. nitida and G. scripta have promising antioxidant activity owing to the presence of polyphenols and terpenes, as evidenced by DPPH and FRAP assay along with enzymatic analysis (SOD and CAT). Thus both the lichens may be used as natural sources of new bioactive molecules having pharmaceutical interest. Keywords: 28s rRNA, Antioxidant, FTIR, GC–MS, Lichen, Phytochemicals, SEM.
36276Aszalósné Balogh R., Buczkó K., Erzberger P., Freytag C., Homm T., Lőkös L., Matus G., Nagy Z., Papp B. & Farkas E. (2021): Taxonomical and chorological notes 15 (153–163). - Studia Botanica Hungarica, 52: 165–184.
The present part of the series provides new records of 11 taxa, among them one diatom, six lichen-forming fungi and four bryophytes. The diatom Stauroneis blazenciciae is new to Romania, and it is the second record worldwide. The six lichen species have already been reported from Hungary, however they are quite rare. Additional interesting records are presented, e.g. Calicium notarisii and Pseudothelomma ocellatum are new for the Great Hungarian Plain, Cetrelia chicitae is new for the Velence Mts and for the Transdanubian Mountain Range, Petractis clausa is new for the Gerecse Mts, and Umbilicaria polyphylla is new for the Börzsöny Mts. Parmotrema perlatum has several interesting new occurrences. Regarding the bryophyte species, Marchantia polymorpha L. subsp. montivagans is new to Hungary, Sciuro-hypnum curtum is new for the Nyírség, Brachythecium capillaceum is reported from the Great Hungarian Plain for the first time. Pseudocampylium radicale is new for the Kismohos bog, its appearance seems to be a recent event. Keywords: algae, lichens, liverworts, Romania, Hungary, new record, bryophytes, Ukraine.
36275Svanberg I. & Ståhlberg S. (2024): Peasant food provision strategies and scientific proposals for famine foods in eighteenth-century Sweden. - Gastronomy, 2(1): 18–37.
The peasant diet during the Little Ice Age in Sweden was mainly grain-based (bread, gruel, and porridge), and the country was heavily dependent on grain imports to meet the population’s needs for food. During the eighteenth century in particular, when famines were frequent following failed harvests, Swedish peasants utilized a range of locally available resources to survive. Bark bread made of cambium (phloem) from Pinus sylvestris was, for example, commonly used as famine food. Scientists of the Enlightenment period and the state authorities tried to alleviate hunger and poverty through the introduction of new food resources and cooking techniques, including wild or agricultural plants such as lichens or potato, and the use of protein sources different from the traditional ones, such as horse meat. However, many of these proposals encountered strong resistance from the peasantry, and only at the end of the 1800s famines ceased to cause suffering in Sweden. Scientific studies have so far focused mainly on mortality, malnutrition, demography, and official responses to famines; yet the question of what the starving peasants gathered, prepared, and consumed is important for the understanding of the historical situation. Also, the difference between the scientific proposals and peasants’ decisions and choices must be clearly distinguished. This historical study using an ethnobiological approach discusses peasant subsistence strategies in Sweden in the eighteenth century using contemporary sources, which provide an opportunity to study how the population obtained foodstuffs, adapted their diet to available ingredients, and the interaction and conflicting views of peasants and scientists about new, science-based nutrition proposals. Keywords: emergency food; food security; gastronomic ethnobiology; hunger; subsistence crisis.
36274Raniga D., Amarasingam N., Sandino J., Doshi A., Barthelemy J., Randall K., Robinson S.A., Gonzalez F. & Bollard B. (2024): Monitoring of Antarctica’s fragile vegetation using drone-based remote sensing, multispectral imagery and AI. - Sensors, 24(4): 1063 [30 p.].
Vegetation in East Antarctica, such as moss and lichen, vulnerable to the effects of climate change and ozone depletion, requires robust non-invasive methods to monitor its health condition. Despite the increasing use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to acquire high-resolution data for vegetation analysis in Antarctic regions through artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, the use of multispectral imagery and deep learning (DL) is quite limited. This study addresses this gap with two pivotal contributions: (1) it underscores the potential of deep learning (DL) in a field with notably limited implementations for these datasets; and (2) it introduces an innovative workflow that compares the performance between two supervised machine learning (ML) classifiers: Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) and U-Net. The proposed workflow is validated by detecting and mapping moss and lichen using data collected in the highly biodiverse Antarctic Specially Protected Area (ASPA) 135, situated near Casey Station, between January and February 2023. The implemented ML models were trained against five classes: Healthy Moss, Stressed Moss, Moribund Moss, Lichen, and Non-vegetated. In the development of the U-Net model, two methods were applied: Method (1) which utilised the original labelled data as those used for XGBoost; and Method (2) which incorporated XGBoost predictions as additional input to that version of U-Net. Results indicate that XGBoost demonstrated robust performance, exceeding 85% in key metrics such as precision, recall, and F1-score. The workflow suggested enhanced accuracy in the classification outputs for U-Net, as Method 2 demonstrated a substantial increase in precision, recall and F1-score compared to Method 1, with notable improvements such as precision for Healthy Moss (Method 2: 94% vs. Method 1: 74%) and recall for Stressed Moss (Method 2: 86% vs. Method 1: 69%). These findings contribute to advancing non-invasive monitoring techniques for the delicate Antarctic ecosystems, showcasing the potential of UAVs, high-resolution multispectral imagery, and ML models in remote sensing applications. Keywords: Antarctic specially protected area (ASPA); machine learning; gradient boosting; convolutional neural network; unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV); lichen; moss; Antarctic.
36273Czarnota P., Tuchowski M., Szymczyk R. & Piegdoń A. (2023): Lobaria pulmonaria as an umbrella species for the protection of epiphytic lichen diversity in Polish Carpathians. - Acta Mycologica, 58: 177130 [22 p.]. .
Lobaria pulmonaria has been subject to strict and zonal protection in Poland for almost 20 years, assuming the function of an umbrella species for the protection of natural biodiversity. Knowledge about this function, however, is limited, mainly due to a lack of relevant research. The current protection zone with a radius (R) of up to 50 m was significantly reduced in 2014 compared to the previous one from 2004 (R=100 m), mainly due to the needs of forest management. This legislative change became why it was worth making a scientific balance of potential gains and losses. Corticolous lichens growing at circular sites with a radius of 150 m around lungwort host-trees, divided into three zones R=50 m, R=51-100 m, R=101-150 m, were selected as the biological group for verification. Beech (Fagus sylvatica) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) trees with DBH ≥40 cm, randomly located along the target azimuths of 0°, 120°, and 240°, were selected for the study at 15 sites located in the Polish Carpathians (Gorce and Bieszczady Mts). The research hypothesis was that the size of the L. pulmonaria protection zone in the Polish Carpathians is important for the conservation of a greater diversity of corticolous lichens. Based on the list of species, we assessed the statistical significance of differences in diversity indices between the zones and between the Gorce and Bieszczady sites, which was justified by the result of the DCA analysis. Both the total number of species and old-growth forest, legally protected and endangered species in Poland (categories EN, CR) were analyzed. Generally, the current protection zone with a radius of 50 m protects approx. 70% of all epiphytic lichen diversity and the same share of other investigated groups, while increasing the protection zone to R=100 m saves almost 90% of species representing these groups of lichens. Keywords: Lobaria pulmonaria; nature protection; umbrella species; zonal conservation; lichen diversity; diversity index.
36272Fries T.M. (1866): Christian Stenhammar, ett biographiskt utkast. - Botaniska Notiser, 1866: 1–6. .
[in Swedish] obituary, biography
36271Anonymus [Thedenius K.F.] (1854): Tvenne nya systemer for Lafvarne. - Botaniska Notiser, 1854: 81–88. .
systematics; review of lichen genera including those described recently by Norman; emended by informations from Nylander
36270Fries T. (1853): Lichenes Sueciæ exsiccati, Fascicul. XII. redegit Theodor Fries. Upsaliæ, C. A. Leffler, 1852. 4:0. - Botaniska Notiser, 1853: 56–59. .
36269Hafellner J., Kockinger H. & Schriebl A. (1995): Erste Ergebnisse der Exkursion der Bryologisch-lichenologischen Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Mitteleuropa in Oberkärnten. - Carinthia II - Sonderhefte , 53: 43–45.
Ausgewählte Funde von Flechten und Moosen, die während der Exkursion der Bryologisch-lichenologischen Arbeitsgem einschaft für Mitteleuropa in Oberkärnten gelangen, werden vorgestellt. Erstmals in Kärnten werden nachgewiesen: Absconditella annexa (Arnold) Vězda, Caloplaca nivalis (Koerber) Th. Fr. und Lecanora lecidella Poelt sowie 5 Laubmoose und 18 Lebermoose.
36268Mager E., Brockhage R., Piepenbring M., Segers F., Yorou N.S., Ebersberger I. & Mangelsdorff R.D. (2024): Soil horizons harbor differing fungal communities. - Diversity, 16(2): 97 [18 p.].
In the present study, the mycobiomes of two soils with different ecological conditions located in Benin (West Africa) were investigated by environmental sequencing (Illumina MiSeq) of the ITS2-region of ribosomal DNA to gain information about the influence of pedological stratification on fungal diversity. For each soil depth and horizon, fungal diversity and community composition were analyzed as well as the potential impact of site characteristics, like vegetation, on these traits. The retrieved sequences revealed in all their replicates high similarities between fungal communities of samples from the same site and soil horizon, but differed within one site in their horizons. It was possible to assign a saprotrophic, symbiotrophic, or parasitic lifestyle to 24% of the recorded fungal mOTUs. Plant parasites were found in all samples in similar proportions. The presence of ectomycorrhizal fungi in one site could be linked to the presence of ectomycorrhizal trees. Overall, it was observed that fungal diversity decreased with increasing depth if only one horizon was present, whereas a deeper horizon present at one site contained communities with a distinct composition regarding the taxonomical affiliations and lifestyles of the fungi found compared to the upper layer. Hence, soil horizonation seems to drive differences in the composition of fungal communities, and should be regarded with more attention when analyzing soil mycobiomes. Keywords: Benin; ectomycorrhiza; eDNA; fungi; fungal lifestyle; inselberg; lichens; soil fungi; soil horizons.
36267Heiselmayer P. & Türk R. (1979): Die Tagung der bryologisch-lichenologischen Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Mitteleuropa vom 24. - 27. August 1978 in Salzburg. - Floristische Mitteilungen aus Salzburg, 6: 3–23.
Report on BLAM meeting in Austria
36266Döbbeler P. (1985): Ascomyceten auf Polytrichaceen. - Sydowia, 38: 41–64.
[in German wit English summary: ] Colonization of Polytrichum, Dawsonia and allied genera (Polytrichales, Musci acrocarpi) by fungi is a very common, or in some host species, even universal phenomenon. Presently there are more than 40 ascomycetes known to be (obligately) associated with the gametophytic stage of polytrichaceous mosses. They represent a heterogenous assemblage regarding their biological nature (saprophytic, parasitic, and gall-inducing species) and systematic position (members of at least six orders). All known species are listed, their hosts (about 20 species in all), with the infected organs indicated. Several morphological adaptations to the unique substratum are discussed. It is noteworthy that the microhabitats of the plants are often occupied by different specific fungi. The spaces between the leaf lamellae provide the most favourable niche. 21 ascomycetes have been demonstrated to inhabit these interspaces apparently without causing any symptoms. They offer striking examples of convergent evolution, e. g. extremely minute and reduced ascocarps.
36265Cezanne R. & Eichler M. (1996): Neue und bemerkenswerte Flechtenfunde in Darmstadt. - Hessische Floristische Briefe, 45: 33–51.
Germany; urban lichens; antropogenic substrates
36264Keil P., Buch C., Fuchs R., Schmidt C., Kricke R. & Aptroot A. (2012): Schwermetalltolerante Pflanzenarten auf dem Gelände des ehemaligen Erzbergwerkes Neudiepenbrock III in Mühlheim an der Ruhr-Selbeck [Records of heavy metal tolerant plant species from the area of the former ore mine Neudiepenbrock III in Mülheim an der Ruhr-Selbeck]. - Decheniana, 165: 95–114.
A remarkable number of plant species, tolerant against heavy metals, could be found in partly large populations on the area of Neudiepenbock III, a former ore mine in Mülheim an der Ruhr-Selbeck, that closed down about a hundred years ago. Amoung these plants, the bryophytes Scopelophila cataractae and Pohlia flexuosa as well as the lichens Acarospora rufescens, Stereocaulon vesuvianum var. nodulosum and Vezdaea rheocarpa were not known to be present in the westem part of the Ruhr area up to now. The occurrence of these species is relevant with concem to Northrhine-Westfalia (NRW) and Germany, e.g. Acarospora rufescens is possibly new for NRW and Vezdaea rheocarpa is only known from two other localities in the whole of Germany. In this text, the biogeographical importance, the relevance to the biodiversity of the agglomeration Ruhr area as well as the endangerment of the taxa is discussed. Keywords: ore mining, heavy metal tolerant plants, zinc flora, lichens, bryophytes, Ruhr area.
36263Zimmermann D.G. & Guderley E. (2017): Flechten auf Zollverein. - Abhandlungen aus dem Westfälischen Provinzial-Museum für Naturkunde, 87: 159–178.
[in German with English summary: ] In Zollverein Park in the last 20 years (1997 to 2017) in total 99 species were found, 98 lichens and one lichenicolous fungus. Especially regarding the occurence of ephemere ground lichens the big industrial waste land Zollverein with its open sparsely vegetated pioneer habitats is remarkable.
36262Dolnik C. & Neumann P. (2020): Die Flechten der Sorgwohlder Binnendünen (Kreis Rendsburg-Eckernförde). - Kieler Notizen zur Pflanzenkunde, 45: 176–187.
[in German with English abstract: ] Lichens oft the inland dunes of Sorgwohld (District Rendsburg-Eckernförde). The inland dunes of Sorgwohld are covered by heathland and small woodlands as part of a postglacial sand area in the north oft the city of Rendsburg. Inhabiting about 122 lichen species, the sandy dry grasslands and heathland with rare and endangered species such as Cladonia borealis, C. monomorpha, C. pulvinata, C. crispata var. cetrariiformis and C. zopfii make the area a lichen hotspot of Schleswig-Holstein. C. pulvinata was rediscovered in 2018 and in 2020 Bacidina mendax was reported for the first time in Schleswig-Holstein.
36261Kammann S., Leinweber P., Glaser K., Schiefelbein U., Dolnik C., Mikhailyuk T., Demchenko E., Heilmann E. & Karsten U. (2024): Successional development of the phototrophic community in biological soil crusts, along with soil formation on Holocene deposits at the Baltic Sea coast . - Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 11: 1266209 [23 p.]. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2023.1266209.
Harsh environmental conditions form habitats colonized by specialized primary microbial colonizers, e.g., biological soil crusts (biocrusts). These cryptogamic communities are well studied in drylands but much less in temperate coastal dunes, where they play a crucial role in ecological functions. Following two dune chronosequences, this study highlights the successional development of the biocrust’s community composition on the Baltic Sea coast. A vegetation survey, followed by morphological species determination, was conducted. Sediment/soil cores of the different dune types were analyzed to uncover the potential impacts of the biocrust community on initial soil formation processes, with special emphasis on biogeochemical phosphorous (P) transformations. Biocrust succession was characterized by a dune type-specific community composition, shifting from thinner algae-dominated biocrusts in dynamic dunes to more stable moss-dominated biocrusts in mature dunes. The change in the biocrust community structure was accompanied by an increase in Chl a, water, and organic matter content. In total, 25 algal and cyanobacterial species, 16 mosses, and 26 lichens across all sampling sites were determined. The pedological characterization of these cores elucidated initial processes of soil genesis, such as decalcification, acidification, and the accumulation of organic matter with dune and biocrust development. Furthermore, the chemistry of iron (Fe)-containing compounds such as the Fedithionite/Fetotal ratios confirmed mineral weathering and the beginning of soil profile development. The biocrusts accumulated P over time, while the P content in the underlying sediment did not change. That implies that biocrusts take up P from the geological parent material in the dunes, thereby accumulating available P in the ecosystem, which gets transferred into subsoil horizons through leaching or redeposition. The relative proportion of the bioavailable P pool (56% to 74% of Pt) increased with dune succession. That happened at the expense of more stable bound P, which was transformed into labile P. Thus, the level of plant available P along the dune chronosequences increased due to the microbial activity of the biocrust organisms. It can be concluded that biocrusts of temperate coastal dunes play a crucial role in maintaining their habitat by accumulating nutrients and organic matter, supporting soil development and subsequent vegetation. Keywords: biocrusts, chronosequence, dunes, phosphorus, phototrophic diversity, soil development.
36260Woodhouse J., Pérez-Ortega S., Roux C., Bertrand M. & Leavitt S.D. (2024): Diverse communities of endemic and cosmopolitan lineages at local sites in the Lecanora polytropa aggregate (Ascomycota). - Diversity, 16(2): 88 [13 p.].
Recent work has suggested exceptional species-level diversity in the lichen-forming Lecanora polytropa complex (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota). However, biogeographic patterns and the spatial structuring of this diversity remains poorly known. To investigate diversity across multiple spatial scales, we sampled members of this species complex from two distinct regions—the Pacific Coast Ranges in southern Alaska, USA, and montane habitats in Spain. We also included sequence data from several species within this complex that were recently described from populations in France. Using the standard DNA barcoding marker and a sequence-based species delimitation approach (ASAP), we inferred a total of 123 candidate species (SHs) within the Lecanora polytropa complex, 32 of which were sampled for the first time here. Of 123 SHs, 21 had documented intercontinental distributions, while the vast majority were found at much smaller spatial scales. From our samples collected from Alaska, USA, and Spain, representing 36 SHs, we found high genetic diversity occurring within each sampled site, but limited overlap among all sites. Mountain ranges in both regions had high proportions of endemic lineages, with the highest diversity and endemism occurring in mountain ranges in Spain. Our sequence data generally support the recent taxonomic proposals, and an integrative taxonomy may help partly resolve the taxonomic conundrums within this hyper-diverse lineage. Keywords: ASAP; glacial refugia; hyper-diverse; integrative taxonomy; Lecanoraceae; species delimitation.
36259He Z., Naganuma T. & Melville H.I.A.S. (2024): Bacteriomic profiles of rock-dwelling lichens from the Venezuelan Guiana Shield and the South African Highveld Plateau. - Microorganisms, 12(2): 290 [18 p.].
Lichens are not only fungal–algal symbiotic associations but also matrices for association with bacteria, and the bacterial diversity linked to lichens has been receiving more attention in studies. This study compares the diversity and possible metabolism of lichen-associated bacteria from saxicolous foliose and fruticose taxa Alectoria, Canoparmelia, Crocodia, Menegazzia, Usnea, and Xanthoparmelia from the Venezuelan Guiana Shield and the South African Highveld Plateau. We used DNA extractions from the lichen thalli to amplify the eukaryotic 18S rRNA gene (rDNA) and the V3–V4 region of the bacterial 16S rDNA, of which amplicons were then Sanger- and MiSeq-sequenced, respectively. The V3–V4 sequences of the associated bacteria were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) ascribed to twelve bacterial phyla previously found in the rock tripe Umbilicaria lichens. The bacterial OTUs emphasized the uniqueness of each region, while, at the species and higher ranks, the regional microbiomes were shown to be somewhat similar. Nevertheless, regional biomarker OTUs were screened to predict relevant metabolic pathways, which implicated different regional metabolic features. Keywords: V3–V4 region; 16S rDNA; MiSeq; OTUs; biogeography; metabolism; host-associated bacteria.
36258Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1889): B. Flechten. – In: Hydrographisches Amt des Reichs-Marine-Amts (ed.), Die Forschungsreise S.M.S. „Gazelle“ in den Jahren 1874 bis 1876 unter Kommando des Kapitän zur See Freiherrn von Schleinitz. IV. Theil Botanik, Pilze und Flechten. - Berlin: E. S. Mittler und Sohn, pp. 6–16. .
36257Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1889): Lichenes Sebastianopolitani lecti a cl. Dr. Glaziou. - Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano, 21: 353–364. .
36256Canêz L.S., Koch N.M., Barbosa T.D., Kitaura M.J., Spielmann A.A., Honda N.K., Jungbluth P., Gerlach A., Lücking R. & Aptroot A. (2021): Lichenized Ascomycota from the Pantanal in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. - In: Damasceno-Junior G.A. & Pott A. (eds.), Flora and Vegetation of the Pantanal Wetland, Plant and Vegetation 18, p. 315–363, Springer, Cham.
Chapter in book; Brazil; Fellhanera vulgata (Malme) Lücking comb. nov.; Porina cryptostomoides Lücking, Aptroot & Spielmann nom. nov. 119 taxa were previously reported in the literature as occurring in the Pantanal. These previous data combined with the species reported by us sum up to a total of 165 taxa including four infraspecifc taxa; thus, 46 new taxa were added to the list of lichen fungi known from the Pantanal. The previously reported taxa are not explicitly treated below, except the new combination Fellhanera vulgata and the new replacement name Porina cryptostomoides. Opegrapha rissoensis Redinger is a new record for Brazil, Agonimia Zahlbr., Crypthonia Frisch & G. Thor, Marcelaria Aptroot, M.P. Nelsen & Parnmen and Neoprotoparmelia Garima Singh, Lumbsch & I. Schmitt are genera newly reported for Mato Grosso do Sul state (●), and 12 species are reported to occur in Mato Grosso do Sul for the frst time (*). These include Parmotrema confusum Hale, reported before only from Mato Grosso state, P. soredioaliphaticum Estrabou & Adler, cited only for Rio Grande do Sul state, and Peltula auriculata, which was previously reported to Roraima state (Schultz and Aptroot 2008).
36255Потемкин А.Д., Ицык Т.В. & Макеева Е.К. [Potemkin A.D., Itsyk T.V. & Makeeva E.K.] (2023): Наследие и библиография А. А. Еленкина [The heritage and bibliography of A. A. Elenkin]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 57(2): D47–D70.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] A. A. Elenkin’s contribution to the development of botany in Russia is multifaceted: as a scientist, organizer, editor, and popularizer of science. The most important aspect of Eleinkin’s heritage is the establishment of the foundations for the development of cryptogamic botany in Russia. The presented bibliography of 472 publications, including 201 critical reviews at the end of the list, is based on a generalization of previously published bibliographies, a detailed list of works by A. A. Elenkin until January 1, 1939, various publications and reprints. The titles and references to most publications have been verified from primary sources. Elenkin published 17 monographs with a volume of almost 5 000 pages, 87 works on algae and algology, 96 on lichens and lichenology, 55 publications on fungi and phytopathology, and 16 on mosses, 18 popular scientific publications, including six monographs, one article on microbiology, one on entomology. The article provides a complete bibliography of A. A. Elenkin and selected thematic lists in electronic supplements. Keywords: algae, articles, botany, bryophytes, cyanobacteria, fungi, lichens, publications, review, 20th century, Еlenkin, Russia, USSR.
36254Давыдов Д.А. [Davydov D.A.] (2023): Александр Александрович Еленкин — ключевая фигура российской ботаники начала XX века [Alexander Alexandrovich Elenkin as a key person in Russian botany at the beginning of XX century]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 57(2): D17–D46.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] This year marks 150th anniversary of the birth of the outstanding Russian cryptogamist, Alexander Alexandrovich Elenkin. He is renowned as the pioneer of the Russian cyanobacterial science school and one of the founding figures in Russian lichenology. A. A. Elenkin has made a titanic work on describing the flora of blue-green algae of the USSR, and created the first domestic identification book of this group. In addition to fundamental scientific research, which has not lost its relevance to this day, Elenkin prepared a pleiad of brilliant students who continued the development of Russian cryptogamic botany. It was through the efforts of A. A. Elenkin that the process of development of individual branches of Russian botanical science — algology, lichenology, bryology, was launched, which spread to many scientific centers of Russia. Keywords: blue-green algae, cyanobacteria, cryptogamic organisms, history of study, Russia.
36253Андреев М.П. & Потемкин А.Д. [Andreev M.P. & Potemkin А.D.] (2023): Александр Еленкин — основоположник криптогамной ботаники в России [Alexander Elenkin — the founder of cryptogamic botany in Russia]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 57(2): D1–D16.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Alexander Alexandrovich Elenkin is considered as the founder of the Russian lichenological school and one of the founders of other areas of cryptogamic botany in Russia — algology, mycology, phytopathology, and bryology. Elenkin was born 150 years ago in Warsaw, but almost all his life since 1898 he worked at the Botanical Institute in St. Petersburg. Elenkin has created the Cryptogamic Herbarium, in the walls of which brilliant scientists, specialists in various fields of cryptogamic botany grew up under his leadership. The life of the talented and enthusiastic scientist, teacher and organizer, who devoted himself entirely to science, was not easy, especially at the end, and tragically ended in 1942 in Kazan. Keywords: algology, bibliography, bryology, Cryptogamic Herbarium, Elenkin, history of science, Komarov Botanical Institute, lichenology, mycology, phytopathology, Russia.
36252Himelbrant D.E., Stepanchikova I.S., Neshataeva V.Yu., Kirichenko V.E., Skvortsov K.I. & Timofeeva E.A. (2023): Further knowledge on the lichen biota of Koryakia (Northern Kamchatka, Russia). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 57(2): L29–L37.
Based on collections of Koryak geobotanical expeditions of the Komarov Botanical Institute, 23 species of lichens and four lichenicolous fungi are reported as new to Koryakia, nine of them are also new to Kamchatka. Ephebe hispidula, Lambiella impavida, Rhizocarpon simillimum, Rhizoplaca opiniconensis, and Vestergrenopsis isidiata are new to the Russian Far East. Altogether 529 species of lichens and allied fungi are currently known for Koryakia. Keywords: Koryak Nature Reserve, Beringia, North Pacific.
36251Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1890): Lichenes, quos elaboravit. – In: Die internationale Polarforschung 1882–1883. Die deutschen Expeditionen und ihre Ergebnisse, Band 2(12): 322–327. - Hamburg: G. Neumayer im Auftrage der Deutschen Polar-Kommission. Druck von H. S. Hermann Berlin, (Sep. 7 pp.). .
36250Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1890): Lichenes epiphylli novi. - Genevae: H. Georg., 22 pp.. .
36249Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1891): Lichenes. – In: T. Durand & H. Pittier, Primitiae florae costaricensis. - Bulletin de la Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique, 30(1): 49–97. .
36248Lõhmus A., Runnel K., Palo A., Leis M., Nellis R., Rannap R., Remm L., Rosenvald R. & Lõhmus P. (2021): Value of a broken umbrella: abandoned nest sites of the black stork (Ciconia nigra) host rich biodiversity. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 30: 3647–3664.
Protecting habitats for charismatic vertebrates can provide an ‘umbrella’ for less conspicuous organisms, especially when these are threatened by the same processes. However, such a conservation scheme is vulnerable to the extirpation of the focal species. We studied wider biodiversity values in long protected black stork (Ciconia nigra) nest sites, which were abandoned by the bird and thus legally subject to de-listing. In 20 abandoned nest sites in Estonia, we (i) mapped breeding birds within 600 m from the stork nest, and (ii) carried out time-limited surveys of lichens, polypore fungi, vascular plants and bryophytes in 2-ha plots. The breeding bird assemblages (64 species recorded) included 19 red-listed species, and showed no clear aggregation to the immediate surroundings of the stork nest. We recorded 740 plant and fungal species, of which 134 (18%) were of conservation concern (nationally protected, red-listed or extremely rare). Across the 2-ha plots, the numbers of the species of conservation concern varied more than three-fold (maximum 42 species), being afected notably by dead wood accumulation over time and presence of nemoral broad-leaved trees. The results demonstrate that many abandoned nest sites of the black stork have broader biodiversity signifcance, both due to the bird’s habitat requirements and the natural development during the protection. Expanding the umbrella function to sites abandoned by a focal species, but intact from anthropogenic degradation, can thus be a cost-efective conservation approach due to its low additional administrative burden. In most jurisdictions, the assessment procedure for such situations should be formalized, however. Keywords: Biodiversity · Conservation dilemma · Cost-efectiveness · Forest protection · Passive restoration · Umbrella species.
36247Brackel W. v. (2023): Weitere Funde von flechtenbewohnenden Pilzen in Bayern – Beitrag zu einer Checkliste VIII. - Archive for Lichenology, 35: 1–22.
A list of 68 lichenicolous fungi recently found in Bavaria is presented. The new species Endococcus montanus Brackel, Muellerella rhizocarpicola Brackel and Sphaerellothecium umbilicariae Brackel & E. Zimm. are described. New to Germany are Biatoropsis minuta, B. usnearum s. str., Epibryon conductrix, Muellerella polyspora, Tremella parietinae and Zyzygomyces aipoliae, new to Bavaria are Endococcus macrosporus, E. stigma s. str., Llimoniella groenlandiae, Nectriopsis cariosae and Trimmatostroma vandenboomii. Moreover, eight species noted in the literature as new for Bavaria are listed.
36246John V. & Güvenç Ş. (2023): Additions to the checklist and bibliography of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Turkey II. - Archive for Lichenology, 34: 1–47.
Increase and gaps in the knowledge about the biota of lichens and lichenicolous fungi in Turkey in the last 4 years are documented, including some supplements. Since the compilations by JOHN & TÜRK (2017) and JOHN et al. (2020) 32 species of lichens and 17 lichenicolous fungi were newly published for Turkey. A total of 689 additional species (59 lichenicolous and 636 lichenized) are new for one or more provinces. Lecanora albula, Placynthium flabellosum, Ramalina bourgaeana, R. elegans and R. tortuosa are specified here as new for Turkey and 134 species (2 lichenicolous and 132 lichenized) as new for provinces. 31 publications were evaluated. The knowledge has improved in 40 provinces.
36245Ernst G. & Hanstein U. (2001): Epiphytische Flechten im Forstamt Sellhorn – Naturschutzgebiet Lüneburger Heide. - NNA-Berichte, 14: 28–85. .
36244Dolnik C., Neumann P. & Wagner-Ahlfs C. (2019): Die Flechten des Satrupholmer Moores. - Kieler Notizen zur Pflanzenkunde, 44: 93–105. .
[in German with English abstrcat: ] The lichens of Satrupholm raised bog. The raised bog Satrupholmer Moor and fens of the former area of the lake Rüde belong to the landscape Anglia in northeastern Schleswig-Holstein. In the years 1934/35 the lichenologist C.F.E. Erichsen discovered 72 lichens and related fungi, which are restricted to 65 species today. During field excursions in 2018/19 about 108 species were found. This reflects a tremendous change in landscape and biotops of the area. Several terricolous lichens of open moor heathland vanished and with succession to bushland and planting of trees many epiphytic lichens occured. Remarkble lichens for Schleswig-Holstein are Sclerophora amabilis and Opegrapha viridipruinosa on Sambucus nigra.
36243Thüs H. (1993): Flechten der Kreuzwertheimer Umgebung. - Naturkundliche Beiträge des DJN, 27: 41–49. .
36242Eger W. (2004): Flechtenkartierung im Kreis Waldeck-Frankenberg. - Vogelkundliche Hefte Edertal, 30: 235–243. .
36241Frahm J.-P. & Brown G. (1996): Die Moos- und Flechtenflora des Tombergs 1975 und 1995. - Decheniana, 149: 70–77. .
In 1975, the local botanist H. Breuer published a list containing 67 species of bryophytes and 31 lichens from the Tomberg, a small hill near Rheinbach, district of Euskirchen, North-Rhine Westphalia. 20 years later, the area was re-investigated. 16 bryophyte species were discovered new, and 20 species listed by Breuer could not be confirmed. This points to strong dynamic processes operating in the bryophyte flora which can be attributed to changes in certain habitat conditions. Such marked changes in the flora can be interpreted as indicating unstable ecological conditions. The changes found at the Tomberg are much more pronounced than at comparable natural areas such as the Vosges, but much less pronounced than in areas which have undergone considerable ecological changes, like the North Sea island Juist. In the present study, a total of 49 lichen species were recorded for the Tomberg. A large proportion of those (23) found by Breuer were confirmed. 2 epiphytic species have most probably become extinct. The improvement in air quality, particularly the decrease in sulphur dioxide levels, appears to have enabled a number of epiphytic species to recolonize the area.
36240Ruprecht U., Pfefferkorn-Dellali V., Reiter R., Berger F. & Türk R. (2016): Arten- und Biotopschutz für besonders seltene und gefährdete Flechtenstandorte in Oberösterreich. - ÖKO.L: Zeitschrift für Ökologie, Natur- und Umweltschutz, 38/4: 13–18. .
popular paper; Upper Austria [in German]
36239Reich F. & Friedmann A. (2021): Immissionsbezogene Flechtenkartierung in Augsburg: Ein Vergleich der Jahre 1985, 2008 und 2017. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 91: 77–94. .
[in German with English summary: ] With the aim of assessing the air quality in the city of Augsburg, a mapping of the epiphytic lichen vegetation was carried out in 2017 according to the VDI guideline 3957 (bioindication) and presented in an air quality map. A “low” to “moderate” air quality was determined for the investigated area. Compared to the air quality mapping results of 1985 and 2008, there are no more lichen-free areas or areas with “very low” air quality recorded. In addition to a few improvements in some city districts, air quality has deteriorated in almost half of the study area compared to the last mapping. The reason for this is the high eutrophication of the urban area. This is most visible in the change in the species spectrum. Nitrophytes are increasing strongly, while acidophytes are on the retreat. Key Words: lichen monitoring, bioindication, urban air pollution, eutrophication.
36238Bresinsky A. (1972): In memoriam Dr. Hans Doppelbaur und Dr. Hanna Doppelbaur. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 43: 149–152. .
obituary; bibliography
36237Schoenau v. [von Schoenau K.] (1936): Josef Anders †. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 22: 140–141. .
36236Bergner W. (2018): Dimelaena oreina (Ach.) Norman (Lichenes, Physciaceae) – Erstnachweis für Bayern. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 88: 141–142. .
36235Breitfeld M., Lauerer M. & Aas G. (2021): Prof. Dr. Eduard Hertel. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 91: 302–307. .
obituary; bibliography
36234Jeschke M. & Kiehl K. (2006): Vergleich der Kryptogamenvegetation alter und junger magerrasen im Naturschutzgebiet „Garchinger Heide“. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 76: 221–234. .
[in German with English abstract: ] In 2003 and 2004, the cryptogam vegetation of young and old calcareous grasslands of the nature reserve „Garchinger Heide“ was studied. Pleurocarpous mosses of the Abietinellion Giac. ex Neumann 1971, which are characteristic for calcareous grasslands, occur in the ancient grassland. The cryptogam layer of ex-arable fields within the nature reserve mainly consists of Thiddium abietinum and Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus, often growing in monospecific stands. The „Rollfeld“ (topsoil removal 1945) is characterized by a high species density of acrocarpous mosses and lichens. Biyophyte mats of Hypnum cupressiforme var. lacunosum and acrocarpous mosses of the Tortelletum inclinatae Stod. 1937 form a distinctive pattem. On bare soil epigaeic lichens of the Toninio-Psoretum decipientis were able to establish in most parts of the „Rollfeld“. Results of a grid mapping showed that they were not able to colonize the whole available area. During succession species-poor Cladonia stands slowly replace the epigaeic lichens and are outcompeted later by vascular plant species.
36233Knoph J.-G. (2001): Die Flechte Porpidia albocaerulescens in Bayern, sowie ein weiterer Nachweis aus Frankreich und der Erstnachweis für Nepal. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 71: 17–19. .
36232Türk R. & Wunder H. (1994): Erde und Bodenmoose bewohnende Flechten im Biosphärenreservat Berchtesgaden. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 64: 135–146. .
Aus dem Biosphärenreservat Berchtesgaden wird eine Liste der erd- und moosbewohnenden Flechten mit Angaben über ihre Verbreitung (auf der Basis von Meßtischblättern) und über ihre bevorzugten Höhenstufen mitgeteilt.
36231Wittmann H. & Türk R. (1994): Flechten und Flechtenparasiten der Ostalpen II. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 64: 189–204. .
Es werden Funde von 51 seltenen oder bisher übersehenen Flechten und lichenicolen Pilzen aus dem Ostalpenraum - vornehmlich aus Österreich - mitgeteilt. Verrucaria geophila wird erstmals in Mitteleuropa nachgewiesen, der Fund von Stigmidium eudine ist Erstnachweis für Österreich. Die bisher bekannte österreichische Verbreitung von Bacidia naegelii, Caloplaca irrubescens, Collema fasciculare, Lecanora demissa, Lecanora subaurea, Parmelia submontana, Physcia dimidiata und Physcia wainioi wird im Rasternetz der floristischen Kartierung dargestellt.
36230Yavuz M. (2020): Lichens in al-Biruni’s Kitab al-Saydanah fi al-Tibb. - Early Science and Medicine, 25(2): 152–172. DOI: 10.1163/15733823-00252P03.
Lichens are understood to be symbiotic organisms consisting of mycobiont and photobiont partners. This mutual partnership results in the production of unique secondary metabolites, which are used in contemporary pharmacy and medicine. The purpose of this study is to explore the uses of lichens in a particular period of medieval pharmacology: it retraced the relevant Arabic terms for, and descriptions of, lichens in the Kitab al-Saydanah fi al-Tibb , the “Book of Pharmacy in Medicine” written by Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni (973-1048). It will be shown that al-Biruni used اشنة ( ushnah ) for naming epiphytic lichens and حزاز الصخر ( hazaz al-sakhr ) for saxicolous ones. The information about lichens transmitted in his text is in accordance with that of his contemporary Ibn Sina, the famous physician and philosopher. In that period, the study, transmission and updating of the legacy of Antiquity promoted and influenced the use of lichens in Arabic and Islamic pharmacology and medicine. Keywords: Islamic medicine – lichens –medieval pharmacy – medieval botany – al-Biruni – materia medica.
36229Hollinger J., Scott P.A. & Lendemer J.C. (2024): Two new species of lichenicolous Arthonia (Arthoniaceae) from southeastern North America highlight the need for comparative studies of lichen parasites and their hosts. - Bryologist , 127(1): 2–21.
Arthonia frostiicola and A. galligena are described as new to science based on collections from mountainous regions of southeastern North America. Arthonia frostiicola infects the saxicolous lichen Dirinaria frostii, producing emarginate black apothecia which erupt from within the host thallus. It is characterized by a dark hypothecium and 1-septate, obovoid ascospores which turn brownish and verruculose in age. It is known from five collections made in the southern Appalachian Mountains and Ozark Mountains in southeastern North America. Arthonia galligena produces galls in the thallus and apothecia of the corticolous lichens Lecanora masana and L. rugosella, and is apparently endemic to the high elevations of the southern Appalachian Mountains. It is characterized by a variably pigmented, pale to red-brown hypothecium and 2-septate, macrocephalic ascospores which turn brownish and verruculose in age. Keys to the species of Arthonia on Caliciales and Lecanoraceae are provided. Keywords: New taxa, biodiversity, endemism, host-parasite relationships, lichenicolous fungi, taxonomy.
36228Bacchus B.R. & Da Silva P.N.B. (2021): Host plant specificity of corticolous lichens in urban and suburban New Amsterdam, Berbice, Guyana . - GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 14(1): 101–108.
In this study, host plant - lichen specificity was investigated. Data was collected from 1000m2 sampling plots at each of four locations with an established 50m x 20m plot at each site. Forty-one trees from across five species were examined using (10cm by 50cm) ladder quadrats on tree trunks (N, S, E, W) at 150cm height. A total of 14978 individual lichens were identified that yielded 10 families, 13 genera and 18 species. Swietenia mahagoni showed the highest average corticolous lichen species composition, followed by Terminalia catappa and Melicoccus bijugales respectively. Cocos nucifera had a higher average species recorded than Mangifera indica. Crustose lichens were the most prominent corticolous lichens observed (61%) with the most individuals in Graphidaceae and Arthoniaceae. Foliose lichens (28%) showed the most abundance in Parmeliaceae, Caliciaceae and Collemataceae. Of the taxa recorded, 22.2% were restricted to specific trees. C. parasitica, H. laevigata, U. cornuta were restricted to S. mahagoni. D. applanata was restricted to C. nucifera. 22.2% of recorded species were found on all of the tree hosts that were examined. Bacidia laurocerasi, Flavoparmelia caperata, Flavoparmelia soredians and Graphina anguina. S. mahagoni hosted 88.9% of all recorded species. Swietenia mahagoni showed the highest average of recorded corticolous lichen species of all host trees with 7.58. Mangifera indica showed the lowest average with 4. The maximum number of species (10) was recorded on one S. mahagoni tree. Keywords: Corticolous lichens; Host plant specificity; Urban, Suburban; New Amsterdam, Guyana
36227Bacchus B.R. & Da Silva P.N.B. (2021): A preliminary investigation of corticolous lichen diversity in urban and suburban sites in New Amsterdam, Berbice, Guyana. - International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 11(2): 277–286. DOI: 10.29322/IJSRP.11.02.2021.p11033.
The aim of this study was to document and compare the corticolous lichen species diversity present on barks of trees at four study sites in urban and suburban environments in New Amsterdam, Guyana. A 50m by 20m plot was demarcated within each of the four sites. Healthy mature trees within the each were sampled to determine species richness, evenness and diversity of corticolous lichens communities. Forty-one healthy individual trees from five species were sampled using (10cm by 50cm) ladder quadrats on the tree trunk (N, S, E, W) at 150cm height. A total of 14978 individual lichens were identified from 10 families, 13 genera and 18 species. Shannon Diversity Index and Simpson’s Diversity Index, Pielou’s Index, Menhinick’s Index and Whittaker’s diversity index were calculated and used to compare the lichen diversity. The results showed that species richness, species evenness and diversity was higher at the urban study sites than at the suburban sites. Index terms: Corticolous lichens, diversity, urban, suburban, Guyana.
36226Rashmi S. & Rajkumar H.G. (2019): Diversity of lichens along elevational gradients in forest ranges of Chamarajanagar district, Karnataka state. - International Journal of Scientific Research in Biological Sciences, 6(1): 97–104.
The lichen species richness in Chamarajanagar district in Karnataka, India were assessed using altitudinal gradient, in order to compare distribution patterns of different growth forms, dominant families and diversity index. Four major forest ranges, Biligiriranga Hills, Himavad Gopalaswamy Hills, Malay Mahadeshwara Hills, and Shivanasamudra Falls were surveyed and a total of 97 lichens, belonging to 47 genera and 25 families were recorded. Physciaceae was found to be dominant family by 18 species under 8 genera, followed by Parmeliaceae with 16 species under 4 genera. Crustose type was dominated with 51%, followed by foliose type with 38%. Malay Mahadeshwara hills had highest lichen species richness and harboured 67 species, of which, 36 species were crustose type and 28 species were foliose type. Shannon-weiner index ranged from 3.85- 2.45 and Simpson index of diversity ranged from 0.02-0.09. Luxuriant growth of lichens was recorded at the altitude of mid elevation with degree of abundance, density, frequency and distribution of the lichen species compared to other elevation. The present study provided baseline data of lichen diversity, which helps in understanding the relationship between distribution of lichen species along different elevation bands and vegetation types. Keywords— Biodiversity, Deciduous forest, Physciaceae, Corticolous, MM Hills.
36225Bhagarathi L.K., Maharaj G., Da Silva P.N.B. & Subramanian G. (2022): A review of the diversity of lichens and what factors affect their distribution in the neotropics. - GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 20(3): 27–63.
The purpose of this paper is to review published literature on the diversity of lichens and the factors that affect its distribution in the neotropics. The systematic method was used to research works of literature on “Diversity of lichens and what factors affect their distribution in the neotropics.” A total of forty-nine research papers published between the years 1996 to 2021 was selected and utilized for this review. The results obtained was presented in tables. A subjective approach was then used to select the subtopics: lichens and their impact- benefits and importance. In this paper, twelve (12) neotropical countries were evaluated and a grand total of four hundred twenty-seven (427) lichens species of lichens from fifty-eight (58) lichen families were presented. Lichen distribution and habitats, diversity of lichens and factors that affect the distribution of lichens in the neotropics were also discussed. The published papers established that lichens have a rich diversity globally, they have many benefits and importance, they are widely distributed across the landscape and are found in a wide range of habitats. Many abiotic factors such as temperature, pH, humidity, moisture, latitude, topography, light availability and anthropogenic activities by human beings e.g., pollution and deforestation play a heavy influence on lichens and their distribution in the neotropics as well as globally. More studies should be done in the neotropics since data is limited and in demand. Keywords: Neotropics; Foliicolous lichen; Lichenicolous fungus; Distribution; Diversity; Factors.
36224Bhagarathi L.K., Da Silva P.N.B., Subramanian G., Maharaj G., Kalika-Singh S., Pestano F., Phillips-Henry Z. & Cossiah C. (2023): An integrative review of the biology and chemistry of lichens and their ecological, ethnopharmacological, pharmaceutical and therapeutic potential. - GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 23(3): 92–119.
This purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate published literature on the biology and chemistry of lichens and their ecological, ethnopharmacological, pharmaceutical and therapeutic potential. A systematic method was used to gather literature on “the biology and chemistry of lichens and their ecological, ethnopharmacological, pharmaceutical and therapeutic potential.” A total of fifty-five research papers published between the years 1963 to 2022 were selected and utilized for this review. Tables were used to present the results. The subtopics were then chosen using a subjective method: lichens and their benefits/ importance. In this paper, eight (8) ecological functions and fourteen (14) pharmaceutical properties and therapeutic potentials were evaluated and presented. Lichen biology and chemistry and their roles in ethnopharmacological are also discussed. Additionally, lichens as pioneer and keystone species and their role as bioindicators to assess ecosystem health, sustainability and productivity was also addressed in this research. The published papers established that lichens have many benefits and importance, they are capable of synthesizing a range of chemicals that are beneficial to us and they are used in both traditional and pharmaceutical preparation of different treatments to combat many different diseases that affect human beings. More studies to investigate the uses of lichens should be done, especially in neotropics as there is a paucity of data and in this biodiversity rich region. Keywords: Lichens; Biology; Chemistry; Ecological; Ethnopharmacological; Pharmaceutical; Therapeutic potential.
36223Bhagarathi L.K., Da Silva P.N.B. & Subramanian G. (2024): Lichen-host plant specificity on citrus plant species in coastal agroecosystems at No. 63 Benab, Berbice, Guyana. - World Journal of Advanced Research and Reviews, 21(1): 2342–2355.
This was a preliminary study into host-plant lichen specificity at two coastal agroecosystems sites at No. 63 Benab, Berbice, Guyana. For each of the two sites, sampling plots of 2000 meter square (2000 m2) were demarcated and at 50 m × 40 m study plots were established. Healthy mature trees were identified in each plot to assess the lichen communities host-plant specificity. Twine was used to mark the trunks of 40 healthy individual trees in the North, South, East, and West quadrants (each measuring 50 by 100 cm). A total of 52,311 lichens were recorded and these were placed into fifteen (15) families, twenty-three (23) genera, and thirty (30) species. Crustose lichens were the most abundant in the study. Cocos nucifera had the highest average number of lichens recorded and accounted for forty-five percent (45 %) of the overall host trees that were sampled. Four (4) species of lichens (Flavoparmelia soredians, Dirinaria applanate, Lecanora muralis and Lecanora conizaeoide) showed specificity towards all host trees in the study. Twenty-six (26) species did not show specificity to all twelve (12) of the host tree species sampled. Twelve (12) species of lichens (Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia soredians, Flavoparmelia caperta, Dirinaria applanate, Chrysothrix candelaris, Lecanora muralis, Lecanora conizaeoide, Arthonia cinnabarina, Arthonia purinata, Candelaria concolor, Lepraria lobificans and Graphis elegans) showed host tree specificity for four (4) species of citrus trees sampled. 13.3 % species were found on all tree hosts: Flavoparmelia soredians, Dirinaria applanate, Lecanora muralis and Lecanora conizaeoide. Mangifera indica hosted 76.7 % (23 of 30 species) of all recorded species. Tamarindus indica hosted the least number of lichen species, 26.7 % of lichens (8 of 30 species). Given that a lot of development is considerably taking place in the coastal areas of Guyana which may increase the instances of pollution, studies of this type can be beneficial since prior research has established the importance of lichens as good indicators of air pollution. Keywords: Lichens; Host Plant Specificity; Citrus; Coastal ecosystems; Guyana.
36222Poelt J. (1989): Maximilian Steiner 1904-1988. Ein Nachruf. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 60: 219–223. .
36221Dethlefs M. & Kaiser T. (2000): Kehren die Bartflechten zurück? Beobachtungen aus der Südheide . - Beiträge zur Naturkunde Niedersachsens, 53: 22–29. .
36220Pudwill R. (2000): Die epiphytische Flechtenflora im Raum Gifhorn (Ost-Niedersachsen). - Beiträge zur Naturkunde Niedersachsens, 53: 61–67. .
Im Übergangsbereich zwischen dem Ballungsraum Braunschweig und der Lüneburger Heide wurde im überwiegend land- und forstwirtschaftlich geprägten Untersuchungsgebiet die epiphytische Flechtenflora kartiert. Insgesamt sind im Untersuchungsgebiet bis auf wenige Ausnahmen in Niedersachsen häufige Arten anzutreffen. Es wurden 21 Arten gefunden. Davon sind 5 Arten in Niedersachsen im Bestand gefährdet (Rote-Liste-Arten). Fast die Hälfte der Arten trat mit einer geringen Stetigkeit von bis zu 20 % auf. Dazu zählen insbesondere die gegenüber Luftverschmutzungen relativ empfindlichen Gattungen Usnea, Bryoria, Ramalina, von denen nur wenige Vorkommen junger Pflanzen gefunden wurden. Möglicherweise zeigt dies eine beginnende Ausbreitung der empfindlichen Arten.
36219Spielmann A.A. (2023): Líquen da vez: Crocodia aurata (Ach.) Link, 1833. - Boletim Micobiota, 3(4): 25–26. .
36218Spielmann A.A., Aptroot A., Cáceres M.E.S., Canêz L.S., Dias I.P.R.C., Dal Forno M., Honda N.K., Jungbluth P., Käffer M.I., Koch N.M., Micheletti A.C., Pereira E. & Fraga Junior C.A.V. (2023): Brasil: o país dos liquens!. - Boletim Micobiota, 3(4): 1–13. .
[in Portuguese] Popular paper on lichens and their research in Brazil
36217Эктова С.Н. & Соковнина С.Ю. [Ektova S.N. & Sokovnina S.U.] (2023): Раздел 5. Лишайники [Lichens]. - In: Красная книга Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа: животные, растения, грибы. 3-е издание [Red Data Book of Yamal-Nenetsk autonomous district - animals, plants, fungi. 3-rd edition], p. 287–296, Салехард: Департамент природных ресурсов и экологии Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа [. .
36216Zhang Y., Yin Y., Wang L., Printzen C., Wang L. & Wang X. (2024): Two new species of Rhizoplaca (Lecanoraceae) from Southwest China. - MycoKeys, 101: 233–248.
In this study, two new species, Rhizoplaca adpressa Y. Y. Zhang & Li S. Wang and R. auriculata Y. Y. Zhang, Li S. Wang & Printzen, are described from Southwest China, based on their morphology, phylogeny and chemistry. In phylogeny, the two new species are monophyletic, and sister to each other within Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca-complex. Rhizoplaca adpressa is characterized by its placodioid and closely adnate thallus, pale green and heavily pruinose upper surface, narrow (ca. 1 mm) and white free margin on the lower surface of marginal squamules, the absence of a lower cortex, and its basally non-constricted apothecia with orange discs that turn reddish-brown at maturity. Rhizoplaca auriculata is characterized by its squamulose to placodioid thallus, yellowish green and marginally pruinose squamules, wide (1−3 mm) and bluish-black free margin on the lower surface of marginal squamules, the absence of a lower cortex, and its basally constricted apothecia with persistently orange discs. Rhizoplaca adpressa and R. auriculata share the same secondary metabolites of usnic and placodiolic acids. Key words: new taxa, Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca-complex, R. melanophthalma-complex, saxicolous lichen.
36215Zhang W., Ran Q., Li H. & Lou H. (2024): Endolichenic fungi: a promising medicinal microbial resource to discover bioactive natural molecules—an update. - Journal of Fungi, 10(2): 99 [49 p.].
Lichens are some of the most unique fungi and are naturally encountered as symbiotic biological organisms that usually consist of fungal partners (mycobionts) and photosynthetic organisms (green algae and cyanobacteria). Due to their distinctive growth environments, including hot deserts, rocky coasts, Arctic tundra, toxic slag piles, etc., they produce a variety of biologically meaningful and structurally novel secondary metabolites to resist external environmental stresses. The endofungi that live in and coevolve with lichens can also generate abundant secondary metabolites with novel structures, diverse skeletons, and intriguing bioactivities due to their mutualistic symbiosis with hosts, and they have been considered as strategically significant medicinal microresources for the discovery of pharmaceutical lead compounds in the medicinal industry. They are also of great importance in the fundamental research field of natural product chemistry. In this work, we conducted a comprehensive review and systematic evaluation of the secondary metabolites of endolichenic fungi regarding their origin, distribution, structural characteristics, and biological activity, as well as recent advances in their medicinal applications, by summarizing research achievements since 2015. Moreover, the current research status and future research trends regarding their chemical components are discussed and predicted. A systematic review covering the fundamental chemical research advances and pharmaceutical potential of the secondary metabolites from endolichenic fungi is urgently required to facilitate our better understanding, and this review could also serve as a critical reference to provide valuable insights for the future research and promotion of natural products from endolichenic fungi. Keywords: lichens; endolichenic fungi; secondary metabolites; biological activity.
36214Šoun J. (2023): Katalog lišejníků Brd [A catalogue of lichens of the Brdy Mts]. - Erica, Plzeň, 30: 55–91. .
The catalogue summarizes the published information on lichens, lichenicolous fungi and small non-lichenized fungi often studied by lichenologists from the area of Brdy Mts in a narrow concept (Western and Central Bohemia, Czech Republic). 77 literature sources were excerpted. In total, the catalogue includes 469 taxa of lichens (including aggregates, etc.), 15 species of lichenicolous fungi and 10 species of non-lichenized fungi frequently studied by lichenologists. Cetraria commixta, Hypogymnia vittata, Nephroma laevigatum and Pleopsidium chlorophanum were erroneously reported from the area. 40 species are known only from the first half of the 20th century and recent data on them are missing. Keywords: biodiversity, lichen-forming fungi, montane.
36213Peksa O., Bouda F., Malíček J., Kocourková J., Palice Z. & Šoun J. (2023): Zajímavé nálezy lišejníků ze západních Čech II [Interesting records of lichens from Western Bohemia (Czech Republic) II]. - Erica, Plzeň, 30: 93–116. .
We present here interesting records of 86 lichen taxa from Western Bohemia (incl. Pilsen and the Karlovy Vary Region) with several additional localities from other Czech regions. In total, 57 taxa belong to C1 (critically endangered species – 9), C2 (strongly endangered species – 10) and C3 (endangered species – 38) categories of the Red list of lichens of the Czech Republic according to DaLiBor for 2023 (Malíček 2023). Buellia leptocline, B. uberior, Chaenotheca laevigata, Cladonia turgida, Gyalecta carneola, Miriquidica pycnocarpa, Nephroma bellum, N. parile, Parmeliella triptophylla, Psora decipiens, Rhizocarpon simillimum, Sphaerophorus globosus and Squamarina lentigera represent the most valuable records. Keywords: biodiversity, expanding species, lichen-forming fungi, rare species.
36212Osyczka P., Kościelniak R. & Stanek M. (2024): Old-growth forest versus generalist lichens: Sensitivity to prolonged desiccation stress and photosynthesis reactivation rate upon rehydration. - Mycologia, 116(1): 31–43.
Most epiphytic lichens demonstrate high specificity to a habitat type, and sensitive hygrophilous species usually find shelter only in close-to-natural forest complexes. Some of them are considered as old-growth forest and/or long ecological continuity indicators. To evaluate general links between the narrow ecological range and physiological traits, two distinct sets of model lichens, i.e., old-growth forest (Cetrelia cetrarioides (Duby) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb., Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., Menegazzia terebrata (Hoffm.) A. Massal.), and generalist (Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale, Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata Taylor) ones, were examined in terms of sensitivity to long-term desiccation stress (1-, 2-, and 3-month) and photosynthesis activation rate upon rehydration. Desiccation tolerance and response rate to rehydration are specific to a given ecological set of lichens rather than to a particular species. Noticeable delayed and prompt recovery of high photosynthetic activity of photosystem II (PSII) characterize these sets, respectively. At the same time, although a decrease in the potential quantum yield of PSII in lichen thalli with a relative water content (RWC) at the level of 25% was observed, the efficiency remained at a very high level for all species, regardless of habitat preferences. Among the examined lichens, the fluorescence emission parameters for F. caperata were the fastest toward equilibrium upon rehydration, both after a shorter and a longer period of desiccation stress. In contrast to generalist lichens, retrieving of photosynthesis after 3-month desiccation failed in old-growth forest lichens. In the long term, prolonged rainless periods and unfavorable water balance in the environment predicted in the future may have a severely limiting effect on hygrophilous lichens during growing season (also in the sense of species associations) and, at the same time, promote the development of generalists. Keywords: Bioindicators; chlorophyll fluorescence; lichen ecophysiology; lichenized fungi; photobiont.
36211Chernenkova T.V., Belyaeva N.G., Suslova E.G., Aristarkhova E.A. & Kotlov I.P. (2023): Patterns of the red-listed epiphytic species distribution in coniferous-deciduous forests of the Moscow Region. - Geography, Environment, Sustainability, 16(1): 119–131.
Epiphytes model the diversity of forest communities and indicate the integrity of natural ecosystems or the threat to their existence. The high sensitivity of epiphytic species to the environmental quality makes them good indicators in anthropogenic landscapes. The study deals with the distribution patterns of rare indicator epiphytic species at the border of their range in the broad- leaved–coniferous forest zone, in the central part of the East European Plain within the Moscow region. The distribution and abundance of eight lichen species Anaptychia ciliaris, Bryoria fuscescens, B. implexa, Usnea dasopoga, U. glabrescens, U. hirta, U. subfloridana and the epiphytic moss Neckera pennata were studied. The main environmental factors at the regional level were climate variables based on the Worldclim database, water indices based on Sentinel-2 multispectral remote sensing data, and the anthropogenic impact factor in terms of the Nighttime lights of the earth’s surface based on the Suomi NPP satellite system. It was revealed that the vast majority of records were in the western and northern sectors of the region, i.e. in the broad-leaved–coniferous forest zone, while the vast majority of 0-records were in the southern and eastern sectors, in the area of broad-leaved and pine forests and extensive reclaimed wetlands. The association with different types of communities and biotopes, as well as tree species, was assessed at the ecosystem level, using field data. It has been established that the distribution of the studied species is governed by natural-geographic features of the territory. The principal limiting factors are air pollution, ecological restrictions (high humidity requirement of sites), cutting of mature forests and formation of local anthropogenic infrastructure. In perspective the study of ecology and living conditions of the studied rare species will help determine the optimal conditions contributing to biodiversity conservation in forests near large metropolitan areas and optimization of habitat diversity. Keywords: the red-listed epiphytic, forests, bioindicators, climate, anthropogenic impact, community ecology, biotope, urbanized landscapes, Moscow region.
36210Химич Е.О., Ходосовцев О.Є. & Попова Л.П. [Khymych E.O., Khodosovtsev O.Ye. & Popova L.P.] (2023): Nephroma bellum (Sprengel) Tuck. та N. laevigatum Ach. (Nephromataceae, Peltigerales) в Україні та їх созологічний статус [Nephroma bellum (Sprengel) Tuck. and N. laevigatum Ach. (Nephromataceae, Peltigerales) and their protected status]. - Вісті Біосферного заповідника "Асканія-Нова" [Biosphere Reserve "Askania Nova" Reports], 25: 16–21. DOI: 10.53904/1682-2374/2023-25/2.
[in Ukrainian with English abstract: ] The authors carried out a critical study of the Nephroma laevigatum (Nephromataceae, Peltigerales) complex on the basis of lichen specimens kept in the herbarium of the M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (KHER). In addition, the materials of lichenological studies in the National Nature Park "Zacharovanyi Krai" (Zakarpattia region, Khust district) were used in the paper. There are two species of the complex in Ukraine as N. bellum (Spreng.) Tuck. and N. laevigatum Ach. The lichens are similar, but differ in the colour of the medulla and its reaction to a 10% KOH solution. Nephroma bellum has a white medulla with a negative reaction to KOH, while N. laevigatum has a yellowish medulla that turns red from a 10% KOH solution. The existence of N. bellum in the Carpathians has been confirmed. It is likely that all 15 historical reports in the first half of the 20th century under the name N. laevigatum auct. refer to N. bellum. Nephroma bellum was last collected in Ukraine by M.F. Makarevych in 1948 (KW). In Ukraine, we recorded N. bellum for the first time in the last 75 years from the National Nature Park "Zacharovany Krai". The existence of N. laevigatum Ach. s. str. in Ukraine is confirmed by a single specimen from Crimea collected in 1950 (KW). Herbarium specimens have not yet confirmed the growth of this species in the Ukrainian Carpathians. According to the IUCN criteria, N. bellum and N. laevigatum in Ukraine are proposed to be "critically endangered" and "regionally extinct", respectively. According to the existing criteria of the Red Data Book of Ukraine, N. bellum and N. laevigatum can be classified as "critically endangered" and "regionally extinct" respectively and proposed for inclusion in its new edition.
36209Zhurbenko M.P. (2023): Contributions to the knowledge of lichenicolous fungi growing on Sphaerophoraceae, with a key to the species. - Herzogia, 36: 504–523.
Four species of lichenicolous fungi are described as new to science: Abrothallus leifidii (on Leifidium), Micarea novae-zelandiae (on Bunodophoron), Spirographa bunodophoronis (on Bunodophoron), and Umushamyces wedinii (on Bunodophoron). Pyrenocarpous ascomycete 1 (on Bunodophoron), which resembles Polycoccum species, and pyrenocarpous ascomycete 2 (on Sphaerophorus), which resembles Endococcus oropogonicola are briefly characterised. Cercidospora punctillata is first reported from Sphaerophorus fragilis. Clypeococcum wedinii is newly reported for Australia (Tasmania), Bunodophoron australe and B. melanocarpum are its new host species. Lichenoconium erodens is new to Australia and New Zealand, L. usneae is new to Australia, both are first documented on a member of Sphaerophoraceae (Bunodophoron). A species of Pyrenidium is newly reported on a member of Sphaerophoraceae (Bunodophoron formosanum). A key to 18 species of lichenicolous fungi known to occur on Sphaerophoraceae is provided. Key words: Argentina, Australia, Chile, New Zealand, Russia, lichen-dwelling fungi, taxonomy.
36208Zhurbenko M.P., Diederich P. & Braun U. (2023): Randlanea usneicola gen. & sp. nov., a new lichenicolous coelomycete on Usnea from the Russian Caucasus. - Herzogia, 36: 497–503.
Randlanea usneicola gen. & sp. nov., found on Usnea longissima, is described, illustrated, and compared with other morphologically similar genera of coelomycetes. The new genus is characterised by a lichenicolous habit, phialidic conidiogenesis, multilocal, occasionally annellidic conidiogenous cells, and conidia formed in chains, initially 1–2(–3)-septate, subsequently often disintegrating into aseptate fragments. Sporidesmium usneae (first reported for Russia) with relatively short and poorly septate conidia is briefly characterised and illustrated. Key words: Asexual morphs, lichen-inhabiting fungi, new genus.
36207Shi K.-J., Guo T.-L., Jia Z.-F. & Zhao X. (2023): Four new records of the lichen genus Fissurina from China. - Herzogia, 36: 488–496.
Based on morphological, anatomical and chemical study of lichen material collected in Guizhou, Hainan, Fujian and Guangxi provinces of China, four species of Fissurina Graphidaceae), i.e. F. duplomarginata, F. lumbschiana, F. phuluangi, and F. subnitida, are reported as new records for China. Full descriptions and illustrations of each species are provided, followed by the comparison and discussion with the type specimens and similar species. A revised key to the known 24 Fissurina species from China is also provided. All specimens examined were deposited in the Fungarium of the College of Life Sciences, Liaocheng University (LCUF). Key words: lichenized fungi, Ostropales, taxonomy, tropical, subtropical.
36206Payzula T. & Mamut R. (2023): Myriolecis nigrodisca, a new saxicolous species from northwestern China . - Herzogia, 36: 479–487.
Myriolecis nigrodisca is described as a new lichenized fungus. It is characterized by having a crustose and often conspicuous yellowish to beige thallus, black, often confluent apothecia with grey to whitish-grey pruinose and fissured discs. Morphological and anatomical analyses confirm the position of the new species within Myriolecis. It is strongly supported by the phylogenetic analyses using the maximum likelihood method based on nrITS and mtSSU sequences. Additionally, a detailed description of the morphology, illustrations, distribution, ecology and a brief discussion of this species are provided. Key words: Lecanoraceae, phylogenetics, taxonomy.
36205Afshan N., Fayyaz I., Iftikhar F., Niazi A.R., Habib K. & Khalid A.N. (2023): A new species of the genus Bacidina (Ramalinaceae, Ascomycota) from Pakistan . - Herzogia, 36: 470–478.
Bacidina pakistanica from the Himalayan moist temperate forest in Pakistan is described as new to science. nrITS sequences confirm its position within the genus Bacidina and together with its morphology suggest that it is distinct from other species of this genus. The taxon is characterized by olive green to pale green thallus, purplish black to almost black apothecia, 0.7 – 0.9 – 1.3 – 1.75 mm wide, a hymenium 65 – 80 μm high, 3 – 4 septate and large ascospores 28 – 55 × 1.9 – 3 μm. Also an updated key to Bacidina in Pakistan is provided. Key words: Ganga Choti, Himalayan forest, sequencing, Ramalinaceae.
36204Knudsen K., Kocourková J., Hodková E., Dart J., Dolnik C., Malíček J. & Obermayer W. (2023): Exploring the Sarcogyne phylogeny: three new species and four new reports from Europe and North America (Austria, Czech Republic, Greece, Germany, Romania, U.S.A.). - Herzogia, 36: 445–469.
A history of the study of Sarcogyne is explained. Acarospora and Sarcogyne are morphological genus concepts and neither are currently recovered as monophyletic clades. Neither genus has any synapomorphic character or suite of characters distinguishing all species as either Sarcogyne or Acarospora. Three new species are described from Europe and North America: Sarcogyne adscendens (California, U.S.A.), S. lecanorina (Czech Republic), and S. poeltii (Greece). Two sterile taxa with probably functionally infertile apothecia were recovered in the Acarospora badiofusca-A. cervina clade, S. kisonii nom. prov. (Germany), and S. schultzii nom. prov. (Austria). They could replicate by division and fragmentation and S. kisonii also produces conidia. We report Sarcogyne canadensis new for Romania and Europe and Sarcogyne oceanica new for Germany. Acarospora glaucocarpa var. cumulata is a synonym of S. praetermissa. Sequences of nine undescribed Sarcogyne taxa from North America and one from Czech Republic, all known from single collections, are made available for future research. Key words: Acarospora glaucocarpa, California, phylogeny, sterile lichens.
36203Christensen S.N. (2023): Contribution to the knowledge of the lichen biota of Pinus nigra stands in Greece. - Herzogia, 36: 428–444.
One hundred and seven epiphytic taxa, 4 epigeic taxa and 8 epilithic taxa are recorded from 17 Pinus nigra stands across its distribution area in Greece. Generally, the lichen biota is referable to a Pseudevernion community with nitrophytic elements. Caloplaca xerothermica, Lecidella subviridis and Parmelia barrenoae are new to Greece. Six species are new to Epiros, 5 species are new to Makedonia and 5 species are new to Peloponnisos. Elixia cretica is reported for the first time outside its type locality. The new combination Caloplace xerothermica (Vondrák, Arup & I.V.Frolov) S.N.Christensen is made. Studies on epiphytic lichens on Pinus nigra in Greece and neighbouring countries are discussed. Key words: azonal forests, Epiros, Makedonia, Mediterranean-montane lichens, Peloponnisos, Pseudevernion.
36202Malíček J., Konečná E. & Steinová J. (2023): Contribution to the lichen biota of Romania . - Herzogia, 36: 409–427.
We report floristic records on 371 lichen taxa and three non-lichenized lichen-similar fungi from Romania. Fiftythree species are new to Romania. Buellia arborea, Caloplaca turkuensis, Protoparmelia hypotremella, and Rinodina euskadiensis are reported for the first time from Southeastern Europe. Sarcogyne canadensis is new to Europe. Two species from the genera Peltula and Verrucaria, both supported by a nrITS sequence, probably represent undescribed taxa. Sequences from Gyalecta erythrozona and Peccania corallina are published for the first time. Anaptychia crinalis, Bagliettoa quarnerica, Caloplaca anularis, Diploschistes candidissimus, Gyalolechia klementii, Hymenelia heteromorpha, Thelidium fontigenum and Zahlbrucknerella calcarea represent other remarkable records. Key words: The Balkans, biodiversity, limestones, Peccania, Peltula, Southern and Eastern Carpathians, Verrucaria.
36201Rettig J., Knudsen K. & Breuss O. (2023): Flechten und flechtenbewohnende Pilze aus Ostthüringen, mit Hinweisen auf einige selten gemeldete Acarospora-Arten aus Europa. - Herzogia, 36: 387–408.
Lichens and lichenicolous fungi from eastern Thuringia, with references to some rarely reported Acarospora species from Europe. Remarkable finds of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from eastern Thuringia, occasionally from other parts and the neighbouring federal states, are reported. In addition, Acarospora saxonica is discussed in more detail. This species is new to Italy, Austria and Switzerland. New for Germany are Acarospora irregularis, Verrucaria elevata, and V. inaspecta. New for Thuringia are Acarospora franconica, A. intermedia, A. saxonica and A. similis, new for Hesse Acarospora franconica and A. intermedia and new for Saxony-Anhalt are Rinodina teichophila and Verrucaria ochrostoma. After several decades, Lichenodiplis lecanorae was found again in Thuringia and Acarospora intermedia in Hesse and Thuringia. Findings of the lichens Hydropunctaria rheithrophila, Peltigera lepidophora, Physcia tribacia, Placidium michelii and Placidium pilosellum, which are rare in Thuringia, are also reported. Myriospora scabrida, Placidium lachneum, Verrucaria beltraminiana and Verrucaria botellispora are to be deleted from the list of lichens of Thuringia, the occurrence of Bacidina brandii in Thuringia is doubtful. Key words: Lichenized Ascomycota, lichenicolous Ascomycota, distribution, mycobiota, taxonomy.
36200Śliwa L., Mazur E. & Wirth V. (2023): A new and intriguing species of Myriolecis in a revised phylogenetic framework for the genus. - Herzogia, 36: 371–386.
On the basis of morphological and chemical data, and a phylogenetic reconstruction using six DNA regions, a new crustose, lecanoroid lichen species from the region of Baden-Württemberg (SW Germany) is described. Myriolecis suevica is characterized by the presence of an unexpected secondary metabolic compound, namely isousnic acid. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this new species is closely related to M. sambuci, the nomenclatural type for the genus Myriolecis. ‘Lecanora’ casimceana and ‘L.’ elenkinii, which resemble representatives of the genus Myriolecis also contain isousnic acid and are therefore described in detail. The issue of replacing the generic name Myriolecis with the former name Polyozosia for the group traditionally circumscribed as Lecanora dispersa gr. is briefly discussed. Key words: Lichen-forming fungi, Polyozosia, Lecanora dispersa, limestone, Swabian Alb, SW Germany.
36199Gueidan C., Li L. & Robinson I. (2022): Challenges to developing a reference sequence database using mass parallel sequencing and lichen herbarium specimens: a case study for microlichens of the Australian Capital Territory. - Muelleria, 41: 3–11. .
Molecular species identification is a powerful tool in taxonomy, biodiversity research and ecology, in particular for groups of organisms with limited diagnostic features. This tool relies on the development of high-quality reference sequence databases, and such databases can be built using collection specimens and mass parallel sequencing. Here, lichen herbarium specimens and mass parallel sequencing were used to generate reference ITS sequences for microlichens from the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and to develop a reference sequence database. The preliminary database was then tested on un-identified specimens collected during the 2018 ACT BushBlitz expedition. Challenges met during both database development and molecular species identification suggest that these processes will not be straightforward for microlichens, due to the high number of sequences generated for non-target species (lichen-associated fungi, co-occurring lichenised species and sample cross-contaminants). Keywords: Australia, ITS barcode, PacBio amplicon sequencing, collection specimens.
36198Wirth V. (2022): Die Flechten des Biosphärengebietes Schwarzwald. - Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, Freiburg/Breisgau, 25: 5–32. DOI: 10.6094/BLNN/Mitt/25.01.
The lichens of the Black Forest Biosphere Reserve. Lichens contribute to the diversity of the Black Forest Biosphere Reserve to a considerable extent. The list of recorded lichens includes 830 species. In addition, around 110 species of lichenicolous fungi are reported. The most frequent and the most characteristic lichen communities of the study area are described. The area turns out as the region with the highest lichen diversity in Germany outside the Alps. Many species are very rare and endangered. Several species are restricted to the Black Forest Biosphere Reserve within Germany. Keywords: Lichen diversity, lichen communities, lichenicolous fungi, Germany, Black Forest.
36197Clerc P. (1991): Usnea madeirensis Mot. (ascomycète lichénisé): une espèce méconnue de l'Europe et de l'Amérique du Nord. - Candollea, 46: 427–438. .
Taking Usnea madeirensis Mot. as an example, unspecific and specific characters in the genus Usnea are discussed. The morphology, anatomy and chemistry of this badly known and in Europe threatened species is described and its distribution and ecology are given.
36196Clerc P. & Roh P.-D. (1979): Effets du fluor sur la vegetation lichenique corticole autour de la region de Martigny (VS). - Bulletin de la Murithienne, 96: 23–41. .
36195Roux C., Signoret J. & Masson D. (avec la collaboration de : Bellemere A., Boissiere J.-C., Clerc P., Coste C., Diederich P. & Houmeau J.-M.) (2003): Proposition d’une liste d’espèces de macrolichens à protéger en France. - Association française de lichénologie, 33 p .
Proposal of the Redlist of macrolichens of France; undated manuscript likely issued in 2003
36194Nimis P.L. (1987): I macrolicheni d'Italia chiavi analitiche per la determinazione [Keys for the identification of the macrolichens of Italy]. - Gortania, 8[1986]: 101–220.
This paper contains keys for the identification of all species of macrolichens hitherto reported from Italy, with the exception of those belonging to the genera Dermatocarpon and Usnea. Key words: Lichens, Macrolichens, Flora, Italy.
36193Nimis P.L. (1985): Lichenological studies in North East Italy. I: The computerization of the TSB lichen herbarium. - Gortania, 6[1984]: 139–146. .
The lichen herbarium of the Trieste University (TSB), that contains ca. 8500 samples (average yearly input: 2000-3000 samples) has been computerized. Structure and information content of the databank are briefly described, with particular regard to the samples collected in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region (60.3% of the total). Key words: Databanks, Herbarium, Lichens, Friuli-Venezia Giulia.
36192Tretiach M. & Molaro C. (2008): I macrolicheni dei Monti Musi (Parco Naturale Regionale delle Prealpi Giulie) [The macrolichens of the Musi Mts (Julian Pre-Alps Regional Park, Italy)]. - Gortania, 29[2007]: 79–108.,%20Nimis%201989.%20Lichenological%20Studies%20in%20ne-Italy.%20II.%20The%20distribution%20of%20Normandia%20Pulchella%20(Borr.)%20NYL..pdf.
[in Italian with English abstract: ] The macrolichens of the dolomitic-calcareous Musi Mts (Northern Italy) has been investigated visiting 72 sampling sites distributed between ca. 500-1900 m altitude, and encompassing the main vegetation belts typical of the South-eastern pre-Alps. The list consists of 105 infrageneric taxa. Cladonia ramulosa, Collema conglomeratum and Lempholemma polyanthes are new to the lichen Flora of Friuli. For each species brief critical notes on growth-form, morphology and substratum are given, together with a list of sampling sites. Causes that might explain the observed low biodiversity are shortly discussed. Key words: Alps, Biodiversity, Florislics, lichens.
36191Tretiach M. & Nimis P.L. (1989): Lichenological studies in NE-Italy. II. The distribution of Normandina pulchella (Borr.) Nyl.. - Gortania, 10[1988]: 133–144. .
This paper is a contribution to the knowledge of the distribution of Normandina pulchella (Lichenes). lt presents two distribution maps, one concerning Europe, mainly based on literature data, and one concerning the Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region (NE-ltaly), based on the samples preserved in the TSB lichen herbarium. The altitudinal range and the ecology of the species in Friuli-Venezia Giulia are briefly discussed. Key words: Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Normandina pulchella, Phytogeography.
36190Van Haluwyn C. (2010): La sociologie des lichens corticoles en Europe depuis Klement (1955) et Barkman (1958). Essai de synthèse. - Bulletin de Association Française de Lichénologie, 35(2): 1–128. .
Lichen sociology
36189Valcuvia Passadore M., Brusa G., Chiappetta D., Delucchi C., Garavani M. & Parco V. (2002): Licheni. – In: AA. VV.. - Atlante della biodiversità nel Parco Ticino. Edizione 2002. Volume 1. Elenchi sistematici, p. 107–127, Consorzio Parco Lombardo della Valle del Ticino.
36188Valcuvia Passadore M. (con la collaborazione di: Brusa G., Chiappetta D., Delucchi C., Garavani M. & Parco V.) (2002): Licheni. - In: AA. VV., Atlante della biodiversità nel Parco Ticino. Edizione 2002. Volume 2. Monografie, p. 9–44, Consorzio Parco Lombardo della Valle del Ticino.
36187Christensen S.N. (1988): Contribution to the lichen flora of Istria, Yugoslavia. - Acta Botanica Croatica, 47: 127–134. .
Sixty-nine taxa are reported from Istria, one of which is new to Jugoslavia, viz.: Collema furfureolum Müll. Arg. and four are new to Croatia, viz.: Cetrelia olivetorum. (Nyl.) Culb. et C. Culb., Lecanora chlarotera Nyl., Physconia perisidiosa (Erichs.) Moberg, and Xanthoria fallax (Hepp) Arn. Thirty- -one taxa are new to Istria. Epiphytic lichen communities are shortly discussed.
36186Pasquinelli P. & Puccini F. (2010): Biodiversità dei Licheni. Una lettura del territorio. La Mofeta dei Borboi a Orciatico nell’Alta Valdera. - Centro Stampa Giunta Reg. Toscana, Firenze, 84 p.
[in Italian with English abstract: ] This book aims to study the specific biodiversities of lichens of a Tuscany area named “Alta-Valdera”. In particular we would like to share interesting findings in this territory where the concentration of the CO2 increases over the normal limit because of the emission of natural gasses from the underground. The vent of this emission is positioned inside the forest of the “Mofeta of Borboi” at Orciatico/Lajatico Municipality. We researched and documented 34 lichen species in all that territory. The “core” of the book points to that species of the lichens resistant to the stressful conditions of life near the natural gas emission vent. We found five species of resistant lichens: Flavoparmelia caperata, Cladonia sp., Pertusaria amara, Parmelia perlata, Evernia prunastri. In addition to a photographic documentation we liked to put the analysis of fine lichen structures analyzed under optical microscope. At last but not the least we discovered an important niche of lichen colonies in the area of “Mulino Fonterossa” which we suggest to protect from the human intervention. In the final chapter we propose a “miscellanea” of environmental biodiversties and some landscape of the beautiful country Alta Valdera in Tuscany.
36185Piervittori R. & Isocrono D. (1997): Contribution aux connaissances lichénologiques de la Vallée d'Aoste: Valeille et Valnontey (Parc National du Grand Paradis, Italie). - Lagascalia, 19: 495–504. .
[in French with English abstract:] Data from a study performed on the lichenic flora in Valeille and Valnontey from Gran Paradiso National Park (Italy) are reported. Altogether 158 species have been assessed: 52 are new for the explored area and 26 for the Aosta valley. A new system for the Iife-forms of species which takes into account the substratum's patterns is proposed.
36184Gheza G. (2015): Terricolous lichens of the western Padanian Plain: new records of phytogeographical interest. - Acta Botanica Gallica, 162(4): 339–348.
Very little is known of the earlier lichen flora of the Padanian Plain, the most heavily anthropized and industrialized part of Italy, which is currently extremely poor. Terricolous lichens in particular are the most sensitive to threats, and have almost totally disappeared from the western Padanian Plain. This paper reports new findings of 20 terricolous lichen species, several of which are rare or poorly known in Italy or are of some phytogeographical interest because they are found at lower altitudes than their usual distribution (i.e. Cladonia coccifera, Cladonia uncialis). In addition, Cladonia humilis is new for Lombardy and two other species, Cladonia portentosa and Stereocaulon condensatum, are reported for the second time in the same region. The significance of these species is discussed with regard to their historical records from the same area and their current altitudinal distribution; they were probably much more widespread in the past, but the decline and disappearance of their habitats in lowland areas have been followed by their own disappearance in many localities. A modification of the rarity status of some of these species in the considered phytoclimatic belts, based on the new records, is proposed. Keywords: dry grasslands; heathlands; historical records; lichens; inland sand dunes; Ticino Natural Park.
36183Martellos S. (2005): Five lichens new to Friuli (NE Italy). - Gortania, 26[2004]: 105–109. .
Five lichens (Cladonia sulphurina, Cladonia uncialis subsp. biuncialis, Peltigera monticola, Pertusaria ophthalmiza and Squamarina periculosa) are reported as new to the Region of Friuli (NE Italy). One of them (Cladonia uncialis subsp. biuncialis) is new to ltaly as well. A description of each species and some notes on ecology and distribution in Italy are provided. Key words: Flora, Lichenised fungi.
36182Ndhlovu N.T., Minibayeva F. & Beckett R.P. (2024): A role for secondary metabolites in desiccation tolerance in lichens. - Microbiology Research, 15(1): 225–235.
In lichens, secondary metabolites have been shown to protect against biotic stresses such as pathogen attacks and grazing, and abiotic stresses such as ultraviolet (UV) and high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Lichen secondary metabolites are known to have strong antioxidant activity, and while theoretically they may have roles in tolerance to other abiotic stresses, these roles remain largely unclear. Here, we used the acetone rinsing method to harmlessly remove most of the secondary metabolites from the thalli of six lichen species. This enabled us to compare the effects of desiccation on thalli with and without the presence of secondary metabolites. Results showed that in general, the presence of lichen substances reduces the effects of desiccation stress. For all species, substances significantly improved the photosystem two (PSII) activity of the photobiont during either desiccation or rehydration. In the mycobiont, in four of the six species, the presence of substances reduced membrane damage, which was assessed by measuring ion leakage during rehydration following desiccation. However, in one species, secondary metabolites had no effect, while in another the presence of substances increased membrane damage. Nevertheless, it seems clear that in addition to their more established roles in protecting lichens against pathogen attacks and grazing, lichen substances can also play a role in aiding desiccation tolerance. Keywords: lichen substances; desiccation; membrane damage; chlorophyll fluorescence.
36181Berry T.-A., Wallis S., Doyle E., de Lange P., Steinhorn G., Vigliaturo R., Belluso E. & Blanchon D. (2024): A preliminary investigation into the degradation of asbestos fibres in soils, rocks and building materials associated with naturally occurring biofilms. - Minerals, 14(1): 106 [15 p.] .
Bioremediation utilizes living organisms such as plants, microbes and their enzymatic products to reduce toxicity in xenobiotic compounds. Microbial-mediated bioremediation is cost effective and sustainable and in situ application is easily implemented. Either naturally occurring metabolic activity can be utilized during bioremediation for the degradation, transformation or accumulation of substances, or microbial augmentation with non-native species can be exploited. Despite the perceived low potential for the biological degradation of some recalcitrant compounds, successful steps towards bioremediation have been made, including with asbestos minerals, which are prevalent in building stock (created prior to the year 2000) in New Zealand. Evidence of the in situ biodegradation of asbestos fibres was investigated in samples taken from a retired asbestos mine, asbestos-contaminated soils and biofilm or lichen-covered asbestos-containing building materials. Microbial diversity within the biofilms to be associated with the asbestos-containing samples was investigated using internal transcribed spacer and 16S DNA amplicon sequencing, supplemented with isolation and culturing on agar plates. A range of fungal and bacterial species were found, including some known to produce siderophores. Changes to fibre structure and morphology were analysed using Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. Chrysotile fibrils from asbestos-containing material (ACMs), asbestos-containing soils, and asbestos incorporated into lichen material showed signs of amorphisation and dissolution across their length, which could be related to biological activity. Keywords: asbestos; bioremediation; chrysotile; fungi; bacteria; Transmission Electron Microscopy; Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy.
36180Fjelde M.O., Timdal E., Haugan R. & Bendiksby M. (2024): Paraphyly and cryptic diversity unveils unexpected challenges in the “naked lichens” (Calvitimela, Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota). - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 190: 107944 [16 p.].
Molecular phylogenetics has revolutionized the taxonomy of crustose lichens and revealed an extensive amount of cryptic diversity. Resolving the relationships between genera in the crustose lichen family Tephromelataceae has proven difficult and the taxon limits within the genus Calvitimela are only partly understood. In this study, we tested the monophyly of Calvitimela and investigated phylogenetic relationships at different taxonomic levels using an integrative taxonomic approach. We performed a global sampling of all species currently assigned to Calvitimela and conducted additional sampling of C. melaleuca sensu lato across Norway. We included 108 specimens and produced more than 300 sequences from five different loci (ITS, LSU, MCM7, mtSSU, TEF1-α). We inferred phylogenetic relationships and estimated divergence times in Calvitimela. Moreover, we analyzed chemical and morphological characters to test their diagnostic values in the genus. Our molecular phylogenetic results show evolutionarily old and deeply divergent lineages in Calvitimela. The morphological characters are overlapping between divergent subgenera within this genus. Chemical characters, however, are largely informative at the level of subgenera, but are often homoplastic at the species level. The subgenus Calvitimela is found to include four distinct genetic lineages. Detailed morphological examinations of C. melaleuca s. lat. reveal differences between taxa previously assumed to be morphologically cryptic. Furthermore, young evolutionary ages and signs of gene tree discordance indicate a recent divergence and possibly incomplete lineage sorting in the subgenus Calvitimela. Phylogenetic analysis and morphological observations revealed that C. austrochilensis and C. uniseptata are extraneous to Calvitimela (Tephromelataceae). We also found molecular evidence supporting C. septentrionalis being sister to C. cuprea. In the subgenus Severidea, one new grouping is recovered as a highly supported sister to C. aglaea. Lastly, two fertile specimens were found to be phylogenetically nested within the sorediate species C. cuprea. We discuss the need for an updated classification of Calvitimela and the evolution of cryptic species. Through generic circumscription and species delimitation we propose a practical taxonomy of Calvitimela. Keywords: Cryptic species; Integrative taxonomy; Lichenized fungi; Phylogenetics; Substitutional saturation; Secondary chemistry.
36179Galloway D.J. (2000): The lichen genus Peltigera (Peltigerales: Ascomycota) in New Zealand. - Tuhinga, 11: 1–45.
Sixteen species of the lichen genus Peltigera Willd., are recognised in the New Zealand mycobiota, viz. P. canina, P.degenii, P. didcatyla, P, dolichorhiza, P.hymenina, P. lepidophora, P. malacea, P. membranaecea, P, nana, P. neckeri, P. neopolydachtyla, P, polydactylon, P. praetextata, P. rufenscens, P, subhorizontalis, and P. ulcerata. A key to species, descriptions of all taxa, biogeographic affinities and distribution maps are presented. Peltigera degenii, P.hymenina, P. neckeri, and P. neopolydachtyla are recorded for the first time from New Zealand.
36178Valim H.F., Dal Grande F., Wong E.L.Y. & Schmitt I. (2023): Circadian clock- and temperature-associated genes contribute to overall genomic differentiation along elevation in lichenized fungi. - Molecular Ecology, 2023;00:e17252..
Circadian regulation is linked to local environmental adaptation, and many species with broad climatic niches display variation in circadian genes. Here, we hypothesize that lichenizing fungi occupying different climate zones tune their metabolism to local environmental conditions with the help of their circadian systems. We study two species of the genus Umbilicaria occupying similar climatic niches (Mediterranean and the cold temperate) in different continents. Using homology to Neurospora crassa genes, we identify gene sets associated with circadian rhythms (11 core, 39 peripheral genes) as well as temperature response (37 genes). Nucleotide diversity of these genes is significantly correlated with mean annual temperature, minimum temperature of the coldest month and mean temperature of the coldest quarter. Furthermore, we identify altitudinal clines in allele frequencies in several non-synonymous substitutions in core clock components, for example, white collar-like, frh-like and various ccg-like genes. A dN/dS approach revealed a few significant peripheral clock- and temperature-associated genes (e.g. ras-1-like, gna-1-like) that may play a role in fine-tuning the circadian clock and temperature-response machinery. An analysis of allele frequency changes demonstrated the strongest evidence for differentiation above the genomic background in the clock-associated genes in U. pustulata. These results highlight the likely relevance of the circadian clock in environmental adaptation, particularly frost tolerance, of lichens. Whether or not the fungal clock modulates the symbiotic interaction within the lichen consortium remains to be investigated. We corroborate the finding of genetic variation in clock components along altitude-not only latitude-as has been reported in other species. adaptation, elevation gradient, lichens, PoolSeq, population genomics, selection, symbiosis, NATURAL VARIATION, SPECIATION, UMBILICARIACEAE, REPRODUCTION, PHOTOBIONTS, DIVERGENCE, EXPRESSION, LANDSCAPE, FREQUENCY
36177Money N.P., Stolze-Rybczynski J., Smith B.E., Trninić D., Davis D.J. & Fischer M.W.F. (2023): Ascus function: From squirt guns to ooze tubes. - Fungal Biology, 127(12): 1491-1504.
Unlike the mechanism of ballistospore discharge, which was not solved until the 1980s, the operation of asci as pressurized squirt guns is relatively straightforward and was understood in the nineteenth century. Since then, mycologists have sought to understand how structural adaptations to asci have allowed the ascomycetes to expel spores of different shapes and sizes over distances ranging from a few millimeters to tens of centimeters. These modifications include the use of valves at the tips of asci that maintain ascus pressure and expel spores at the highest speeds, and gelatinous appendages that connect spores after release and create larger projectiles with greater momentum than single spores. Clever experiments in the twentieth century coupled with meticulous microscopic studies led investigators to understand how asci with complicated apical structures worked and mathematical models produced estimates of launch speeds. With the recent application of high-speed video microscopy, these inferences about ascus function have been tested by imaging the motion of spores on a microsecond timescale. These experiments have established that ascospore discharge is the fastest fungal movement and is among the fastest movements in biology. Beginning with the history of the study of asci, this review article explains how asci are pressurized, how spores are released, and how far spores travel after their release. We also consider the efficiency of ascospore discharge relative to the mechanism of ballistospore discharge and examine the way that the squirt gun mechanism has limited the morphological diversity of ascomycete fruit bodies. Ascomycetes, Biomechanics, Dispersal, Spores, Turgor pressure
36176Ghazanfar S. A. & Gallagher M. (1998): Remarkable lichens from the Sultanate of Oman. - Nova Hedwigia, 67(3-4): 519–528. .
Information of the lichen flora of Oman is as yet fragmentary and incomplete. Of the approximately 230 species so far recorded from the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra, only 36 species are fully identified from the Sultanate of Oman. The majority of the lichens are distributed in three ecogeographical regions. These are: (1) the higher altitudes of the northern mountains, (2) the fog-affected eastern region of central Oman and the eastern islands, and (3) the fog-affected escarpment woodlands of southern Oman. All three growth-forms viz. crustose, foliose and fruticose lichens are found in Oman and occur on tree-bark, soil, rocks and stones. In general, fruticose and foliose lichens are present on the exposed, sea-facing habitats, whilst crustose lichens occur in all lichen habitats. Lichens, Arabia, Oman, fog-desert, gazelle
36175Steiner J. (1903): Bearbeitung der von O. Simony 1898 und 1899 in Südarabien, auf Sokotra und den benachbarten Inseln gesammelten Flechten. - Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe, 71: 93–102. .
36174Castello M. (2003): Lichens of the Terra Nova bay area, Northern Victoria Land. - Studia Geobotanica, 22: 3–54. .
57 lichen species are reported from the Terra Nova Bay area (Northern Victoria Land, continental Antarctica), on the basis of collections from the Italian Antarctic Expeditions 1987-1996. 51 of them were identified to species level. A key for their identification is provided. Morpho-anatomical descriptions and nomenclatural, taxonomic and phytogeographical remarks are given for each taxon. Blastenia viridans Js. Murray is reduced to synonymy with Caloplaca athallina Darb.
36173Grube M., Lindblom L. & Mayrhofer H. (2001): Contributions to the lichen flora of Crete: a compilation of references and some new records. - Studia Geobotanica, 20: 41–59. .
An updated checklist of lichens of Crete is presented. A total of 440 taxa is reported. The checklist distinguishes 4 administrative subdivisions (prefectures) in Crete. Strong degradation of the vegetation throughout the island limits the abundance of corticolous lichens, only the woody patches in the Western part contain a number of otherwise rare oceanic species. Keywords: biodiversity, checklist, Crete, flora, lichenicolous fungi, lichenized fungi, lichens, Mediterranean.
36172Nimis P.L., Skert N. & Castello M. (1999): Biomonitoraggio di metalli in traccia tramite licheni in aree a rischio del Friuli-Venezia Giulia. - Studia Geobotanica, 18: 3–49. .
[in Italian with English abstract: ] BIOMONITORING OF TRACE METALS BY LICHENS IN HIGH-RISK AREAS OF FRIULI-VENEZIA GIULIA (NE ITALY). This study is based on the concentrations of 16 metals in peripheral parts of the thalli of the lichen Xanthoria parietina, collected on trees satisfying standard conditions in 155 stations located in the lowlands of Friuli-Venezia Giulia (NE ltaly), previously selected as potential high-risk areas by Regional Authorities. The interpretation of metal concentrations is based upon two maps, showing, for each metal, its distributional pattern and the degree of deviation from background (natural) conditions. The latter has been estimated through a seven-class scale based on the percentile distributions of several hundreds measurements of metal concentrations carried out in foliose lichens throughout Italy during the last ten years, using similar methods. The joint occurrences of all metals in the stations are synthetized by maps based on three indices, an index of naturality (indicating the number of metals with concentrations within normai conditions), an index of environmental alteration (indicating the number of metals strongly deviating from the norm), and an index of potential toxicity (derived from that of alteration, with each metal weighed according to its toxicity). The Central-Southern part of the Province of Udine is the most severely affected by metals in general, while in several other stations single metals strongly deviate from normal conditions. These sites are suggested to the Regional Authorities as focal points for instrumental monitoring of environmental pollution. The introduction includes some basic considerations about epistemological, methodological and terminological matters related to the use of biomonitoring techniques. Keywords: biomonitoring, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy, lichens, pollution, trace metals.
36171Loppi S., Pirintsos S.A., Olivieri N. & Pacioni G. (1999): Distribution of epiphytic lichens on Quercus pubescens along an altitudinal gradient on the Adriatic side of Central Italy. - Studia Geobotanica, 17: 85–90. .
The distribution of epiphytic lichens on Quercus pubescens on the Adriatic side of Central Italy (Abruzzo) was studied along an altitudinal gradient from O to 1000 m by multivariate techniques. The general response of epiphytic lichens to elevation was similar to that found on the Tyrrhenian side of Italy, with great differences in community structure and the altitude of 500 m as an ecotone. However, suboceanic species, which are widespread on the Tyrrhenian side, were rare and confined to higher elevations, or not present at all in the Adriatic gradient. The use of epiphytic lichens as phytoclimatic indicators is discussed. Key Words: Abruzzo, Agriculture, Bioindicators, Climate, Ecology, Ecotone.
36170Fos S. & Barreno E. (1998): Caracterización ecológica de los alcornocales Iberolevantinos (Este de España) basada en bioindicadores liquénicos. - Studia Geobotanica, 16: 71–83. .
[in Spanish with Enlish abstract: ] This study compares the epiphytic lichen floras of cork-oak forests from eastern Spain. The methodology was designed in such a way as to avoid subjectivity at all stages, from the sampling protocol to data analysis. Field work was carried out in 15 Catalonian localities, in mature stands of Carici-Querco suberis sigmetum, and in 9 localities of the Valencian Cornmunity, in mature stands of Asplenio-Querco suberis sigmetum. In each locality, ten trees were selected, and the lichens growing on virgin bark from 50 to 200 cm above the ground were identified. Ali together, 153 species were encountered, with 69 species present in both territories, and 33 found in at least three samplig plots. Multivariate methods of classification and ordination were used to analyze a matrix of stations and species based on presence/absence data. The classification clearly separated two main groups of stations, Catalonian and Valencian, with the exception of two Catalonian localities that were more related to the Valencian ones. This accords well with the climate of the two regions: the Catalonian cork-oak forests are subjected to a strong maritime influence, experiencing frequent fog episodes, whereas the Valencian ones are more continental and drier. The higher incidence of nitrophytic lichens in the Valencian cork-oak forests is probably due to dust accumulation on the trunks. Within the two groups of stations the lichen flora is diversified according to differences in temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity regimes. The results support the assumption that epiphytic lichens can provide impm1ant information on the phytoclimatical features of a territory. Keywords: Bioclimatology, Bioindicators, Cork-oak, Ecology, Epiphytes, Lichens, Quercus suber, Spain.
36169Litterski B. & Mayrhofer H. (1998): Catalogue of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi of Cyprus. - Studia Geobotanica, 16: 57–70. .
This annotated checklist of lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Cyprus is based mainly on literature records. The currently known lichen flora is composed of 365 taxa (352 species of lichenized fungi, 2 subspecies, 3 varieties and 8 lichenicolous fungi). The Troodos Region, with about 230 taxa, is the part of the island with the highest number of known species. For each lichen species references, regions, substratum and altitudinal range are reported. Keywords: altitudinal zones, biodiversity, checklist, Cyprus, flora, lichenicolous fungi, lichenized fungi, lichens.
36168Badin G. & Nimis P.L. (1996): Biodiversity of epiphytic lichens and air quality in the province of Gorizia. - Studia Geobotanica, 15: 73–89. .
In the last six years the North-East Italian plains were intensively studied for air pollution monitoring with lichen biodiversity measures. To date, more than 3,500 relevés of epiphytic lichen vegetation, based on a standard methodology, were carried out in this area. The present study fills a gap in the exploration of the area, presenting the results relative 10 the province of Gorizia. The study is based on 335 relevés in 104 stations. The relevés are frequency counts of all lichen species in a sampling grid subdivided into ten rectangles. The sum of the frequencies of all species is the Biodiversity index of each relevé. The average values of Biodiversity Indices of all relevés taken in the same station is the Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) of the station, following a slightly modified approach proposed by Swiss authors. The matrices of the 60 lichen species found in the survey area, and of the relevés/stations were submitted to multivariate analysis (classification and ordination): the results show a predominance of nitrophytic Xanthorion-species and a transition from Parmelion (prevalent in less anthropized areas) to Xanthorion vegetation (favoured by agriculture and more resistant to air pollution). Distribution maps showing presence and abundance of eight selected species (Candelaria concolor, Hyperphyscia adglutinata, Parmelia caperata, P. sulcata, P. subrudecta, Plzyscia adscendens, Phaeophyscia orbicularis, Xanthoria parietina) are presented and discussed. Automatic mapping programs were also used to map the distribution of the weighed averages of ecological indices associated to each species in each station of the survey area: a map of eutrophication and one of air humidity are presented and discussed. The IAP map of the province is discussed in terms of air quality levels: no extensive lichen desert does occur and IAP values are generally high, but a few restricted areas show some symptoms of air quality worsening, and would be worthy being monitored by instrumental recording. Keywords: Biodiversity, ltaly, lichens, Pollution.
36167Nimis P.L. (1994): New or interesting lichens from the Dolomites (Tre Cime di Lavaredo, NE Italy). - Studia Geobotanica, 14: 27–31. .
Seventy-five infrageneric taxa of lichens are reported from the Dolomites (NE Italy, Tre Cime di Lavaredo). The samples were collected in two stations, one in the Alpine belt (2300-2400 rn), the other in the subalpine belt (1800m). Seventeen taxa are new to the Region of Veneto; eight of these are also new lo the lichen flora of ltaly: these are: Caloplaca isidiigera Vezda, Candelariella unilocularis (Elenk.) comb. nov., Candelariella plumbea Poelt & Vezda. Eiglera homalomorpha (Nyl.) Clauz. & Roux, Farnoldia jurana ssp. bicincta (Hertel) Clauz. & Roux, Lecanora meolansii B. de Lesd., Verrucaria zamenhofiana Clauz. & Roux., Xanthoria elegans v. orbicularis (Schaerer) Clauz. & Roux. Keywords: Alps, Dolomites, Flora, Lichens.
36166Recchia F., Castello M. & Gasparo D. (1993): Biomonitoraggio dell'inquinamento atmosferico tramite licheni nella provincia di Pescara. - Studia Geobotanica, 13: 313–348. .
[in Italian with English abstract: ] This paper presents the results of a study on air quality in the Province of Pescara (Central Italy), carried out in 1991, and based on epiphytic lichens as bioindicators. SO2 pollution was evaluated by means of an Index of Atmospheric Purity (I.A.P.) computed on the frequency of epiphytic lichens within a sampling grid. Relevés were carried out in 77 stations, on Quercus and Tilia spp.: pollution maps for the Province are presented. Altogether, 57 species were recorded, with a prevalence of nitrophytic and neutro-basiphytic lichens, indicating a diffuse secondary eutrophication of the bark. The species can be subdivided in 6 main groups according to their locai distribution patterns: the distribution maps of 6 species are presented. Indicator species, whose distribution is best related to the pollution patterns, were selected. Eutrophication and acidification maps were obtained by calculating an index far each station, based on lichen sensitivity scales derived from existing literature. The results show that most of the Province of Pescara has high air quality standards; the most polluted areas are in the north-eastern part of the Province and along the Pescara valley, corresponding to the town of Pescara and the main industrial and urbanized zones. The main factors affecting lichen distribution are air pollution and eutrophication due to anthropic activities.
36165Tretiach M. & Carvalho P. (1993): Four lichens new to Italy. - Studia Geobotanica, 13: 349–356. .
Four species of lichens, Agonimia allobata, Anisomeridium Nyssaegenum, Bintorella monasteriensis and Diplotomma scheideggerianum, are reported for the first time from Italy. A detailed description of each species and critical notes on its ecology and geographic distribution are given.
36164Terron Alfonso A. (1992): Phytogeographical analysis of the lichen flora in El Teleno (NW Iberian Peninsula). - Studia Geobotanica, 12: 69–74. .
The saxicolous, acidophytic lichen flora of El Teleno Massif is analysed from the phytogeographical point of view, trying to characterize the different floristic contingents, floristic elements, affinities far the different bioclimatic belts and the different substrata. The synthesis is based on a list of 231 lichen taxa. Key words: Phytogeography, Lichens, lberian Peninsula, Saxicolous, Acidophytic.
36163Atienza V., Fos S., Sanz M.J., Calatayud V. & Barreno E (1992): Epiphytic lichens from Iberian Paramerae. I. Javalambre Mountains (Teruel, Spain). - Studia Geobotanica, 12: 61–67. .
A preliminary list of 61 epiphytic lichens from the Javalambre mountains (Teruel, Spain) is presented. The following phorophytes were sampled Pinus sylvestris, P. nigra, Juniperus sabina, J. phoenicea, J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica, and J. thurifera, in the Sabina-Pineto sylvestris and Junipereto hemisphaerico-thuriferae communities. 35 taxa are new to the Teruel country. Aspicilia mutabilis (Ach.) Körber, Banhegya setispora Zeller & Toth, Caloplaca stillicidiorum (Vahl) Lynge, Caloplaca ulcerosa Coppins & P. James, Catinaria montana (Nyl.) Vainio, Letharia vulpina (L.) Hue and Thelenella modesta (Nyl.) Nyl. are among the more significative species from the phytogeographical point of view. Keywords: Epiphytic lichens, Chorology, Temei, Spain, Iberian Pararnerae.
36162Nimis P.L., Lazzarin G. & Gasparo D. (1991): Lichens as bioindicators of air pollution by SO2 in the Veneto Region. - Studia Geobotanica, 11: 3–76. .
This paper presents the results of a study on air pollution by SO2 in the Veneto Region (North Eastern Italy), using the "Calibrated Lichen lndex of Air Quality" (I.A.P.) proposed by Liebendoerfer et al. (1988). This index, based on the frequency of epiphytic lichen species within a sampling grid of 10 units, has been tested by the authors in two preliminary studies carried out in two different areas of Northern ltaly (the town of La Spezia and the northern part of the province of Vicenza), revealing a high degree of correlation with pollution by SO2, measured by automatic recording gauges. The index has been computed for 662 stations scattered throughout the Region of Veneto, whose surface area is of 18,364 km2. The average number of relevés in each station is 3.7, with a total number of 2,425 relevés. The tree genus selected for sampling is Tilia. Altogether, 80 lichen species have been recorded during the survey, with a prevalence of nitrophytic and neutro-basiphytic lichens indicating a diffuse secondary eutrophication of the bark by agricultural activities. Pollution maps for the seven provinces and for the entire region are presented. The evaluation of pollution levels is based on the correlations between the index and SO2 levels found in the preliminary studies. All maps have been drawn by programs of automatic mapping. The results show that in 93.7% of the regional territory there is a very low probability of the occurrence of SO2 concentrations higher than the thresholds established by law; this part of the region has yearly means of the 98th percentiles lower than 84 μg/m3. 25% of the region has moderate pollution levels, 23.4% a low pollution, and 44.9% a very low air pollution. The most polluted areas are located in the Southwestern part of the region. The pollution pattern agrees very well with the location of the main sources of pollution, and with the directions of the prevailing winds. The study presents also the computerized distribution maps of eight selected species (Candelaria concolor, Candelariella xanthostigma, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia exasperatula, Parmelia sulcata, Physcia adscendens, Physcia orbicularis, Xanthoria parietina), that are discussed in relation with the main pollution patterns. The lichens species can be subdivided into three main groups, according to their distribution patterns. The main factors affecting the distribution of lichens in the survey area are air pollution and the eutrophication of bark by agricultural activities. A monitoring strategy where bioindicators and instrumental recording of air pollution are used jointly is proposed as a good solution to air pollution mapping aver vast areas. Keywords: Air pollution, Air quality, Bioindicators, Biomonitoring, Lichens, ltaly, Veneto.
36161Bargagli R. (1990): Assessment of metal air pollution by epiphytic lichens: the incidence of crustal materials and of the possible uptake from substrate barks. - Studia Geobotanica, 10: 97–103. .
The amounts of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the epiphytic lichen Parmelia sulcata Tayl. and in surface soils of Mt. Amiata (Central ltaly) were measured. Using Al as a reference element, the data were normalized and background concentrations were established. In a separate trial, concentrations of the above elements in outer and inner barks of supporting trees (oak, chestnut, and beech) were determined. The possibility of an uptake of some elements from the substrate, although not very likely, cannot be excluded completely. Keywords: Biomonitoring, Lichens, Heavy Metals, Pollution.
36160Gasparo D., Castello M. & Bagagli R. (1989): Biomonitoraggio dell'inquinamento atmosferico tramite licheni. - Studia Geobotanica, 9: 152–250.
[in Italian with English abstract: ] This study presents the results of a research carried out around an incinerator at Macerata (Central Italy), aiming at monitoring air pollution with the use of epiphytic lichens as bioindicators and bioaccumulators. Two main approaches have been adopted: 1) lndirect approach, based on the relative frequencies of epiphytic species; 2) Direct approach, based on measurements of metal concentrations in the lichen thalli. The two approaches are complementary: the former mainly gives information on pollutants with a long-range deposition, such as SO2 and NOx, the latter indicates the pollution by metals. The frequency of species within a 10-mesh grid of 30 x 50 cm has been recorded in 34 sampling stations (average 3 trees per station). The metal concentrations in the thalli of Xanthoria parietina have been recorded in 19 stations. Pollution maps have been constructed by programs of authomatic mapping. Tue results indicate that the incinerator should be considered as the main emitting source for the following metals: Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni. The main source for Pb is the vehicular traffic. Al is mostly of terrigenous origin. Most of the gaseous pollutants are probably produced by domestic heating. Keywords: Air Pollution, Bioindicators, Lichens, Italy.
36159Egea J.M. (1989): Las comunidades liquenicas saxicolas, ombrofobas, litorales, del Suroeste de Europa y Norte de Africa. - Studia Geobotanica, 9: 73–152. .
This paper is a study of the ombrophobous saxicolous lichen vegetation along the coasts of southwestern Europe and northern Africa, with some comments on the bioclimatic features of this area. All taxa mentioned in the text are included in a commented list. The species considered as characteristic or transgressive of ombrophilous communities are provided with a comment on their distribution, ecology and syntaxonomy. Distribution maps are provided for some little known species. On the basis of the phytosociological approach 6 associations and 2 communities are recognized, according to the following syntaxonomic scheme: Roccelletea phycopsis Class. proy. Saxicolous, ombrophobous, thermophytic, aerohygrophytic, halotolerant, photophytic to skiophytic, scarcely to not nitrophytic. Littoral or sublittoral areas, in Europe and northern Africa. Dirinetalia massiliensis Ord. prov. On carbonatic rocks. Mediterranean and Eurosiberian regions. Roccellion phycopsis Egea et Llimona em. On carbonatic rocks. Optimum in the Mediterranean region. Dirinetum repandae Clauzade et Roux 1975. Littoral or sublittoral areas, in the infrathermo-mesomediterranean and thermocolline stage. ? Community of Opegrapha durieui On porous more or less soft rocks near the sea. Thermomediterranean. Roccelletalia fuciformis Ord. prov. Siliceous and volcanic rocks. Macaronesian, Mediterranean and Eurosiberian regions. Roccellion tinctoriae Klement 1965. On vertical and overhanging cliffs, very aerohygrophytic, photophytic. Optimum in the Macaronesian region. Present also in high air moisture areas of the Mediterranean and Eurosiberian regions. Roccelletum tinctoriae Klement 1965. Shaded volcanic rocks. Infra- thermo-Mediterranean-Canarian. From arid to humid ombroclimate. Lecanactidion monstrosae Ali. prov. Acidophitic, anombrophytic, from photophytic to very skiophytic, less aerohigrophytic than the former alliance. Littoral of the Mediterranean, Macaronesian and southern half of the Eurosiberian region. Dirinetum africanae Egea et Llimona 1984 corr. Siliceous and volcanic rocks. On cavities, small caves, overhanging and vertical cliffs thermo (meso ?)- Mediterranean and infrathermocanarian. From arid to dry ombroclimates. Lecanactino plocinae-Dirinetum sorediatae Egea et Rowe 1987 Sandstone and schists. Coast and sublittoral hills of Cadiz and Tanger. Thermomediterranean subhumid (humid ?). Sclerophytetum circumscriptae James, Hawksworth et Rose 1977 Southern part of the Eurosiberian region. Siliceous rocks. Lecanactino monstrosae-Dirinetum insulanae Ass. nova. Volcanic rocks. Infrathermomediterranean-canarian, (thermocolline?). Ombroclimate arid to subhumid. The ecology, distribution and floristic composition of all syntaxonomic units are discussed. Keywords: Coast, Lichens, N Africa, Ombrophobous, Saxicolous, SW Europa, Vegetation.
36158Lee Y., Jang H.-R., Lee D., Lee J., Jung H.-R., Cho S.-Y. & Lee H.-Y. (2024): Graphislactone A, a fungal antioxidant metabolite, reduces lipogenesis and protects against diet-induced hepatic steatosis in mice. - International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 25(2): 1096 [16 p.].
Graphislactone A (GPA), a secondary metabolite derived from a mycobiont found in the lichens of the genus Graphis, exhibits antioxidant properties. However, the potential biological functions and therapeutic applications of GPA at the cellular and animal levels have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we explored the therapeutic potential of GPA in mitigating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its underlying mechanisms through a series of experiments using various cell lines and animal models. GPA demonstrated antioxidant capacity on a par with that of vitamin C in cultured hepatocytes and reduced the inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide in primary macrophages. However, in animal studies using an NAFLD mouse model, GPA had a milder impact on liver inflammation while markedly attenuating hepatic steatosis. This effect was confirmed in an animal model of early fatty liver disease without inflammation. Mechanistically, GPA inhibited lipogenesis rather than fat oxidation in cultured hepatocytes. Similarly, RNA sequencing data revealed intriguing associations between GPA and the adipogenic pathways during adipocyte differentiation. GPA effectively reduced lipid accumulation and suppressed lipogenic gene expression in AML12 hepatocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In summary, our study demonstrates the potential application of GPA to protect against hepatic steatosis in vivo and suggests a novel role for GPA as an underlying mechanism in lipogenesis, paving the way for future exploration of its therapeutic potential. Keywords: graphislactone A; natural antioxidant; mice; high-fat diet; lipogenesis.
36157Berger F. (2003): Die Flechtenflora des NSG „Halser Ilzschleifen" bei Passau (Bayern) - Ergebnisse einer „Bio-Blitz" Begehung am GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt 2002. - Hoppea, 64: 463–473. .
Im Rahmen eines "Geo-Tages der Artenvielfalt" wurde am 8. 6. 2002 die Flechtentlora im Naturschutzgebiet (= NSG) "Halser Ilzschleifen" bei Passau (Bayern, BRD) untersucht. Die dabei erstellte Artenliste umfaßt insgesamt 200 lichenisierte Ascomyceten und 4 lichenicole Pilze. Chaenothecopsis golubkovae wird erstmals für Europa nachgewiesen, Leptogium magnussonii ist neu für Bayern.
36156Clayden S., Driscoll K.E. & Harries H. (2024): The lichen genus Rinodina (Physciaceae) in New Brunswick, Canada. - The Canadian Field-Naturalist, 137[2013]: 32–63. .
Fifteen species of the crustose lichen genus Rinodina are confirmed in New Brunswick, Canada. We report four corticolous species, Rinodina pachysperma, Rinodina populicola, Rinodina septentrionalis, and Rinodina tenuis, and the saxicolous Rinodina tephraspis in the province for the first time. A previous report of Rinodina granuligera is based on a specimen that we have re-identified as Rinodina cinereovirens. We note distinguishing characteristics, habitats, substrata, relative abundance, and biogeographic relationships of each species and provide an identification key and distribution maps. The most frequently occupied phorophytes (tree substrata) are Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum), Yellow Birch (Betula alleghaniensis), and Eastern White Cedar (Thuja occidentalis). Some species are closely associated with particular habitats, phorophytes, or both. For example, we found R. pachysperma only in floodplain forests dominated by Silver Maple (Acer saccharinum), and R. tenuis only on Eastern White Cedar in wet cedar-dominated stands. In contrast, we recorded Rinodina freyi on numerous phorophyte species in a relatively wide range of habitats. Other than Eastern White Cedar and Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea), conifers are rarely colonized by Rinodina species in New Brunswick. Most Rinodina species are probably not currently of conservation concern in the province. However, R. cinereovirens is known from only two collections, one dating from 1902. The other, from 2007, was on Black Ash (Fraxinus nigra) in a swamp forest next to an active peat-mining operation. The expected devastation of ash species by the invasive Emerald Ash-borer (Agrilus planipennis) is a further threat to this occurrence and to any lichens for which ash may be an important phorophyte. Keywords: biogeography, Atlantic Canada, Wolastoq (Saint John River), Protected Natural Areas, phorophyte, conservation, seasonality of spore discharge, disjunct distribution.
36155Tuan T.Q., Son N.V., Hoang T.K.D., Luong N.H., Thuy B.T., Nguyen T.V.A., Hoa N.D. & Hai N.H. (2011): Preparation and properties of silver nanoparticles loaded in activated carbon for biological and environmental applications. - Journal of Hazardous Materials, 192(3): 1321-1329.
Silver nanoparticles colloid has been prepared by a modified sonoelectrodeposition technique in which a silver plate was used as the source of silver ions. This technique allows producing Ag nanoparticles with the size of 4-30 nm dispersed in a non-toxic solution. The Ag nanoparticles were loaded in a high surface activated carbon produced from coconut husk, a popular agricultural waste in Vietnam by thermal activation. The surface area of the best activated carbon is 890 m(2)/g. The presence of Ag nanoparticles does not change significantly properties of the activated carbon in terms of morphology and methylene blue adsorption ability. The Ag nanoparticle-loaded activated carbon shows a good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with very low minimal inhibitory concentration of 16 mu g/ml and strong As(V) adsorption. The materials are potential for prevention and treatment of microbial infection and contamination for environmental applications. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Silver nanoparticles, Sonoelectrochemistry, Antibacterial materials, Activated carbon, Methylene blue, SURFACE-ENHANCED RAMAN, MALACHITE-GREEN, ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY, METHYLENE-BLUE, ADSORPTION, REMOVAL, SHAPE, SIZE, EQUILIBRIUM, MECHANISM
36154Makryi T.V. & Zheludeva E.V. (2023): Family Collemataceae in the lichen flora of the Magadan Region, Russia. - Botanica Pacifica, 13(1): 1-6.
The localities of sixteen species of cyanolichens of the family Collemataceae Zenker discovered in the Magadan Region are provided. Collema glebulentum (Cromb.) Degel. is recorded for the first time in the Russian Far East. Fourteen species are new for the Magadan Region. Collema furfuraceum (Arn.) DR., C. subflac­cidum Degel., Leptogium saturninum (Dicks.) Nyl., Rostania occultata (Bagl.) Otálora, P.M. Jørg. et Wedin, Scytinium teretiusculum (Wallr.) Otálora, P.M. Jørg. et Wedin live as epiphytes in poplar-chosenia forests along the valleys of large rivers. Col­lema pulcellum Ach., C. flaccidum (Ach.) Ach., Leptogium cf. hirsutum Sierk occur in habitats unusual for them – in the subalpine mountain belt. Leptogium cyanescens (Ach.) Körb. was found only on the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk. All lichens are rare and occur in special habitats, manly refugia. Most species were found on the Olskoye Basalt Plateau and the Atargan Peninsula. The localities of Collema pulcel­ lum, Leptogium cyanesces, L. cf. hirsutum are outside their ranges; these lichens are relics of the Miocene-Pliocene mesophilous flora. cyanolichens, Collemataceae, new records, special habitats, refugia, mesophilous relics, Magadan Region, Russia
36153Gupta V.K., Darokar M.P., Saikia D., Pal A., Fatima A. & Khanuja S.P.S. (2007): Antimycobacterial Activity of Lichens. - Pharmaceutical Biology, 45(3): 200-204.
Ethanol extracts of nine lichen species, namely Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr.) Hale ex Sipman (Parmeliaceae), Flavoparmelia caperata (L) Hale (Parmeliaceae), Heterodermia leucomela (L) Poelt (Physciaceae), Lecanora flavidorufa Hue (Lecanoraceae), Leptogium pedicellatum P.M. Jorg (Collemataceae), Lobaria isidiosa (Bory) Trevisan (Stictaceae), Rimelia reticulata (Taylor) Hale and Fletcher (Parmeliaceae), Phaeophyscia hispidula (Ach.) Essl (Physciaceae), and Stereocaulon foliolosum Nyl. (Stereocaulaceae), were evaluated for antimycobacteral properties against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and H37Ra strains using the radiometric BACTEC method. Among the tested lichens, the virulent strain of M. tuberculosis H37Rv was found more susceptible to ethanol extract of F. caperata and H. leucomela (MIC 250 mg=mL). E. cirrhatum, R. reticulata, and S. foliolosum were found active at the concentration of 500mg=mL. L. isidiosa, L. pedicellatum, P. hispidula, and L. flavidorufa did not exhibit activity at the maximum tested concentration of 1000 mg=mL. Antimycobacterial agents, BACTEC, lichens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, radiometric assay.
36152Božič D. & Horvat M. (2024): Insights into seasonal variations in mercury isotope composition of lichens. - Environmental Pollution, 340: 122740.
Lichens are commonly used to assess mercury (Hg) concentrations in air because of their cost-effectiveness. However, recent research has revealed temporal variations in the isotopic composition of Hg. Previous work on this topic leaves open questions about the repeatability of data over multiple seasons, different types of sampling (transplantation or in-situ collection), and diverse locations. This study aims to address these issues by conducting a high-frequency sampling campaign of in-situ and transplanted lichens and atmospheric particulate matter (APM). Sampling sites included a range of areas, from pristine to Hg-contaminated sites. Isotopic analysis showed that the isotopic composition of Hg in lichens undergoes mass-dependent fractionation and changes with time. The heaviest isotopic composition was observed in summer and the lightest in winter. These trends were consistent across polluted and unpolluted environments, as well as in both in-situ and transplanted lichens and in APM. The results further indicated towards a correlation between changes in Hg concentrations and isotopic composition in lichens and environmental factors. All of these variables seem to be changing at the same frequency and may have not just correlation but also causation relationship. Environmental factors seem to be influencing the Hg concentrations and isotopic composition. The summer high temperatures might be influencing the heavier isotopic fingerprint observed in lichens during the same season. Similarities with APM-bound Hg suggest a common underlying mechanism. This study highlights the importance of considering temporal and seasonal trends, as well as the method of lichen sampling, when interpreting results. Researchers using lichens as proxies for atmospheric Hg concentrations or isotope ratios should consider these findings when designing their studies. Mercury, Isotopes, Lichens, Seasonal cycling, Atmospheric particulate matter
36151Silva T.E.F., da Silva M.S.R.C., dos Santos M.A.L., Cáceres M.E.S., Aptroot A. & Vitória N.S. (2024): Two new Arthoniales species (lichenized Ascomycota) from Brazil. - Revista de Gestão Social e Ambiental, 18(4): e04543 [13 p.].
Objective: The present work aimed to describe, comment, and illustrate two new lichenized species of Ascomycota. Method: Morphological analyses of the samples were performed at the Laboratory in the State University of Bahia (UNEB), Campus VIII. The lichen thalli were observed using a stereomicroscope (Zeiss); chemical treatments were performed to observe the microscopic structures of the lichens after exposure to 10% KOH (potassium hydroxide), lactophenol (cotton blue), Melzer’s reagent, chlorine, and viewed under UV light. The chemical compositions of the lichen were examined using thin layer chromatography (TLC) at the Biochemical Laboratory of the Federal University of Pernambuco. Results and conclusion: Stirtonia juaensis and Cryptothecia paramacrocephala are two new lichenized species of Ascomycota found colonizing the plants Spondias tuberosa Arruda (Umbuzeiro) and Piptadenia moniliformis Benth. (Quipembe) in the Caatinga phytogeographical domain near the village of Juá in the municipality of Paulo Afonso, within the Raso da Catarina Ecoregion in northern Bahia State, Brazil. Originality/value: Research related to lichen taxonomy in Brazil is still scarce, especially in the Caatinga. The new species of Stirtonia and Cryptothecia described and illustrated in this work expand the knowledge about fungi in Brazil. Keywords: Caatinga, Lichen, Taxonomy, Stirtonia, Cryptothecia.
36150Nimis P.L., Monte M. & Tretiach M. (1987): Flora e vegetazione lichenica di aree archeologiche del Lazio. - Studia Geobotanica, 7: 3–161. .
This paper presents the results of a 7 year-long study on the lichen flora and vegetation of 16 archaeological sites located in the Provinces of Rome and Viterbo (Central Italy, Latium). The lichen flora on monuments consists of 284 taxa at infrageneric level (276 species and 8 infraspecific taxa). The temperate element constitutes 45% of the flora; the species with Southern distribution in Europe are 20.4%, suboceanic species 10% of the total. The Northern element (in respect with the survey area) constitutes 10% of the flora, but is composed by species which are very rare in the survey area. The vegetational study is based on 148 phytosociological releves. The matrix of species and releves has been submitted to numerical classification and ordination. The results permit to distinguish several lichen communities. The ecology of each community and the damage caused to the monuments are discussed on the basis of indirect ecological data (ecological indexes as proposed by Wirth, 1980). The paper includes a key for the identification of the lichen taxa recorded in the survey area.
36149Nimis P.L. (1985): Contributi alle conoscenze floristiche sui licheni d'Italia. III. Florula lichenica delle Isole Tremiti. - Studia Geobotanica, 5: 75–88. .
123 species of lichens are reported for the Tremiti lslands, in the Southern Adriatic Sea. 68 species are epilithic, 40 epiphytic and 15 epigaeic. The relative poorness of the lichen flora is due to two main facts: 1) strong accumulation of nitrates throughout the islands by maritime birds, 2) absence of extensive woody stands with a rich epiphytic vegetation. Of particular interest are the few remnants of a wood dominated by Quercus ilex in the isle of S. Domino, which acts as a refuge for a number of subatlantic or mediterranean - atlantic epiphytic species.
36148Nimis P.L. (1984): Phytosociology, ecology and phytogeography of epiphytic lichen vegetation in the Calamone Lake area (N-Apennines, Italy). - Studia Geobotanica, 4: 109–127. .
Six community types of epiphytic lichen vegetation are reported from the Calamone Lake area (N-Apennines). Data analysis is based on multivariate methods. The ecological interpretation of the compositional variation was based on indirect gradient analysis. Each of the communities is well characterized in floristical, ecological and phytogeographical terms. Keywords: Lichens, Epiphytes, Apennines, Vegetation.
36147Nimis P.L. (1984): Contributions to quantitative phytogeography of Sicily II: correlation between phytogeographical categories and elevation. - Studia Geobotanica, 4: 49–62. .
Data source: Centrai Databank of the ltalian flora and vegetation. Database: phanerogamic flora of Sicily; percents of species with similar distribution patterns, subdivided into 49 phytogeographical categories, in 23 elevation intervals of 100m each. Methods: Complete Linkage Clustering with Correlation Coefficient far the classification of categories and of elevation intervals; Concentration Analysis far the ordination. Results: species with similar distribution tend to be most frequent along given sections of the elevation gradient. The degree of correlation between phytogeographical categories and elevation has been quantified. Keywords: Phytogeography, Flora, Sicily.
36146Nimis P.L. (1982): The epiphytic lichen vegetation of the Trieste Province (North eastern Italy). - Studia Geobotanica, 2: 169–191. .
On the basis of a numerical classification of 85 phytosociological releves, 11 unions of epiphytic lichen vegetation are described for the Province of Trieste. Their ecology and dynamics are discussed. The results confirm the transitional character of the study area from the phytogeographical and phytosociological points of view. Keywords: Epiphytes, Lichens, Phytosociology, Trieste.
36145Poelt J. & Hafellner J. (1980): Zur Verbreitung und Biologie der Flechte Caloplaca anularis. - Studia Geobotanica, 1: 223–229. .
Caloplaca anularis, described from the Western Alps in 1972, is reported for the first time from the Eastern Alps and the Balkan peninsula. The species grows always on steep calcareous rocks. There garlandlike, centrifugal, rarely fruiting thalli are built. On small projections of the rocks it grows rosulate and many apothecia are developed. The form of growing is connected with a deposit of excrets in the medulla and the hypothallus increasing towards the older parts of the thallus. The excrets deposited in the medulla and the hypothallus differ with the optical activity. Keywords: Caloplaca anularis, chorology, ecology, lichens, morphology.
36144Nimis P.L. & Zappa L. (1988): I licheni endolitici calcicoli su monumenti. - Studia Geobotanica, 8: 125–133. .
This paper briefly illustrates the main features of endolithic lichens growing on limestone, with particular regard to some species which have been found growing on monuments. The action of endolithic lichens on stone is also discussed, with some remarks on the possible harmful effects of the application of biocides to remove endolithic lichens from monuments. Keywords: Endolithic, Lichens, Limestone, Monuments.
36143Pallecchi P. & Pinna D. (1988): Azione delle crescita dei licheni sulla pietra nell'area archeologica di Fiesole. - Studia Geobotanica, 8: 113–124. .
The archaeological area in Fiesole, where a local sandstone (Pietra Serena) was mainly used, was taken into consideration with the purpose of investigating the mechanical and chemical alteration possibly due to lichen growth. The taxonomic data allowed identification of almost 40 species. Distribution data allowed definition and localization of the most frequent species, therefore permitting a choice of those to be taken into consideration in relation to their effect on the stone. Observation of stone specimens under optical and scanning electron microscopes showed the morphology of mechanical alterations caused by the growth of some lichen species. The map of distribution of calcium determined by analysis carried out under SEM equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) showed that some species cause modification of the mineralogical stone composition. Moreover, analyses by X-ray diffractometry, in connection with the above results, allow the identification of the production of calcium oxalate due to tlhe growth of some species. Keywords: Archaeological area, Fiesole, ltaly, Lichens, Stone alteration.
36142Alessi P. & Visintin D. (1988): Protective agents as a possible substrate for biogenic cycles. - Studia Geobotanica, 8: 99–112. .
Protective agents are increasingly used for the preservation of stone monuments. Once applied to the rock, they constitute a veritable new substrate. Very little is known on the biological cycles which could develop on treated surfaces. This paper presents a synthesis on the main properties of protective agents, with particular regard to those of biological relevance; the results were obtained on the basis of multivariate analysis of solubility data. The aim of the paper is to provide biologists with an information basis for studies of biogenic cycles on treated surfaces. Keywords: Conservation, Monuments, Protective agents.
36141Roccardi A. & Bianchetti P. (1988): The distribution of lichens on some stoneworks in the surroundings of Rome. - Studia Geobotanica, 8: 89–97. .
34 floristic releves concerning epilithic lichens have been carried out in 6 archaeological sites in the surroundings of Rome, on different types of substrate. 52 lichen species have been recorded. The matrix of the releves and of the species has been submitted to programs of multivariate analysis (classification and ordination); the results allow to distinguish 5 main community-types and to order the species according to their degrees of acidophytism and nitrophytism. Keywords: Lichens, Stoneworks, Monuments, Ecology.
36140Nimis P.L. & Monte M. (1988): The lichen vegetation on the cathedral of Orvieto. - Studia Geobotanica, 8: 77–87. .
The lichen vegetation of the Cathedral of Orvieto (Centrai ltaly) has been studied on the basis of 29 phytosociological releves carried out on different parts of the church, and on different substrates. The species by releves matrix has been submitted to classification and ordination to detect different community-types and to study possible ecological gradients. The ecology of the community-types has been studied by means of the ecological indices derived from Wirth (1980). The main causes of lichen growth in different parts of the church, the main aesthetic damages, and the possible measures for eliminating and preventing lichen growth are discussed. LA VEGETAZIONE LICHENlCA DEL DUOMO DI ORVIETO. La vegetazione lichenica del duomo di Orvieto è stata studiata sulla base di 29 rilievi fitosociologici effettuati in diverse parti della chiesa, e su diversi substrati. La matrice delle specie e dei rilievi è stata sottoposta a classificazione ed ordinamento al fine di individuare diversi tipi di vegetazione e di evidenziare possibili gradienti ecologici. L'ecologia dei diversi tipi di vegetazione è stata studiata utilizzando le diagnosi ecologiche proposte da Wirth (1980) per le singole specie. Vengono discussi le principali cause che determinano la crescita dei licheni nelle diversi parti del Duomo, i principali danni estetici da essi creati, e possibili misure di intervento per eliminare e prevenire la crescita dei licheni nella parti maggiormente colpite. Keywords: Lichens, Monuments, Orvieto's Cathedral, Vegetation.
36139Piervittori R. & Sampò S. (1988): Lichen colonization on stoneworks: examples from Piedmont and Aosta Valley. - Studia Geobotanica, 8: 73–75. .
Data on lichen presence on some monuments from Piedmont and Aosta Valley are reported. Sampling techniques, chosen on the basis of lithological characteristics of the substrata are described, and the ecological significance of the identified species is discussed. Preliminary data indicate that the majority of the species are neutro-basiphytic and rather nitrophytic, xerophytic and photophytic. Finally, most species appear to belong to the Caloplacion decipientis alliance. Keywords: lichen, monuments, Piedmont, Aosta Valley.
36138Garcia-Rowe J. & Saiz-Jimenez C. (1988): Colonization of mosaics by lichens: the case study of Italica (Spain). - Studia Geobotanica, 8: 65–71. .
A black and white mosaic of the Neptune's house, located in the 2nd century Roman city Italica, was investigated in order study the lichen colonization of tesserae and mortars. Different strategies were observed. They lead to colonization of mosaic in such an extent that lichens clothe the represented figures, masking and affecting the esthetic value of this work of art. Keywords: Lichens, Mosaics, Spain.
36137Modenesi P. & Lajolo L. (1988): Microscopical investigation on a marble encrusting lichen. - Studia Geobotanica, 8: 47–64. .
The wheathering ability of Aspicilia contorta thalli with respect to their substrate, a marble tombstone, was studied by conventional, fluorescence, polarized and electron scanning microscopy. Our observations can help to visualize the mechanical fracturing and some product of the lichen metabolism which can affect the mechanical and chemical stability of the substrate. Keywords: Lichens, Monuments, Marble, Optical and Electron Scanning Microscopy.
36136Gehrmann C., Krumbein W.E. & Petersen K. (1988): Lichen weathering activities on mineral and rock surfaces. - Studia Geobotanica, 8: 33–45. .
The biocorrosion and biodeterioration of limestone and sandstone by epilithic and endolithic lichens was studied using the maceration and the casting-embedding techniques. The investigations revealed alterations on the rock surface, characterized by biocorrosive pitting, etching patterns, imprints of the fruiting bodies, boring channels and mucilaginous etching figures. Moreover, the inside of the rock is penetrated by extensive and compact networks of the lichenized fungal hyphae. These biodeteriorations are positively correlated to the physical and chemical actions of the lichen involved as well as to the nature of the rock. Keywords: biocorrosion, biodeterioration, biological pitting, endolithic, epilithic, lichens, limestone, sandstone.
36135Deruelle S. (1988): Effets de la pollution atmospherique sur la vegetation lichenique des monuments historiques. - Studia Geobotanica, 8: 23–31. .
Air pollution has a direct influence on stone decay but also and indirect one by favouring lichen development. This is specially perceptible for nitrophilous lichens which proliferate on rainexposed walls. Thus an historical monument, Notre-Dame de l'Epine's Basilica, was colonized by nitrophilous lichenic population between 1975 and 1980. These nitrophilous species with orange and yellow thallus are responsible for the disfigurement of the Basilica. The spread of nitrophilous lichenic populations is related to a recent increase in the use of fertilizers and, above ali, to the recent methods of spraying fertilizers. Keywords: air pollution, fertilizers, France, lichens, limestone, monument, nitrogenous, vegetation.
36134Garty J. (1988): Some observations on the establishment of the lichen Caloplaca aurantia on concrete tiles in Israel. - Studia Geobotanica, 8: 13–21. .
This paper investigates the colonization of concrete tiles by the lichen Caloplaca aurantia in a rural, non-polluted settlement in Israel. The percentage colonization by this crustose Iichen on roof tiles 30, 45, and 60 years old was found to be 2.464 ± 0.732%, 22.972 ± 7.311% and 48.515±6.781% respectively. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that spherical cells of a unicellular green alga, probably Trebouxia colonize pits on the weathered surface of the very same concrete tiles, as do also the ascopores of C. aurantia. In many of the pits, the ascospores arrange in clusters of 8 units. Fungal hyphae were observed close to ascopores and to the free algal cells. Keywords: Algae, Ascospores, Caloplaca aurantia, colonization, SEM, tiles, Trebouxia.
36133Seaward M.R.D. & Giacobini C. (1988): Lichen-induced biodeterioration of Italian monuments, frescoes and other archaeological materials. - Studia Geobotanica, 8: 3–11. .
An appraisal is made of the part played by lichens in the deterioration of stonework. Stone- and artwork in exposed and partially enclosed environments of Central Italy were examined in detail to identify those substrata most vulnerable to lichen attack. Assessment of relationships between particular species and the physical and chemical nature of their substrata was carried out in order to determine the relative importance of lichens in biodeterioration processes obtaining in specific circumstances, and to establish those species responsible for disfigurement and those causing actual destruction. Particular attention is paid to recent environmental changes conducive to increasing detrimental invasion of terracotta, mortar and painted plaster, and reference is made to examples of building materials, statuary and other ornamental carvings, terracotta pots and frescoes, both those in situ at Ostia Antica, Rome and Caprarola (Viterbo) and those relocated in open-air museums, etc. Keywords: Archaeology, Biodeterioration, Frescoes, Italy, Lichens, Monuments, Ostia, Rome, Terracotta.
36132Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1892): Lichenes yatabeani, in Japonia lecti a cl. prof. Yatabe missi, quos enumerat. - Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano, 24(3): 189–202. .
Synechoblastus nigrescens, Synechoblastus robillardi, Synechoblastus belenophorus, Baeomyces placophyllus, Baeomyces obsoletus, Icmadophila aeruginosa, Icmadophila coronata, Pilophorus acicularis, Pilophorus clavatus, Stereocaulon proximuji, Stereocaulon subramulosom, Cladonia rangiferina, Cladonia alpestris, Stereocaulon octospherellum, Cladonia amaurocraea, Cladonia forcata, Cladonia pityrea, Cladonia ochrochlora, Cladonia macilenta, Usnea barbata, Usnea plicata, Usnea articolata, Usnea triohodea, Alectoria divergens, Alectoria sulcata, Ramalina dendriscoides, Ramalina calicaris, Ramalina polymorpha, Ramalina scopulorum, Ramalina inflata, Cetraria islandica, Cetraria ornata, Cetraria collata, Gyrophora proboscidea, Peltigera canina, Peltigera pusilla, Peltigera polydactyla, Peltigera horizontalis, Nephromium tropicum, Nephromium levigatum, Stictina retigera, Sticta pulmonacea, Sticta aurata, Sticta miyoshiana, Sticta yatabeana, Sticta adscripta, Sticta (S . Ricasolia) flava, Anaptychia podocarpa, Physicia crispia, Parmelia prætervisa, Parmelia aurulenta, Parmelia tiliacea, Parmelia saxatilis, Parmelia olivacea, Parmelia pertusa, Coccocarpia aurantiaca
36131Nimis P.L. (1985): Urban lichen studies in Italy: 1st: The town of Trieste. - Studia Geobotanica, 5: 49–74. .
This paper reports on the distribution of lichens in the urban environment of Trieste (NE-Italy) and its surroundings. The study is based on 213 phytosociological releves, taken on trees with primarily acid bark, and on pollution data from a net of deposimetric stations located within the town center. Both data sets have been submitted to multivariate analysis (classification and ordination). The results of data analysis allowed to distinguish six main zones, three defined by a peculiar lichen vegetation, the remaining three delimited on the basis of pollution data. The ecology of the releve groups obtained by classification has been studied on the basis of the tolerance ranges associated to each species by Wirth (1980). From the perifery to the center of the town there is a decrease in species, and an increase in the relative frequency of xero-photo-nitro- and neutro-basiphytic species. The distribution of lichens within the survey area cannot be explained on the only basis of air pollution. Drought in the urban environment seems to be another important factor affecting the distribution of lichens in the town of Trieste. Keywords: Air pollution, Lichens, Trieste.
36130Tretiach M. (1992): Lichenological studies in NE Italy. V: New records from Friuli - Venezia Giulia. - Studia Geobotanica, 12: 3–60. .
This paper reports ca. 800 lichen records from Friuli - Venezia Giulia. 8 species (Cladonia diversa, Fellhanera subtilis, Lecanora cinereofusca, L. impudens, Poeltinula cacuminum, Polyblastia helvetica, Scoliciosporum pruinosum and Trapelia placodioides) are new to ltaly. 211 species are reported for the first time from Friuli, and 48 from the Karst. The samples are preserved in the TSB herbarium. Keywords: Alps, Flora, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy, Karst, Lichens.
36129Llop E., Barbero M., Hladun N.L., Navarro-Rosinés P. & Gómez-Bolea A. (2018): Diversity and ecology of lichens and lichenicolous fungi in «Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici» National Park (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Spain). - Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d’Història Natural, 82: 121–132. .
334 lichenized fungi and 13 lichenicolous fungi were reported from «Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici» National Park. The diversity of growth-forms was distributed as follows: 59.4 % crustose, 20.2 % foliose, 10.7 % fruticose, 3.7 % squamulose and 2.3 % leprose. Lichenicolous fungi count for 3.7 % of the catalogue. Alpine belt was the richest with the 48 % of found taxa, subalpine belt was the second richest with 37.9 % and the montane belt was the poorest with only 14.1 % of taxa. However, this belt had the highest proportion of crustose taxa, with a 63.5 %. In addition, subalpine belt contained more foliose taxa with a 29 % of the taxa present in that belt, and there was also found the higher proportion of fruticose lichens (12.4 %). Crustose lichens were the main growth form on all the substrates. Otherwise, growth forms are in a similar proportion on ground and plant debris. The patterns of diversity and ecological distribution were similar to the ones found in mid-latitude mountains from Europe (Alps, Apennines, Cantabrian Range) or North America (Rocky Mountains). European mountain localities were richer in crustose species, while North American sites had a higher proportion of foliose and fruticose taxa. Moreover, corticolous taxa showed to be more abundant in European areas, on the other hand terricolous taxa were more frequent in North American mountains. Key words: biodiversity, lichenized Ascomycota, mid-latitude mountains.
36128Castello M. (1996): Studi lichenologici in Italia nord-orientale. VII: Effetti dell'inquinamento atmosferico sulle comunità licheniche epifite nella Provincia di Trieste [Lichenological studies in NE Italy. VII: Effects of air pollution on epiphytic lichen communities in the Province of Trieste]. - Gortania, 17[1995]: 57–78. .
[in Italian with English abstract: ] This paper presents the results of a study of air quality in the Province of Trieste based on lichens as indicators of SO2 pollution. Air quality was evaluated by means of an lndex of Atmospheric Purity (I.A.P), based on the number and frequency of lichen species on Quercus and Tilia spp. in 80 sampling stations. Air quality map of the Province of Trieste is shown; most of the study area has very high air quality levels, the most polluted areas corresponding with the urban and industriai zone of Trieste and the South eastern part of the Province; in the North western part of the study area air quality values slightly decrease. Altogether, 62 epiphytic lichen species and two main communities have been recorded, the communities consisting of nitrophytic and toxitollerant species or acidophytic and sensitive to air pollution species; the effects of antropic activities on distribution patterns of lichen species and communities are discussed and the distribution maps of 6 species are presented. The main factors affecting lichen communities development are air pollution and eutrophication. Key words: Air pollution, Air quality, Bioindicators, Lichens, Communities, Trieste.
36127Carvalho P. (1997): Microclimate and diversity of cryptogamic epiphytes in a Karst doline (Trieste, NE Italy). - Gortania, 18[1996]: 41–68. .
212 relevés of epiphytic cryptogamic vegetation (lichens, mosses and liverworts) were carried out along eight transects in a typical Karst Doline near Trieste (NE ltaly) in order to study the compositional variation in relation to the pronounced microclimatic patterns which are characteristic of Karst dolines. The epiphytic cryptogamic flora consists of 48 lichens, 13 mosses and 8 liverworts. The matrix of species and relevés was submitted to multivariate analysis (classification and ordination) to detect groups of relevés with similar floristic composition, groups of species with similar ecology, and compositional gradients characterized by indicator species. The distribution of indicator species within the doline was mapped by programs of automatic mapping. Different groups of indicator species revealed different distributional patterns inside the doline. Ecological indicator values were used for an ecologica! interpretation of the compositional gradient revealed by the ordinations. The main factors affecting the variation of epiphytic cryptogamic vegetation are the pH of the bark, air humidity, light and temperature. Dolines are characterized by a high diversity and a high richness of ecological niches, chietly depending on the pronounced microclimatical variations; they host several aerohygrophytic species and some montane species which are otherwise absent from the Karst. Cryptogams have been used as indicators to draw an air humidity map of the doline, which essentially agrees with microclimatical measurements from other, similar biotopes. Key words: Biodiversity, Bioindicators, Bryophytes, Cryptogams, Karst, Lichens, Microclimate, Vegetation.
36126Tretiach M. & Carvalho P. (1995): Lichenological studies in north-eastern Italy. VI. Species new to Friuli or Venezia Giulia. - Gortania, 16[1994]: 89–97. .
Four lichens (Biatora mendax, Fuscidea kochiana, Leptogium massiliense and Pertusaria carneopallida) and the lichenicolous fungus Dactylospora athallina are reported for the first time from Friuli; five species (Catapyrenium psoromoides, Collema occultatum, Physconia perisidiosa, Strigula mediterranea and Thelopsis rubella) are new to Venezia Giulia (NE Italy). A detailed description of each species and criticai notes on its ecology and geographic distribution are provided. Key words: Flora, Friuli, Lichens, Venezia Giulia.
36125Chang R., Wang Y., Liu Y., Wang Y., Li S., Zhao G., Zhang S., Dai M., Zheng X., Bose T. & Si H. (2023): Nine new species of black lichenicolous fungi from the genus Cladophialophora (Chaetothyriales) from two different climatic zones of China. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 14: 1191818 [16 p.]. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2023.1191818.
Lichenicolous fungi are parasites of lichens. Many of these fungi are referred to as “black fungi”. A diversity of these black fungi include species that are pathogenic to humans and plants. A majority of black fungi reside in the phylum Ascomycota within the sub-classes Chaetothyriomycetidae and Dothideomycetidae. To explore the diversity of lichenicolous “black fungi” associated with lichens in China, we conducted several field surveys in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Yunnan Province between 2019 and 2020. We recovered 1,587 fungal isolates from the lichens collected during these surveys. During the preliminary identification of these isolates using the complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS), partial large subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (LSU), and small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (SSU), we identified 15 fungal isolates from the genus Cladophialophora. However, these isolates had low sequence similarities with all known species from the genus. Therefore, we amplified additional gene regions, such as, translation elongation factor (TEF) and partial β-tubulin gene (TUB), and constructed a multi-gene phylogeny using maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian inference. In our datasets, we included type sequences where available for all Cladophialophora species. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that none of the 15 isolates belonged to any of the previously described species in the genus. Therefore, using both morphological and molecular data, we classified these 15 isolates as nine new species within the genus Cladophialophora: C. flavoparmeliae, C. guttulate, C. heterodermiae, C. holosericea, C. lichenis, C. moniliformis, C. mongoliae, C. olivacea, and C. yunnanensis. The outcome from this study shows that lichens are an important refugia for black lichenicolous fungi, such as those from Chaetothyriales. Keywords: Ascomycota, biodiversity, Chaetothyriomycetidae, lichens, multi-gene phylogeny, Yunnan Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
36124Vannini A., Pagano L., Bartoli M., Fedeli R., Malcevschi A., Sidoli M., Magnani G., Pontiroli D., Riccò M., Marmiroli M., Petraglia A. & Loppis S., et al. (2024): Accumulation and release of cadmium ions in the lichen Evernia prunastri L. (Ach.) and wood-derived biochar: implication for the use of biochar for environmental biomonitoring. - Toxics, 12(1): 66 [13 p.].
Biochar (BC) boasts diverse environmental applications. However, its potential for environmental biomonitoring has, surprisingly, remained largely unexplored. This study presents a preliminary analysis of BC’s potential as a biomonitor for the environmental availability of ionic Cd, utilizing the lichen Evernia prunastri L. (Ach.) as a reference organism. For this purpose, the lichen E. prunastri and two types of wood-derived biochar, biochar 1 (BC1) and biochar 2 (BC2), obtained from two anonymous producers, were investigated for their ability to accumulate, or sequester and subsequently release, Cd when exposed to Cd-depleted conditions. Samples of lichen and biochar (fractions between 2 and 4 mm) were soaked for 1 h in a solution containing deionized water (control), 10 µM, and 100 µM Cd2+ (accumulation phase). Then, 50% of the treated samples were soaked for 24 h in deionized water (depuration phase). The lichen showed a very good ability to adsorb ionic Cd, higher than the two biochar samples (more than 46.5%), and a weak ability to release the metal (ca. 6%). As compared to the lichen, BC2 showed a lower capacity for Cd accumulation (−48%) and release (ca. 3%). BC1, on the other hand, showed a slightly higher Cd accumulation capacity than BC2 (+3.6%), but a release capacity similar to that of the lichen (ca. 5%). The surface area and the cation exchange capacity of the organism and the tested materials seem to play a key role in their ability to accumulate and sequester Cd, respectively. This study suggests the potential use of BC as a (bio)monitor for the presence of PTEs in atmospheric depositions and, perhaps, water bodies. Keywords: biomonitoring; cadmium accumulation; cadmium release; cadmium removal; cation exchange capacity; surface area.
36123Etayo J. & López de Silanes M.E. (2024): Contribution to the study of lichenicolous fungi from northwest Iberian Peninsula (León and Lugo provinces). - Journal of Fungi, 10(1): 60 [27 p.].
We have found 117 taxa of lichenicolous fungi in the studied area. In this paper, we describe five taxa: Arthonia boomiana on Nephromopsis chlorophylla, Lawalreea burgaziana on Platismatia glauca, Pronectria scrobiculatae on Lobarina scrobiculata, Trichonectria parmeliellae on Parmeliella testacea and Trichonectria rubefaciens ssp. cryptoramalinae on Ramalina. Furthermore, the next records are interesting chorologically from the Iberian Peninsula: Arthophacopsis parmeliarum, Catillaria lobariicola, Lichenopuccinia poeltii, Myxotrichum bicolor, Nanostictis christiansenii, Niesslia lobariae, Opegrapha sphaerophoricola, Pronectria fragmospora, Rhymbocarpus aggregatus, R. neglectus, and Tremella cetrariicola. Keywords: fungi on lichens; new species; diversity; biogeography; taxonomy; Galicia; Spain; Europa.
36122Paz-Bermúdez G., Fernández-Salegui A.B., Hespanhol H., López de Silanes M.E., Vieira C. & Calviño-Cancela M. (2024): Effects of the abandonment of traditional cultural practices on epiphytic bryolichenic communities in chestnut orchards in north-west Spain. - Forests, 15(1): 160 [21 p.].
This study delves into the impact of contrasting management practices on epiphytic bryolichenic communities, shedding light on their divergent responses to management regimes on Castanea sativa Mill. orchards. Lichens and bryophytes were sampled in managed and abandoned plots, in 95 trees, in north and south sides and at two heights in Galicia (NW Spain). The studied groups exhibited opposing reactions to these management practices; bryophytes suffered adverse effects in managed stands, experiencing reduced cover and species richness compared to abandoned orchards, while lichens displayed heightened cover and species diversity. The size of trees, included as a covariate in our analyses, displayed no significant impact on the overall species richness of lichens or bryophytes, although it did influence the cover of specific functional traits. These differing outcomes may be linked to alterations in environmental conditions brought by management interventions. Furthermore, the study uncovered divergent responses within the taxonomic and functional composition of epiphytic communities. Different species and functional groups exhibited varying reactions to changing environmental conditions, making predictions a complex endeavour. In conclusion, this research emphasizes the need for management strategies that account for the diverse ecological requirements of different species and functional groups since no single management regime will suit all species or functional groups. Keywords: lichens; bryophytes; biodiversity; Castanea sativa; managed; unmanaged; agroforestry system.
36121Ertz D. & Lebreton E. (2024): A new corticolous species of Mazosia A.Massal. (Roccellaceae, Arthoniales) from Guadeloupe, remarkable by its byssoid thallusv. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 45(1): 1–10.
An unknown species of Roccellaceae Chevall. was collected in 2022 and 2023 on the bark of trunks in a rainforest in Basse-Terre island (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles). Phylogenetic analyses using mtSSU, nuLSU and RPB2 sequences reveal the placement of the species in the genus Mazosia A.Massal. (Roccellaceae). The lichen is unusual for the genus by being the first species of Mazosia developing a byssoid thallus. It is described as Mazosia byssoidea Lebreton & Ertz, sp. nov. Besides it byssoid thallus, the new species is characterized by 1-septate ascospores, stipitate pycnidia and a chemistry with roccellic acid. Together, all these features make the new species a distinctive and important addition to the Arthoniales Henssen ex D.Hawksw. & O.E.Erikss. So far, it is only known from two large trees in a dense humid forest at low elevation, a locality that needs to be included in a protected area. A key to the corticolous species of Mazosia is provided. Key words: Caribbean islands, Lesser Antilles, lichenized fungi, phylogeny, new species.
36120Ismailov A.B., Volobuev S.V. & Ivanushenko Yu.Yu. (2023): Alpha diversity of lichenized and aphyllophoroid fungi in two 1ha forest plots in the Samursky National Park (Republic of Dagestan, Russia). - South of Russia: ecology development , 18(4): 51–63. DOI: 10.18470/1992-1098-2023-4-51-63.
Aim: The results of the inventory of species composition of epiphytic lichens and aphyllophoroid fungi on two 1ha sample plots in lowland floodplain forests are presented. Such integrated studies of these groups of organisms are poorly known. Fungi, including lichenized fungi, are essential components of forest ecosystems. Data on their diversity and substrate distribution can provide important information on the condition and biological value of the forests studied. Material and Methods. The main method of the fieldwork was the "1-ha method". For the alpha-diversity study, two 1-ha sample plots were established in well-preserved forest areas: the first one in a site of mixed broad-leaved forest with lianas, and the second one in communities dominated by Carpinus betulus and Quercus robur. The specimens were collected from all variety of woody substrate within plots in spring and autumn 2023. Results. We have revealed 89 species of lichens and 60 species of aphyllophoroid fungi. The lichen families Arthoniaceae, Lecanoraceae, Physciaceae, Ramalinaceae and Roccellaceae contain 47.2 % of all species. High proportion of lichens with Trentepohlia photobiont (29.2 %), significant number of Arthoniomycetes (Arthoniaceae, Lecanographaceae, Roccellaceae) and crustose lichens (75.3 %) have been noted. Among the aphyllophoroid fungi identified in the sample plots, 11 species are new to Dagestan, including three species (Antrodia leucaena, Coronicium gemmiferum, Steccherinum litschaueri) recorded for the Caucasus for the first time. Fourteen species are new to the Samursky National Park. Conclusion. The study of alpha diversity and substrate preferences of xylobionts revealed the richest and most specific phorophytes, as well as some ecological features of the surveyed plots. Most of the species were found on the bark and wood of Carpinus betulus, Populus alba and Quercus robur. The majority of species reported for the first time for the region have been recorded on these tree species. We expand the number of known species on Populus alba, on which only few species were previously known. High proportion of lichens with the Trentepohlia photobiont and the predominance of crustose species were revealed. In terms of basidiomata morphology, corticioid fungi dominated over polypores and clavarioids in general. The leading ecological and trophic group of aphyllophoroid fungi are saprotrophs. Revealed features indicate a significant contribution of the wood of the main forest-forming tree species to the preservation of the species richness of mycoand lichen biota.
36119Kholod S., Konoreva L. & Chesnokov S. (2024): Influence of orographic factors on the distribution of lichens in the Franz Josef Land archipelago. - Plants, 13(2): 193 [23 p.].
During a geobotanical study of the Franz Josef Land archipelago, 111 lichen species were recorded on 130 sample plots. The significance of orographic factors in the distribution of lichens was assessed using principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple regression analysis. It was found that the absolute altitude and distance from the glacier are of the greatest importance for crustose lichens, while for fruticose lichens, the most critical factors were the slope exposure and steepness. Along the altitudinal gradient, the number of species decreased (from 88 to 25). The highest number of species (90) was recorded at distances of 0.1 to 1.0 km from the glacier edge, which is explained by the unstable species composition of areas recently released from under the glacier. The number of species in all groups generally decreased (from 81 to 52) with increasing slope steepness. With an increasing heat supply of slopes (on a gradient from northern to southern), the number of species steadily increased in all groups (from 39 to 75). The low sum of the explained variance values for the first two PCA components (21%) characterizes the specificity of the natural environment of polar deserts, where there is no leading environmental factor. Keywords: lichens; altitude; distance to glacier; slope steepness; exposure; number of species; cover; multiple regression analysis; PCA.
36118Matvienko A.I., Evgrafova S.Y., Kovaleva N.M., Sideleva E.V., Sitnikova M.V., Menyailo O.V. & Masyagina O.V. (2024): Greenhouse gas fluxes from the epiphytic lichens: incubation experiments. - Forests, 15(1): 107 [10 p.].
Because they are widespread and evolutionarily old, epiphytic lichens (ELs) play an important role in global forest ecosystems. ELs are abundant in Siberian forest ecosystems, which are highly vulnerable to climate change; thus, ELs can be important contributors to the carbon (C) cycle. This study aims to address the unknown role of tree-inhabiting ELs in the C cycle of forest ecosystems in Central Siberia, where the EL biomass ranges from 492 to 3200 kg per ha. The main finding of this study is that ELs in a hydrated state can generate CH4 for an extended period (at least two weeks), as determined by an incubation method. At the same EL moisture level, EL CO2 fluxes are species-specific. The pattern of the release or uptake of GHGs by ELs may also alter due to climate change, e.g., changes in precipitation regimes (such as more frequent extreme rainfalls and droughts). Therefore, the EL contribution to the C cycle in forest ecosystems should be assessed, e.g., via the modeling of C cycling. Furthermore, specific factors, such as the EL exposure on the phorophyte stem, the EL biodiversity, and the day/night GHG fluxes, should be considered for a more concise assessment of ELs’ contribution to the C cycle of forest ecosystems and their response to ongoing and projected climate change. Keywords: biocrusts; birch; boreal; carbon; carbon dioxide; climate change; cryptogamic communities; Cyanobacteria; methane; Siberia.
36117Morillas L. (2024): Lichens as bioindicators of global change drivers. . - Journal of Fungi, 10(1): 46 [3 p.].
36116Thiers B.M. (2024): Strengthening partnerships to safeguard the future of herbaria. - Diversity, 16(1): 36 [10 p.].
Herbaria remain the primary means of documenting plant life on earth, and the number of herbaria worldwide and the number of specimens they hold continues to grow. Digitization of herbarium specimens, though far from complete, has increased the discoverability of herbarium holdings and has increased the range of studies from which data from herbarium specimens can be used. The rather large number of herbaria about which no current information is available is a source of concern, as is herbarium consolidation and removal of herbaria to offsite storage facilities. Partnerships are key to the future health of herbaria. Benefits could accrue from the reimagining of the world’s herbaria as a global resource rather than a collection of independent, often competing institutions. Herbaria can extend the reach of their specimens by joining the nascent effort to link the species occurrence data they manage to other biological and environmental data sources to deepen our ability to understand the interrelationships of earth’s biota. To assure that data held by herbaria contribute to the range of conservation-related projects for which they are relevant, herbaria should embrace the tenets of Team Science and play a more proactive role in promoting their holdings for relevant research and conservation projects. Keywords: biological collections; herbaria; digitization; historical collections; museological importance; vascular plants; algae; bryophytes; fungi; lichens.
36115Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1893): Lichenes wilsoniani s. Lichenes a cl. rev. F.-R.-M. Wilson in Australiae prov. Victoria lecti, quos exponit. - Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, 1: 33–65. .
Parmelia conspersa v. stenophylloides, Physcia subcrustacea, Candelaria xanthostigmoides, Endocarpiscum Guepini, Paratieliella microphylla, Placodium chrysoleucum, Placodium radiosum, Placodium fulgens, Placodium grandinosum, Placodium citrinum, Amphiloma m.urorum, Ampliloma granulosum, Psora decipiens, Psora plicatula, Thalloidima microlepis, Thalloidima caeruleo-nigricans, Thalloidima (s. Toninia) leucinum, Thalloidima (s. Toninia) conglomerans, Callopisma cinnabarinum, Callopisma ochrochroum, Callopisma anrantiacum, Callopisma aurantiacum, V. holocarpum, V. subgilviim, V. flavo-virescens, Callopisma cermum, V. obscuratum, Callopisma p\rraceum, V. pyrithroma, Callopisma fulvum, Lecania subsquamosa, Lecania (s. Maronea) constans, Lecanora sordida, V. subcamea, Lecanora sphaerospora, Lecanora subfusca, Lecanora caesio-rubella, Lecanora lineolata, Lecanora fibrosa, Lecanora umbrina, Lecanora lacteola, Lecanora dispersa, Lecanora Flotoviana, V. corticola, Lecanora caesio-alba, Lecanora solenospora, Lecanora coarctata, Lecanora frustulosa, Lecanora Wilsoni, Lecanora perminuta, Lecanora glaucoflavens, Lecanora carneo-lutescens, Lecanora (s. Aspicilia) viridescens, Lecanora (s. Aspicilia) calcarea, Lecanora (s. Aspicilia) Hoffmanni, Lecanora (s. Aspicilia) macrosperma, Lecanora {s. Ochrolechia) pallescens, Rinodina metabolica, Rinodina obscura, Rinodina colobinoides, Rinodina pachyspora, Rinodina thiomela, Diploschistes scruposus, V. cretaceus, V. bryophilus, V. arenarius, Diploschistes actinostoma, Pertusaria (s. Lecanorastrum) erythrella, Pertusaria anarithmetica, Pertusaria (Pustulatae) nitidula, Pertusaria pustulata, Pertusaria melaleuca, Pertusaria leioplana, Pertusaria (Graphicae) graphidioides, Pertusaria aberrans, Pertusaria (Irreguläres) diffracta, Phlyctella Wilsoni, Secoliga leptospora, Lecidea (s. Biatorella) conspersa, Lecidea (s. Biatora) cinnabarina, Lecidea (s. Biatora) flexuosa, Lecidea (s. Biatora) pruinosula, Lecidea (s. Biatora) minutula, Lecidea (s. Biatora) xylogena, Lecidea (s. Biatora) tenella, Lecidea (s. Biatora) leptolomoides, Lecidea (s. Biatora) leptoloma, Lecidea (s. Biatora) intervertens, Lecidea (s. Biatora) aspidula, Lecidea (s. Biatora) aspera, Lecidea (s. Lecidella) elabens, Lecidea (s. Lecidella) parasema, V. enteroleuca, Lecidea (s. Lecidella) sabuletorum, Lecidea (s. Sarcogyne) simplex, Lecidea (s. Eulecidea) ferax, V. athallma, Lecidea (s. Eulecidea) tristicula, Lecidea (s. Eulecidea) contigua, V. flavicunda, V. leprosa, V. hydrophila, V. umbonifera, Lecidea (s. Eulecidea) alboccerulescens, Lecidea (s. Eulecidea) fuscoatra, Lecidea (s. Eulecidea) pallido-atra, Lecidea (s. Eulecidea) furaosella, Nesolechia rufa, Patellaria (s. Biatorina) glauco-nigrans, Patellaria (s. Biatorina) cyrtella, Patellaria (s. Biatorina) Banksiae, Patellaria (s. Biatorina) polycarpa, Patellaria (s. Biatorina) confluens, Patellaria (s. Catillaria) rimosa, Patellaria (s. Catillaria) bryophila, Patellaria (s. Psorothecium) melanotropa, Patellaria (s. Psorothecium) superflua, Patellaria (s. Psorothecium) subfuscata, Patellaria (s. Psorothecium) melaclina, Patellaria (s. Psorothecium) marginiflexa, Patellaria (s. Bilimbia) leucoloma, Patellaria (s. Bilimbia) pallido-nigrans, Patellaria (s. Bilimbia) pallida, Patellaria (s. Bacidia) luteola, Patellaria (s. Bacidia) millegrana, Blastenia ferruginea, Blastenia endochromoides, Blastenia soredians, Buellia modesta, Buellia parasema, V. vulgata, Buellia myriocarpa, Buellia fuliginosa, Buellia extenuata, Buellia endoleuca, Buellia farinulenta, Buellia prmnosa, Buellia Wilsoniana, Buellia macrospora, Buellia subarenaria, Buellia arenaria, Buellia halophila, Buellia steUulata, Buellia spuria, Buellia diplotommoides, Buellia hjrpomelaena, Buellia meiosperma, Buellia stigmatea, Buellia talcophila, Buellia perexigua, Diplotomma albo-atrum, Rhizocarpon rivulare, Rhizocarpon atro-album, Biatorinopsis lutea, Coenogonium interplexum, Ocellularia Bonplaudise, Ocellularia gyrostomoides, Thelotrema decorticans, Thelotrema lepadinum, Dirinastrum australiense, Platygrapha Banksiae, Opegrapha lacteella, Opegrapha Turneri, Opegrapha sororiella, Opegrapha varia, V. glomerulans, Opegrapha vulgata, V. parallela, Opegrapha Bonplandi, Opegrapha prosodea, Melaspilea gemella, Phaeographis cinerascens, Phaeographis inscripta, Phaeographis australiensis, Phaeographis intumescens, Phaeographis extenuata, Graphis striatula, Graphis rimulosa, Graphis assimilis, Graphis anfractuosa, Graphis scripta, V. serpentina, Graphis albo-atrum, Graphis perexigua, Graphina sophistica, Graphina subaggregans, Arthonia gregaria, V. purpurea, V. nudata, Arthonia nigro-rufa, Arthonia microsperma, Arthonia dispersa, Arthonia Banksiae, Arthonia lecideola, Arthonia Thozetiana, Arthonia propinqua, Arthonia complanata, Arthothelium pulvernlentum, Arthothelium velatius, Arthothelium interveniens, Arthothelium ampliatum, Abrothallus Parmeliarum, Mycoporura pycnocarpum, Sarcographa labyrinthica, Chiodecton grossum, Chiodecton sphaerale, Chiodecton velatum, Chiodecton subdepressum, Chiodecton divergens, Normandina pulchella, Endopyrenium hepaticum, Endocarpon Victorias, Parmentaria Ravenelii, Verrucaria mucosa, Verrucaria maura, Verrucaria ceuthocarpa, Verrucaria muralis, Limboria sphinctrina, Porina elegantiila, Porina corrugata, Porina Wilsoniana, Porina subargillacea, Arthopyrenia atomaria, Arthopyrenia stenotheca, Pyrenula mamillana, Pyrenula Kunthü, Pyrenula porinoides, Pyrenula annulata, Limboria sphinctrina, Porina elegantiila, Porina corrugata, Porina Wilsoniana, Porina subargillacea, Arthopyrenia atomaria, Arthopyrenia stenotheca, Pyrenula mamillana, Pyrenula Kunthü, Pyrenula porinoides, Pyrenula annulata, Arthothelium pulvernlentum, Arthothelium velatius, Arthothelium interveniens, Arthothelium ampliatum, Abrothallus Parmeliarum, Mycoporura pycnocarpum, Sarcographa labyrinthica, Chiodecton grossum, Chiodecton sphaerale, Chiodecton velatum, Chiodecton subdepressum, Chiodecton divergens, Normandina pulchella, Endopyrenium hepaticum, Endocarpon Victorias, Parmentaria Ravenelii, Verrucaria mucosa, Verrucaria maura, Verrucaria ceuthocarpa, Verrucaria muralis, Limboria sphinctrina, Porina elegantiila, Porina corrugata, Porina Wilsoniana, Porina subargillacea, Arthopyrenia atomaria, Arthopyrenia stenotheca, Pyrenula mamillana, Pyrenula Kunthü, Pyrenula porinoides, Pyrenula annulata, Arthothelium pulvernlentum, Arthothelium velatius
36114Diewald W., Dürhammer O. & Scheuerer M. (2007): Cetraria nivalis und Thamnolia vermicularis am Großen Arber (Bayerischer Wald) wiedergefunden. - Hoppea, 68: 343–344. .
36113Dürhammer O. (2006): Lecanora conizaeoides (Lichenes) Eine Art für die Rote Liste?. - Hoppea, 67: 498–500. .
36112Lange O.L. (2000): Die Lebensbedingungen von Bodenkrusten-Organismen: Tagesverlauf der Photosynthese einheimischer Erdflechten. - Hoppea, 61: 423–443. .
36111Wirth R., Kirsch H. & Büdel B. (2001): Verbreitungsmuster und Dynamik der Wiederausbreitung von Bartflechten der Gattungen Usnea und Bryoria im Spessart. - Hoppea, 62: 411–436. .
Distribution and composition of the beard lichen flora in the Spessart midlands (Germany) and its periphery was studied and mapped. A total of six Usnea and one Bryoria species were documented. One species (Usnea glabrescens) was new to the area and two were rediscovered after 1954 (Usnea fulvoreagens, Bryoria fuscescens). Changes of the Usnea vegetation from 1977 to 1995 were analyzed by means of published mappings for several species. Species richness of beard lichens was twice as high than before. Populations of U. filipendula and U. subfloridana revealed increasing abundances and a considerable expansion of their distribution range, thus indicating a recolonization of the area. In contrast U. hirta was less abundant than described in 1977. The distribution pattern of Usnea species was characterized by a leeward colonization, i. e. east of the N-S running watershed of the Spessart midland. U. filipendula showed habitat preferences along forest edges and regeneration gaps. Both, U. fllipendula and U florida were predominant on old deeiduous trees (> 120 years). To explain this distribution pattern, air pollution and forest management types are discussed as potential causes.
36110Kalb K. & Staiger B. (2000): Dyplolabia Massalongo. Monographie einer vergessenen Flechtengattung. - Hoppea, 61: 409–422. .
The lichen genus Dyplolabia A. Massal. is resurrected and the differences from Graphis are mentioned. Pycnidia and conidia from D. afzelii are described for the first time; conidiophores and conidiogenous cells as well as conidia are illustrated. A "sporomorph" of D. afzelii, Graphina oryzoides, is combined to Dyplolabia because of the obvious congenerity. The unnaturalness of spore genera is demonstrated. The hitherto known collections of Dyplolabia afzelii are shown in a map.
36109Goppel C. (2000): Kartierungen epiphytischer Flechten im Stadtgebiet von Regensburg 1976 bis 1997. - Hoppea, 61: 349–407. .
36108Dürhammer O. & Türk R. (2000): Beiträge zur Kryptogamenflora im Gebiet der Neuen Regensburger Hütte (Stubaier Alpen, Österreich). - Hoppea, 61: 335–348. .
36107Dal Forno M., Ellis C. & Myllys L. (2023): The Lichenologist Editor’s Choice Award. - Lichenologist, 55: 441.
Editorial advertisement
36106Vicol I. & Sahlean T.C. (2023): Conservation of unmanaged pan-European forest landscapes as a priority natural heritage for epiphytic lichens at different ecological and biogeographical scales - A review. - Annals of Forest Research, 66(2): 17–32.
The European forestry landscape represents an important priority for biodiversity and needs adequate management strategies. The main focus of this review is the importance of European forest areas for epiphytic lichen richness under the impact of different management practices assessed in the biogeographical and ecological regions of Europe. In total, 88 scientific articles were reviewed (based on the first author’s archive and by query in Web of Science), which examined epiphytic lichen richness within managed and unmanaged European forests. Biogeographical and ecological regions of Europe were not taken into account in the reviewed articles, but we used them for statistical analyses in the present work according to the geographical position of the investigated sites published in the reviewed articles. We also analysed the dissimilarities in epiphytic lichen richness among European biogeographical and ecological regions. Additionally, we analysed the impact of different silvicultural management practices (within assessed forests) on epiphytic lichen richness across the different biogeographical and ecological regions of Europe. The main results indicate that epiphytic lichen richness is significantly different across the biogeographical and ecological regions of Europe. Epiphytic lichen richness is significantly greater in Western European broadleaf forests in the Carpathian and Caledonian mountain areas and significantly lower in the Central European mixed forests and East European forest steppe. Management practices applied within studied forests had a negative impact on epiphytic lichen richness, while epiphytic lichen richness was higher within unmanaged forests. The main conclusion is that forests within highland areas of Europe that are not subjected to anthropogenic activities or management practices harbour greater epiphytic lichen richness and therefore should be conserved and protected due to their biological and ecological importance. Keywords: abiogeographical regions, conservation of unmanaged forests, ecoregions, European forests, lichens.
36105Miyazawa K. & Ohmura Y. (2023): Byssoloma orientale (Pilocarpaceae, Ascomycota), a new species from East Asia. - The Lichenologist, 55(6): 489-495.
A new species, Byssoloma orientale K. Miyaz. & Y. Ohmura, is described from East Asia. It is characterized by a minutely farinose light green thallus, apothecia with a well-developed byssoid margin that spreads laterally over the thallus surface, a pure black apothecial disc caused by the presence of an aeruginous pigment in the epithecium, (7–)9–12(–17)-septate cylindrical colourless ascospores, and oblong conidia. This species grows on living leaves as well as on tree bark. The molecular phylogenetic position of B. orientale within this genus was inferred based on mtSSU sequences, and the species was shown to be closely related to B. vanderystii, which has up to 7-septate ascospores and an absence of aeruginous pigment in the epithecium. China, Japan, conidia, foliicolous lichen, mtSSU, subtropics
36104Myllys L., Pino-Bodas R., Velmala S., Wang L. & Goward T. (2023): Multi-locus phylogeny of Bryoria reveals recent diversification and unexpected diversity in section Divaricatae. - The Lichenologist, 55(6): 497-517.
In recent years, the genus Bryoria (Parmeliaceae, Lecanoromycetes) has been the subject of considerable phylogenetic scrutiny. Here we used information on six gene regions, three nuclear protein-coding markers (Mcm7, GAPDH and Tsr1), two nuclear ribosomal markers (ITS and IGS) and a partial mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU), to examine infrageneric relationships in the genus and to assess species delimitation in the Bryoria bicolor/B. tenuis group in section Divaricatae. For this purpose, phylogenetic analyses and several of the available algorithms for species delimitation (ASAP, GMYC single, GMYC multiple and bPTP) were employed. We also estimated divergence times for the genus using *BEAST. Our phylogenetic analyses based on the combined data set of six gene loci support the monophyly of sections Americanae, Divaricatae and Implexae, while section Bryoria is polyphyletic and groups in two clades. Species from Bryoria clade 1 are placed in an emended section Americanae. Our study reveals that section Divaricatae is young (c. 5 My) and is undergoing diversification, especially in South-East Asia and western North America. Separate phylogenetic analyses of section Divaricatae using ITS produced a topology congruent with the current species concepts. However, the remaining gene regions produced poorly resolved phylogenetic trees and the different species delimitation methods also generated highly inconsistent results, congruent with other studies that highlight the difficulty of species delimitation in groups with recent and rapid radiation. Based on our results, we describe the new species B. ahtiana sp. nov., characterized by its bicolorous, caespitose, widely divergent thallus, conspicuously thickening main stems, well-developed secondary branches, and rather sparse third-order branchlets. Another new lineage, referred to here as B. tenuis s. lat., is restricted to western North America and may represent a new species recently diverged from B. tenuis s. str., though further work is needed. ITS regions, fungal barcode, incomplete lineage sorting, lichen, species delimitation
36103Frolov I.V., Prokopiev I.A. & Konoreva L.A. (2023): Neoplaca mirabilis, a new genus and a new epigaeic species containing naphthopyrans from the family Teloschistaceae. - The Lichenologist, 55(6): 443-450.
The production of anthraquinones is a major characteristic of most species in the Teloschistaceae. Other secondary metabolites are quite rare in this family, but some species are known to produce depsides, depsidones, xanthones and usnic acid. A new monotypic genus, Neoplaca, with a new species N. mirabilis, is described from the subfamily Caloplacoideae of the family Teloschistaceae, lacking anthraquinones but containing the naphthopyrans simonyellin and consimonyellin. This is the first time this class of organic compounds has been found in the family Teloschistaceae and the second in the order Teloschistales, where simonyellin has been detected in Brigantiaeaceae. Simonyellin and consimonyellin have also previously been reported in the family Roccellaceae. Neoplaca mirabilis is currently known from the two nearby localities in Yakutia, Russia, where it is common and grows on base-rich soil on exposed south-facing siliceous outcrops. The thallus consists of scattered whitish to greyish, or rarely with pale yellow tinge, squamules 1–4.5 mm diam. and 0.3–1 mm thick with citrine to orange-yellow blastidia produced from their margin; apothecia and pycnidia are unknown. In addition to naphthopyrans, N. mirabilis contains an unidentified brown pigment similar in some features to melanin. The new species is also interesting in that the pigments are apparently located inside the cells of the cortex, not on their surface, where anthraquinones are found in Teloschistaceae. Yakutia, consimonyellin, lichen, melanin-like pigment, simonyellin
36102Gerlach A., Clerc P., Lücking R., Moncada B., Caballero Nobleza J., Ohmura Y. & Dal Forno M. (2023): The genus Usnea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) in the southern Philippines: a first phylogenetic approach. - The Lichenologist, 55(6): 451-480.
A first integrative survey of the genus Usnea in the southern Philippines, taking into account morphological, anatomical, chemical and molecular characters, resulted in the recognition of 20 taxa, including three species new to science: Usnea angulata Ach., U. baileyi (Stirt.) Zahlbr., U. bismolliuscula Zahlbr., U. brasiliensis (Zahlbr.) Motyka, U. confusa Asah., U. croceorubescens Stirt., U. dasaea Stirt., U. himalayana C. Bab., U. krogiana P. Clerc, U. longissima Ach., U. nidifica Taylor, U. norsticornuta A. Gerlach & P. Clerc sp. nov. (characterized by a moderately thick cortex and by the presence of norstictic acid), U. paleograndisora A. Gerlach & P. Clerc sp. nov. (characterized by an orange subcortical pigmentation in the medulla, with enlarging soralia and a moderately thick and shiny cortex), U. pectinata Taylor, U. pygmoidea (Asahina) Y. Ohmura, U. rubicunda Stirt., U. rubrotincta (Stirt.) Zahlbr., U. spinulifera (Vain.) Motyka, U. subscabrosa Motyka and U. yoshihitoi P. Clerc & A. Gerlach sp. nov. (characterized by a lax medulla with non-conglutinated hyphae). Usnea krogiana is a new record for Asia; Usnea brasiliensis, Usnea confusa and U. croceorubescens are new records for the Philippines. This is the first phylogenetic study to include DNA sequences of Usnea from the Philippines. Molecular data from the ITS rDNA (76 newly generated sequences) are presented for most taxa except for U. himalayana, U. longissima and U. subscabrosa. At least six further taxa remain unidentified, awaiting the collection of additional specimens. Mindanao, Negros, anatomy, biodiversity, lichen, morphology, thin-layer chromatography
36101van der Kolk H.J., Timans H., Boers J. & Sparrius L.B. (2023): A new species of Thelocarpon from Dutch quarries, with a worldwide key to the species of the genus. - The Lichenologist, 55(6): 481-488.
Thelocarpon periphysatum sp. nov. is described from marl quarries in the Netherlands. The species is characterized by perithecioid ascomata that have a green-yellowish ring around the ostiole, abundant periphyses and periphysoids that are up to 120 μm long, the absence of paraphyses and the wide, oblong and often somewhat asymmetrical ascospores. The perithecia are immersed in black cyanobacterial crusts on calcareous rocks. A worldwide key is provided to the 30 species of Thelocarpon that are currently accepted. Ascomycota, Pezizomycotina, algicolous, biodiversity, lichenology, lichens, taxonomy
36100Dürhammer O. (2003): Die Flechtenflora von Regensburg. - Hoppea, 64: 5–461. .
36099Kalb K. (1994): Frutidella, eine neue Flechtengattung für Lecidea caesioatra Schaerer. - Hoppea, 55: 581–586. .
For Lecidea caesioatra, an arctic-alpine, bryophytic lichen, the new genus Frutidella (Lecanorales, Biatoraceae) is described. Its ascus type, paraphyses, conidiophores, conidiogenous cells and pycnoconidia are delineated. All known collections from Bavaria are cited.
36098Brunner G. & Lindacher R. (1994): Flechtenreiche Kiefernwälder des Nürnberger Reichswaldes. - Hoppea, 55: 255–272. .
36097Bushart M., Meyer N. & Leupold P. (1994): Die Sanddünengebiete bei Altdorf. - Hoppea, 55: 273–318. .
36096Hertel E. (1994): Zur Geschichte des "Kryptogamischen Reisevereins". - Hoppea, 55: 587–611. .
36095Pietschmann M. (1994): Histologische Färbemethoden bei Krustenflechten. - Hoppea, 55: 681–716. .
Sechs histologische Färbetechniken, die unterschiedliche Zellwandkomponenten anfarben: saure Polysaccharide, a-(l,3-l,4)-Polysaccharide, ß-(l,3)-Polysaccharide, ß-(l,3-l,4)-Polysaccharide, Chitin, GlcNac und neutrale Polysaccharide wurden mit dem Zweck getestet, ob sie in der taxonomischen Routineanalyse anwendbar sind. Die Muster der Zellwandkomponenten in vegetativen und reproduktiven Teilen im Mycobionten bei Lecideaceae, Micareaceae, Porpidiaceae und verwandten Familien werden beschrieben bzw. die Beobachtungen laitisch diskutiert. Die Muster von Zellwandkomponenten in vegetativen und reproduktiven Teilen des Mycobionten bei Lecideaceae, Micareaceae, Porpidiaceae und verwandten Familien wurden in getrennten Datensätzen numerisch analysiert. 270 Arten von 38 Gattungen wurden mit sechs verschiedenen histologischen Techniken getestet. Die reproduktiven und vegetativen Zellwandkomponenten konnten in vier Zellwandtypen aufgeteilt werden, indem eine Dichteanalyse der operationalen taxonomischen Einheiten (OTU's) durchgeführt wurde, welche zeigt, daß eine natürliche Kovariation der Zellwandkomponenten existiert. Der auffälligste und signifikante Zellwandtyp bei vegetativen Hyphen kommt innerhalb der Mycobilimbiaceae und der Gattung Clauzadea (Porpidiaceae) vor. Indikatoren für diesen Typ sind ein hohes Niveau saurer Heteropolysaccharide und Chitin. Signifikante Merlanalsausprägungen bei vegetativen Hyphen sind eine hohe Reaktivität von Kongorot und eine fehlende Reaktion von Anilinblau. Bei den reproduktiven Hyphen ist nur die 1+ braune Reaktion der ascogenen Hyphen ein signifikanter Vorhersageparameter für die gesamte Tabelle der OTU's. Die Resultate dieser breit angelegten Studie werden im Hinblick auf Merkmalsunabhängigkeit und Merkmalstrennung in der Histochemie von Flechten insgesamt diskutiert. Zusätzlich wurde die 'a posteriori' Merkmalsbedeutung von Zellwandkomponenten bei der taxonomischen Arbeit mit Beispielen von den Lecideaceae Chev. emend. Hafellner - eine Gruppe, welche als monophyletisch betrachtet wird - diskutiert und ihre Bedeutung sowohl auf niedrigem als auch hohem taxonomischen Niveau hinterfragt.
36094Brackel W. von (1994): Epiphytische Moos- und Flechten-Gesellschaften auf der Ehrenbürg bei Forchheim. - Hoppea, 55: 561–579. .
36093von der Dunk K. (1994): Dauerbeobachtungen zur Sukzession und Konkurrenz von Moosen und Flechten. - Hoppea, 55: 541–559. .
36092von der Dunk K. (1991): Kryptogamenvegetation auf Dächern in Mittelfranken. - Hoppea, 50: 537–570. .
36091Poelt J. (1991): Lichenologie und Lichenologen in Bayern eine Reverenz vor den Amateuren. - Hoppea, 50: 527–536. .
36090Bresinsky A. (1991): Flora und Vegetation der ältesten Schutzgebiete im Umkreis von Regensburg. - Hoppea, 50: 121–150. .
36089Scheuerer M. (1991): Flora und Vegetation des Naturschutzgebietes "Kleiner Arbersee" im Hinteren Bayerischer Wald. - Hoppea, 50: 233–286. .
36088Scheuerer M. (1993): Cladonia stellaris am Bayerischen Pfahl - ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis autochthoner Kiefernwälder. - Hoppea, 54: 565–573. .
36087Taer E.C., Dal Forno M., Moncada B., Amoroso V.B. & Coritico F.P. (2023): Lichens across land use types of Mt. Musuan, Bukidnon, southern Philippines. - Philippine Journal of Science, 152(6A): 2077–2086. .
Explorations on the knowledge and biodiversity of Philippine lichen fungi have progressed recently. However, comparatively little attention has been given to the species composition along a lowland secondary forest ecosystem. Thus, the study aimed to provide information on the occurrence of lichen species in relation to various land use types of Mt. Musuan of Mindanao Island, surrounded by forest fragments and cultivated agricultural areas. A series of transect walks and opportunistic sampling revealed a total of 38 lichen species distributed in 26 genera and 14 families. Among the land use types, the mixed species forest harbors the highest recorded species with 22, followed by teak forest and built-up (peak/summit) with 15 and 14 species, respectively. Lichens with the most represented families were revealed to be Graphidaceae with 10 species; Caliciaceae with six species; Physciaceae, Parmeliaceae, and Arthoniaceae with three species each; and Pyrenulaceae, Collemataceae, Letrouitiaceae, and Trypetheliaceae with two species each. Out of these collections, two species – viz. Letrouitia subvulpina (Nyl.) Hafellner and Pyrenula globifera (Eschw.) Aptroot – were new records in the Philippines. The results of this study will provide information to encourage effective management and biodiversity conservation efforts of various land use types, as lichens are sensitive to anthropogenic threats and pressures from environmental conditions. Keywords: Mindanao, new record, non-vascular, secondary forest, species richness.
36086Dietrich M., Blaise P., Frey D., Gabathuler M., Keller C., Mayrhofer H., von Hirschheydt G. & Vust M. (2023): Beiträge zur lichenologischen Erforschung der Schweiz – Folge 5. - Meylania, 72: 5–17.
Contributions to the lichenological exploration of Switzerland, 5. The fifth contribution presents six lichens new to Switzerland (Bacidina pycnidiata, Kuettlingeria areolata, Lecidea coriacea, Phaeophyscia rubropulchra, Rinodina poeltiana, R. subpariata), as well as new localities of Biatorella microhaema, Dactylina ramulosa, Leptogium burnetiae and Tetramelas triphragmioides.
36085Zimmermann E. & Feusi S. (2023): Lichenicole Pilze der Schweiz IX: Erwähnenswerte Funde aus dem Mittelland. - Meylania, 72: 19–34.
Lichenicolous fungi of Switzerland IX: Noteworthy records from the Swiss Plateau. Twenty notable lichenicolous fungi have been recorded and documented photographically from the Swiss Plateau. Eight of these represent new records for Switzerland: Bloxamia leucophthalma, Dacampia cladoniicola, Endophragmiella franconica, Gonatophragmium lichenophilum, Microsphaeropsis physciae, Neocoleroa lichenicola subsp. bouteillei, Pronectria caloplacae, Taeniolella punctata.
36084Killmann D., Leh B. & Fischer E. (2017): Das Naturwaldreservat Schwappelbruch im Soonwald – ein bemerkenswerter Standort seltener und gefährdeter Flechten [The nature forest reserve Schwappelbruch in the Soonwald – a remarkable site of rare and endangered lichens]. - Decheniana, 170: 30–41. .
The lichens of the nature forest reserve Schwappelbruch (Soonwald) have been investigated. A total of 50 lichen species as well as a lichenicolous fungus could be recorded. The diversity of coniocarpous lichens (Calicium spp., Chaenotheca spp.) is especially remarkable.
36083Killmann D. (2011): Weitere bemerkenswerte Flechtenfunde aus dem Nationalpark Eifel, Nordrhein-Westfalen [Further remarkable records of lichens from the Eifel National Park, North Rhine-Westfalia]. - Decheniana, 164: 15–18. .
Between May and September 2010, the liehen flora of the Eifel National Park was investigated. Altogether 166 species could be recorded, among them 74 species of the red list. Two taxa (Lecania cyrtellina, Reichlingia leopoldii) are new to North Rhine-Westfalia. The total amount of until now proven lichen species known from the Eifel National Park comprises 310 taxa. Keywords: Eifel National Park, lichens, red list, Lecania cyrtellina, Reichlingia leopoldii.
36082Killmann D. & Fischer E. (2008): Bemerkenswerte Flechtenfunde aus Rheinland-Pfalz und Luxemburg [Remarkable records of lichens from Rhineland-Palatinate and Luxembourg]. - Decheniana, 161: 29–32. .
New localities from Rhineland-Palatinate and adjacent Luxembourg are reported for the following remarkable liehen species: Anaptychia ciliaris, Bacidina chloroticula, Calicium adspersum, Calicium glaucellum, Chaenotheca brunneola, Chaenotheca trichialis, Dermatocarpon luridum, Enterographa hutchinsiae, Fellhanera bouteillei, Fellhanera subtilis., Hypogymnia farinacea, Hypotrachyna revoluta, Lecania naegelii, Mycoblastus sanguinarius, Parmelia submontana, Ramalina fastigiata, Ramalina fraxinea, Squamarina cartalaginea and Stereocaulon vesuvianum. Keywords: Lichens, Rhineland-Palatinate, Luxembourg.
36081Killmann D., Fischer E. & Sérusiaux E. (2004): Erstnachweis einer epiphyllen Flechtengesellschaft (Fellhaneretum myrtillicolae Spier & Aptroot) auf Buxus sempervirens in Deutschland [First record of a foliicolous lichen community (Fellhaneretum myrtillicolae Spier & Aptroot) on Buxus sempervirens in Germany]. - Decheniana, 157: 99–101. .
During a vegetation mapping of the Brohlbach valley near Treis-Karden (Mosel valley) a foliicolous lichen community on Buxus sempervirens could be recorded for the first time in Germany. The community was identified as Fellhaneretum myrtillicolae Spier & Aptroot, which was described from twigs of Vaccinium myrtillus in the Netherlands, Sweden, Poland, Great Britain and France. The following characteristic species of the community could be observed in the Brohlbach valley: Bacidina chloroticula, Fellhanera bouteillei, Fellhanera viridisorediata and Fellhaneropsis myrtillicola. Fellhanera bouteillei is critically endangered in Rhineland Palatinate. The remaining species as well as Arthonia muscigena and Bacidina delicata are first records for Rhineland Palatinate. Keywords: Fellhaneretum myrtillicolae, foliicolous lichen community, Bacidina chloroticula, Fellhanera bouteillei, Fellhanera viridisorediata, Fellhaneropsis myrtillicola.
36080Killmann D. (2006): Bemerkenswerte Flechtenfunde aus dem Nationalpark Eifel, Nordrhein-Westfalen [Remarkable records of lichens from the Eifel National Park, North Rhine-Westphalia] . - Decheniana, 159: 95–99. .
Between june and october 2005, the lichen flora of the Eifel National Park was investigated. Altogether 181 species could be recorded, among them 76 species of the red list. Three taxa (Chaenotheca chlorella , Parmotrema crinitum, Pertusaria leucosora) are new to North Rhine-Westphalia. Keywords: Eifel National Park, lichens, red list, Chaenotheca chlorella, Parmotrema crinitum, Pertusaria leucosora.
36079Janssen A.-M., Frahm J.-P. & Heidelbach B. (2007): Die Entwicklung der Flechtenvegetation in Bonn 2003–2006. - Decheniana, 160: 155–165. .
In 2003, permanent observation plots for monitoring epiphytic lichens have been established in the city of Bonn. A reinvestigation in 2006 revealed that the influence of nitrogen emissions has Increased. The average number of species as well as the cover of species has raised within three years. Neutrophytic species such as Parmelia sulcata and Melanelia subaurifera are still expanding, however acidophytc species have almost vanished. Within the nitrophytic species there is a change front species of Physcia to Phaeophyscia orbicularis, which has up to now mainly been observed in areas with intensive agriculture. The establishment of the saxicolous Physconia grisea on bark is new. Keywords: Lichens, VDI-guideline, air quality, nitrogen emissions.
36078Fischer E. & Killmann D. (2004): Diversität der Flechtenflora in Westerwald, Lahntal und angrenzenden Gebieten. - Fauna und Flora in Rheinland-Pfalz, Beihaft, 29: 1–145. .
36077Killmann D. & Fischer E. (2003): Exponierte Felsstandorte in Westerwald und Lahntal als Refugien seltener und gefährdeter Flechtenarten. - Hessische Floristische Briefe, 52(4): 77–86. .
36076Killmann D. & Fischer E. (2002): Weitere bemerkenswerte Flechten- und Moosfunde aus Westerwald und Lahntal. - Hessische Floristische Briefe, 51(2): 21–28. .
36075Studzińska-Sroka E., Bulicz M., Henkel M., Rosiak N., Paczkowska-Walendowska M., Szwajgier D., Baranowska-Wójcik E., Korybalska K. & Cielecka-Piontek J. (2024): Pleiotropic potential of Evernia prunastri extracts and their main compounds evernic acid and atranorin: in vitro and in silico studies. - Molecules, 29: 233 [31 p.].
Evernia prunastri is a lichen widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere. Its biological properties still need to be discovered. Therefore, our paper focuses on studies of E. prunastri extracts, including its main metabolites evernic acid (EA) or atranorin (ATR). Phytochemical profiles using chromatographic analysis were confirmed. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using in vitro chemical tests and in vitro enzymatic cells-free tests, namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT). The anti-inflammatory potential using cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and hyaluronidase were determined. The neuroprotective potential using acetylcholinesterase, (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and tyrosinase (Tyr) was estimated. The hypoglycemic activity was also confirmed (α-glucosidase). Principal component analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the biological activity of extracts. The inhibitory effect of EA and ATR on COX-2 AChE, BChE, Tyr, and α-glucosidase was evaluated using molecular docking techniques and confirmed for EA and ATR (besides α-glucosidase). The penetration of EA and ATR from extracts through the blood–brain barrier was confirmed using the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay blood–brain barrier test. In conclusion, depending on chemical surroundings and the concentration, the E. prunastri extracts, EA or ATR, showed attractive pleiotropic properties, which should be further investigated. Keywords: oak moss; lichen; enzyme inhibition; neurodegenerative diseases; molecular docking.
36074Killmann D. & Fischer E. (2000): Bemerkenswerte Flechten- und Moosfunde aus Westerwald und Lahntal. - Hessische Floristische Briefe, 49(3): 37–45. .
36073Rohlfs M. (2000): Flechtenkartierung belegt Verbesserung der Luftqualität im Bonner-Raum. - Decheniana, 153: 103–108. .
In 1996 and 1999 a standarized lichen mapping according to the VDI-guideline 3799 has been carried out along a transekt from Bonn-Beuel to Troisdorf (Northrhine-Westfalia, Germany). The frequency of the species increased during the last three years, but only three additional species were found since 1996. In the scale of immission some parts of the study area were categorized in 1966 as „very high to high“ but in 1999 as „moderate.“ These results indicate an improvement of air quality in the region of Bonn. The increase of some lichens might be attributed to increased emissions of NOx und NH3. Keywords: Lichens, air quality, nitrogen-emissions.
36072Islary P., Meher R.K., Biswas S., Basumatary D., Basumatary I.B., Dubey D., Basumatary D. & Daimari R. (2024): Evaluation of anticancer, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory potential of antioxidant rich Anzia ornatoides, a lichen species from eastern Himalayan region. - South African Journal of Botany, 164: 266–279.
The lichen Anzia ornatoides was identified by its morpho-anatomical and chemical features. The hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of the lichen were assessed for their antioxidant capacities. The presence of various phyto-compounds of the methanol extract were run through a GC–MS and identified three major compounds viz. methyloxyolivetol, imidazole 2-t‑butyl‑1,4-dimethyl-5-phenyl and benzoic acid 2,4-dihydroxy-3,6-dimethyl-methyl ester. The crude extraction of a lichen sample was carried out by Soxhlet apparatus. Total phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteau assay while flavonoid content was estimated using aluminium chloride assay. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was analysed by phosphomolybdenum assay, FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, and lipid peroxidation inhibition. To see the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory potential of the extracts, cell viability assay of macrophage was studied. In in-vitro anticancer activity, the extracts were explored using cancer cell line of different organ and tissue origin it includes PC-3, OVCAR-3, hep-G2, h-1299, HeLa, and MCF-7. Apoptotic potential is studied using the OVCAR-3 cell line. In-vitro cytotoxicity assay was conducted with the non-cancer cell lines HEK-293, L-929, hMSCs, and MCF-10A. Using mouse model, in-vivo animal toxicity was also carried out. The lichen extracts showed a good amount of phenolic and flavonoid content and high antioxidant potential. Based on the findings of the experiment, methanolic extracts of A. ornatoides showed higher immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anticancer capabilities. In an in-vitro cytotoxicity test against the cancer cell line IC50 value ranged from 38 to 78 µg/ml. Based on in-vivo toxicological evaluation and histopathological analysis, no significant toxicity was detected in-vitro cultured non-cancerous cells or in the liver or kidney tissue of mice. Keywords: Phytochemicals; Antioxidant; Anticancer; Apoptosis; Anzia ornatoides; Immunomodulatory; Toxicity.
36071Killmann D. & Boecker M. (1998): Zur epiphytischen Flechtenflora und -vegetation des Siebengebirges und ihren Veränderungen seit 1959. - Decheniana, 151: 133–172. .
The lichen cover on trees as well as on dead respectively processed wood in the Nature Reserve "Siebengebirge“ near Bonn has been investigated from March to November 1997. 79 species have been identified. Out of the 59 species found by Klement (1959) 18 could not be found recently; 41 are confirmed. 38 taxa are recently found, among them several rare species. Apart from a few species called frequent by Klement but not found at present, more than a dozen species which at that time have been classified as rare or which have been found as stunted thalli, in the meantime have been found at many more localities. Some of them now had more numerous and larger thalli. An improvement of the state of air pollution and firstly the decrease in pollution by SO2 within the last decades is considered as a cause of the distinct increase of species number and a better growth condition of many species. Maps provide a survey on the places (i.e. the trees) where the species were found, the distribution of the species numbers within the nature reserve and the distribution of some particularly remarkable lichens. With the help of analysis of 864 vegetational surveys at 453 localities 16 communities of epiphytic lichens are proved. They are characterized separately and their distribution within the „Siebengebirge“ is explained. Ecological investigations showed that ash is the tree preferred by lichens, followed by oak (Quercus robur, Q. petraea) and sycamore. Horizontally oriented branches were preferred in comparison with vertically oriented trunks. Half of the species found are crustose lichens , somewhat more than a quarter is foliose and somewhat less than a quarter are fructicose lichens. About 40 % of the species have a moderate tolerance against air pollution . In 30 % this has to be considered as „middle“ respectively as „middle to moderately high“. The species-tumover between 1959 and 1997 has no fundamental influence upon changes within the distribution-spectrum of growth forms and tolerance against air pollution. Both the species which could not be found nowadays as well as the numerous new species of lichens are equally distributed among the different growth forms and levels of tolerance against air pollution. The need for protection for groups of trees, trees themselves, but also fence-posts which are characterized by the occurrence of rare lichens or a particularly species-richness is pointed out and proposals are made for their preservation. Keywords: species-tumover , lichen communities , airpollution , phorophytes , need for protection.
36070May T.W. & Lendemer J.C. (2023): Report of the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi: 22. - Taxon, 72(6): 1356–1363.
Information on appointments to the Fungal Nomenclature Bureau is provided. Appointments to two Special-purpose Committees are reported. The following four generic names are recommended for conservation: Bilimbia with a conserved type; Coccotrema against Lepolichen; Fuscidea against Maronea; and Leptogium (lichenized Ascomycota) with a conserved type. The following two generic names are not recommended for conservation: Marcelaria against Buscalionia; and Variolaria Pers. against Lepra and Variolaria Bull. The following seven species names are recommended for conservation: Lecidea parmeliarum (Abrothallus parmeliarum) against Endocarpon parasiticum; Lichen cervinus (Acarospora cervina) with a conserved type; L. ferrugineus (Blastenia ferruginea) with a conserved type; L. flavus Bellardi (Pleopsidium flavum) against L. flavus Schreb.; Megaspora verrucosa (Ach.) Arcadia & A. Nordin against M. verrucosa Hafellner & V. Wirth.; Umbilicaria spodochroa with a conserved type and with that spelling; and Usnea fulvoreagens with a conserved type. The following three species names are not recommended for conservation: Alectoria fuscescens (Bryoria fuscescens), nom. cons., against the additional names Usnea implexa, A. capillaris, A. cana, A. rubens, A. fuscidula, A. degenii, A. forissii, A. ostrobotniae, A. kuemmerleana, A. haynaldiae, A. achariana, A. lanestris, A. prostratosteola, and A. viridescens; Lichen fuscovirens (Collema fuscovirens) against L. pulcher; and Ochrolechia szatalaensis against Pertusaria poriniza. The following two species names are recommended for rejection under Art. 56: Lecidea cornea and Lichen conspurcatus. The following generic name is recommended for rejection under Art. 56: Huea (and the original proposal to conserve Huea with a conserved type is not recommended). It is recommended that the species name Variolaria torta not be rejected under Art. 56. The proposal to conserve Pertusariaceae against Variolariaceae is considered unnecessary because the latter name is illegitimate. The Nomenclature Committee for Fungi could not arrive at a recommendation on the proposal to conserve Lagerheimia (De Toni) Chodat against Lagerheima Sacc. and nor resolve requests for binding decisions on whether the pair Geisleria Nitschke and Geissleria Lange-Bert. & Metzeltin and the pair Lagerheima Sacc. and Lagerheimia (De Toni) Chodat are sufficiently alike to be confused – but these three items have now been resolved by the General Committee.
36069Kukwa M., Ekman S., Printzen C., Flakus A. & Miadlikowska J. (2023): A tribute to Professor Tor Tønsberg. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 68(2): 245.
editorial, festschrift
36068Jørgensen P.M. & Holien H. (2023): Tor Tønsberg at seventy-five. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 68(2): 246–248.
tribute to Tor Tønsberg; anniversary
36067Aptroot A., Lücking R. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2023): New species and records of Graphidaceae and Gomphillaceae (lichenized fungi) from Brazil. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 68(2): 249–261.
We describe 14 new lichen species in the family Graphidaceae, mainly from the Amazon basin: Acanthothecis aggregata, Allographa ancelina, A. apicalinspersa, Chapsa constrictospora, C. diorygmoides, C. lichexanthonica, Clandestinotrema caloplacosporum, Diorygma defectoisidiatum, D. gyrosum, D. lichexanthonicum, D. norsubmuriforme, D. salxanthonicum, D. toensbergianum, and Ocellularia flavoradiata. For each species, it is indicated where and how it would key out in a recent identification key. Two of the Diorygma species are sterile and were assigned to this genus by sequencing the mtSSU gene. Five additional species are new to Brazil and 27 others, including some Gomphillaceae, are new state records. Key words: Acanthothecis, Allographa, Chapsa, Clandestinotrema, Diorygma, graphoid, Ocellularia, thelotremoid.
36066Printzen C., Holien H., Kantelinen A., Myllys L., Ratschow F., Stepanchikova I., Weber L. & Timdal E. (2023): DNA barcoding indicates the presence of unrecognized species and phylogenetic diversity within the Biatora vernalis- and B. meiocarpa-groups. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 68(2): 262–279.
The Biatora vernalis- and meiocarpa-groups comprise species with pale beige to reddish brown apothecia and 0-, rarely also 1(–3)-septate ascospores. A DNA barcoding approach based on ITS sequences shows that these two groups comprise more species and phylogenetic diversity than previously known. Specimens identified as B. vernalis, the type species of the genus, appear to be paraphyletic with regard to B. chrysantha. In addition, there is a morphologically similar species belonging to the B. meiocarpa-group and tentatively named “B. orientalis” in previous publications. Biatora subduplex has for some time been known to comprise specimens from the B. vernalis-, as well as the B. meiocarpa-group. Similar to the situation in B. vernalis, samples from the meiocarpa-clade form several subclades close to B. meiocarpa. Anatomical studies reveal subtle, but recognizable morphological differences between B. subduplex s.str. and the species in the meiocarpa-clade, but not between the subclades. Here, we describe Biatora orientalis as new to science, raise B. meiocarpa var. tacomensis to species rank and provide revised identification keys for the B. vernalis- and B. meiocarpa-groups. Key words: crustose lichens, cryptic species, DNA barcoding, East Asia, Europe.
36065Ekman S. (2023): Bacidia genuensis B. de Lesd. resurrected. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 68(2): 280–284.
The species described as Bacidia genuensis is transferred here to Bacidina as B. genuensis (Ramalinaceae, Lecanorales, lichenized Ascomycota). An updated morphological description is provided. The species is characterized by mostly blackish apothecia on a thick, microsquamulose thallus, a crystal-inspersed proper exciple that is mostly prosoplechtenchymatous, an ascus with a wide and dome-shaped axial body and an expanded c-layer (resulting in a thin, amyloid d-layer), a blue-green pigment in the epihymenium, proper exciple, and pycnidial wall, and an orange-brown, K+ intensifying pigment in the hypothecium and sometimes proper exciple. This combination of characters sets the species apart from its potentially close relatives Bacidina egenula and B. indigens, as well as the superficially similar, but more distantly related, Toniniopsis bagliettoana. Bacidina genuensis is currently known from a few sites in northern Italy, where it inhabits weathered and apparently shaded mortar of masonry. Key words: Bacidia, Bacidina, crustose lichens, Italy, Lecanorales, Ramalinaceae, Toniniopsis.
36064Palice Z., Svoboda S. & Vondrák J. (2023): Hidden in the dark under umbrellas: two new Psilolechia species (lichenized Ascomycota, Lecanorales) described from the Czech Republic. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 68(2): 285–293.
Recent lichenological fieldwork in the Czech Republic resulted in the discovery of two previously unrecognized entities in the genus Psilolechia which are described below as new species: the saxicolous P. cretacea and the lignicolous P. torii. Both taxa regularly produce a hyphomycetous anamorph in the form of erect, elongate conidiogenous cells on the thallus surface, and both contain unidentified specific secondary metabolites. The placement of the two new species within the genus is primarily based on morphology and chemistry. In addition, three barcodes were received for P. cretacea (ITS, mtSSU) and P. torii (ITS). A key to the five species of Psilolechia currently known from Europe is included. Key words: ascomycetes, hyphomycetous lichens, Lecanorales, Psilolechiaceae, secondary chemistry, sterile lichens, taxonomy.
36063Arup U., Søchting U. & Halıcı M.G. (2023): Four new species of Parvoplaca (Teloschistales, Ascomycota). - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 68(2): 294–303.
The genus Parvoplaca is extended with four new species: P. candanii from Antarctica, P. lamprocarpa from Alaska, and P. macroborealis and P. tenebrosa from Oregon. Collections identified as P. tiroliensis are shown to form two independent clades when DNA was analyzed, but it is currently not clear which clade represents the species in a strict sense. Parvoplaca athallina has been considered an Antarctic species, but according to our analyses, the species is shown to be bipolar occurring also in northern Europe, Greenland, Alaska and in California. Key words: Antarctica, bipolar, Caloplaca, DNA, lichen, molecular, taxonomy.
36062Søchting U., Sancho L.G. & Arup U. (2023): The lichen genera Gondwania and Transdrakea gen. nov. (Teloschistaceae) – speciation in three southern continents. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 68(2): 304–319.
Within the lichen family Teloschistaceae, a high number of genera are restricted to the extreme southern part of the Southern Hemisphere. The taxonomy and phylogeny of the southern genus Gondwania have been analyzed based upon fieldwork in Antarctica, Patagonia, New Zealand and Tasmania and subsequent studies including molecular methods. Five species are accepted in the genus Gondwanea including G. inclinans and G. joannae that are combined into the genus. Two species are included in the neighboring new genus Transdrakea, T. alacalufes, a saxicolous species from Patagonia, which is described as new to science and T. schofieldii. Based on molecular data, Austroplaca imperialis is described as a new species to accommodate Patagonian specimens previously named G. regalis. Even though morphologically very similar, the two species are distinct based on molecular and chemical characters and distribution. Gondwania and Transdrakea are chemically homogenous with parietin as the very dominant compound; Transdrakea has a very reduced thallus, whereas Gondwania includes species with crustose thalli, as well as species with fruticulose growth habits. G. inclinans and G. cribrosa are only known from Australia/New Zealand. G. regalis, G. joannae and T. schofieldii are only known from Antarctica. G. sublobulata is confirmed from Patagonia and the Falkland Islands, but Antarctic specimens previously named G. sublobulata belong to G. joannae. G. sejongensis is shown to be a synonym to G. joannae. A key to Gondwania and Transdrakea species is presented. Key words: Antarctica, Austroplaca, Caloplaca, Falkland Islands, Gondwana, molecular taxonomy, Patagonia, South America.
36061Sipman H. & Aptroot A. (2023): Fourteen new Carbacanthographis species from the Neotropics, with ecological observation. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 68(2): 320–334.
A revision of neotropical specimens of the genus Carbacanthographis (Graphidaceae, lichenized fungi) revealed the presence of 14 undescribed species: Carbacanthographis bulbosa, C. clandestinospora, C. cristata, C. denudata, C. granulosa, C. inspersomarcescens, C. isidiata, C. latisporoides, C. lucidocleitops, C. minutissima, C. multiseptatoides, C. nigra, C. nitida, and C. protocristata. They are presented below. The genus appears to have a diversity center in semideciduous forests of northern South America, with up to 7 different species on a single tree. Key words: altitudinal zonation, lichen systematics, primary forest, semi-deciduous forest, tree inventory.
36060Lumbsch H.T., Morris C. & McCune B. (2023): A new species of Diploschistes (Lecanoromycetes) occurring on Stereocaulon from the Pacific Northwest of North America. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 68(2): 335–339.
We describe Diploschistes stereocaulorum as a new species of lichenized fungi growing on phyllocladia and stalks of Stereocaulon in the Pacific Northwest of North America. The larger ascospores of this species, the absence of a noticeable thallus, and the ITS barcode locus distinguish it from D. muscorum, which has been reported as growing on Stereocaulon, but has smaller ascospores and a distinct thallus. In phylogenetic reconstruction, the new species is sister to D. diacapsis, albeit without support. Key words: Diploschistes, lichenized fungi, new species, parasitic lichens, Stereocaulon.
36059Clerc P. & Ohmura Y. (2023): Notes on the genus Usnea (lichenized Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae). V.. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 68(2): 340–352.
Type material of twelve species of Usnea related to Asia and South Africa were studied and one species from North America is newly described. Holotype specimens of eight Chinese taxa described in 1975 were synonymized as follows: U. mengyangensis is lectotypified and synonymized with U. aciculifera. Usnea recurvata and U. subrectangulata are synonymized with U. baileyi. Usnea kirinensis is synonymized with U. barbata s.str. Usnea crassiuscula and U. yunnanensis (= U. australis J.D. Zhao et al., nom. illeg. non Fr.) are synonymized with U. bismolliuscula. Usnea iteratocarpa is synonymized with U. cristatula (new to Asia, China). Usnea decumbens is synonymized with U. intumescens (new to Asia, China). Usnea entoviolata and U. roseola are synonymized with U. fragilis (new to Asia, China, India, Japan). The lectotype of Usnea trichoideoides was found to belong to the Usnea pectinata aggr. and consequently U. montis-fuji was resurrected for U. trichodeoides sensu Ohmura. Usnea ceratina and U. trichodeoides are excluded from the Japan lichen flora. Usnea macaronesica a recently described Macaronesian and South American species is synonymized with the Asian taxa U. pycnoclada. Usnea chicitae is described as a new species endemic of the Southern Appalachian Mountains. It is characterized by stipitate efflorescent soralia, a tenuicorticata-type of CMA and the presence of salazinic and psoromic acid in the medulla. Key words: Appalachian Mountains, Asia, China, Japan, systematics, taxonomy, types, Usnea chicitae sp. nov.
36058Westberg M., Ekman S., Briegel-Williams L., Fernandez-Brime S., Wedin M. & Timdal E. (2023): Thalloidima squamatum comb. nov. – a distinct and common but overlooked lichen in Europe. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 68(2): 353–363.
The new combination Thalloidima squamatum is proposed for a morphologically and phylogenetically distinct species, until now included within the variation of T. sedifolium. Compared to T. sedifolium, the species is characterized by its larger squamules and apothecia, shorter ascospores, the pale color of the excipulum, and its habitat growing on moss cushions over calcareous rock or directly on rock rather than on soil. Most of the material studied originates from Norway and Sweden, but specimens are also reported from Austria, Croatia, Germany, Greenland, Italy, Poland, Russia, Scotland and Switzerland. Key words: Ascomycota, ITS, MCM7, mrSSU, nrLSU, phylogeny, Ramalinaceae, Toninia.
36057Jørgensen P.M. & Schmitt I. (2023): The typification of Variolaria discoidea Pers.. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 68(2): 378–381.
The type species of the lichen genus Variolaria is V. discoidea. The name is solely based on a Hoffmann (1784) illustration. To stabilize the nomenclature, we have designated a lectotype and an epitype from Germany, for which we generated molecular data. The species was formerly placed in the genus Pertusaria as P. albescens, and is presently correctly named Lepra albescens. Key words: lichens, nomenclature, Pertusariales, taxonomy.
36056Fryday A.M. (2023): Lecanora (Aspicilia) masafuerensis is a species of Xenolecia (Ascomycota, Lecideaceae). - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 68(2): 382–387.
The new combination Xenolecia masafuerensis is made for Lecanora masafuerensis, a lichen species known from only two localities on Isla Alejandro Selkirk in the Juan Fernández archipelago, Chile. The species is fully described and illustrated and shown to be morphologically and chemically distinct from the similar X. spadicomma, which is known only from Chile and the Falkland Islands. The typification of X. masafuerensis and its distribution on the islands are also discussed. Key words: distribution, endemic species, Juan Fernandez islands, lichenized-fungi, typification.
36055Poncet R., Meyer J.-Y., Paradis A.-H., Leblond S. & Kervran L. (2023): A new species of Agonimia (Ascomycota, Eurotiomycetes, Verrucariaceae) from Morane atoll (Tuāmotu-Gambier Islands, French Polynesia). - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 68(2): 388–394.
Agonimia gargominyi (Verrucariaceae, Verrucariales) is described and illustrated from bark samples collected from Morane atoll (Tuāmotu-Gambier Islands, French Polynesia). It is characterized by the large superficial perithecia having a pale brown-colored ostiolar region, the 8-spored asci, and the relatively large lobed squamules. Micromorphology of the ascomata and the thalline squamules matches the genus Agonimia. Additionally, to accommodate the inclusion of this newly identified species, the existing comprehensive key encompassing all known Agonimia species worldwide has been modified and updated accordingly. Detailed illustrations supplement the description of Agonimia gargominyi. Key words: coral reefs, corticolous, lichen, Low Islands, Pacific Ocean, tropics.
36054Robison A., Adams P. & Leavitt S.D. (2023): Discovering neglected lichen diversity with DNA-based inventories: metabarcoding lichen-forming fungi in Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah, USA. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 68(2): 395–410.
National parks and other federally designated natural areas play critical roles in preserving unique habitats, communities, and biodiversity. However, in the United States, it is estimated that 80–90% of species diversity in national parks is presently unknown. Therefore, contemporary biodiversity inventories are critical for conservation, management and establishing baselines for future comparisons. Ongoing efforts to characterize lichen diversity highlight diverse and robust communities in a number of national parks in the USA. In arid regions of the western USA facing ecological transformations, lichens can play a pivotal role for monitoring these changes. Lichen diversity in Bryce Canyon National Park (BRCA) in southern Utah, USA remains nearly completely uncharacterized, despite nearly 100 years as a federally protected area. Our study aims to provide a critical perspective into the lichen diversity of BRCA. Using a metabarcoding community sampling approach, we documented 215 candidate lichen-forming fungal species distributed across ecologically distinct sites in BRCA. At each sampled site, species richness ranged from 104 to 133 species, with no more than 20% shared species among the three sites. The limited overlap between collection sites suggests that BRCA harbors greater diversity than initially thought. We document a number of sensitive lichens, particularly Usnea spp. and Ramalina sinensis, that should be monitored as air pollution, land use, and impacts of climate change affect biological communities in the park. The inventory also includes unknown species and other species that have not been documented in the western USA. While our DNA-based inventory highlights strikingly rich lichen diversity, future voucher-based collections will be essential for robust taxonomic determinations. Key words: bulk sampling, DNA barcoding, fungal ITS, high-throughput amplicon sequencing, operational taxonomic units (OTUs), vouchers.
36053Ertz D., Diederich P., Lendemer J., Komposch H., Harris R.C. & Huereca A. (2023): A remarkable and widespread new lichenicolous species of Mycocalicium (Sphinctrinaceae) producing campylidia-like conidiomata and appendiculate conidia. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 68(2): 411–423.
A lichenicolous fungus forming large black, vertically elongate, campylidia-like conidiomata on the thallus of Ochrolechia was recently collected in Austria, Mexico and the USA. The conidia are so remarkable in being multiappendiculate that initially no existing fungal genera appeared to be suitable for its description. Nevertheless, molecular phylogenetic analyses of nuITS and nuLSU sequences recovered the species within the genus Mycocalicium. To date, no species of Mycocaliciales has been reported producing appendiculate conidia. The species is described as new as M. campylidiophorum. The new species was also discovered in the type specimen of Opegrapha chionographa that was collected in Colombia 163 years ago. This discovery led us to revise O. chionographa, originally described as a lichen, and clarify that in fact the name applies to a lichenicolous fungus based on type material that is an admixture of M. campylidiophorum, an Ochrolechia and an Opegrapha species. The name is shown to apply to the Opegrapha species and lectotypified as such. Opegrapha blakii is treated as synonym of O. chionographa. Key words: Arthoniales, fungi, Mycocaliciales, Opegrapha, phylogeny, taxonomy.
36052Hafellner J. (2023): On a lichen collection from the summit of Glittertinden (Norway, Oppland / Innlandet) – baseline data for a high mountain top. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 68(2): 424–439.
A set of 44 taxa of lichenized fungi and 5 species of lichenicolous fungi was gathered in 1984 in the summit area of the mountain Glittertinden, the second highest mountain in Scandinavia. The sampled species include several high alpine taxa known as members of well-established alpine lichen communities but only few pioneer species indicating that the investigated rocks had already been ice-free for a long time. The local flora is compared to that reported from Scandinavia’s highest mountain, Galdhøpiggen, by the late Gunnar Degelius in the 1940s. With the continuing melting of the local ice cap on the summit of Glittertinden, biota will face profoundly changed environmental conditions with much additional substrate ready to be colonized in the near future. Key words: biodiversity, climate change, global warming, high-alpine/nival vegetation belt, Jotunheimen, lichenized fungi, lichenicolous fungi, Scandinavia.
36051Mayrhofer H., Plattner K., Breuss O., Knudsen K., Sohrabi M., Rafiqpoor M.D. & Breckle S.-W. (2023): The lichenized and lichenicolous fungi of Afghanistan. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 68(2): 440–461.
The study is based on a comprehensive evaluation of 87 publications concerning reports from Afghanistan and a critical revision of herbarium specimens. Two hundred and thirty eight taxa (230 species with 8 varieties) of lichenized fungi, and 16 species of lichenicolous fungi are listed with their citations or localities in the case of new records for the country or for provinces. New for Afghanistan are Acarospora bicolor, A. interrupta, Caloplaca monacensis, C. stillicidiorum var. muscorum, Collema furfuraceum, Endocarpon pusillum, Gloeoheppia turgida, Gyalolechia bracteata, Heteroplacidium fusculum, Lecanora horiza, Lecidea laboriosa, Melanohalea elegantula, Myriolecis semipallida, Peltula bolanderi, P. obscurans var. obscurans, P. obscurans var. deserticola, P. polyspora, P. radicata, Physconia americana, P. perisidiosa, Phaeophyscia hirsuta, Placidium pilosellum, P. rufescens, Sarcogyne praetermissa, S. pusilla, S. urceolata, Scytinium fragrans, Staurothele areolata, Umbilicaria virginis, Xalocoa ocellata, Xanthoparmelia neodelisei, and the lichenicolous fungus Acarospora subfuscescens. Key words: Central Asia, checklist, geo-ecology, lichen herbarium Maximilian Steiner, new records.
36050de Oliveira Lima D., dos Santos L.A., Oliveira Junior I., Aptroot A., Lücking R. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2023): New species, new records, and a checklist of Coenogonium (Ostropales: Coenogoniaceae) from Brazil. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 68(2): 462–474.
The genus Coenogonium, the only genus in the family Coenogoniaceae, is mostly found in tropical and subtropical regions. Approximately 100 species of Coenogonium are known worldwide, and about 52 species have been previously recorded from Brazil. Here, we describe four species as new to science from the Atlantic Forest in the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais, and Sergipe, and present a few new state records. The new species are C. carassense, C. itabaianense, C. pilosum, and C. subtomentosum. An annotated checklist of the species of Coenogonium from Brazil is also included. Key words: Atlantic Forest, Caraça, Coenogonium, Itabaiana, Monte Pascoal, new species.
36049McCune B., Vančurová L. & Myllys L. (2023): Stereocaulon tomentosoides, a new combination for a western North American endemic species with cyanobiont and chemotype polymorphisms. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 68(2): 364–377.
Based on resampling the type locality and surrounding regions, along with phylogenetic analysis of molecular data, we elevate Stereocaulon sasakii var. tomentosoides to the species level, while we treat S. sasakii var. simplex as an environmental modification of S. tomentosoides. We found no phylogenetic evidence that any variety of S. sasakii occurs in North America, so we suggest that the species be removed from the North American list and its North American varieties transferred to S. tomentosoides. Stereocaulon tomentosoides is so far confirmed only from the Pacific Northwest of North America. Furthermore, it is largely allopatric with S. tomentosum, apart from a small region of overlap in northern Idaho and western Montana. While S. tomentosum always contains stictic acid and never lobaric acid as secondary metabolites, S. tomentosoides differs in having a predominant chemotype of lobaric acid as the major substance, with an infrequent chemotype containing both lobaric and stictic acids. While S. tomentosoides usually contains Nostoc in the cephalodia, occasional individuals, especially from old mossy lava flows, contain Stigonema; one specimen was found with both kinds of cephalodia on a single thallus. Phylogenetic analysis of these species and other close relatives revealed an additional species described here, S. cyaneum, so far known only from the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada and separated from S. tomentosum by its bluish coloration, wet or dry. Key words: lichens, lichenized fungi, North America, nuITS rDNA, nuLSU rDNA, Stereocaulaceae, Stereocaulon cyaneum, Stereocaulon sasakii, Stereocaulon tomentosum.
36048Ossowska E.A., Schiefelbein U., Szymczyk R. & Kukwa M. (2023): Contribution to the knowledge of the distribution of Parmelia species (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) – New records confirmed by molecular data. - Acta Mycologica, 58: 175356 [11 p.].
The first records of Parmelia ernstiae from Madeira, as well as the new localities of P. encryptata from Poland and P. sulcata from Chile, are presented. All records are confirmed by molecular data, BLAST search, and haplotype network analysis of the nucITS rDNA sequences. The discussion on the morphology and secondary chemistry of all three species is provided with notes on their distribution and similar taxa. Parmelia encryptata is a rarely reported cryptic species that is morphologically indistinguishable from P. sulcata, and its identification requires molecular data. New localities of P. encryptata from northern Poland suggest that the taxon may be widespread in the country and not confined to large forests but also present in open areas on free-standing trees. Moreover, a new nucITS rDNA haplotype of the species is reported. Parmelia ernstiae is a near-cryptic species, morphologically and chemically very similar to P. saxatilis and P. serrana. Two specimens of the species from Madeira have sublinear lobes with marginal and laminal isidia, unlike most specimens of P. ernstiae, having short, broad lobes with laminal isidia, and thus are morphologically closer to P. saxatilis in lobe shape and to P. serrana in placement of isidia. However, the BLAST search and haplotype analysis of nucITS rDNA sequences placed these specimens in P. ernstiae. Parmelia sulcata, a common species in the Northern Hemisphere, is rare elsewhere, and only two records confirmed by molecular data were known from South America. The nucITS rDNA haplotype of two new and two previous records of the species represent the most common haplotype of the species known from the Northern Hemisphere. Keywords: lichenized Ascomycota; parmelioid lichens; species distribution; morphology; molecular barcoding; haplotype network.
36047Thakur M., Bhardwaj S., Kumar V. & Rodrigo-Comino J. (2024): Lichens as effective bioindicators for monitoring environmental changes: A comprehensive review. - Total Environment Advances, 9: 200085 [9 p.].
Lichens, due to their unique biology and sensitivity to contaminants, have emerged as valuable tools for biomonitoring. Their ability to respond to climatic and air quality variations makes them reliable indicators of environmental shifts. This mini review critically evaluates lichen characteristics and their potential as predictive indicators of environmental changes when coupled with precise research methodologies. Our findings highlight lichens as organisms capable of responding to ecological toxins, thus functioning as bioindicators. Their gradual growth rate allows them to accumulate substances, surpassing even Tracheophyta in survival. Moreover, lichens exhibit exceptional nutrient cycling, contributing to ecosystems from a local to regional scale. Given the global significance of environmental alterations and contamination, lichens serve as natural indicators of heat and pollution effects, particularly in mountainous regions. We explore various approaches, including biological strategies, employed to assess atmospheric conditions and contamination susceptibility. Notably, lichens have been identified as significant contributors to particulate matter trapping, revealing a previously unexplored yet vital research avenue. In conclusion, this review underscores the pivotal role of lichens in morphological features and their capacity to capture particulate matter, shedding light on a promising area for further investigation. Keywords: Lichens ; Land management ; Environmental quality ; Bioindicator ; Biomonitoring.
36046Fan J., Bu C., Qi Y., Zhou W., Wang C., Wei Y. & Siddique K.H.M. (2023): Biocrusts significantly affect the bioavailability and ecological risk of heavy metals in gold mine tailings. - Plant and Soil , 493: 99–113.
Aims: Biocrusts are important living covers in ecologically fragile regions that intercept metals entering the soil and indicate heavy metal contamination. This study explored the potential of biocrusts as a novel approach for remediating heavy metal pollution in mining areas. We also investigated the capacity of biocrusts to enrich or degrade heavy metals in gold mine tailings and analyzed the migration, transformation mechanisms, and potential toxic effects of heavy metals in the underlying biocrusts. Methods: We used the BCR sequential extraction procedure to analyze the speciation of heavy metals in the underlying biocrust layer (moss crusts, mixed crusts (moss + algal), and algal crusts). The risk assessment code (RAC) and potential ecological risk index (Er) were used to evaluate the impact of biocrusts on the ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in soil. Results: The results showed that (1) well-developed biocrusts had a strong ability to enrich heavy metals, with these metals accumulating at the surface; (2) biocrust growth facilitated the conversion of heavy metals from an inert state to an active form in the underlying layer, enhancing their bioavailability; (3) Spearman’s correlation and redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed the total amount of heavy metals as the primary factor driving the translocation of soil heavy metals, with soil pH, cationic exchange capacity (CEC) and organic matter content (SOM) exerting varying influences; (4) the comprehensive potential ecological risk index indicated that heavy metals in gold tailings at the strong risk levels, mainly due to arsenic exceeded the standard (~ 7 × background values). However, biocrusts reduced the Er of heavy metals in the underlying layer. The RAC results indicated low mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in the underlying layer, associated with low ecological risk. Conclusions: As the ‘skin’ of soil, biocrusts could protect soil from heavy metal contamination. Despite enhancing heavy metal bioavailability, their enrichment effect was much greater than their activation effect. As a result, biocrusts hold great promise for remediating heavy metal pollution in degraded ecosystems. Further exploration of the influencing mechanism of biocrusts on heavy metals will help validate their use in mine restoration processes. Keywords: Biocrust · Heavy metal speciation · Bioavailability · Ecological risk · Gold mine tailings.
36045Asghar H.S., Riaz S. & Khalid A.N. (2023): Two new records of Pyrenodesmia (lichenized Ascomycota, Teloschistaceae) from south Asia. - Biology Bulletin, 50(6): 1218–1222.
Pyrenodesmia albopustulata and P. microstepposa in family Teloschistaceae are reported as new records for South Asia. Previously the former has been reported from Western Asia and Europe and the latter has been reported from Central Asia and Europe. The specimens were collected from different sites in district Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and characterized using morpho-anatomical and molecular techniques. Complete morpho-anatomical descriptions along with ecology, distribution, and ITS-based molecular analysis are provided. Keywords: lichenized fungi, Phylogenetic, epilithic.
36044Maliniemi T., Huusko K., Muurinen L., Grytnes J.-A., Tukiainen H., Virtanen R. & Alahuhta J. (2023): Temporal changes in boreal vegetation under 70 years of conservation. - Biodiversity and Conservation , 32: 4733–4751.
Biodiversity conservation through protected areas (PAs) is often based on the idea that biodiversity is relatively static. This assumption is increasingly being challenged as species and communities shift their distributions in response to changing environmental conditions. Empirical evidence on the performance of PAs over decades is still sparse or lacking from several environments, although it is needed to understand species dynamics, support modelling of PA performance, assist PA management and ultimately, to achieve global biodiversity conservation goals. In 2021, we resurveyed vegetation of five boreal habitat types (heath forests, paludified forests, sun-exposed sites, mires and eulittoral sites) in Rokua National Park in Finland, where one of the conservation targets is to preserve the flora characteristic of the area. The study sites were originally surveyed in 1945-49, just before the National Park was established. Study sites have also remained free from the disturbances (forest fires and reindeer grazing) typical of boreal regions. We show that the compositional similarity of plant communities between habitat types has increased over time and is associated with the increase of forest species in several habitat types and the loss of many habitat-specific species. Drivers of change were most often linked to ongoing succession (understory closure) and changes in moisture conditions. Our results suggest that without natural disturbance or appropriate management efforts, the original conservation targets may be compromised over the decades. Our study demonstrates that resurvey of historical vegetation data can be effectively used to estimate long-term PA performance, helping to fill in missing temporal evidence. Keywords: Boreal habitats · Geopark · Historical vegetation data · National Park · Protected area performance · Vegetation resurvey.
36043Mamut R., Anwar G., Wang L. & Fang J. (2023): The mitogenomes characterization of two Peltigera species (Peltigera elisabethae and Peltigera polydactylon) and comparative mitogenomic analyses of six Peltigera. - Journal of Applied Genetics, 64: 819–829.
In the present study, the mitochondrial genomes of Peltigera elisabethae and P. polydactylon were sequenced and assembled. The two mitogenomes were composed of circular DNA molecules, with sizes of 64,034 bp and 59,208 bp, respectively. Comparative analysis showed that the genome size, GC content, GC skew, and AT skew varied between the two mitochondrial genomes. In codon analysis, phenylalanine (Phe), isoleucine (Ile), and leucine (Leu) were most frequently used in six Peltigera genomes. Evolutionary analysis showed that all 14 protein-coding genes (PCGs) were subject to purifying selection in the six Peltigera species. Regarding gene rearrangement, the PCGs of Peltigera had the same gene sequence and gene content, and a few intron sequences and spacer sequences were rearranged in Peltigera. In the phylogenetic analysis, we used Bayesian and ML methods to construct a phylogenetic tree. Two phylogenetic trees with consistent topology with high support indicate that mitochondrial genes were reliable molecular markers for analyzing the phylogenetic relationships. The present study enriches the mitochondrial genome data of Peltigera and promotes further understanding of the genetics and evolution of the Peltigera genus. Keywords: Lecanoromycetes · Peltigera · Mitogenome · Gene rearrangement · Phylogenetic analysis.
36042Iqbal M.S., Asghar H.S. & Khalid A.N. (2023): A new species and a new record of family Ramalinaceae (lichenized Ascomycetes) from Pakistan. - Biology Bulletin, 50: 1187–1194.
Toninia pakistanica sp. nov. is described from Darel Valley, Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan. Its place within the genus Toninia A. Massal. was validated by a comparative morpho-anatomical investigation and ITS based molecular studies. The taxon is characterized by dark brown lobate squamules, epruinose to weakly pruinose with dark olive to black thallus, densely pruinose upper surface, more thicker epinecral layer 60 µm, 25–45 µm thick grey to blackish grey lower cortex and with the absence of apothecia and secondary metabolites. Its positioning in a separate branch in the phylogenetic tree also makes it distinct from the other known species. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS-nrDNA sequencing placed our species relative to Toninia cinereovirens (Schaer.) A. Massal. Kiliasia nordlandica (Th. Fr.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S. Ekman is included and reported as new record to Pakistan. Keywords: Toninia, Kiliasia, Ramalinaceae, molecular analysis, taxonomy.
36041Bondartseva M.A. & Zmitrovich I.V. (2023): Order Cantharellales: taxonomic and ecological diversification. - Biology Bulletin Reviews, 13 (Suppl. 1): S1–S16. DOI: 10.1134/S2079086423070046.
[original Russian text published in Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 2022, Vol. 56, No. 5, pp. 307–322] The review is devoted to the taxonomic representation of the order Cantharellales in connection with problems of taxonomical history of the group and problems of its ecological diversification. The history of the taxonomy of Cantharellales is considered, and it is shown that at present the order is limited to no more than 550 species from 31 genera and 5 families: Aphelariaceae (Aphelaria, Phaeoaphelaria, Tumidapexus); Botryobasidiaceae (Botryobasidium with anamorphs, Suillosporium); Ceratobasidiaceae (Ceratoporia, Ceratobasidium pr.p., Rhizoctonia); Hydnaceae (Bergerella, Bryoclavula, Bulbilla, Burgella, Burgellopsis, Burgoa, Cantharellus, Clavulina, Craterellus, Gloeomucro, Hydnum, Ingoldiella, Membranomyces, Minimedusa, Multiclavula, Neoburgoa, Parastereopsis, Repetobasidiellum, Rogersiomyces, Sistotrema, Sistotremella); and Tulasnellaceae (Pseudotulasnella, Stilbotulasnella, Tulasnella). The unresolved problems of the Cantharellales taxonomy are discussed. The ecomorphological and ecological-trophic diversification of the order is considered. A synopsis of families and genera is given with identification keys and detailed original taxa diagnoses down to the generic level. It is concluded that, during the evolution of the order Cantharellales and other large groups of Agaricomycetes, there is a parallelism associated with the development by fungi of similar adaptive zones that opened up in connection with the Early Cretaceous diversification of the terrestrial biota: the colonization of wood debris with the formation of hypochnoid, corticioid, and secondary resupinate forms; forest litter with the formation of clavarioid and ramarioid forms; the development of sporulation within grasses with a reduction of cantharelloid and secondary formation of clavarioid forms; the formation of ectomycorrhizae and orchid mycorrhiza by lignotrophic fungi; and colonization of moss protonemata, films of aerophytic algae, and lichen thalli. Keywords: cantharelloid fungi, ecology, identification keys, taxonomy.
36040Atashpaz B., Khormali F., Malekzadeh E. & Soleymanzadeh M. (2023): Evaluating the effect of different sequences of biological crusts on loess derived soil biophysiological properties in the semi-arid regions of northern Iran. - Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 23: 6777–6787.
The objective of this study was to investigate the role of biocrust sequences on the soil characteristics of the Incheh Borun region of Golestan province (Iran). In the study area, biocrusts and soil under their surface were sampled after identifying the sequences of biocrusts (moss, lichen, and cyanobacteria). To evaluate the development and successional stages, physicochemical and biological characteristics of biocrusts and the soil below their surface (In the depths 0–2, 2–4, 4–8, 8–10, 10–25, and 25–50 cm) were measured. The results showed that the presence of biocrusts compared to the physical crust in the surface parts (0–2 cm depth) improved the physicochemical and biological properties of the soil. From the first sequence (physical crust) to the end of the sequence (moss biocrust), the protein content, various components of organic carbon (OC), microbial respiration, total chlorophyll and polysaccharide of the biocrust and the soil below their surface increased. These parameters decreased with increasing soil depth. The highest amount of EC was in the soil below the surface of the physical crust, whereas the lowest value was related to the biocrust of the moss. As soil depth increases, biocrusts increase the soil permeability, allowing solutes to penetrate the subsurface parts and increase soil salinity. Due to the lack of biological cover on the surface of physical crusts, salts return to the soil surface through evaporation during the hot season and increase salinity below the crust surface. Keywords: Biocrusts · Biological properties of soil · Semi-arid region · Physical crust · Sequence of crusts.
36039Islary P., Biswas S., Nayaka S., Joseph S., Upreti D.K., Basumatary D. & Daimari R. (2023): New distributional records of lichenized fungi for India from Assam. - Vegetos, 36: 1256–1264.
Present paper deals with 21 species of lichenized fungi belonging to 11 genera and 8 families, collected from Ultapani Forest Range of Kokrajhar district, Assam, India situated in the foothills of Bhutan. The family Malmideaceae is dominant with 11 species followed by Graphidaceae with four species. Amongst genera, Malmidea exhibited as the most dominant genus with nine species followed by Graphis with four species. Eight species viz. Allographa myolensis, Graphis subintermedians, Malmidea coralliformis, M. perplexa, M. subgranifera, M. tratiana, Parmeliella cinerata and Pyrenula microtheca are new records to Indian lichen biota. A total of 13 species viz. Buellia tincta, Graphis nanodes, Hemithecium pulchellum, Heterodermia dissecta, Malmidea bakeri, M. fuscella, M. hypomelaena, M. psychotrioides, M. subaurigera, Parmotrema pseudotinctorum, Porina atroperiostiola, P. platystoma and Pyxine cylindrica are new additions to lichen biota of Assam. Brief description of each species along with their distributions are provided. Keywords: Lichenized fungi · Malmidea · Taxonomy · Ultapani.
36038Sharma B., Joseph S. & Nayaka S. (2023): Ten new ddditions to the lichenicolous fungi of India. - Biology Bulletin, 50(6): 1201–1210. DOI: 10.1134/S1062359023602185.
The current study reports ten lichenicolous fungi as new distributional record for India: Arthonia pepei Etayo and Pérez-Ortega, Cladophialophora parmeliae (Etayo and Diederich) Diederich and Unter., Didymocyrtis melanelixiae (Brackel) Diederich, R.C. Harris and Etayo, Nesolechia thallicola (A. Massal.) Rehm, Ovicuculispora parmeliae (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) Etayo, Pyrenidium aggregatum Knudsen and Kocoruk., Sclerococcum pseudosipmanii Zhurb. and Diederich, Spirographa parmotrematis Flakus, Etayo and Miądl., Steinia geophana (Nyl.) Stein and Zwackhiomyces macrosporus Alstrup and Olech. Further, Arthonia pepei, Nesolechia thallicola, Pyrenidium aggregatum, Spirographa parmotrematis, Steinia geophana and Zwackhiomyces macrosporus have also extended their host range. Keywords: Ascomycota, biodiversity, new hosts, Parmeliaceae, taxonomy.
36037Ciani F., Fornasaro S., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Cabassi J., Di Nuzzo L., Grifoni L., Venturi S., Costagliola P. & Rimondi V. (2023): Mercury accumulation efficiency of different biomonitors in indoor environments: the case study of the Central Italian Herbarium (Florence, Italy). - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 30: 124232–124244.
Biomonitoring studies are often employed to track airborne pollutants both in outdoor and indoor environments. In this study, the mercury (Hg) sorption by three biomonitors, i.e., Pinus nigra bark, Pseudovernia furfuracea lichen, and Hypnum cupressiforme moss, was investigated in controlled (indoor) conditions. In comparison to outdoor environments, controlled conditions offer the opportunity to investigate more in detail the variables (humidity, temperature, pollutants speciation, etc.) that control Hg uptake. The biomonitors were exposed in two distinct periods of the year for 2 and 12 months respectively, in the halls of the Central Italian Herbarium (Natural History Museum of the University of Florence, Italy), which are polluted by Hg, due to past plant sample treatments. The Hg sorption trend was monitored every 3 weeks by recording: (i) the Hg content in the substrata, (ii) gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentrations in the exposition halls, (iii) temperature, (iv) humidity, and (v) particulate matter (PM) concentrations. At the end of the experiment, Hg concentrations in the biomonitors range from 1130 ± 201 to 293 ± 45 μg kg−1 (max–min) in barks, from 3470 ± 571 to 648 ± 40 μg kg−1 in lichens, and from 3052 ± 483 to 750 ± 127 μg kg−1 in mosses. All the biomonitors showed the highest Hg accumulation after the first 3 weeks of exposure. Mercury concentrations increased over time showing a continuous accumulation during the experiments. The biomonitors demonstrated different Hg accumulation trends in response to GEM concentrations and to the different climatic conditions (temperature and humidity) of the Herbarium halls. Barks strictly reflected the gaseous Hg pollution, while lichen and moss accumulation was also influenced by the climatic conditions of the indoor environment. Mercury bound to PM seemed to provide a negligible contribution to the biomonitors final uptake. Keywords Mercury · Herbarium · Barks · Lichens · Mosses · Biomonitoring.
36036Arif M., Upreti D.K., Srivastava S. & Srivastava M. (2023): Bioprospecting secondary compounds from Usnea longissima. - National Academy Science Letters, 46: 547–550.
The objective of our study to identified and characterized the compounds from Usnea longisssimia. Lichen thallus was subjected for extraction to evaluate phytochemicals in different polarity solvents and extract yield also quantified. Chemical markers were identified in specific solvent system which was isolated by preparative. TLC and characterized through FTIR spectroscopy. Usnic acid was identified as a major marker along with Barbatic acid, Diffractaic acid, Divaricatic acid, and Fumarprotocetraic acid, respectively. The yield of usnic acid was found to be maximum in ethanol and yield varied from 1.84 to 5.06%, respectively. This study resulted that polarity based extraction affects the yield of extracts and isolation of specific compounds. Keywords: Extracts · Chemical marker · Usnic acid · Usnea longissima.
36035Holtan M., Strand O., Kastdalen L., Bjerketvedt D.K., Odland A., Pape R. & Heggenes J. (2023): Wild Mountain reindeer Rangifer tarandus tarandus winter foraging: snow‑free areas a key resource for feeding. - Polar Biology, 46: 1321–1334.
In a landscape with patchily distributed forage resources, an animal’s distribution may refect the distribution of the resources if the population is forage-limited in time or space. This may be particularly explicit in climatically extreme and seasonally variable environments, notably alpine and polar environments during winter. Sustainable management considers the amount of available alpine ground lichen in winter as a predictor of carrying capacity for the last remaining populations of wild European Mountain reindeer Rangifer tarandus tarandus in alpine environments in South Norway. Ground lichen growth is constrained to elevated, wind-blown, snow-free ridges. However, wild Mountain reindeer also persist in areas providing little lichen resources. Our alternative functional hypothesis is that the critical resource is the amount of snow-free feeding areas during winter, which provide direct access to forage, likely to be energy-profitable regardless of the type of vegetation. We sampled animal-borne videos from wild Mountain reindeer during maximum accumulation of snow in late winter/spring, in three contrasting areas providing variable amounts of ground lichen and alternative vegetation resources. Direct observations of reindeer foraging via videos document an active selection and strong preference for feeding on snow-free patches, regardless of type of vegetation. Active ‘cratering’ in snow was not observed. In contrast, walking behaviours occurred much more frequently across snow-covered areas. Remote sensing data and analyses corroborated these observations. In the sustainable management of wild Mountain reindeer amounts of vegetated snow-free areas is an important functional predictor of winter carrying capacity. Keywords: Alpine · Winter · Wild reindeer · Video · Snow-free areas.
36034Pankratov T.A., Shcherbatov R.E. & Del’tsov A.A. (2023): Effect of the extracts from lichens and lichenophilic fungi on in vitro growth of clinically significant microorganisms. - Microbiology, 92(6): 831–837. DOI: 10.1134/S0026261723602087.
[Russian original published in Mikrobiologiya, 2023, Vol. 92, No. 6, pp. 609–616] The activity of the ethanol extracts of lichens (LE), of the cultures of lichenophilic (endobiotic) fungi (LFE), and of ethanol extracts of these cultures was tested using the following test organisms: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecium, Paenibacillus sp., and Candida parapsilosis. Selective activity of LE and LFE against yeasts and gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was revealed. The extracts from Cladonia rangiferina exhibited no activity against any of the tested cultures. The previously reported locus effect on activity of metabolites of one lichen species was confirmed. Agar block technique was used to detect selective activity of 23 out of 61 analyzed fungal strains against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and of 8 strains, against yeasts. Ethanol extracts of six cultures were shown to suppress the growth of St. aureus, M. luteus, Paenibacillus sp., and E. coli. Strain NM10F28209 from the lichen Stereocaulon paschale, which exhibited inhibitory activity against Ca. parapsilosis was selected for priority development of an antifungal preparation. Keywords: biocidal agents, lichens, lichen endobionts, ethanol extracts.
36033Alla Ud Din, Iqbal M.S., Niazi A.R. & Khalid A.N. (2023): Two new records of lichens from Pakistan. - Biology Bulletin, 50(6): 1195–2000. DOI: 10.1134/S1062359023602033.
After fieldwork in different regions of Pakistan, two lichen species were established as new for the country: Aspicilia persica (Müll. Arg.) Sohrabi and Chlorangium sphaerothallinum (J. Steiner) S.Y. Kondr., Gromakova & Khodos. They were discovered in Darel Valley, Gilgit Baltistan and Killa Saifullah, Muslim Bagh, Balochistan. Each species is briefly described, with phylogenetic analysis, habitat, chemistry and morphology. These collections suggest a high potential for finding more unreported lichen species in Balochistan and Gilgit Baltistan. Keywords: Darel, Killa Saifullah, global distribution, morphological variants, ITS, phylogenetic Analysis.
36032Ingle K.K., Ngangom R., Nayaka S. & Upreti D.K. (2023): The lichen genus Phaeorrhiza (Physciaceae), a new generic record for India. - Biology Bulletin, 50(6): 1182–1186. DOI: 10.1134/S1062359023603117.
The genus Phaeorrhiza H. Mayrhofer and Poelt is recorded for the first time from India, which is represented by P. nimbosa (Fr.) H. Mayrhofer and Poelt, and P. sareptana var. sphaerocarpa (Th. Fr.) H. Mayrhofer and Poelt. The taxa are found growing in the alpine region of north-western Himalaya. A detailed description is provided along with figures to facilitate easy identification. Keywords: lichenized fungi, Buellia, biodiversity, rhizohyphae, Rinodina.
36031Tagirdzhanova G., Scharnagl K., Yan X. & Talbot N.J. (2023): Genomic analysis of Coccomyxa viridis, a common low‑abundance alga associated with lichen symbioses. - Scientific Reports, 13: 21285 [12 p.]. .
Lichen symbiosis is centered around a relationship between a fungus and a photosynthetic microbe, usually a green alga. In addition to their main photosynthetic partner (the photobiont), lichen symbioses can contain additional algae present in low abundance. The biology of these algae and the way they interact with the rest of lichen symbionts remains largely unknown. Here we present the first genome sequence of a non-photobiont lichen-associated alga. Coccomyxa viridis was unexpectedly found in 12% of publicly available lichen metagenomes. With few exceptions, members of the Coccomyxa viridis clade occur in lichens as non-photobionts, potentially growing in thalli endophytically. The 45.7 Mbp genome of C. viridis was assembled into 18 near chromosome-level contigs, making it one of the most contiguous genomic assemblies for any lichen-associated algae. Comparing the C. viridis genome to its close relatives revealed the presence of traits associated with the lichen lifestyle. The genome of C. viridis provides a new resource for exploring the evolution of the lichen symbiosis, and how symbiotic lifestyles shaped evolution in green algae.
36030Atashpaz B., Khormali F., Malekzadeh E. & Soleymanzadeh M. (2023): The effect of different sequences of biological crusts on soil physicochemical properties in dry land. - Environmental Earth Sciences, 82: 614 [11 p.].
Biological crusts are a collection of mosses, lichens, algae, fungi and heterotrophic bacteria that live in different forms within a few millimeters above the soil surface. These crusts play an important role in the development, stability and improvement of the nutritional status of the surface soil. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the role of biocrust sequences on the soil characteristics in the Inche Barun region, Golestan province (Iran). In the study area, biological and physical crusts as well as the soil under their surface were sampled after identifying the sequences of biocrust (moss, lichen and cyanobacteria). Then, the physicochemical characteristics of soil under their surface (In the depths 0–2, 2–4, 4–8, 8–10, 10–25, and 25–50 cm) were measured. The results showed that the presence of biological crusts compared to physical crust in the surface parts (0 to 2 cm depth) improved the physicochemical properties of the soil. The content of nitrogen, soil organic carbon, phosphorus, cation exchange capacity, sodium, potassium and mean-weight diameter of soil in the soil under their surface increased from the first (physical crust) to the last sequence (moss biological crust). The values of these parameters decreased with increasing soil depth. Biological crusts improve soil stability and reduce soil erosion. They also serve as food sources for organisms residing in soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that the presence of biological crusts on the soil surface improves soil quality. Keywords: Biocrusts · Dry region · Physicochemical properties of soil · Sequence of crusts.
36029Kumari K., Kumar V., Nayaka S., Saxena G. & Sanyal I. (2024): Physiological alterations and heavy metal accumulation in the transplanted lichen Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl. in Lucknow city, Uttar Pradesh. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 196: 84 [16 p.].
Air pollution has become a major concern due to its detrimental effects on living beings. The present study is aimed at assessing the current status of air pollution in Lucknow city using lichen transplantation technique and assesing its effect on physiology of Pyxine cocoes. The samples of P. cocoes were collected from relatively pollution-free area Malihabad and transplanted in 10 designated sites in five regions for 30 days. Various parameters such as heavy metals, chlorophyll pigments, carotenoid, chlorophyll degradation, and electrolyte conductivity were estimated in transplanted lichens. The study revealed that the concentration of all 10 heavy metals was higher in all transplanted samples than in the control sample, which was found in order of Al>Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Cr>Pb>Ni>Co>Cd. Among all 10 transplanted sites, the significantly increased accumulation of aluminum (5.11 to 5.47 µg L−1), iron (4.73 to 5.46 µg L−1), manganese (110.99 to 144.58 µg g−1), and zinc (87.96 to 97.40 µg g−1) was found in Charbagh, Qaisarbagh, and Alambagh sites. Further, in all samples, chlorophyll a (3.98 µg L−1), chlorophyll b (1.22 µg L−1), total chlorophyll (5.20 µg L−1), and chlorophyll degradation (0.55 µg g−1) were significantly decreased, whereas elevated levels of carotenoid (0.71 µg g−1), and electrolyte conductivity (64.99 µS cm−1), were observed. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigated the morphological changes in transplanted lichen samples, and significant damage to the anatomy of mycelium was found in most of the polluted site’s samples, which correlated with the pollution levels. The present study clearly demonstrated that the transplanted lichen P. cocoes is an efficient bioaccumulator and bioindicator of air quality in urban environments. Keywords: Air pollution · Air quality · Biomonitoring · Carotenoid · Chlorophyll · India · Pollution tolerance.
36028Fałtynowicz W. (2018): Materials to the lichen biota of Western Pomerania (northern Poland). Part 3. Lichens along the shore of the Baltic Sea. - Steciana, 22(4): 143–152. doi:10.12657/steciana.022.017.
Lichens of the Baltic coast are strongly endangered, mainly as a result of high tourist pressure. At the same time, this area is poorly penetrated by lichenologists. The paper contains a list of 211 lichen species collected during last several dozen years, mainly by author, and also by a few lichenologists, along the Polish shore of the Baltic Sea. Key words: lichens, Baltic Sea shore, Western Pomerania, northern Poland.
36027Bertrand M., Roux C. & Tirmarche J. (2023): Essai d’utilisation d’une méthode de hiérarchisation pour l’établissement d’une liste provisoire de lichens déterminants de ZNIEFF : application à la région Languedoc-Roussillon (France méridionale). - Bulletin de Association Française de Lichénologie, 48(1) : 61–72. .
[in French with English abstract: ] The authors present a method for prioritising threats in order to draw up a provisional list of ZNIEFF determining lichens, based on the data published in the Catalogue des lichens de France (Roux et coll., 2020, 2021, 2022). The presentation is based on a test carried out for the Mediterranean zone of the Languedoc-Roussillon region.
36026Lebreton É., Sérusiaux E. & Magain N. (2023): L'Association française de lichénologie apporte son soutien à une thèse de doctorat portant sur les lichens des collectivités et départements français d'outre-mer. - Bulletin de Association Française de Lichénologie, 48(2) : 135–144. .
[in French with English abstract: ] Although frequently inventoried in mainland France, lichens remain poorly studied in french overseas territories (lack of reference catalog). This paper describes a PhD thesis on foliicolous lichens in tropical and subtropical areas, with a focus on family Gomphillaceae (Ascomycota, Graphidales). Our PhD thesis project supported in part by the AFL, aims to understand how their lifestyle on ephemeral substrates might influence their evolution, in terms of diversification and substitution rates. Two field trips (to Guadeloupe and New Caledonia) were carried out while international collaborations extended the sampling to other geographical areas. Keywords : thesis ; foliicolous ; Gomphillaceae ; tropics ; taxonomy ; phylogeny.
36025Андросова В.И. & Сонина А.В. [Androsova V.I. & Sonina A.V.] (2023): Дополнения к лихенофлоре заповедника «Костомукшский» (Республика Карелия) [Contributions to the lichen flora of the Kostomukshsky Strict Nature Reserve (Republic of Karelia)]. - Труды Карельского научного центра РАН [Trudy Karel’skogo nauchnogo tsentra RAN] / Transactions of the Karelian Research Centre RAS, 2023/5: 63–70. DOI: 10.17076/bg1739.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The article presents the results of a lichenological study in the forest communities of the northern part of the Kostomukshsky State Nature Reserve, carried out in June 2017. The species diversity of lichens was studied on all substrates within 25×25 m sample plots. The total survey area was 1 ha and 950 samples of lichens were collected. As a result, 143 species of lichens were identified. Information about newly detected species is presented in the annotated list, which includes 68 species of lichens and allied fungi new to the Kostomukshsky Reserve (25 % of the total amount): 60 species and 1 subspecies of lichens, 4 species of lichenicolous fungi, 3 species of non-lichenized fungi. The records include 43 species reported for the first time for the biogeographic province of Karelia pomorica occidentalis, 1 species (Chaenotheca subroscida) is listed in the Red Data Book of the Republic of Karelia (2020). For the species Protothelenella corrosa, the exact locality in the Republic of Karelia is given for the first time. The species Lecidea lithophila, Lobothallia recedens, Stereocaulon evolutum used to be known in Karelia only from the collections of Finnish researchers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Nowadays, 278 species of lichens and allied fungi have been recorded for the territory of the Kostomukshsky State Nature Reserve. Considering the territory remaining unexplored, it can be assumed that no more than 50–60 % of the species diversity of lichens and allied fungi has been revealed. Keywords: Chaenotheca subroscida; Lecidea lithophila; Lobothallia recedens; Protothelenella corrosa; Stereocaulon evolutum; lichens; new findings; Karelia.
36024Sancho L.G., Aramburu A., Etayo J. & Beltrán-Sanz N. (2024): Floristic similarities between the lichen flora of both sides of the Drake Passage: A biogeographical approach . - Journal of Fungi, 10(1): 9 [14 p.].
This paper analyses the lichen flora of Navarino Island (Tierra del Fuego, Cape Horn Region, Chile), identifying species shared with the South Shetland Islands (Antarctic Peninsula). In this common flora, species are grouped by their biogeographic origin (Antarctic–subantarctic endemic, austral, bipolar, and cosmopolitan), their habitat on Navarino Island (coastal, forest, and alpine), their morphotype (crustaceous, foliaceous, fruticulose, and cladonioid), and the substrate from which they were collected (epiphytic, terricolous and humicolous, and saxicolous). A total of 124 species have been recognised as common on both sides of the Drake Passage, predominantly bipolar, crustaceous, and saxicolous species, and with an alpine distribution on Navarino Island. The most interesting fact is that more than 30% of the flora is shared between the southern tip of South America and the western Antarctic Peninsula, which is an indication of the existence of a meridian flow of propagules capable of crossing the Antarctic polar front. Keywords: Antarctica; biogeography; lichens; Navarino Island.
36023Урбанавичене И.Н. & Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichene I.N. & Urbanavichus G.P.] (2023): Bacidina ferax – новый вид для лихенофлоры средней полосы Европейской России [Bacidina ferax – a new species for the lichen flora of the Middle European Russia]. - Turczaninowia, 26(4): 5–7. DOI: 10.14258/turczaninowia.26.4.1.
[in Russian with English summary: ] Bacidina ferax was described by Stefan Ekman in 2023, particularly basing on the collections from the North-East of the European Russia (Komi Republic). Herewith, B. ferax is reported for the first time for the Middle European Russia – from the Nizhny Novgorod Region. A complete morphological description, including the characters, distinguishing B. ferax from the related species, in Russian is given; its distribution range is characterized. The obtained results make a valuable contribution to the knowledge of the global distribution range of B. ferax. The specimens from Kerzhensky Nature Reserve are kept in the lichenological herbarium of the Komarov Botanical Institute (LE L, Saint- Petersburg), duplicate – in the herbarium of the Altai State University (ALTB, Barnaul). Keywords: distribution, floristic finding, Kerzhensky Nature Reserve, lichen, Nizhny Novgorod Region.
36022Ismailov A.B., Volobuev S.V. & Kataeva O.A. (2023): New records of the genus Ramalina (Lecanorales, Ascomycota) in Dagestan with a key to species. - Turczaninowia, 26(4): 31–38. DOI: 10.14258/turczaninowia.26.4.7.
Based on morphological, chemical and molecular evidences, Ramalina europaea, R. lacera, and R. obtusata are reported for the first time for Dagestan. Ramalina lacera is the first confirmed record for the Russian part of the Caucasus and the second one for Russia. ITS of nuclear ribosomal DNA barcodes for Caucasian specimens of R. lacera and R. obtusata are generated for the first time. Specimen descriptions for firstly revealed species are presented. A key for identification of the 13 known taxa of the genus Ramalina in Dagestan is provided. Keywords: biodiversity, broad-leaved forest, Caucasus, DNA barcoding, HPTLC, lichenized fungi, molecular phylogeny, protected area.
36021Obermayer W. (2023): Dupla Graecensia Lichenum (numbers 1331–1390). - Fritschiana (Graz), 101: 1–18. .
The exsiccata shipment 'Dupla Graecensia Lichenum (numbers 1331–1390)' comprises 60 collections (413 specimens) of lichen duplicates from the following 12 countries: Austria (states of Carinthia, Salzburg, Styria, Upper Austria, and Vorarlberg), Croatia (Island of Krk), Greece (Island of Paros), Ireland, Italy (autonomous region Aosta Valley), Nepal (Dolpo Region), Russia (Republic of Buryatia), Slovenia, Spain (Canary Islands), Switzerland (Canton of Bern), United Kingdom (England), and U.S.A (states of Alaska, Florida, and Montana). TLC-investigations were carried out for 18 issued taxa.
36020Hafellner J. (2023): Lichenicolous Biota (Nos 381–400). - Fritschiana (Graz), 101: 19–35. .
The 17th fascicle (20 numbers) of the exsiccata 'Lichenicolous Biota' is published. The issue contains material of 19 taxa, 18 non-lichenized fungal taxa (15 teleomorphs of ascomycetes, 1 anamorphic state of ascomycetes, 2 basidiomycetes) and 1 unnamed cecidiogenous bacterium, including isotype material of Arthonia epipolytropa Hafellner & Grube (no 391), Arthonia subclemens Hafellner et al. (no 392) and paratype material of Tremella purpurascentis Diederich et al. (nos 387, 388). Furthermore, collections of the type species of the following genera are distributed: Arthophacopsis (A. parmeliarum), Everniicola (E. flexispora), Phacopsis (P. vulpina), Scutula (S. miliaris), Sphaerellothecium (S. araneosum), and Thamnogalla (T. crombiei). The fascicle contains notable contributions to the fungus floras of Austria, Italy, and the U.S.A.
36019Боровичев Е.А., Кожин М.Н., Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Химич Ю.Р. [Borovichev E.A., Kozhin M.N., Urbanavichus G.P. & Khimich Yu.R.] (2023): Значимые находки растений, лишайников и грибов на территории Мурманской области. VI [Noteworthy records of plants, lichens and fungi in Murmansk region. VI]. - Труды Карельского научного центра РАН, Серия "Биология", Петрозаводск [Transactions of the Karelian Research Centre of Russian Academy of Science, ser. Biology, Petrozavodsk], 5: 43–53. doi: 10.17076/bg1769.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Important findings of 36 species of vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens and fungi acquired lately from the Murmansk Region are reported. The lichen Zythia resinae was recorded for the Murmansk Region for the first time. The fungus Inocutis rheades and lichen Scytinium fragrans were spotted in the region for the second time; the fungus Haploporus odorus as well as the vascular species Carex omskiana were found in the region for the third time. Thirty-two regionally- and three nationally red-listed species were recorded in the area of Lake Irinozero and Mt Ivan-gora, of which 26 and 3 species, respectively, grew within the Regional Nature Monument Irin-gora. Information about redlisted species of this regional nature monument is published for the first time. Areas at the Salla road intersection with the Ryabina river and near the Umba River mouth are of high sozological importance. They were each found to contain seven red-listed species. Keywords: vascular plants; bryophytes; lichens; fungi; new records; rare species; Red Data Book.
36018Qu M., Duan W. & Chen L. (2024): The role of cryptogams in soil property regulation and vascular plant regeneration: A review. - Applied Sciences, 14(1): 2 [15 p.]. .
Despite their small size, cryptogams (lichen, liverwort, and moss) are important for ecosystem stability. Due to their strong stress resistance, cryptogams often cover extreme environments uninhabitable for vascular plants, which has an important impact on the material cycle and energy flow of various terrestrial ecosystems. In this article, we review and discuss the effects of cryptogams on soil properties (moisture and fertility) and vascular plant regeneration over the past two decades. Cryptogams strongly affect soil water content by influencing precipitation infiltration, non-rainfall water input, soil evaporation, soil water holding capacity, and soil permeability, ultimately helping to reduce soil water content in areas with low annual precipitation (600 mm) or where the soil has other water sources, the presence of cryptograms is conducive to soil water accumulation. Cryptogam plants can increase soil fertility and the availability of soil nutrients (TOC, TN, TP, TK, and micronutrients) in harsh environments, but their effects in mild environments have not been sufficiently investigated. Cryptogam plants exert complex effects on vascular plant regeneration in different environments. The primary influence pathways include the physical barrier of seed distribution, shading, allelopathy, competition, influences on ectomycorrhizal development and individual reproduction, and the regulation of soil water content, temperature, and nutrients. Keywords: moss; lichen; soil water content; soil fertility; vascular plant regeneration.
36017Hyde K.D., Abdel-Wahab M.A., Abdollahzadeh J., Abeywickrama P.D., Absalan S., Afshari N., Ainsworth A.M., Akulov O.Y., Aleoshin V.V., Al-Sadi A.M., Alvarado P., Alves A., Alves-Silva G., Amalfi M., Amira Y., Amuhenage T.B., Anderson J., Antonín V., Aouali S., Aptroot A., Apurillo C.C.S., Araújo J.P.M., Ariyawansa H.A., Armand A., Arumugam E., Asghari R., Assis D.M.A., Atienza V., Avasthi S., Azevedo E., Bahkali A.H., Bakhshi M., Banihashemi Z., Bao D.F., Baral H.O., Barata M., Barbosa F., Barbosa R.N., Barreto R.W., Baschien C., Belamesiatseva D.B., Bennett Reuel M., Bera I., Bezerra J.D.P., Bezerra J.L., Bhat D.J., Bhunjun C.S., Bianchinotti M.V., Błaszkowski J., Blondelle A., Boekhout T., Bonito G., Boonmee S., Boonyuen N., Bregant C., Buchanan P., Bundhun D., Burgaud G., Burgess T., Buyck B., Cabarroi-Hernández M., Cáceres M.E.S., Caeiro M.F., Cai L., Cai M.F., Calabon M.S., Calaça F.J.S., Callalli M., Camara M.P.S., Cano-Lira J.F., Cantillo T., Cao B., Carlavilla J.R., Carvalho A., Castañeda-Ruiz R.F., Castlebury L., Castro-Jauregui O., Catania M.D.V., Cavalcanti L.H., Cazabonne J., Cedeño-Sanchez M.L., Chaharmiri-Dokhaharani S., Chaiwan N., Chakraborty N., Chaverri P., Cheewangkoon R., Chen C., Chen C.Y., Chen K.H., Chen J., Chen Q., Chen W.H., Chen Y.P., Chethana K.W.T., Coleine C., Condé T.O., Corazon-Guivin M.A., Cortés-Pérez A., Costa-Rezende D.H., Courtecuisse R., Crouch J.A., Crous P.W., Cui B.K., Cui Y.Y., da Silva D.K.A., da Silva G.A., da Silva I.R., da Silva R.M.F., da Silva Santos A.C., Dai D.Q., Dai Y.C., Damm U., Darmostuk V., Daroodi Zoha, Das K., Das K., Davoodian N., Davydov E.A., Dayarathne M.C., Decock C., de Groot M.D., De Kesel A., dela Cruz T.E.E., De Lange R., Delgado G., Denchev C.M., Denchev T.T., de Oliveira N.T., de Silva N.I., de Souza F.A., Dentinger B., Devadatha B., Dianese J.C., Dima B., Diniz A.G., Dissanayake A.J., Dissanayake L.S., Doğan H.H., Doilom M., Dolatabadi S., Dong W., Dong Z.Y., Dos Santos L.A., Drechsler-Santos E.R., Du T.Y., Dubey M.K., Dutta A.K., Egidi E., Elliott T.F., Elshahed M.S., Erdoğdu M., Ertz D., Etayo J., Evans H.C., Fan X.L., Fan Y.G., Fedosova A.G., Fell J., Fernandes I., Firmino A.L., Fiuza P.O., Flakus A., Fragoso de Souza C.A., Frisvad J.C., Fryar S.C., Gabaldón T., Gajanayake A.J., Galindo L.J., Gannibal P.B., García D., García-Sandoval S.R., Garrido-Benavent I., Garzoli L., Gautam A.K., Ge Z.W., Gené D.J., Gentekaki E., Ghobad-Nejhad M., Giachini A.J., Gibertoni T.B., Góes-Neto A., Gomdo (2023): Global consortium for the classification of fungi and fungus-like taxa. - Mycosphere, 14(1): 1960–2012. Doi: 10.5943/mycosphere/14/1/23.
The Global Consortium for the Classification of Fungi and fungus-like taxa is an international initiative of more than 550 mycologists to develop an electronic structure for the classification of these organisms. The members of the Consortium originate from 55 countries/regions worldwide, from a wide range of disciplines, and include senior, mid-career and early-career mycologists and plant pathologists. The Consortium will publish a biannual update of the Outline of Fungi and fungus- like taxa, to act as an international scheme for other scientists. Notes on all newly published taxa at or above the level of species will be prepared and published online on the Outline of Fungi website (, and these will be finally published in the biannual edition of the Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa. Comments on recent important taxonomic opinions on controversial topics will be included in the biannual outline. For example, ‘to promote a more stable taxonomy in Fusarium given the divergences over its generic delimitation’, or ‘are there too many genera in the Boletales?’ and even more importantly, ‘what should be done with the tremendously diverse ‘dark fungal taxa?’ There are undeniable differences in mycologists’ perceptions and opinions regarding species classification as well as the establishment of new species. Given the pluralistic nature of fungal taxonomy and its implications for species concepts and the nature of species, this consortium aims to provide a platform to better refine and stabilise fungal classification, taking into consideration views from different parties. In the future, a confidential voting system will be set up to gauge the opinions of all mycologists in the Consortium on important topics. The results of such surveys will be presented to the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF) and the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (NCF) with opinions and percentages of votes for and against. Criticisms based on scientific evidence with regards to nomenclature, classifications, and taxonomic concepts will be welcomed, and any recommendations on specific taxonomic issues will also be encouraged; however, we will encourage professionally and ethically responsible criticisms 1974 of others’ work. This biannual ongoing project will provide an outlet for advances in various topics of fungal classification, nomenclature, and taxonomic concepts and lead to a community-agreed classification scheme for the fungi and fungus-like taxa. Interested parties should contact the lead author if they would like to be involved in future outlines. Keywords: classification – nomenclature – scientific criticism – taxonomy.
36016Gheza G., Barcella M., Bottegoni F., Canali G., Cominato E., Di Nuzzo L., Fačkovcová Z., Favero-Longo S.E., Francesconi L., Giordani P., Matteucci E., Munzi S., Nascimbene J., Paoli L., Pistocchi C., Santi F., Vallese C. & Assini S. (2023): The lichen biota of the beech forest of the Monte Lesima-Cima Colletta ridge (Northern Apennine, Italy). - Borziana, 4: 115–127. .
In the last decades, lichenological studies started again in Lombardia (N Italy), where locally overlooked situations persist. One of such areas is the southernmost part of the Pavese Apennine, where the highest mountains of the Province of Pavia are located. We report the results of a thorough lichen survey carried out in the Natura 2000 Habitat 9130 “Asperulo- Fagetum beech forests” occurring along the Monte Lesima-Cima Colletta ridge, an area with an outstanding naturalistic relevance, part of which is included within the SCI IT2080025 “Le Torraie-Monte Lesima”. Ninety-two taxa are recorded from four sites with different features, with the richest site hosting old beech trees and rock outcrops. Circinaria coronata, Glaucomaria subcarpinea, Gyalolechia marmorata, Leproplaca chrysodeta, Pertusaria coro- nata, Physconia servitii, Variospora paulii and Wadeana dendrographa are new to Lombardia. Key words: Biodiversity, Conservation, Habitat 9130, Lichens, Natura 2000 Network, Oltrepò Pavese.
36015Lorenz C., Arena C., Vitale E., Bianchi E., Poggiali G., Alemanno G., Benesperi R., Brucato J.R., Garland S., Helbert J., Loppi S., Lorek A., Maturilli A., Papini A., de Vera J.-P. & Baqué M. (2024): Resilience of Xanthoria parietina under Mars‑like conditions: photosynthesis and oxidative stress response. - Planta, 259: 25 [8 p.].
Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. is a widespread lichen showing tolerance against air pollutants and UV-radiation. It has been tested under space-like and Mars-like conditions resulting in high recovery performances. Hereby, we aim to assess the mechanisms at the basis of the thalli resilience against multiple space stress factors. Living thalli of X. parietina were exposed to simulated Martian atmospheric conditions (Dark Mars) and UV radiation (Full Mars). Then, we monitored as vitality indicator the photosynthetic efficiency, assessed by in vivo chlorophyll emission fluorescence measurements (FM ; FV /F0 ). The physiological defense was evaluated by analyzing the thalli antioxidant capacity. The drop of FM and FV /F0 immediately after the exposure indicated a reduction of photosynthesis. After 24 h from exposure, photosynthetic efficiency began to recover suggesting the occurrence of protective mechanisms. Antioxidant concentrations were higher during the exposure, only decreasing after 30 days. The recovery of photosynthetic efficiency in both treatments suggested a strong resilience by the photosynthetic apparatus against combined space stress factors, likely due to the boosted antioxidants at the beginning and their depletion at the end of the exposure. The overall results indicated that the production of antioxidants, along with the occurrence of photoprotection mechanisms, guarantee X. parietina survivability in Mars-like environment. Keywords: Adaptation · Antioxidant · Lichen · Photosynthesis · Space environment.
36014 Kocakaya M., Barak M.ü. & Kocakaya Z. (2023): New records of lichenicolous and lichenized fungi from Üzümdere Nature Park, Türkiye. - Mycotaxon, 137(4): 943–951.
Four species of lichenicolous fungi (Clypeococcum epicrassum, Polycoccum cladoniae, Sphaerellothecium arnoldii, and Stigmidium aff. lecidellae) and two species o f lichenized fungi (Gyalolechia klementii and Parvoplaca servitiana) are reported for the first time from Turkey. Comments on their morphological characters, habitats, and substrates are provided, together with macro- and microphotographs. Key words: biodiversity, lichens, Mycosphaerellaceae, Polycoccaceae, Teloschistaceae.
36013 Chen Y.-X., Wang L.-B., Xie Y.-H., Guo S.-Y. & Han L.-F. (2023): Usnea jingdongensis sp. nov. from Southwest China. - Mycotaxon, 137(4): 913–927.
Usnea jingdongensis from the Ailaoshan Mountain of Southwest China, is described as a new species of Parmeliaceae. It is characterized by the uninflated branches, fistulose axis with pale brown to dark brown loose hyphae, and the absence of pseudocyphellae and soralia. The phylogenetic analysis of the nrDNA ITS sequence data supported the recognition of the species. A key to the eumitrioid Usnea species in China is also provided. Key words: Asia, evolutionary tree, Lecanorales, protocetraric acid, taxonomy.
36012Boudiaf S., Ahmed M.A. & Pino-Bodas R. (2023): New records of the genus Cladonia from Algeria. - Mycotaxon, 137(4): 871–882.
Based on our studies of lichen-forming fungi in Kala National Park, Northeastern Algeria, four species, C. cyathomorpha, C. dimorpha, C. monomorpha and C. subturgida, were new reported for Algeria. Descriptions and taxonomic notes are provided; and a key is presented for all the Cladonia species known from Algeria. Key words: Cladoniaceae, Lecanorales, Mediterranean Region, taxonomy.
36011Sharma B., Shahnoor F., Rajeshkumar K.C., Škaloud P., Divakar P.K., Gaikwad S., Ansil P.A., Mohan A.S. & Sequeira S.Y. (2023): Molecular studies of Flavopunctelia and Punctelia species and their Trebouxia photobiont from the Himalayas, India. - Mycotaxon, 137(4): 853–869.
Flavopunctelia and Punctelia species collected from Pir Panjal Ranges of Himachal Pradesh, India were studied by morphological, chemical, and phylogenetic methods. Analyses based on a concatenated ITS and LSU data set, confirmed the position of the three Indian taxa within the Parmotrema-clade in Parmeliaceae. The morphology-based taxonomic study reiterated the presence of cryptic species in Flavopunctelia with highly similar morphological characters in different species. The type species, F. flaventior, formed a well-supported monophyletic clade adjacent to F. soredica. In Punctelia, P. borreri was also established as a unique lineage along with P. perreticulata. RPB1 data were not interpreted due to data deficiency. The ITS sequence data and analyses showed Trebouxia photobionts in all the parmelioid species; that of P. borreri was identified as T. gelatinosa, but the photobionts of F. flaventior formed an exclusive clade of an apparently undescribed species of Trebouxia, and the photobiont of F. soredica formed an unresolved basal clade to the Trebouxia sp. of F. flaventior. Key words: Lecanorales, lichens, symbionts.
36010Zhu M.-L., Chen L.-W., Zhao Y.-F. & Jia Z.-F. (2023): Echinoplaca infuscata sp. nov. and new records of the genus Echinoplaca from Yunnan, China. - Mycotaxon, 137(4): 715–723.
Three Echinoplaca spp. are reported from China. The new species Echinoplaca infuscata is characterised by pale brown apothecia having different morphologies and colors at different growth stages, and (3–)5-septate ascospores. Echinoplaca epiphylloides and E. intercedens are reported as new from China. The macromorphology, micromorphology, secondary chemistry, ecology, and distribution ranges of these three species are presented and discussed. A key is provided to the Echinoplaca species known in China. Key words: foliicolous lichen, Ascomycota, Ostropales, Gomphillaceae, taxonomy.
36009Bi Y.-X., Zhang Y.-M., Zhao Z.-T. & Hu L. (2023): Four species of Rhizocarpon subg. Phaeothallus in China. - Mycotaxon, 137(4): 701–713.
Curiously, the very same paper was published twice in the same volume / issue of Mycotaxon! (the duplicate has pagination 137(4): 899–911). Three lichen species are reported from China for the first time: Rhizocarpon cinereovirens, R. rittokense, and R. roridulum. A revision of the Chinese material determined as R. infernulum f. infernulum shows that it belongs to R. infernulum f. sylvaticum. The morphology, secondary chemistry, ecology, and distribution ranges of the species are investigated and discussed. An identification key is given to the species of Rhizocarpon subg. Phaeothallus in China.
36008Davydov E.A. & Yakovchenko L.S. (2023): Lectotypification of the name Umbilicaria africana (Umbilicariaceae, lichenized Ascomycota). - Phytotaxa, 630(2): 149–153.
The name Umbilicaria africana (≡Gyrophora haplocarpa var. africana), a polar-alpine lichen-forming fungus, is reviewed and lectotypified using a specimen from the Jatta collection deposited in the Herbarium Neapolitanum (NAP). Key words: Africa, Antonio Jatta, nomenclature, Ruwenzori Mts., thalloconidia.
36007Ansil P.A., Rajeshkumar K.C., Harikrishnan K., Sruthi O.P. , Gaikwad S.B. & Sharma B.O. (2023): Decoding the evolutionary association among lichen symbionts in Dyplolabia afzelii from the Western Ghats, India. - Microbial Biosystems, 8(2): 328318 [8 p.]. Doi: 10.21608/mb.2023.328318.
This study delves into the intricate symbiotic relationship of a crustose lichen, Dyplolabia afzelii from the pristine habitats of the Western Ghats. This unique lichen genus is authenticated using polyphasic taxonomy for the first time in India through morphological, chemical and molecular phylogenetic (concatenated LSU, mtSSU and RPB2 analyses) tools. Additionally, this investigation ventures into the molecular realm by analyzing ITS sequence data and the phylogeny of the photobiont in D. afzelii and unveils an as-yet undescribed Trentepohlia species closely related to Trentepohlia cf. arborum. This study also represents the pioneering effort to unravel the enigmatic lichen symbiosis within Dyplolabia, from India and reveals vital insights into this unique composite organism. Keywords: Graphidaceae, mycobiont, phycobiont, symbiosis.
36006Kitaura M.J., Scur M.C., Torres J.M., Lorenz A.P. & Leite M.F. (2023): A new record of Sulzbacheromyces caatingae (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes) from Mato Grosso do Sul and a worldwide infrageneric identification key. - Anais Da Academia Brasileira De Ciencias, 95(3): 12.
Sulzbacheromyces is a genus of basidiolichen that includes nine species scattered on the African, American, and Asian continents. Sequences of the universal barcode of Fungi, the nuclear internal transcribed spacer - nuITS region, are available to all known species of the genus. Specimens of Sulzbacheromyces caatingae were collected during two expeditions in the Morro of Paxixi, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Midwest region of Brazil, in the Cerrado biome, where it was reported for the first time to the state. Morphological and anatomical analyses were performed. Specimens from Mato Grosso do Sul have a light green to indistinct thallus, while specimens from Ceara, Paraiba, and Piaui states present a thin green crust on the substrate. The nuITS sequences were also generated, and the distribution of S. caatingae was plotted with the haplotypes. Morphological differences were not reflected in the molecular analysis, which confirmed the identification of the species. In addition, an identification key to the known Sulzbacheromyces species is provided. Aquidauana, Cerrado, clavarioid, distribution, Lepidostromataceae, lichen, lichenized basidiomycota, unexpected discovery, lepidostromatales, basidiolichen, phylogenies, inference, mrbayes, region, Science & Technology - Other Topics
36005Hernández-Navarro E., Olivares-Beltrán J., Bautista-Hernández S. & Sierra S. (2023): The diversity of macrofungi and slime molds from Colima, Mexico, with new records. - Revista Mexicana De Biodiversidad, 94: 20.
The fungal diversity in Colima, Mexico has been sparsely studied with only 80 species of non-lichenized macroscopic fungi species and two slime molds reported. Most of the records are from the last century and have focused on the temperate zones of the state. A study of the macroscopic fungi and slime molds diversity in Colima, Mexico is presented, with new records. Samplings were carried-out in 8 localities across 6 municipalities, including urban zones. We add 38 new records of which, 5 correspond to Ascomycota, 21 to Basidiomycota, 12 slime molds. The most well-represented genera in the samplings were Geastrum (5 species) and Didymium (3 species). Geastrum chamelense and Itajahya galericulata constitute the second and the third national records, respectively. The number of records is raised to 106 macroscopic fungal species and 14 slime molds species, with a total of 120 taxa. It is suggested to conduct more extensive sampling in unexplored areas, with an emphasis on the less-studied fungal groups such as ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, such as ramarioid, gasteroid and jelly fungi, as well as cultures in humid chambers for slime molds. Basidiomycota, Ascomycota, Fungal diversity, Funga, Mycetozoa, baja-california mexico, biosphere reserve, sp-nov, forest, agaricales, sonora, basidiomycota, peninsula, itajahya, state, Biodiversity & Conservation
36004Grube M. & Wedin M. (2016): Lichenized Fungi and the Evolution of Symbiotic Organization. - Microbiol Spectr, 4(6): 1-17.
Lichen symbioses comprise a fascinating relationship between algae and fungi. The lichen symbiotic lifestyle evolved early in the evolution of ascomycetes and is also known from a few basidiomycetes. The ascomycete lineages have diversified in the lichenized stage to give rise to a tremendous variety of morphologies. Their thalli are often internally complex and stratified for optimized integration of algal and fungal metabolisms. Thalli are frequently colonized by specific nonlichenized fungi and occasionally also by other lichens. Microscopy has revealed various ways these fungi interact with their hosts. Besides the morphologically recognizable diversity of the lichen mycobionts and lichenicolous (lichen-inhabiting) fungi, many other microorganisms including other fungi and bacterial communities are now detected in lichens by culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. The application of multi-omics approaches, refined microscopic techniques, and physiological studies has added to our knowledge of lichens, not only about the taxa involved in the lichen interactions, but also about their functions. Ascomycota/growth & development/*physiology, Basidiomycota/growth & development/*physiology, Biological Evolution, Lichens/*microbiology, *Symbiosis
36003Garrido-Benavent I., Blanchette R.A. & de los Ríos A. (2023): Deadly mushrooms of the genus Galerina found in Antarctica colonized the continent as early as the Pleistocene. - Antarctic Science, 2023: 14.
Fungi are probably the most diverse group of eukaryotic organisms in the Antarctic continent and nearby archipelagos, and they dominate communities in either mild or harsh habitats. However, our knowledge of their global distribution ranges and the temporal origins of their Antarctic populations is rather limited or almost absent, especially for species that do not lichenize. We focused for the first time on elucidating the taxonomic identity and phylogenetic relationships of several Antarctic collections of the deadly fungal Basidiomycota genus Galerina. By using molecular sequence data from the universal fungal barcode and a dataset encompassing 178 specimens, the inferred phylogeny showed that the Antarctic specimens corresponded with the sub-cosmopolitan species Galerina marginata, Galerina badipes and Galerina fallax, and their most closely related intraspecific genetic lineages were from northern Europe and North America. We found that these species probably host Antarctic-endemic intraspecific lineages. Furthermore, our dating analyses indicated that their Antarctic populations originated in the Pleistocene, a temporal frame that agrees with that proposed for the Antarctic colonization of plants such as the grass Deschampsia antarctica, mosses and some amphitropical lichens. Altogether, these findings converge on the same temporal scenario for the assembly of the most conspicuous terrestrial Antarctic plant and fungal communities. biogeography, dating analysis, fungal endemism, Galerina marginata, long-distance dispersal, non-lichenized fungi, mcmurdo dry valleys, fungi, diversity, dispersal, biogeography, ascomycota, connection, selection, software, taxonomy, Environmental Sciences & Ecology, Physical Geography, Geology