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35038Karagöz Y., Aslan A. & Yazici K. (2022): Contributions to the Lichen flora of Turkey: New records from Eastern Anatolia (Van province). - Israel Journal of Plant Sciences, 69(3-4): 213–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/22238980-bja10057.
Our field research in Van province during 2008–2009 resulted in collection of 3766 lichen samples from 55 sites, and identification of 229 lichen taxa, including two subspecies and three varieties, in 108 genera of Ascomycota. We found 182 new records for Van province. These include four new re- cords for Turkey, namely Bibbya ruginosa, Buellia subalbula, Caloplaca tenuatula and Rimularia gib- bosa. Lists of species and collection sites are provided. Acarospora (11 species), Lecidea (9 species), Verrucaria (8 species), Caloplaca, Physcia and Rinodina (7 species for each), and Aspicilia, Lecanora and Polyozosia (6 species for each) are the genera richest in species in the study area. Of the identi- fied species, 163 are crustose, 43 are foliose, 7 are fruticose, 13 are squamulose and 3 are leprose. 101 species colonise on calcareous rocks, 86 on siliceous rocks, 23 on various trees (epiphytic), 10 on soil, 12 on moss and 17 on other lichens (lichenicolous). Sites 16, 19 are the richest with 55 identified taxa, followed by sites 52, 34, and 6 with 51, 49 and 44 taxa, respectively. The poorest sites are 40 and 42 with 6 identified taxa, followed by sites 5, 7, and 21 with 8, 8, and 9 taxa, respectively
35037Neumann P. & Dolnik C. (2019): Lecanora sambuci und weitere bemerkenswerte Flechtenfunde aus Schleswig-Holstein. - Kieler Notizen zur Pflanzenkunde, 44: 75–92. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Kieler-Notizen-zur-Pflanzenkunde_44_0075-0092.pdf.
Lecanora sambuci and other noteworthy lichens from Schleswig-Holstein. The polyspore Lecanora sambuci has recently been detected again several times from Schleswig-Holstein. Furthermore, records of other rare species are reported, amongst others rediscoveries of Catillaria nigroclavata and Fuscidea lightfootii.
35036Condò C., Anfelli I., Forti L., Sabia C., Messi P. & Iseppi R. (2023): Lichens as a natural source of compounds active on microorganisms of human health interest. - Applied Sciences, 13(3): 1976 [10 p.] . https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031976.
The antimicrobial properties of two lichen extracts (LC1 and LC2 solutions extracted in acetone and cyclohexane, respectively) were investigated against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms through the agar well diffusion assay. Results displayed that both samples were similarly effective against all the indicator strains. The antimicrobial activity was maintained up to 30 days against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 with an inhibition zone of 38 mm and 37 mm for the LC1 and LC2 solutions extracted, respectively. In order to separate the single chemical components and to associate them with the biological activity, the two extracts were subjected to an activity-guided fractionation followed by a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC–MS) Ion Trap 6310A for the chemical characterization. Chromatogram analysis of each sample that maintained an antimicrobial activity revealed the presence of a significant peak, at a retention time (tR) of 10.8 min, corresponding to a scabrosin derivative that could likely be associated with the antimicrobial activity. Results obtained in the present investigation, especially against the opportunistic pathogen C. albicans, are encouraging and could represent a preliminary step to a future solution toward a microorganism responsible for fungal infections, mainly occurring in immunocompromised patients and recently caused by drug-resistant strains. Keywords: lichens; antimicrobial activity; human pathogens; Candida albicans.
35035Sanders W.B. & de los Ríos A. (2023): Structure of foliicolous lichen thalli formed by some common lecanoralean taxa in subtropical leaf communities. - Bryologist, 126(1): 35–44. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-126.1.035.
Numerous distinct clades of lichen-forming fungi have independently specialized as foliicolous colonists of living leaves in the humid tropics and subtropics. Because of technical difficulties, the anatomy of their minute crustose thalli has not been compared in detail. In the present study, we applied SEM-BSE imaging to sectioned blocks of embedded thalli representing six lecanoralean taxa of foliicolous lichen-forming fungi with unicellular green algal partners. We compared our observations with those obtained in a previous study of foliicolous Gomphillaceae (Ostropales), which utilize a similar type of algal partner. The upper surface of the thalli was a mostly continuous layer of mycobiont hyphae of typical diameter, unlike the largely acellular epilayer found previously in the foliicolous Gomphillaceae. Byssoloma leucoblepharum was exceptional in lacking a covering layer altogether. Thalli were essentially unstratified, with algal symbionts not confined to any distinct layer. Whereas the prothallus of foliicolous Gomphillaceae was derived from the overlying epilayer, in the lecanoralean taxa examined here the prothallus was derived from hyphae continuous with either the upper surface of the thallus or the lower surface, or both. This finding suggests that the prothallus of lichen forming fungi may represent structures of developmentally different origins in different taxa. Keywords: Bacidina apiahica, Byssoloma kakouettae, Byssoloma leucoblepharum Calopadia puiggarii, Canary Islands, Fellhanera bouteillei, hypothallus, Iberian Peninsula, Lecanorales, Pilocarpaceae, prothallus, Tapellaria epiphylla.
35034Kello M., Goga M., Kotorova K., Sebova D., Frenak R., Tkacikova L. & Mojzis J. (2023): Screening evaluation of antiproliferative, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of lichen extracts and secondary metabolites in vitro. - Plants, 12(3): 611 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12030611.
Lichen metabolites represent a wide range of substances with a variety of biological effects. The present study was designed to analyze the potential antiproliferative, antimicrobial and antioxidative effects of several extracts from lichens (Pseudevernia furfuracea, Lobaria pulmonaria, Cetraria islandica, Evernia prunastri, Stereocaulon tomentosum, Xanthoria elegans and Umbilicaria hirsuta) and their secondary metabolites (atranorin, physodic acid, evernic acid and gyrophoric acid). The crude extract, as well as the isolated metabolites, showed potent antiproliferative, cytotoxic activity on a broad range of cancer cell lines in 2D (monolayer) and 3D (spheroid) models. Furthermore, antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazylhydrate (DPPH) and in vitro antimicrobial activities were assessed. Data showed that the lichen extracts, as well as the compounds present, possessed biological potential in the studied assays. It was also observed that the extracts were more efficient and their major compounds showed strong effects as antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial agents. Moreover, we demonstrated the 2D and 3D models’ importance to drug discovery for further in vivo studies. Despite the fact that lichen compounds have been neglected by the scientific community for long periods, nowadays they are objects of investigation based on their promising effects. Keywords: lichens; secondary metabolites; cytotoxicity; 2D; 3D spheroids; antibacterial; antioxidant
35033Nádvorník J. (1957): Lecidea atrosanguinea (Flk.) Vain, a L. subsequens Nyl., nové pro ČSR. - Preslia, 29: 332-332. https://dnnt.mzk.cz/view/uuid:4f6f0393-0d7f-11e3-1154-001143e3f55c?page=uuid:4f6f04f7-0d7f-11e3-1154-001143e3f55c.
35032Liška J. & Pišút I. (1997): Problematika invazí u lišejníků. - Zprávy Čes. Bot. Společn., Mater. 14, Praha, 32: 21-32. https://dnnt.mzk.cz/view/uuid:f59849a0-6254-11e3-ae59-005056827e52?page=uuid:5ab24b70-7aaa-11e3-a388-5ef3fc9ae867&fulltext=Problematika%20invaz%C3%AD%20u%20lišejn%C3%ADků.
35031Acharius E. (1811): Förteckning pa de i Sverige växande arter af Lafvarnes familj (Fortsättning). - Kongl. Vetenskaps Akademiens Nya Handlingar \ Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [2. ser.], 32: 102–128. .
35030Stepanova D., Moisejevs R., Nitcis M. & Mežaka A. (2022): Epiphytic lichens in Latvian manor parks. - Acta Biologica Universitatis Daugavpiliensis, 22(2): 125–133. .
We present the results of lichenological research in 20 Latvian manor parks. In total 62 lichen taxa and one lichenicolous taxa (Muellerella hospitans Stizenb.) were identified on 18 tree taxa. In total, five lichen species were specially protected, eight were Woodland Key Habitat indicator species and two species were red-listed in Latvia. Keywords: biodiversity, urban diversity, lichenized fungi.
35029Laundon J.R. (1989): Literature pertaining to British lichens – 6. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 65: 41-42. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2065%20Winter%201989.pdf.
35028Brightman F. (1989): New, rare and interesting lichens. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 65: 36-37. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2065%20Winter%201989.pdf.
35027James P. (1989): Falkland Islands Stamps. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 65: 33-33. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2065%20Winter%201989.pdf.
35026Rose F. (1989): Neglected habitats: The tree canopy. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 65: 24-25. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2065%20Winter%201989.pdf.
35025Coppins B.J. (1989): Where are Britains largest lichens?. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 65: 22-23. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2065%20Winter%201989.pdf.
35024Laundon J.R. (1989): Changing names. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 65: 15-18. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2065%20Winter%201989.pdf.
35023Henderson A. (1989): Some chinese lichen ilustrations. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 65: 13-14. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2065%20Winter%201989.pdf.
35022Earland-Bennett P. (1989): City Diary: London. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 65: 11-12. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2065%20Winter%201989.pdf.
35021Anonumus (1989): The greenhouse effect and lichens. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 65: 1-5 . https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2065%20Winter%201989.pdf.
35020Laundon J.R. (1989): Literature pertaining to British lichens - 5. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 64: 46-47. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2064%20Summer%201989.pdf.
35019Brightman F. [ed.] (1989): New, rare and interesting lichen records . - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 64: 40-41. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2064%20Summer%201989.pdf.
35018Henderson A. (1989): Approaches to lichen aesthetics 3. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 64: 38-39. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2064%20Summer%201989.pdf.
35017Earland-Bennett P. (1989): Flora Abbey Grovensis. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 64: 37-38. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2064%20Summer%201989.pdf.
35016Anonymus (1989): Book review: Vincent F.W. 1988. Microbial Ecosystems of Anarctic. 304 p.. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 64: 36-37. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2064%20Summer%201989.pdf.
35015Anonymus (1989): Book review: Longton R.E. 1988. Biology of polar bryophytes and lichens. 395 p.. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 64: 36-36. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2064%20Summer%201989.pdf.
35014Henderson A. (1989): Two ethnographic lichen garments. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 64: 31-33. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2064%20Summer%201989.pdf.
35013Guest J. (1989): Further recolonisation of Cheshire by epiphytic lichens. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 64: 29-31. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2064%20Summer%201989.pdf.
35012Rackham O. (1989): Ancient trees and the great storm. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 64: 28-28. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2064%20Summer%201989.pdf.
35011Pope C. (1989): Increase n the population of Fulgensia fulgens on the Isle of Wight. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 64: 26-27. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2064%20Summer%201989.pdf.
35010Coppins B.J. (1989): Neglected habitats: river shingle. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 64: 25-26. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2064%20Summer%201989.pdf.
35009Dobbs G. (1989): Some retrospective waffle. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 64: 21-24. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2064%20Summer%201989.pdf.
35008Fryday A. (1989): Country diary – North East Yorkshire. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 64: 18-21 . https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2064%20Summer%201989.pdf.
35007Seaward M.R.D. (1989): Lichens and historic works of art. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 64: 1-7. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2064%20Summer%201989.pdf.
35006Wright K., Berghe I.V., Sahramaa J. & Suomela J.A. (2023): Colorants detected by HPLC-PDA in textiles from 13th century Lieto Ristinpelto, Finland. - Heritage, 6(2): 1209–1226. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6020067.
Organic colorants of textiles found in the female burial of Lieto Ristinpelto, SW Finland, were analyzed by HPLC-PDA. The textiles’ visible colors varied from different brownish shades to blueish, greenish, and reddish hues. The aim of the chromatographic analysis was to deepen the current understandings of the dyes used in Finland at the transition between the 12th and 13th centuries AD, i.e., at the beginning of the local Medieval period, and to contribute important new information about dyes and clothing from this less-known period of textile history of Finland. The textile finds consisted of a bronze spiral ornamented shawl, an apron tied at the waist, two tablet-woven bands, and a diagonally plaited band with plaited tassels. A unique find was a textile possibly made using the sprang technique. Other textile finds were an orange wool tabby and twill fragments. Analysis of thirty samples from fourteen different textiles indicated that woad colorants were present in most samples, accompanied with lichen compounds, and dyer’s madder was in two visually orange fragments. The visually reddish samples contained luteolin, but no red colorants. Keywords: organic colorants; woad; dyer’s madder; luteolin; unknown orange compounds; HPLC-PDA; wool textiles; Medieval period.
35005Acharius E. (1810): Förteckning pa de i Sverige växande arter af Lafvarnes familj (Fortsättning). - Kongl. Vetenskaps Akademiens Nya Handlingar \ Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [2. ser.], 31[4]: 288–309. .
35004Acharius E. (1810): Förteckning pa de i Sverige växande arter af Lafvarnes familj (Fortsättning). - Kongl. Vetenskaps Akademiens Nya Handlingar \ Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [2. ser.], 31[3]: 209–234. .
35003Hitch C. (1988): Changes in the population of Fulgensia fulgens at Lakenheath Warren over the last 15 years. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 63: 17-19. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2063%20Winter%201988.pdf.
35002Henderson A. (1988): Etymological notes on lichen names. Part 6. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 63: 20-21. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2063%20Winter%201988.pdf.
35001Woods R. (1988): Quaint and curious uses for lichens. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 63: 23-23. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2063%20Winter%201988.pdf.
35000Hawksworth D. & McManus P. (1988): Yet more lichens on trees in the Chelsea physic garden. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 63: 24-25. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2063%20Winter%201988.pdf.
34999Brightman F. [ed.] (1988): New, rare and interesting british lichen records. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 63: 33-34. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2063%20Winter%201988.pdf.
34998Woods R. (1988): Further neglected habitats: heavy metal outliers. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 63: 15-16. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2063%20Winter%201988.pdf.
Vezdaea leprosa, Vezdaea acicularis, Vezdaea rheocarpa, Psilolechia leprosa, Steinia geophana
34997Rose F. (1988): The great storm of 16 October 1987 and its effect on the corticolous lichen flora of South-east England. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 63: 1-8. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2063%20Winter%201988.pdf.
34996Asher O.A., Howieson J. & Lendemer J.C. (2023): A new perspective on the macrolichen genus Platismatia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) based on molecular and phenotypic data. - Bryologist, 126(1): 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-126.1.001.
Lichens in the genus Platismatia are common, widespread and were some of the first to be studied by Western taxonomists. However, few molecular phylogenetic studies of Platismatia have been published to date. We present an expanded phylogeny of Platismatia inferred from 60 newly generated ITS sequences and 28 existing publicly available sequences. The new phylogeny confirms the delimitation of P. wheeleri as monophyletic and distinct from the widespread P. glauca, the latter of which was recovered as two separate, highly supported clades, that do not appear to differ in phenotype or biogeography. The western North American endemics P. herrei and P. stenophylla were not recovered as reciprocally monophyletic and may be an example of recent speciation similar to that also hypothesized for Alectoria in the same region. Ancestral state reconstructions of reproductive modes (dominant asexual vs. sexual reproduction; asexual propagule type) suggest that sexual species like P. tuckermanii can evolve from primarily asexual ancestors. Evaluation of species distributions suggests that reproductive mode may be related to range size. These data suggest that Platismatia could serve as a model for future studies on reproductive mode, biogeography and speciation in lichens. Keywords: asexual reproduction, biodiversity, biogeography, Parmeliaceae, species pairs.
34995Paz-Bermúdez G., Divakar P.K., Etayo J. & Araujo E. (2023): The lichen collection from Angola and Mozambique in COI (Coimbra, Portugal). - Bryologist, 126(1): 19–34. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-126.1.019.
The importance of the COI lichen herbarium is increased by the results shown here. Fortyseven taxa are reported from Africa, forty-three from Angola and seven from Mozambique. Four species are new to Africa, 30 to Angola and 3 to Mozambique. Two species are described as new to science: Parmotrema carballalianum and Sclerococcum parmotrematis, a lichenicolous fungus living on the former. A key to all known lichenicolous species of Sclerococcum growing on Parmelia s.l. is provided. Keywords: Africa, biodiversity, herbaria, new species, Parmotrema, Sclerococcum.
34994Bordenave C.D., García-Breijo F., Gazquez A., Muggia L., Carrasco P. & Barreno E. (2023): Low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM) findings on the ultrastructure of Trebouxia lynnae (Trebouxiophyceae, lichenized microalgae). - Diversity, 15(2): 170 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d15020170.
The lichenized green microalga Trebouxia lynnae Barreno has been recently described and is considered a model organism for studying lichen chlorobionts. Its cellular ultrastructure has already been studied in detail by light, electron, and confocal microscopy, and its nuclear, chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes have been sequenced and annotated. Here, we investigated in detail the ultrastructure of in vitro grown cultures of T. lynnae observed by Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscopy (LTSEM) applying a protocol with minimum intervention over the biological samples. This methodology allowed for the discovery of ultrastructural features previously unseen in Trebouxiophyceae microalgae. In addition, original Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images of T. lynnae were reinterpreted based on the new information provided by LTSEM. The nucleolar vacuole, dictyosomes, and endoplasmic reticulum were investigated and reported for the first time in T. lynnae and most likely in other Trebouxia lineages. Keywords: axenic cultures; low temperature scanning electron microscopy; phycobiont; transmission electron microscopy.
34993Kiliç Yayla S., Kocakaya Z., Karatoprak G.Ş., İlgün S. & Ceylan A. (2023): Analyzing the impact of Ramalina digitellata, R. fastigiata, R. fraxinea, and R. polymorpha's usnic acid concentration on antioxidant, DNA-protective, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic properties. - Chemistry and Biodiversity, 20: e202200816 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202200816.
The present study is focused on the antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic, and DNA protective effects of methanol extract obtained from R. digitellata, R. fastigiata, R. fraxinea, and R. polymorpha species that are distributed in Turkey. The highest total phenol content was determined in R. digitellata (144.6 mgGAE/gextract), and the highest total amount of flavonoids was found in R. fastigiata (20.40 mgGAE/gextract). The content of usnic acid was determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and the highest amount was found in R. digitellata. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2’-azinobis(3-ethylbenzathiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] radical scavenging methods were used for antioxidant activity. R. fraxinea showed the highest DPPH⋅ and ABTS+⋅ scavenging activity. In addition, the DNA protective effect was investigated using pBR322 plasmid DNA, and; all studied species were found to have DNA protective effects. The antibacterial activity was investigated using the disc diffusion method, and the R. digitellata methanol extract showed the best results with a 12.35 mm zone on Proteus mirabilis. On the human lung cancer (A549) and breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell lines, cytotoxic activity was assessed using an MTT assay. All lichen extracts were found to have a significant cytotoxic effect on both cancer cell lines at 1000 μg/mL concentration. These results suggest that Ramalina species may be potential candidates for developing new phytopharmaceuticals and functional components. Keywords: Ramalina, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxicity, pBR322.
34992Chiva S., Bordenave C.D.D., Gázquez A. & Barreno E. (2023): Diplosphaera elongata sp. nova: Morphology and phenotypic plasticity of this new microalga isolated from lichen thalli. - Diversity, 15(2): 168 [20 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d15020168.
Lichen phycobiomes have recently emerged as a source of biodiversity and new species of microalgae. Although in the genus Diplosphaera free-living microalgae are common, numerous strains belonging to this genus have frequently been recognized or isolated from lichen thalli. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the strain Diplosphaera sp. ASUV135, isolated from a lichen thallus, has been carried out using an integrative taxonomic approach. The SSU and nuclear-encoding ITS rDNA, as well as the chloroplast rbcL gene, were sequenced and analyzed to ascertain its taxonomic position and phylogenetic relationships within the genus Diplosphaera. This strain was also analyzed by light, confocal and transmission microscopy for morphological and ultrastructural characterization. The phenotypic plasticity in this strain was also confirmed by changes in its morphology under different growth conditions, as well as those of modulated Chlorophyll a fluorescence emissions, to understand its photosynthetic functioning. Our results pointed out that this strain represents a new taxon within the genus Diplosphaera (Prasiola group), described here as Diplosphaera longate sp. nova. This study also provides tools for future research on organisms with high phenotypic plasticity by using molecular, morphological, ultrastructural and physiological approaches Keywords: description; modulated fluorometry; phycobiome; phylogeny; Stichococcus-like organism; ultrastructures.
34991Singh G. (2023): Linking lichen metabolites to genes: Emerging concepts and lessons from molecular biology and metagenomics. - Journal of Fungi, 9(2): 160 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020160.
Lichen secondary metabolites have tremendous pharmaceutical and industrial potential. Although more than 1000 metabolites have been reported from lichens, less than 10 have been linked to the genes coding them. The current biosynthetic research focuses strongly on linking molecules to genes as this is fundamental to adapting the molecule for industrial application. Metagenomic-based gene discovery, which bypasses the challenges associated with culturing an organism, is a promising way forward to link secondary metabolites to genes in non-model, difficult-to-culture organisms. This approach is based on the amalgamation of the knowledge of the evolutionary relationships of the biosynthetic genes, the structure of the target molecule, and the biosynthetic machinery required for its synthesis. So far, metagenomic-based gene discovery is the predominant approach by which lichen metabolites have been linked to their genes. Although the structures of most of the lichen secondary metabolites are well-documented, a comprehensive review of the metabolites linked to their genes, strategies implemented to establish this link, and crucial takeaways from these studies is not available. In this review, I address the following knowledge gaps and, additionally, provide critical insights into the results of these studies, elaborating on the direct and serendipitous lessons that we have learned from them. Keywords: biosynthetic gene clusters; secondary metabolites; atranorin; grayanic acid; gyrophoric acid; lecanoric acid; physodic/olivetoric acid; usnic acid; lichen metabolites.
34990Randlane T., Tullus T., Saag A., Lutter R., Tullus A., Helm A., Tullus H. & Pärtel M. (2017): Diversity of lichens and bryophytes in hybrid aspen plantations in Estonia depends on landscape structure. - Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 47: 1202–1214. dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2017-0080.
The importance of single-species forest plantations in sustaining biodiversity could be bigger than expected. We described the diversity of lichens and bryophytes in 15 midterm (16- to 17-year-old) hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) plantations in Estonia. Species richness and composition data were linked with environmental and landscape-scale variables. Altogether, 44 lichen and 37 bryophyte species were recorded from plantations; richnesses of bryophytes and lichens were positively correlated. Lichen species composition was significantly affected by landscape-scale parameters (distance to the nearest present forest, distance to the nearest forest continuously occurring in the same place since the 1930s, and forest area in the study plot vicinity in the 1930s). Bryophyte species composition was affected mainly by light conditions and forest area in the 1930s. Among lichens, the sexual crustose species functional group dominated in midterm plantations; appearance of asexual lichens of different growth forms is expected during the next years. Our results indicate the importance of long-term availability of good-quality forests as sources of propagules. Short-rotation hybrid aspen plantations can provide temporary habitats for forest species and thus in part contribute to preserving landscape-scale biodiversity, if they are close to possible colonization sources. Green-tree retention in plantations will probably raise the biodiversity value of those short-term communities. Key words: bryophytes, forest continuity, forest plantations, hybrid aspen, lichens.
34989Kumari M., Kamat S., Singh S.K., Kumar A. & Jayabaskaran C. (2023): Inhibition of autophagy increases cell death in HeLa cells through usnic acid isolated from lichens. - Plants, 12(3): 519 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12030519.
The Western Ghats, India, is a hotspot for lichen diversity. However, the pharmacological importance of lichen-associated metabolites remains untapped. This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of lichens of this region. For this, sixteen macrolichens were collected and identified from two locations in the Western Ghats. The acetone extract of Usnea cornuta (UC2A) showed significant cytotoxicity towards multiple human cancer cell lines. Interestingly, co-treatment with chloroquine (CQ), an autophagy inhibitor, increased the cytotoxic potential of the UC2A extract. A gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) study revealed usnic acid (UA), atraric acid and barbatic acid as the dominant cytotoxic compounds in the UC2A extract. Further, UA was purified and identified from the UC2A extract and evaluated for cytotoxicity in HeLa cells. The monodansyl cadaverine and mitotracker red double staining revealed the autophagy-inducing activities of UA, and the inhibition of autophagy was confirmed via CQ treatment. Autophagy inhibition increased the cytotoxicity of UA by 12–16% in a concentration-dependent manner. It also increased lipid peroxidation, ROS levels and mitochondrial depolarization and decreased glutathione availability. A decrease in zeta potential and a 40% increase in caspase 3/7 activity were also noted after CQ treatment of UA-treated cells. Thus, cytotoxicity of UA can be increased by inhibiting autophagy. Keywords: Western Ghats; macrolichens; autophagy; apoptosis; cytotoxicity; usnic acid (UA); HeLa; secondary metabolites.
34988Acharius E. (1810): Förteckning pa de i Sverige växande arter af Lafvarnes familj (Fortsättning). - Kongl. Vetenskaps Akademiens Nya Handlingar Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [2. ser.], 31[2]: 137–159. .
34987Anderson J., Caron F., Beckett P., Spiers G.A., Lévesque N., Charbonneau G.M., Halvorson B., Dufour H. & Lock A. (2022): Distribution of metals and radionuclides in the lichens Cladonia rangiferina and C. mitis from the past uranium mining region of Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada. - Heliyon, 8(12): e11863 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e11863.
The present study was performed in the Elliot Lake area (Ontario, Canada), a site of uranium mining and milling for nearly 40 years between 1950’s and 1990’s. Although mining activities ceased in the mid-1990’s, the site hosts several tailings management areas (TMAs) which are under ongoing rehabilitation and monitoring. Several surveys using lichens as a biomonitoring tool were completed in the 1980s and the 1990s to assess the levels of contaminants. The present survey aimed to re-visit the historical surveys, and to determine the current status of environmental recovery of the area. Our survey consisted of sampling two lichen species, Cladonia rangiferina and C. mitis, in an area covering up to 50 km from the former mining operation and the TMAs. The results reported in this work indicated that the levels of metals and radionuclides, diagnostic of mining operations, have decreased over time: particularly, the U, Th and Pb levels in both lichen species dropped by about two orders of magnitude by the 2020's compared to the 1980’s. Likewise, the Cs-137 levels in both lichen species reflect present day global background. The study provides a new set of present-day regional baseline elemental concentrations for other metals that are associated with mining (Cd, As, Ti, Cs). Finally, there were weak but statistically significant differences in the levels of some elements (U, Th, Cd) between the two lichens, suggesting these two species might have different capture mechanisms or retention abilities. Keywords: Natural radionuclides; Artificial radionuclides; Terricolous lichens; Environmental recovery; Historical mining; Metal contamination.
34986Freire-Rallo S., Wedin M., Diederich P. & Millanes A.M. (2023): To explore strange new worlds – The diversification in Tremella caloplacae was linked to the adaptive radiation of the Teloschistaceae. - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 180: 107680 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2022.107680.
Lichenicolous fungi are a heterogeneous group of organisms that grow exclusively on lichens, forming obligate associations with them. It has often been assumed that cospeciation has occurred between lichens and lichenicolous fungi, but this has been seldom analysed from a macroevolutionary perspective. Many lichenicolous species are rare or are rarely observed, which results in frequent and large gaps in the knowledge of the diversity of many groups. This, in turn, hampers evolutionary studies that necessarily are based on a reasonable knowledge of this diversity. Tremella caloplacae is a heterobasidiomycete growing on various hosts from the lichen-forming family Teloschistaceae, and evidence suggests that it may represent a species complex. We combine an exhaustive sampling with molecular and ecological data to study species delimitation, cophylogenetic events and temporal concordance of this association. Tremella caloplacae is here shown to include at least six distinct host-specific lineages (=putative species). Host switch is the dominant and most plausible event influencing diversification and explaining the coupled evolutionary history in this system, although cospeciation cannot be discarded. Speciation in T. caloplacae would therefore have occurred coinciding with the rapid diversification – by an adaptive radiation starting in the late Cretaceous – of their hosts. New species in T. caloplacae would have developed as a result of specialization on diversifying lichen hosts that suddenly offered abundant new ecological niches to explore or adapt to. Keywords: Fungi; Tremellales; Cophylogeny; Species delimitation methods; Coevolution; Dating.
34985Osyczka P., Chowaniec K. & Skubała K. (2023): Membrane lipid peroxidation in lichens determined by the TBARS assay as a suitable biomarker for the prediction of elevated level of potentially toxic trace elements in soil. - Ecological Indicators, 146: 109910 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2023.109910.
• Cladonia rei can serve as a model lichen for soil trace element pollution monitoring. • Membrane lipid peroxidation level serves as an early warning indicator of pollution. • Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay is applicable for pollution prediction. • The assessment could be applied to a wide post-industrial landscape scale. The use of biomarkers defined as measurable biological parameters at the sub-organism level in which structural or functional changes indicate the presence of pollutants is a promising approach to identify affected sites. The aim of the study was to test the suitability of the level of membrane lipid peroxidation in the widespread epigeic lichen Cladonia rei for the assessment of soil pollution and to develop an effective method to recognise elevated concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements in soil. We collected lichen and soil substrate samples from variously polluted sites and determined the level of membrane lipid peroxidation in the thalli using the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Based on the concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cd and As in the soil samples, we calculated the Pollution Load Index (PLI) for particular sampling sites to consider the combined effect of several toxic elements. The model of relationships between TBARS concentrations and PLI revealed that membrane lipid peroxidation does not increase linearly with PLI value, which suggests that above a certain threshold, oxidative stress induced activation of defence aimed at counteracting deleterious effects. We observed that if PLI exceeded the value of 100, the concentrations of TBARS were markedly increased and did not drop below 30 nmol g−1 DW. On the other hand, in lichen samples collected at sites with PLI < 10, TBARS concentrations were lower and as a rule did not exceed 25 nmol g−1 DW. Therefore, we concluded that the effect of soil pollution on membrane lipid peroxidation in the thalli of C. rei can be used in passive soil quality biomonitoring, according to the principle that an increased level of membrane lipid peroxidation is predictive for increased concentrations of elements in the host substrate. Given that this species has not been analysed in detail for the use of biomarkers, this study establishes a baseline and supports practicable use of TBARS concentrations in lichens as biomarkers.
34984Corapi A., Gallo L. & Lucadamo L. (2023): Simulation of drift depositional rate of the fungicide fosetyl and its effects on non-vascular plants: Study case of the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. - Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 84: 73–84. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-022-00973-0.
The epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea was exposed to a simulation of drift deposition rate of the fungicide Fosetyl-Al in an indoor controlled environment by testing two exposure factors: pesticide concentrations (based on the application rates of 4 kg ha−1 and 1.6 kg ha−1) and drop sizes (anti-drift nozzle: 386–484 μm; non-anti-drift nozzle: 159–231 μm) for a total of four treatments. Drift for higher application rate was simulated once and that for the lower one twice to reproduce agricultural practices. Following fungicide spraying, we measured the concentration of Fosetyl and phosphonic acid in lichen thalli, and the response of ecophysiological status parameters. No trace of Fosetyl was quantifiable 4 days after each treatment, being detected only phosphonic acid whose concentrations stayed substantially unchanged for the whole duration of the experiment (40 days) and resulting affected by application rate and not by drop size. Both pesticide concentrations caused a remarkable harmful effect that, however, was statistically significant vs control group only starting from the 20th day of stay in the climatic chamber. The drift associated with the higher rate resulted, on average, to be 83% more effective, with the most affected parameters being membrane integrity, lipid peroxidation and photosynthetic pigments. Because the selected lower rate can be considered a quite low value when compared with the rank of used rates for crop protection, the Fosetyl-Al formulate is classifiable as hazardous for its effect on non-target organisms.
34983Etayo J., Sancho L.G. & Pino-Bodas R. (2023): Taxonomic and phylogenetic approach to some Antarctic lichenicolous fungi. - Mycological Progress, 22: 9 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-022-01860-7.
This study was focused on lichenicolous fungi from the Antarctic region whose diversity is not yet well known. The sampling was carried out in the maritime Antarctica, South Shetland Islands, Livingston Island, during a trip in 2018. In total, more than one hundred species of lichenicolous fungi were collected, of which a selection has been studied here. The remaining species will be studied in future papers. As a result of our morphological and molecular studies (based on ITS rDNA, LSU rDNA, and mtSSU), three new species are proposed: Arthonia olechiana on Steinera olechiana, Sphaeropezia neuropogonis on Usnea, and Sphinctrina sessilis on Pertusaria excludens. Moreover, the new combinations Bryostigma excentricum on Lepraria and Raesaenenia usneae on Usnea are also proposed. Keywords: Ascomycota . Acremonium . Arthonia . Bryostigma . Mycota . Protothelenella . Raesaenenia . Sphaeropezia . Sphinctrina.
34982Roturier S., Picard J., Cogos S. & Spataro T. (2023): Influence of prescribed burning on reindeer winter pastures at landscape scale in northern Sweden: A modelling approach. - Ambio, 52: 453–464. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-022-01805-0.
Whilst the re-introduction of fire can contribute to biodiversity conservation in Fennoscandian forests, the effects on reindeer herding remain uncertain. To assess the short- and long-term effects of prescribed burning on lichen supply in a productive forest landscape, we developed a model simulating lichen biomass available for reindeer grazing, covering 300 years and 1500 pine stands, under different soil preparation scenarios, including different prescribed burning regimes and mechanical scarification. Our simulations revealed that burning 25–50% of yearly clear-cuts has the potential to stop, or even reverse, reindeer lichen decline at landscape scale after 70 years, greatly surpassing the short-term losses caused by burning. No burning or burning 5% of yearly clear-cuts, as required by the FSC certification, compounded the negative effects of fire suppression and scarification on lichen. Compared to the scenario with no soil preparation, all our simulations resulted in a continuous decrease of lichen supply in Lichen-type stands, indicating that any form of disturbance in these habitats can strongly limit future gains. Keywords: Cladonia; Fire; Forest Stewardship Council; Forestry; Rangifer; Reindeer herding.
34981Hagenberg L.W.C., Vanneste T., Opedal Ø.H., Petlund H.T., Björkman M.P., Björk R.G., Holien H., Limpens J., Molau U., Graae B.J. & De Frenne P. (2022): Vegetation change on mountaintops in northern Sweden: Stable vascular-plant but reordering of lichen and bryophyte communities. - Ecological Research, 37: 722–737. https://doi.org/10.1111/1440-1703.12359.
Alpine ecosystems harbor remarkably diverse and distinct plant communities that are characteristically limited to harsh, and cold climatic conditions. As a result of thermal limitation to species occurrence, mountainous ecosystems are considered to be particularly sensitive to climate change. Our understanding of the impact of climate change is mainly based on vascular plants however, whereas cryptogams (i.e., lichens and bryophytes) are generally neglected or simply considered as one functional group. Here we aimed to improve our understanding of the drivers underlying temporal changes in vegetation of alpine ecosystems. To this end, we repeatedly surveyed the vegetation on four mountain summits along an elevational gradient in northern Sweden spanning a 19-year period. Our results show that the vascular plant communities remained relatively stable throughout the study period, despite fluctuations in terms of ground cover and species richness of shrubs and graminoids. In contrast, both lichens and bryophytes substantially decreased in cover and diversity, leading to alterations in community composition that were unrelated to vascular plant cover. Thermophilization of the vascular plant community was found only on the two intermediate summits. Our findings are only partially consistent with (long-term) climate-change impacts, and we argue that local non-climatic drivers such as herbivory might offset vegetation responses to warming. Hence, we underline the importance of considering local non-climatic drivers when evaluating temporal vegetation change in biologically complex systems. Keywords: alpine vegetation, climate change impact, ecosystem change, lichens and bryophytes, non-climatic drivers.
34980Mallen-Cooper M., Ding J. & Eldridge D.J. (2022): Contrasting effects of vegetation cover and site condition on biocrust communities in subhumid drylands. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 33(6): e13161 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvs.13161.
Questions: Biocrusts perform critical functional roles in drylands, where they are regulated predominantly by differences in climate and soils. We asked whether biocrust cover and composition differ among sites of varying vegetation cover and condition. Location: Subhumid drylands in the Namoi Region, eastern Australia. Methods: We assessed the effects of different vegetation strata (trees, shrubs, groundcover) and site vegetation condition (index of quality based on vascular plant richness, and the proportion of perennial and native vascular plants) on the cover, richness and composition of biocrust communities at 43 sites in semi-arid eastern Australia. Results: Woody plant cover at our sites was negatively related to biocrust cover and richness, but there was only a weak relationship between groundstorey plant cover and biocrusts, suggesting that woody plants are not facilitating biocrusts in this environment. Conversely, greater site condition was strongly associated with richer and more extensive biocrust communities, likely driven by a common response to livestock grazing intensity. There was also a significant multivariate association between biocrust composition and vegetation condition. For example, sites of poorer condition were occupied by generalist taxa, typically short mosses and squamulose lichens, while sites in better condition were characterised by a richer assemblage that included foliose and fruticose lichens, and taller, disturbance-sensitive mosses. Conclusions: Our study provides empirical evidence of the negative relationship between woody plant cover and biocrusts (amensalism), and the filtering effect of vegetation condition on different biocrust taxa. Predicted drier climates could enhance biocrust dominance by suppressing woody plant growth, while intensified land-use disturbances are likely to filter biocrust specialists such as fruticose and foliose lichens that are associated with sites in better condition.
34979Pulat S., Subedi L., Pandey P., Bhosle S.R., Hur J.-S., Shim J.-H., Cho S.-S., Kim K.-T., Ha H.-H., Kim H. & Park J.W. (2023): Topical delivery of atraric acid derived from Stereocaulon japonicum with enhanced skin permeation and hair regrowth activity for androgenic alopecia. - Pharmaceutics, 15(2): 340 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15020340.
Atraric acid (AA) is a phenolic compound isolated from Stereocaulon japonicum that has demonstrated anti-androgen properties and was used to design an alternative formulation for the treatment of alopecia. This new topical formulation was designed using a solvent mixture system composed of ethanol as a volatile vehicle, oleic acid as a permeation enhancer, and water for skin hydration. The ideal topical AA formulation (AA–TF#15) exhibited an 8.77-fold higher human skin flux and a 570% increase in dermal drug deposition, compared to 1% (w/w) AA in ethanol. In addition, compared to other formulations, AA–TF#15 (1% [w/w] AA) activated keratinocytes and human dermal papilla cell proliferation at a concentration of 50 µM AA, which is equivalent to 50 µM minoxidil. Moreover, AA–TF#15 treatment produced a significant increase in hair regrowth by 58.0% and 41.9% compared to the 1% (w/w) minoxidil and oral finasteride (1 mg/kg)-treated mice. In addition, AA–TF#15 showed a higher expression level of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1, β-catenin, cyclin D1, and pyruvate kinase M2 proteins in the skin of AA–TF#15-treated mice compared to that of those treated with minoxidil and oral finasteride. These findings suggest AA–TF#15 is an effective formulation for the treatment of scalp androgenic alopecia. Keywords: atraric acid; topical delivery; skin penetration; dermal papilla cell proliferation; androgenic alopecia; hair regrowth,
34978Loeanurit N., Tuong T.L., Nguyen V.-K., Vibulakhaophan V., Hengphasatporn K., Shigeta Y., Ho S.X., Chu J.J.H., Rungrotmongkol T., Chavasiri W. & Boonyasuppayakorn S. (2023): Lichen-derived diffractaic acid inhibited dengue virus replication in a cell-based system. - Molecules, 28(3): 974 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28030974.
Dengue is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes 21,000 deaths annually. Depsides and depsidones of lichens have previously been reported to be antimicrobials. In this study, our objective was to identify lichen-derived depsides and depsidones as dengue virus inhibitors. The 18 depsides and depsidones of Usnea baileyi, Usnea aciculifera, Parmotrema dilatatum, and Parmotrema tsavoense were tested against dengue virus serotype 2. Two depsides and one depsidone inhibited dengue virus serotype 2 without any apparent cytotoxicity. Diffractaic acid, barbatic acid, and Parmosidone C were three active compounds further characterized for their efficacies (EC50), cytotoxicities (CC50), and selectivity index (SI; CC50/EC50). Their EC50 (SI) values were 2.43 ± 0.19 (20.59), 0.91 ± 0.15 (13.33), and 17.42 ± 3.21 (8.95) μM, respectively. Diffractaic acid showed the highest selectivity index, and similar efficacies were also found in dengue serotypes 1–4, Zika, and chikungunya viruses. Cell-based studies revealed that the target was mainly in the late stage with replication and the formation of infectious particles. This report highlights that a lichen-derived diffractaic acid could become a mosquito-borne antiviral lead as its selectivity indices ranged from 8.07 to 20.59 with a proposed target at viral replication. Keywords: dengue virus; depside; depsidone; diffractaic acid; drug discovery.
34977Piscová V., Ševčík M., Sedlák A., Hreško J., Petrovič F. & Slobodová T. (2023): Resistance of lichens and mosses of regenerated alpine communities to repeated experimental trampling in the Belianske Tatras, northern Slovakia. - Diversity, 15(2): 128 [25 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d15020128.
Due to the destruction of alpine ecosystems by extreme human trampling, some alpine areas are closed to tourists. After years of regeneration, a tendency toward reopening these areas for tourism is envisaged. Although numerous studies have documented vegetative responses to trampling disturbance, research that thoroughly examines the trampling impacts on the vegetation at different organizational levels is often limited. Most of the previous studies on the human disturbance of vegetation focused on the impacts on vascular plants, while the impacts on lichens or mosses are less well-documented. To understand how regenerated communities respond to further trampling disturbance, we repeated the experimental research on short-term trampling after 14 years in three high-altitude communities in the Tatras in northern Slovakia. According to Cole and Bayfield’s protocol, we evaluated the resistance of communities trampled in 2008 and 2022, with a focus on groups of lichens and mosses and their individual species. This research brings new knowledge regarding the different behaviors of regenerated vegetation, especially lichens and mosses, to trampling disturbance. The results show that human trampling in alpine communities has a large negative impact and, therefore, management plans should discourage off-trail hiking and limit recreational activities in sensitive or reopened alpine areas. Keywords: lichens; mosses; resistance; regenerated community; human trampling; alpine vegetation; Tatras Mts.
34976Ureña-Vacas I., González-Burgos E., Divakar P.K. & Gómez-Serranillos M.P. (2023): Lichen depsides and tridepsides: Progress in pharmacological approaches. - Journal of Fungi, 9(1): 116 [32 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9010116.
Depsides and tridepsides are secondary metabolites found in lichens. In the last 10 years, there has been a growing interest in the pharmacological activity of these compounds. This review aims to discuss the research findings related to the biological effects and mechanisms of action of lichen depsides and tridepsides. The most studied compound is atranorin, followed by gyrophoric acid, diffractaic acid, and lecanoric acid. Antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activities are among the most investigated activities, mainly in in vitro studies, with occasional in silico and in vivo studies. Clinical trials have not been conducted using depsides and tridepsides. Therefore, future research should focus on conducting more in vivo work and clinical trials, as well as on evaluating the other activities. Moreover, despite the significant increase in research work on the pharmacology of depsides and tridepsides, there are many of these compounds which have yet to be investigated (e.g., hiascic acid, lassalic acid, ovoic acid, crustinic acid, and hypothamnolic acid). Keywords: depsides; tridepsides; pharmacological activities; lichens.
34975Gamage C.D.B., Kim J.-H., Yang Y., Taş İ., Park S.-Y., Zhou R., Pulat S., Varlı M., Hur J.-S., Nam S.-J. & Kim H. (2023): Libertellenone T, a novel compound isolated from endolichenic fungus, induces G2/M phase arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy by activating the ROS/JNK pathway in colorectal cancer cells. - Cancers, 15(2): 489 [24 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15020489.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most deadly type of cancer in the world and continuous investigations are required to discover novel therapeutics for CRC. Induction of apoptosis is one of the promising strategies to inhibit cancers. Here, we have identified a novel compound, Libertellenone T (B), isolated from crude extracts of the endolichenic fungus from Pseudoplectania sp. (EL000327) and investigated the mechanism of action. CRC cells treated by B were subjected to apoptosis detection assays, immunofluorescence imaging, and molecular analyses such as immunoblotting and QRT-PCR. Our findings revealed that B induced CRC cell death via multiple mechanisms including G2/M phase arrest caused by microtubule stabilization and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Further studies revealed that B induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) attributed to activating the JNK signaling pathway by which apoptosis and autophagy was induced in Caco2 cells. Moreover, B exhibited good synergistic effects when combined with the well-known anticancer drug, 5-FU, and another cytotoxic novel compound D, which was isolated from the same crude extract of EL000327. Overall, Libertellenone T induces G2/M phase arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy via activating the ROS/JNK pathway in CRC. Thus, B may be a potential anticancer therapeutic against CRC that is suitable for clinical applications. Keywords: CRC; Libertellenone T; G2/M phase arrest; apoptosis; autophagy; ROS/JNK signaling.
34974Westberg M., Owe-Larsson B. & Arup U. (2023): Halecania pannarica new to Sweden. - Graphis Scripta, 35(1): 1–3. https://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/35_1/GS_35_1.pdf.
Halecania pannarica is reported for the first time in Fennoscandia from the provinces of Dalsland, Närke, Jämtland, Värmland and Västergötland in Sweden. It was found to contain pannarin rather than pannaric acid which was reported in the protologue.
34973Iqbal M.S., Usman M., Habib K. & Khalid A.N. (2023): Oxneriaria pakistanica sp. nov. (Megasporaceae, Pertusariales, Ascomycota) from Darel Valley, Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan. - Phytotaxa, 579(2): 125–131. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.579.2.6.
A new species in Megasporaceae, Oxneriaria pakistanica is described and illustrated from Pakistan. A comparative morpho– anatomical study and ITS–based molecular analyses confirmed its position within the recently resurrected genus, Oxneriaria. The taxon has non-zonate thallus, epruinose, distinctly areolate, 0.5–1.8 mm wide areole, grey to whitish grey at upper surface, prothallus absent, 0.1–2 mm in diameter apothecia, taller hymenium 100–155 μm, deeper hypothecium 90–170 μm, broadly ellipsoid to sub-spherical ascospores 10–18 × 7–10 μm size and chemistry unknown substance detected. Its forms a separate branch in the phylogenetic tree and also distinct from the other known taxa of the genus. Oxneriaria pakistanica sp. nov appeared to be a sister specie to Oxneriaria rivulicola. A detailed comparison and a key to all taxa of Oxneriaria is also given. Keywords: Aspicilia, Circinaria, Lobothallia, Megaspora, Systematics.
34972McCarthy P. (2022): New and interesting species of Opegrapha (Ascomycota, Opegraphaceae) from eastern Australia . - Australasian Lichenology, 91: 3-17. .
Three species of Opegrapha Ach. are described as new. The sympatric O. australis and O. oraria occur on coastal siliceous rocks in eastern Victoria and southern New South Wales, both having thin, pale and inconspicuous thalli, with short, narrow, mostly sessile black lirellae with a basally closed, largely carbonized proper excipulum, a shallow, non-inspersed hymenium and Varia-type asci. However, the former has (3–)5-septate ascospores 12–18 × 2.5–4.5 μm, while those of O. oraria are mostly 3-septate and 12–18 × 3–6 μm. Opegrapha howeana, from sheltered basalt in lowland, subtropical forest in Lord Howe Island, has a thin, delicately rimose, greenish grey thallus, elongate and simple to sparingly branched, adnate to subsessile lirellae with rounded or truncate ends, a slit-like disc and a closed excipulum base, broad asci, mainly 7-septate ascospores, 24–36 × 5.5–9 μm, most with enlarged median cells and a distinct perispore. Two other species, O. diaphoriza Nyl. and O. spodopolia Nyl., are reported for the first time from rocky seashores in southern New South Wales, the latter also in eastern Victoria.
34971McCarthy P. (2022): Additional lichen records from Australia 89. Acanthothecis consocians (Nyl.) Staiger & Kalb. - Australasian Lichenology, 91: 68-72. .
Acanthothecis consocians (Graphidaceae) is reported for the first time from Australia. Previously known from tree bark elsewhere in the eastern Palaeotropics, the species was collected on the twig of a rainforest tree in Christmas Island, an Australian territory in the north-eastern Indian Ocean.
34970McCarthy P. (2022): Gyrographa fecunda (Roccellaceae), a new saxicolous lichen from New South Wales, Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 91: 56-59. .
Gyrographa fecunda sp. nov. (Roccellaceae) is described from rhyolite in eastern New South Wales. It has a pale to medium greyish brown, minutely areolate thallus containing gyrophoric acid, very small adnate to subsessile ascomata with a lirelliform to contorted-gyrose disc, a blackish lateral excipulum, a dark hypothecium and 3-septate ascospores.
34969Gueidan C. & Elix J. (2022): Synonymy in species of Trapelia (lichenized Ascomycota, Trapeliaceae) from Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 91: 22-37. .
Species of the genus Trapelia are notoriously variable and difficult to identify. Although previous taxonomic studies have taken advantage of molecular data to confirm the placement and delimitation of species, most Australian taxa, including the recently described T. atrocarpa, T. terrestris and T. rosettiformis, have not been the subject of molecular study. Here, ITS sequences were generated for 11 species of Trapelia occurring in Australia and integrated to a dataset of mostly European Trapelia taxa. As a result, due to poor phylogenetic and morphological differentiations, synonymies are proposed for the three species T. atrocarpa (syn. T. terrestris), T. pruinosa (syn. T. rosettiformis) and T. placodioides (syns T. thieleana and T. occidentalis). Together with a few Welsh T. elacista specimens, T. atrocarpa is found to be closely related to T. elacista. A key to the nine Trapelia species currently accepted from Australia is provided.
34968Glenny D. & Mosimann J. (2022): Additional lichen records from New Zealand 52. Xanthoparmelia dayiana (Elix & P.M.Armstr.) Elix & J.Johnst. (Parmeliaceae). - Australasian Lichenology, 91: 66-67. .
Xanthoparmelia dayiana, previously known only from Australia and Réunion Island, is reported from Banks Peninsula, Canterbury, New Zealand.
34967Elvebakk A. (2022): Pannaria microphyllizans (Nyl.) P.M.Jørg. from New Zealand restudied and compared with P. athroophylla (Stirt.) Elvebakk & D.J.Galloway and the three new species Pannaria cassa, P. kantvilasii and P. wrightiorum. - Australasian Lichenology, 91: 38-55. .
Pannaria microphyllizans, a previously misunderstood species, is shown here to have gibbose perispores with long-tailed apical extensions, and to lack TLC-detectable chemistry. It is related to P. athroophylla, a species with different phyllidia, a chemistry of isovicanicin and leprolomin, and spores of the same type but differing in several details. The latter has been too widely interpreted in New Zealand, because there are two more previously undescribed phyllidiate taxa. Pannaria wrightiorum contains vicanicin, leprolomin and scabrosin esters, has short phyllidia and characteristic spore details. Pannaria kantvilasii has the same chemistry, but distinctly different spores, revealing a position within the P. leproloma group. Pannaria cassa, a third new species described here, is primarily fertile and is related to P. microphyllizans, having the same chemistry and spore type. Apart from P. kantvilasii, the taxa dealt with here belong to the same group within Pannaria as the South American P. patagonica. The phyllidiate species in the group develop characteristic prothalli that recruit lichenized thallus fragments. The species dealt with here are probably widespread in New Zealand, although their distributions are insufficiently known. Pannaria wrightiorum is strikingly common on Campbell Island, and P. kantvilasii also occurs in Tasmania.
34966Elix J. & Mayrhofer H. (2022): Two new species of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from South Africa . - Australasian Lichenology, 91: 18-21. .
Buellia subarnoldii Elix & H.Mayrhofer and Tetramelas africanus Elix & H.Mayrhofer, from South Africa, are described as new to science
34965Elix J. (2022): A new Cratiria (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) with triseptate ascospores from Papua New Guinea. - Australasian Lichenology, 91: 63-65. .
The saxicolous Cratiria buloloensis Elix, from Papua New Guinea, is described as new to science.
34964Elix J. (2022): A new lichenicolous species of Cratiria (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from north Queensland, Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 91: 60-62. .
Cratiria cinnamomea Elix, a lichenicolous species with 1-septate Cratiria-type ascospores, bacilliform conidia and containing norstictic and cinnamomeic acids, is described as new to science.
34963Park J., Sun E., Woo J., Han S. & Oh S. (2022): Diversity and species distribution of lichens in Gwangneung Forest. - Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity, 15(4): 613-622. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japb.2022.04.008.
Gwangneung Forest is a forest area that has been in existence for more than 550 years with a long history of natural and artificial forests in harmony. Lichens are not only a single organism but also a group of basic organisms formed from a stable symbiotic association between a fungus and algae and/or cya- nobacteria. They are closely associated with forests and have formed an axis through Gwangneung Forest. From 2016 to 2021, a survey was conducted to investigate the lichen flora distribution by species, focusing on the viewing area within the Korea National Arboretum and the undisclosed research area centered in the Suribong Peak area. As a result of collecting and identifying 246 specimens, 68 species of lichens were identified in 11 orders, 22 families, and 39 genera. The tree with the largest number of lichens was Koelreuteria paniculata, followed by Sophora japonica, Ginkgo biloba, and Malus sieboldii. In trees belonging to Aceraceae, crustose lichens rather than foliose lichens were mainly found. Through this survey, three unreported species were discovered: Lepraria cupressicola, Leprocaulon nicholsiae, and Graphis pinicola. Lepraria cupressicola and Leprocaulon nicholsiae were distributed throughout the arbo- retum viewing area and Graphis pinicola was identified only in one viewing area. Gwangneung Forest, Lichen, Phylogenic analysis, Taxonomy
34962Kumar V., Joseph S., Sharma Y. & Nayaka S. (2022): An annotated catalogue of the lichenicolous fungi of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, India with new records and identification key. - Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity, 15(4): 527-540. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japb.2022.05.004.
This article enumerates 72 species of lichenicolous fungi belonging to 21 families and 43 genera from Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh. The study is based on published literature and specimens recently collected from some localities of Kishtwar High Altitude National Park, Jammu and Kashmir. Four species viz., Bachmanniomyces santessonii Etayo, Intralichen lichenum (Diederich) D. Hawksw., and M.S. Cole, Milospium graphideorum (Nyl.) D. Hawksw., and Roselliniella oxyspora Matzer and Hafellner are reported as new to India, while Milospium and Roselliniella are new generic records. Brief descriptions of the newly recorded species are presented. The geographical distribution, host lichens, and key to all the species of lichenicolous fungi presently known from Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh are also provided. Biodiversity, Lichen parasites, Taxonomy, Western Himalaya
34961Otero A., Barcenas-Peña A., Lumbsch H.T. & Grewe F. (2023): Reference-based RADseq unravels the evolutionary history of polar species in ‘the Crux Lichenogorum’ genus Usnea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota). - Journal of Fungi, 9(1): 99 [20 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9010099.
Nearly 90% of fungal diversity, one of the most speciose branches in the tree of life, remains undescribed. Lichenized fungi as symbiotic associations are still a challenge for species delimitation, and current species diversity is vastly underestimated. The ongoing democratization of Next-Generation Sequencing is turning the tables. Particularly, reference-based RADseq allows for metagenomic filtering of the symbiont sequence and yields robust phylogenomic trees of closely related species. We implemented reference-based RADseq to disentangle the evolution of neuropogonoid lichens, which inhabit harsh environments and belong to Usnea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota), one of the most taxonomically intriguing genera within lichenized fungi. Full taxon coverage of neuropogonoid lichens was sampled for the first time, coupled with phenotype characterizations. More than 20,000 loci of 126 specimens were analyzed through concatenated and coalescent-based methods, including time calibrations. Our analysis addressed the major taxonomic discussions over recent decades. Subsequently, two species are newly described, namely U. aymondiana and U. fibriloides, and three species names are resurrected. The late Miocene and Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary is inferred as the timeframe for neuropogonoid lichen diversification. Ultimately, this study helped fill the gap of fungal diversity by setting a solid backbone phylogeny which raises new questions about which factors may trigger complex evolutionary scenarios. Keywords: next-generation sequencing; lichen-forming fungi; phylogenomics; systematics; species delimitation; species complex.
34960Etayo J. & López de Silanes M.E. (2022): Algunas novedades de líquenes y hongos liquenícolas de Aragón [Some new records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Aragón]. - Nova Acta Científica Compostelana (Bioloxía), 29: 1–8. https://doi.org/10.15304/nacc.id7720.
Seven species of lichens (two of them lichenicolous) and 18 of lichenicolous fungi have been collected in the surroundings of Albarracín mountains. Nineteen are recorded for the first time from Teruel province and eleven from Aragón. Feltgeniomyces luxemburgensis, with only three world records is a first Iberian record. Keywords: Feltgeniomyces; mycoflora; Spain; taxonomy; Teruel.
34959Berger F. & Zimmermann E. (2022): Additions and corrections to Berger et al. (2020): Species of Pronectria and Xenonectriella on Physciaceae. – Xenonectriella on Heterodermia. - Herzogia, 35(2): 687–688. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.2.2022.687.
This short notice contains corrections to Xenonectriella on Heterodermia. X. aurantica has to be deleted from the checklist of Madeira and X. angulospora to be added instead. Heterodermia has to be deleted from the host list of X. physciacearum.
34958Berger F. & Zimmermann E. (2022): Lichenicole Pilze auf Menegazzia in Europa, drei neue Ascomyceten und ein Schlüssel. - Herzogia, 35(2): 636–655. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.2.2022.636.
Didymocyrtis menegazziae sp. nov., Opegrapha menegazziae sp. nov., Pronectria menegazziae sp. nov., lichenicolous on Menegazzia terebrata and M. subsimilis are described as new; additionally, Stigmidium menegazziae ad int. is sketched. A key to all known lichenicolous taxa on Menegazzia in Europe is presented. Key words: Didymocyrtis, Merismatium nigritellum, Opegrapha, Pronectria, Stigmidium, new species.
34957Dittrich S., Lang R., Albrecht M., Stetzka K. & von Oheimb G. (2022): Vertical distribution of cryptogamic epiphytes on trees in central German alluvial hardwood forests: relevance for bioindication and nature conservation. - Herzogia, 35(2): 443–461. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.2.2022.443.
Epiphyte surveys are often limited to the lower trunk sections of the host trees. This largely overlooks species that occur preferentially in tree crowns. Considering the vertical distribution patterns of epiphytic mosses and lichens in alluvial hardwood forests, such surveys would be incomplete and their results would differ from whole-tree surveys. This would be particularly critical with respect to surveys of the overall species diversity of such forest stands, assessments of their worthiness for protection, and for bioindication (e.g., the influence of climate change). In the present study, performed in the largest protected complex of alluvial forests in central Germany, we examined 20 sample trees wind-thrown and broken in recent storm events. Here epiphyte communities were recorded section-wise from the trunk base to the outer tree crown. 75 % of the epiphytic lichens were confined to the crown and upper trunk parts, while 30 % of the bryophyte taxa were restricted to the tree crowns and another 30 % were found only on the lower trunk and the trunk base. For both lichens and bryophytes, species of conservation concern were observed only in the tree crowns, as were most indicator species for climate warming. Using Ellenberg indicator values, we also found significant differences in moisture and light conditions, substrate reaction, continentality, and nutrient supply across the different tree sections. Thus, whole-tree samplings for bryophytes and lichens, especially in alluvial hardwood forests, yield much more accurate and sophisticated results about epiphyte diversity and ecological conditions than conventional lower-trunk surveys. Key words: climate change, tree canopies, flooding.
34956El Mokni R. & Clerc P. (2022): First record of Usnea stipitata (lichenized Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae) for the African lichenoflora. - Herzogia, 35(2): 682–686. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.2.2022.682.
Usnea stipitata (lichenized Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae) is here recorded to continental Africa from Tunisia for the first time. Notes on its habitat, ecology, distribution and conservation status in Tunisia are given. Original photographs together with a key of main distinguishing features of the two species of the Usnea cornuta aggregate known from North Africa are also provided. Keywords: Lecanoromycetidae, macrolichens, new records, oak forests.
34955Zhurbenko M.P. (2022): Endococcus grumantianus sp. nov. (Ascomycota, Verrucariales) from Svalbard, with a key to Endococcus species growing on terricolous lichens. - Herzogia, 35(2): 656–663. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.2.2022.656.
Endococcus grumantianus, a pyrenomycete growing on the lichen Steinia geophana as part of the soil crust, next to cyanobacteria, is described as new to science from the arctic tundra of Svalbard. The species is characterized by well-developed periphysoids, and verruculose, mainly heteropolar, relatively large ascospores, (14−)16−21(−27.5) × (6−)7.5−9.5(−11) μm, usually with one, but occasionally with 2−3 septa, which is an exception in this genus. A key for 14 Endococcus species growing on terricolous lichens is provided. Key words: Arctic, biological soil crusts, key, parasites, taxonomy, Verrucariaceae.
34954van den Boom P.P.G. & Elix J.A. (2022): New records of buellioid (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) and Rinodina lichens (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from the Caribbean and Ecuador. - Herzogia, 35(2): 630–635. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.2.2022.630.
We report 18 species in the genera Amandinea, Buellia, Orcularia and Rinodina, recorded from several areas in the Neotropics, including Bonaire, Curaçao and Saint Lucia in the Caribbean and Ecuador from continental South America. The new combination Amandinea yaucoensis (Vain.) Elix & van den Boom is proposed. Keywords: Biodiversity, lichenized Ascomycota, Caliciaceae, Physciaceae, taxonomy.
34953Poengsungnoen V., Meethong U., Buaruang K., Boonpragob K. & Lumbsch H.T. (2022): New records of corticolous and foliicolous lichens from Thailand. - Herzogia, 35(2): 621–629. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.2.2022.621.
Seven species of corticolous and foliicolous lichens are recorded for the first time for Thailand. Four species are new to Asia: Acanthotrema brasilianum, Cruentotrema amazonum, Microtheliopsis uniseptata, and Ocellularia petrinensis. Asteristion cupulare is new to Southeast Asia, whereas Fellhanera semecarpi and Phylloblastia mucronata are new to Thailand. The genera Acanthotrema and Phylloblastia have not previously been reported from Thailand. The total number of lichen species known from Thailand is now 1,410. The main diagnostic characters and distributions of the new records are discussed and illustrations provided. Keywords: Ascomycota, diversity, South-east Asia, taxonomy, tropical biodiversity.
34952Burgaz A.R., Márquez R. & Pino-Bodas R. (2022): The Cladoniaceae (Lecanorales, Ascomycota) from Bulgaria. - Herzogia, 35(2): 510–540. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.2.2022.510.
A study of the Cladoniaceae has been carried out in Bulgaria, based on new collections from 61 different localities. Thirty five species were found (34 Cladonia and 1 Pycnothelia species), seven of which are new records to Bulgaria, Cladonia asahinae, C. conista, C. cyathomorpha, C. diversa, C. magyarica, C. novochlorophaea and C. peziziformis. As a result of this study the total number of Bulgarian Cladoniaceae species rises to 55, belonging to two genera, Cladonia and Pycnothelia. Our study provided a more comprehensive distribution range and chemical variation for each species in Bulgaria. A new chemotype is described for C. rangiformis, containing atranorin, fumarprotocetraric, psoromic, rangiformic and norrangiformic acids. This one is rarer than the other chemotypes of the species. Phylogenetic analyses based on ITS rDNA, IGS rDNA and rpb2 were carried out to confirm the identity of C. magyarica in Bulgaria. Additionally, ITS rDNA of other species was also sequenced to confirm the identifications. A new key to all the Cladoniaceae taxa known from Bulgaria is included. Key words: Lichenized Ascomycota, Bulgarian mycota, ITS rDNA, Lecanorales, macrolichens, Mediterranean region, secondary metabolites.
34951Fayyaz I., Afshan N., Iftikhar F., Rehman Niazi A. & Khalid A.N. (2022): A new species of the lichen genus Buellia (lichenized Ascomycota, Caliciaceae) from Pakistan. - Herzogia, 35(2): 613–620. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.2.2022.613.
Buellia densipruinosa from the Himalayan moist temperate forest in Pakistan is described as new to science. nrITS sequences confirm its position within the genus Buellia and, together with its morphology and chemistry, suggest its distinction from other species of this genus. The taxon is characterized by a gray to grayish black thallus, plane to slightly concave apothecia, 1.5–3 mm wide with a pruinose disc, a hymenium 90–150 μm high, 1-septate ascospores, 7.3‒12 × 3‒4.5 μm, and by presence of 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid and atranorin as the major substances. Keywords: Lichen diversity, lichenized fungi, phylogenetic studies.
34950Himelbrant D., Stepanchikova I., Andreev M., Korolev K., Konoreva L., Chesnokov S. & Petrenko D. (2022): New and noteworthy lichenized and lichen associated fungi from the Kaliningrad region (former Ostpreußen). - Herzogia, 35(2): 475–493. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.2.2022.475.
New and noteworthy records from lichenological fieldwork conducted in 2020 in the southeastern part of the Kaliningrad region (former Ostpreußen) are presented, mainly from Vishtynetsky Nature Park. Altogether 33 species are new to the Kaliningrad region, including Zwackhia sorediifera new to Russia. Lecidella subviridis is new to European Russia outside of the Caucasus. Twelve species, which are rare or protected in the region, are also treated. Most lichen species, also rare and threatened ones, were reported in old-growth broadleaved, mixed spruce-broadleaved, and black alder forests, as well as old-growth broadleaved alleys. In Vishtynetsky Nature Park, pine forests and bogs are also rich in lichens, including rare species and taxa which in neighbouring countries are classified as associated with forests of high conservation value. Protected sites play an important role in maintaining the natural habitats and the biodiversity of the Kaliningrad region, however, many valuable forests are still threatened by logging and deserve protection. Key words: old-growth forests, Rominten Forest, East Prussia, Baltic region.
34949Schiefelbein U., Knudsen K. & Malíček J. (2022): Revision von Belegen der Flechtengattungen Acarospora, Lecanora und Ramalina aus dem einstigen Privatherbarium von Ludwig Meinunger. - Herzogia, 35(2): 462–466. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.2.2022.462.
Specimens of the genus Acarospora as well as of Lecanora hybocarpa, L. sinuosa and Ramalina baltica from the former private herbarium of Ludwig Meinunger were revised. The here published specimens of Acarospora intermedia are the first records for the German landscape units Mecklenburgisches Rückland (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern), Main- Tauber-Gebiet (Bavaria) und Vogtland (Thuringia). The occurrences of Acarospora gallica, A. rugulosa and Lecanora sinuosa in Thuringia were confirmed. Lecanora hybocarpa is to be deleted from the Thuringian checklist. Acarospora nitrophila and Ramalina baltica are classified as doubtful in Thuringia. Keywords: lichen diversity, records, collections, Germany, Thuringia, Bavaria, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.
34948Kaltenböck M., Hafellner J., Malíček J. & Mayrhofer H. (2022): A contribution to the diversity of lichens and lichenicolous fungi in North Macedonian mountainous areas. - Herzogia, 35(2): 541–563. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.2.2022.541.
A field trip was carried out in summer 2017 with emphasis on mountain peak sites in six mountain ranges of North Macedonia: Kajmakčalan, Korab, Kožuf, Mokra Planina, Pelister, and Šar Planina. The fieldwork resulted in an output of c. 1200 samples. 419 taxa were identified, including 123 lichens, 17 lichenicolous fungi, and one non-lichenized fungus that are all new for the country. Sixteen lichens are new for the Balkan Peninsula: Allocetraria madreporiformis, Aspicilia supertegens, Caloplaca tetraspora, Epilichen scabrosus, Euopsis pulvinata, Kiliasia nordlandica, Koerberiella wimmeriana, Lecanora viridiatra, Lecidea speirodes, Miriquidica atrofulva, Placynthium dolichoterum, Protoblastenia aurata, P. terricola, Pyrenopsis sanguinea, Sporodictyon cruentum, Verrucaria transfugiens, and three lichenicolous fungi: Arthonia circinata, A. stereocaulina and Cercidospora melanophthalmae. An updated bibliography is presented. Key words: Balkan Peninsula, biodiversity, subalpine and alpine belts, mountain peak sites.
34947Seaward M.R.D. & Amrani S. (2022): Checklist of lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Morocco. - Herzogia, 35(2): 564–612. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.2.2022.564.
The lichen flora of Morocco has been the subject of two relatively recent checklists; that of Egea published in 1996 included 1,100 taxa, which was increased to 1,211 in 2013 by Ajaj and his collaborators. As a result of recent field-work, a detailed survey of herbarium catalogues, and the significant number of changes in nomenclature that have occurred since these two publications, an updated checklist consisting of 1287 taxa (1237 lichens and 50 lichenicolous and allied fungi) was necessary.
34946 Muchnik E.E, Tsurykau A., Otte V., Breuss O., Gerasimova J.V. & Cherepenina D.A. (2022): New and otherwise noteworthy records of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from central European Russia II. - Herzogia, 35(2): 494–509. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.2.2022.494.
Records of fifteen species of lichenized and ten species of lichenicolous fungi are presented. Lecanora substerilis, Rufoplaca subpallida, Sarcogyne praetermissa and Verrucaria fuscoatroides are reported as new for Russia. Didymocyrtis epiphyscia s. lat., Epithamnolia longicladoniae, Lecanora barkmaniana and Sclerococcum epicladonia are new for the European part of Russia, and Arthonia phaeophysciae, Bacidina mendax, Cladonia novochlorophaea, Gyalecta carneola, Lichenoconium aeruginosum and Verrucaria pilosoides are new for central European Russia. A further nine species (Cliostomum corrugatum, Gyalecta derivata, Lichenoconium lecanorae, Micarea soralifera, Physciella chloantha, Taeniolella phaeophysciae, Talpapellis beschiana, Telogalla olivieri, Verrucaria ochrostoma) were rarely observed in central European Russia previously. Short notes on the characters and the geographic distribution of the species are provided. Key words: lichens, allied fungi, European part of Russia, distribution.
34945Chen R., Tan X., Zhang Y., Chen H., Yin B., Zhu X. & Chen J. (2023): Monitoring rainfall events in desert areas using the spectral response of biological soil crusts to hydration: Evidence from the Gurbantunggut Desert, China. - Remote Sensing of Environment, 286: 113448 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2022.113448.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are essential biotic components in desert ecosystems, yet they are vulnerable to climate change, especially changes in precipitation. Unfortunately, the scarcity and unreliable performance of mainstream precipitation products in desert regions has prevented further research on the responses of desert ecosystems to climate change scenarios. By taking advantage of the spectral sensitivity of biocrusts to hydration, this study aims to examine the potential to monitor rainfall events using the spectral response of biocrusts. First, BRDF harmonization enhanced the rainfall-induced spectral response. Then, a detectability analysis was performed to clarify how influential factors affect the spectral response. Finally, a random forest (RF) model was developed to derive the temporal dynamic and spatial pattern of detectable rainfall events. The results show that rainfall events induce significant changes in biocrust spectra, especially within some spectral bands (i.e., SWIR, Red, and Blue) and indices (i.e., BSCI and NDVI). A rainfall event is detectable if the precipitation amount is >6 mm and recorded by satellites within 24 h. The RF model performs better (F1 score = 0.78) than the mainstream precipitation products (F1 score between 0.19 and 0.52) in temporal monitoring. Additionally, the model can delineate the spatial pattern of rainfall events well. These findings imply that this phenomenon has great potential for application in rainfall monitoring in desert areas, which could greatly contribute to understanding the mechanisms of desert ecological processes on a large scale. Keywords: Biological soil crusts ; Rainfall events ; Spectral response ; Desert ecosystem ; Hydration.
34944Devkota S., Fang W., Arunachalam K., Phyo K.M.M. & Shakya B. (2023): Systematic review of fungi, their diversity and role in ecosystem services from the Far Eastern Himalayan Landscape (FHL). - Heliyon, 9: e12756 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e12756.
Fungi are morphologically and ecologically diverse kingdom but less explored in the global perspective. This systematic review of mainly higher fungi (mushrooms) and lichenized fungi (lichens) was aimed to convey comprehensive knowledge on these understudied taxa, especially considering diversity, research trends, taxonomic/geographic knowledge gaps, and their contribution to ecosystem services. We investigated literature from the Far Eastern Himalayas and adjacent areas. We followed the PRISM (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) framework for the evidence synthesis and reporting. Search strings were used to explore literature both in English and Chinese databases. Publications were validated examining the title, locality, abstract and full text. We included 75 eligible studies after screening 12,872 publications. The result on species diversity extrapolated from literature was consolidated as a species checklist and published on the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) portal. This review demonstrates a significant shortage of research work on fungi, and a lack of quantitative data on diversity, ecology, and ecosystem services. Mycological inventories with multidisciplinary perspectives are urgent in the Landscape to better understand the importance of fungi in conservation and sustainable development science. This review is especially useful when global environmental and climate concerns are focused on the use of nature-based solutions, and fungi as integral part of all ecological processes, could play important role in enhancing ecosystem services and therefore benefits coming to people as natural solutions. Keywords: Evidence synthesis ; Wild mushrooms ; Lichens ; Indigenous local knowledge (ILK) ; Fungus based tourism.
34943Trubina M.R., Mikhailova I.N. & Dyachenko A.P. (2022): Dynamics of communities of cryptogamic organisms on dead wood after reduction of the emissions from a copper smelter. - Russian Journal of Ecology, 53(6): 437–447. DOI: 10.1134/S1067413622060169.
[Original Russian text published in Ekologiya, 2022, No. 6, pp. 421–429] The dynamics of the species composition of mosses and lichens on the dead wood of fir and spruce in the southern taiga forests of the Middle Urals after the almost complete cessation of emissions from the Middle Urals copper smelter (Revda, Sverdlovsk region) was studied. Compared to the period of high emissions (1993–1994), the number of moss species in the immediate vicinity of the plant (1–2 km) increased from 1 to 27 by 2019, and the number of lichen species increased from 1 to 30. Nevertheless, the species richness of mosses and lichens remains reduced compared to that of the background territory, and the species composition differed significantly: many species typical for the background territory were absent, and species specific to the impaired territory were present. In polluted habitats, the proportion of species with predominantly sexual reproduction was higher. Keywords: sulfur dioxide, heavy metals, mosses, lichens, epixylous communities, natural recovery, dynamics, recolonization, reproductive strategies, Middle Urals.
34942Concostrina-Zubiri L., Berdugo M., Valencia E., Mendoza B.J. & Maestre F.T. (2022): Decomposition of dryland biocrust‑forming lichens and mosses contributes to soil nutrient cycling. - Plant and Soil, 481: 23–34. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-022-05481-7.
Background and aims: Biocrusts are major contributors to dryland nutrient cycling by regulating C, N and P inputs and fuxes. However, our understanding about how the decomposition of biocrust constituents contributes to soil nutrient cycling in drylands is virtually unknown. Methods: We conducted a microcosm experiment to: i) evaluate the litter decomposition dynamics of two common biocrust-forming species with contrasting tissue chemistry and growth form (the lichen Cladonia foliacea and the moss Syntrichia caninervis), and ii) their effects on several soil variables related to soil functioning. Results: Cladonia litter decomposed gradually with time (92% total mass loss after 342 days), while Syntrichia litter decomposed much faster (92% total mass loss after 62 days, with no further losses until the end of the experiment at 342 days). We observed species-specifc effects of their litter on dissolved organic N (DON) and NH4+ depending on collection time, which changed the efects of litter decomposition on DON and pH regardless of the biocrust species considered. Overall, biocrust litter had a positive effect on SOC, DON, NH+4 and acid phosphatase activity. Conclusions: Our experimental results show that decomposition of biocrust tissues plays an important role in soil nutrient cycling, indicating that this process impacts the fertility and functioning of dryland soils. Keywords: Soil fertility · Microbial activity · Soil pH · Cladonia foliacea · Syntrichia caninervis.
34941Muchnik E.E. & Blagoveschenskaya E.Yu. (2022): Distribution of epiphytic lichens along a tree’s trunk. - Russian Journal of Ecology, 53(6): 448–455. DOI: 10.1134/S106741362206011X.
[Original Russian Text published in Ekologiya, 2022, No. 6, pp. 430–437] A study of the trunks of spruce and birch trees after a windblow on the territory of the Zvenigorod Biological Station of Moscow State University and the Sima Quarry Nature Reserve (Moscow oblast) was carried out. The diversity of epiphytic lichens depending on height of the trunk was studied. It is shown that the position on the tree trunk significantly affects the number of identified lichen species, which increases monotonously with height. Both spruce and birch trees are characterized by a high non-matching diversity of lichen biota in the lower and upper parts of the trunk (and especially in the crown). The complex of the dominant lichen species was changing throughout trunks examined. It is noted that the finds of Bryoria and Usnea spp. protected in the Moscow oblast are concentrated in the upper part of the trunks. Keywords: lichen biota, biodiversity, height gradient, coniferous-deciduous forests, spruce, birch, protected species, Moscow oblast.
34940González Argüello G., Filippini E. & Machado A.S. (2023): Morpho‑anatomical variations of Parmotrema pilosum (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) in fragmented forests of central Argentina: relationship between forest cover and distance to crops. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 30: 1795–1805. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-22241-3.
Forest vegetation is key for bufering microclimatic factors and regulating atmospheric deposition. Epiphytic lichens are sensitive to these factors and can indicate the overall health status of the ecosystem. Specifcally, the analysis of morphoanatomical variations allows us to understand the degree of tolerance or sensitivity of these organisms exposed to agricultural crops and how vegetation might bufer this response. We analyzed variations in vegetative and reproductive characters and injuries in thalli of Parmotrema pilosum as a response to distance to crops and forest cover. The study was conducted in forest patches of the Espinal in central Argentina, an ecosystem threatened by agricultural activity. We selected 10 sites with diferent forest cover areas and two collection points difering in distance to crops: sites adjacent to (0 m) and far from (150 m) crops. We collected fve thalli from each collection point and analyzed variations in morpho-anatomical characters at macro- and microscopic levels. We found a lower number of algae and a higher proportion of simple cilia in individuals at points adjacent to crops. At points with low forest cover, a thinner upper cortex was observed, whereas at points with greater forest cover, an increase of necrosis and greater presence of apothecia were detected. Bleaching was the most frequent injury at sites adjacent to crops, decreasing with increasing forest cover. Conservation and reforestation of Espinal forest patches would promote the propagation of lichens afected by agricultural practices. Keywords: Espinal · Bleaching · Necrosis · Upper cortex · Forest vegetation, Agricultural.
34939Zulfiqar Z., Asghar H.S., Habib K. & Khalid A.N. (2023): Two new species of the genus Oxneriaria (lichenized Ascomycota: Megasporaceae) from Pakistan. - Plant Systematics and Evolution, 309: 2 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-022-01836-w.
Two new species of the lichen genus Oxneriaria are discovered in Pakistan, namely Oxneriaria iqbalii and O. kohistaniensis. Oxneriaria iqbalii is characterized by its non-radiating peripheral areoles, indistinct prothallus, 0.3–0.8 mm apothecial disc, bigger ascospores (20–26×10–14 µm) and conidia (15–30×c. 0.5 µm), whereas Oxneriaria kohistaniensis can be characterized by peripherally non-elongated areoles, indistinct prothallus, simple paraphyses, smaller ascospores (15–20×9–12 µm) and chemistry (cryptostictic acid and 2’-O-methysulphurellin) as lichen substances. Sequences of nrITS and nrLSU region of newly reported species nested as separate taxa in phylogenetic analyses of current study. This is the frst report of the genus Oxneriaria from the country. Keywords: Khyber; Pakhtunkhwa; Phylogeny; Swat; Taxonomy.
34938Rosentreter R. & DeBolt A. (2023): Lichens as an indicator of sea-level rise. - Evansia, 39(4)[2022]: 162–168. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-39.4.162.
Coastal areas around the globe are threatened with sea-level rise (SLR). Many of these areas support coastal forests, and determining the threat is complicated by wind patterns and sea floor and shoreline variability, beyond simple elevational concerns. Lichens can be used as indicators of SLR at site specific locations. Developing vegetative indicators of SLR could assist land managers, municipalities, and homeowners in evaluating the risk of building homes, roads, and other structures in some locations. The absence of salt sensitive lichen species can be an indicator of SLR potential. We base this on lichen distribution patterns within two Florida state parks – one a barrier island, the other on the nearby mainland. Rapidly colonizing lichen taxa with asexual reproductive structures are poor indicators of SLR, because of their ability to quickly recolonize following storm events and other disturbances. Knowledge of lichen distribution patterns in combination with reproductive traits help facilitate the development of lichen indicator guidelines. We have learned that Coccocarpia palmicola, Dirinaria picta, and Heterodermia albicans do not appear to be salt-tolerant but have abundant asexual propagules and recolonize rapidly. Sites lacking salt sensitive lichens such as Bulbothrix laevigatula, Cryptothecia rubrocincta, Leptogium cyanescens and Parmotrema rampoddense could indicate areas that are at high risk to SLR at a fine scale. Such areas should be avoided for the construction of homes, roads, and other structures. Lichens make good indicator species and could help guide management of coastal areas in Florida and much of the U.S. southeast Coastal Plain. Key words. Florida, coastal lichens, salt sensitive, climate change, reproductive traits.
34937Slack N. & Phillips T. (2023): A. LeRoy Andrews, and a history of the A. LeRoy Andrews Foray. - Evansia, 39(4)[2022]: 169–176. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-39.4.169.
This paper presents a history of the A. LeRoy Andrews Foray, a review of the life of A. LeRoy Andrews, and highlights of selected Forays and the reports of Foray participants. Key words. A. LeRoy Andrews, A. LeRoy Andrews Foray, bryophyte and lichen collectors.
34936Giardi L. (2021): Une espèce de lichen nouvelle pour la région méditerranéenne française : première observation documentée de Cladonia rei Schaer., 1823 dans les Pyrénées-Orientales. - Carnets botaniques, 62: 1–2. https://doi.org/10.34971/1h5x-7k73.
A species of lichen new to the French Mediterranean region: first documented observation of Cladonia rei Schaer., 1823 in the Pyrénées-Orientales. [in French with English abstract: ] A population of Cladonia rei Schaer., 1823 has been discovered in the Pyrénées-Orientales in March 2021. It’s a new species for the department, the region Occitanie and the French Mediterranean region. The following text resumes its description and its ecology, its known distribution and the description of the discovered station.
34935Cannon P., Thüs H., Aptroot A., Coppins B., Orange A., Sanderson N. & Simkin J. (2022): Caliciales: Physciaceae, including the genera Anaptychia, Heterodermia, Hyperphyscia, Mischoblastia, Phaeophyscia, Physcia, Physciella, Physconia, Rinodina and Tornabea. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 24: 1–37. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/Physciaceae%201.pdf.
34934Cannon P., Malíček J., Ivanovich C., Printzen C., Aptroot A., Coppins B., Sanderson N., Simkin J. & Yahr R. (2022): Lecanorales: Lecanoraceae, including the genera Ameliella, Bryonora, Carbonea, Claurouxia, Clauzadeana, Glaucomaria, Japewia, Japewiella, Lecanora, Lecidella, Miriquidica, Myriolecis, Palicella, Protoparmeliopsis, Pyrrhospora and Traponora. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 25: 1–83. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/Lecanoraceae.pdf.
34933Pino-Bodas R., Sanderson N., Cannon P., Aptroot A., Coppins B., Orange A. & Simkin J. (2022): Lecanorales: Cladoniaceae [revision 1], including the genera Cladonia, Pilophorus and Pycnothelia. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 26: 1–45. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/Cladoniaceae%20rev%201.pdf.
34932Cannon P., Orange A., Aptroot A., Sanderson N., Coppins B. & Simkin J. (2022): Lecanorales: Pilocarpaceae, including the genera Aquacidia, Byssoloma, Fellhanera, Fellhaneropsis, Leimonis and Micarea. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 27: 1–48. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/Pilocarpaceae_0.pdf.
34931Cannon P., Aptroot A., Coppins B., Orange A., Sanderson N. & Simkin J. (2022): Lecanorales: Psoraceae, including the genera Brianaria, Protoblastenia, Protomicarea and Psora. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 28: 1–11. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/Psoraceae.pdf.
34930Cannon P., Aptroot A., Coppins B., Orange A., Sanderson N. & Simkin J. (2022): Lecanorales: Tephromelataceae, including the genera Calvitimela, Mycoblastus, Tephromela and Violella. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 29: 1–10. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/Tephromelataceae.pdf.
34929Cannon P., Fryday A., Svensson M., Wedin M., Aptroot A., Coppins B., Orange A., Sanderson N. & Simkin J. (2022): Lecanorales: Sphaerophoraceae, including the genera Bunodophoron, Gilbertaria and Sphaerophorus. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 30: 1–7. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/Sphaerophoraceae.pdf.
34928Walton J.K. & Hutten M. (2022): Field trip report. - Evansia, 39(3): 138–139. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-39.3.138.
Short report on two bryological/lichenological field trips organized during ABLS meeting in Anchorage, Alaska in July 2022.
34927Acharius E. (1809): Förteckning pa de i Sverige växande arter af Lafvarnes familj (Fortsättning). - Kongl. Vetenskaps Akademiens Nya Handlingar Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [2. ser.], 31[1]: 66–75. .
34926Malíček J. (2022): Lišejníky přírodní rezervace Ptačí stěna v Blanském lese [Lichens of Ptačí stěna Nature Reserve in the Blanský les Mts]. - Bryonora, 70: 1-14. .
The Blanský les Mts are a small and poorly studied mountain range in South Bohemia (Czech Republic). This contribution describes the lichen diversity in one of the protected forest reserves in the area, Ptačí stěna Nature Reserve (20.53 ha, alt. 735–875 m). It is mainly covered by natural beech and scree forests of up to 200 years old. Granulite rocks and scree are abundant in the upper part of the area, but mostly shaded by the forest. In total, 156 lichen species and three non-lichenised fungi have been recorded in the reserve. Aspicilia laevata, Dirina fallax, Lecidella anomaloides, L. asema and Verrucaria acrotella are the most remarkable records of saxicolous lichens. Bacidia rosella, Gyalecta fagicola, Micarea herbarum, Schismatomma pericleum, Varicellaria hemisphaerica and Zwackhia viridis belong to the most valuable records of epiphytic (or epixylic) lichens. Three unidentified, possibly undescribed saxicolous taxa of the genera Lecidella, Sagedia and Sarcogyne are briefly discussed. Identifications of nine species are supported by molecular ITS and/or mtSSU data. beech forest, biodiversity, granulite, old-growth forest, Sagedia, scree forest
34925Acharius E. (1809): Förteckning pa de i Sverige växande arter af Lafvarnes familj (Fortsaettning). - Kongl. Vetenskaps Akademiens Nya Handlingar \ Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [2. ser.], 30[3]: 145–169. .
34924Acharius E. (1809): Förteckning pa de i Sverige växande arter af Lafvarnes familj. - Kongl. Vetenskaps Akademiens Nya Handlingar \ Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [2. ser.], 30[2]: 97–102. .
34923Acharius E. (1808): Förteckning pa de i Sverige växande arter af Lafvarnes familj (Fortsaettning) . - Kongl. Vetenskaps, Akademiens Nya Handlingar Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [2. ser.], 29[4]: 259–283. .
34922Man M., Malíček J., Kalčík V., Novotný P., Chobot K. & Wild J. (2022): DaLiBor: Database of Lichens and Bryophytes of the Czech Republic. - Preslia, 94: 579–605. https://doi.org/10.23855/preslia.2022.579.
Digital data on the distribution of species are crucial for vegetation studies, monitoring and nature protection. Despite the existence of databases, the majority of bryophyte and lichen occurrences in the Czech Republic are not widely available in a standard and machinereadable form. Therefore, we created a Database of Lichens and Bryophytes (DaLiBor; https://dalibor.ibot.cas.cz) under Creative Commons license (CC-BY-SA). DaLiBor provides an infrastructure for recording standardizing, validating and enhancing data, e.g. neural network record classification. The database is also a tool for sharing and analysing records. Here, a descriptive analysis of 596,935 DaLiBor records, composed of 473,690 (79.4%) bryophytes and 123,245 (20.6%) lichens, is presented. There are bryophyte records for the whole Czech Republic, but there are no lichen records for large areas. The records of the spatial distribution of bryophytes and lichens in the Czech Republic were evaluated, which confirmed the importance of protected areas for biodiversity. There were more records of epiphytic and epixylic species at high elevations than of saxicolous and terricolous species, which are mainly recorded at lowelevations. Fagus sylvatica was the tree with the highest number of recorded taxa for both bryophytes and lichens. The highest number of records, including Red-listed species, originates from natural beech and managed coniferous forests. Three cases that benefited from DaLiBor standardized data are presented: (i) the species distribution model helped find six new localities for Dicranum majus and Polytrichastrum alpinum within a single field visit; (ii) analysis of bryophyte and lichen species abundances in time revealed a high percentage of acidophilous species and spread of nitrophilous species in current bryophyte and lichen communities; (iii) DaLiBor is the main source of data for the online interactive Atlas of Czech lichens (https://dalib.cz). Keywords: biodiversity, bryophytes, epiphytic lichens, eutrophication, Fagus sylvatica, habitat suitability, lichenized fungi, nature protection, occurrence database, species distribution model.
34921Boom P. (2021): Foliicolous lichens and their lichenicolous fungi in Macaronesia and atlantic Europe. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 111: 1–197. ISBN 978-3-443-58090-2.
Based on extensive fieldwork and herbarium- and literature study a survey is presented of the diversity of lichens and lichenicolous fungi on leaves and conifer needles in Macaronesia and atlantic Europe (Norway, Denmark, the British Isles, The Netherlands, Belgium, France, Spain and Portugal). Altogether 150 species were recognized, of which 109 are crustose, including 38 obligately- and 71 facultatively foliicolous, 29 are macrolichens and 12 are lichenicolous fungi. After introductory chapters keys, descriptions, distribution and taxonomic discussions for all species, and illustrations for 96 species are given. Eight lichen species (Arthonia portuensis, Bacidina aeruginosa, B. piceae, Bryostigma lapalmae, Fellhanera azorica, F. subnaevia, F. subparvula, Micarea epiphylla) and two lichenicolous fungi (Nectriopsis bacidinae, Opegrapha hyperphysciae) are newly described.
34920Kammann S., Schiefelbein U., Dolnik C., Mikhailyuk T., Demchenko E., Karsten U. & Glaser K. (2023): Successional development of the phototrophic community in biological soil crusts on coastal and inland dunes. - Biology, 12: 58 [26 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12010058.
(1) Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are microecosystems consisting of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms growing on the topsoil. This study aims to characterize changes in the community structure of biocrust phototrophic organisms along a dune chronosequence in the Baltic Sea compared to an inland dune in northern Germany. (2) A vegetation survey followed by species determination and sediment analyses were conducted. (3) The results highlight a varying phototrophic community composition within the biocrusts regarding the different successional stages of the dunes. At both study sites, a shift from algae-dominated to lichen- and moss-dominated biocrusts in later successional dune types was observed. The algae community of both study sites shared 50% of the identified species while the moss and lichen community shared less than 15%. This indicates a more generalized occurrence of the algal taxa along both chronosequences. The mosses and lichens showed a habitat-specific species community. Moreover, an increase in the organic matter and moisture content with advanced biocrust development was detected. The enrichment of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the different biocrust types showed a similar relationship. (4) This relation can be explained by biomass growth and potential nutrient mobilization by the microorganisms. Hence, the observed biocrust development potentially enhanced soil formation and contributed to nutrient accumulation. Keywords: algae; biocrusts; coastal dunes; lichen; moss; nutrient content; phototroph community composition; successional stages.
34919Vondrák J., Svoboda S., Malíček J., Palice Z., Kocourková J. & Hofmeister J. (2022): Popelka princeznou – výjimečná druhová bohatost lišejníků v dlouho osídlené střední Evropě. - Živa, 2022(6): 293–297. .
Po ukončení průzkumu Týřova, kde bylo pořízeno 6,5 tisíce nálezových dat, měla bezmála třetina druhů (225) pouze jeden nález a zhruba polovina druhů (384) jeden až tři nálezy. U dalších 233 druhů jsme zaregistrovali 4–10 a u pouhých 170 více než 10 nálezů. Z toho plyne, že většina lišejníků se v území nachází vzácně, což potvrzuje obecně známou skutečnost, že vzácnost je v přírodě přirozenou a velmi rozšířenou vlastností (viz např. Vesmír 2009, 12: 784–787). Je to až pozoruhodné, že tolik druhů mělo po intenzivním průzkumu území tak málo záznamů, a naskýtá se otázka, zda jde o nové přistěhovalce nebo o reliktní a možná vymírající populace (blíže v Živě 2015, 2: 59–61). Na to neznáme jistou odpověď, získali jsme však představu, že lokální vzácnost každého druhu je vlastností spíše dočasnou, nikoli trvalou. Druhy, které jsou dnes na Týřově vzácné, tam mohly být hojné někdy v minulosti a některé zase budou hojné v budoucnosti. S tím souvisí i lokální vymírání a imigrace nových druhů. V tomto dynamickém poje- tí se můžeme na vzácné lišejníky dívat nejen jako na ochranářsky významnou skupinu pro její vzácnost, ale také jako na funkčně významnou skupinu s potenciálem poskytovat dominantní druhy do budoucích společenstev. Mnohé lišejníky patřící k nejvzácnějším na Týřově, a zároveň k velmi vzácným ve střední Evropě, tvoří dominanty společenstev v jiných oblastech světa. Tak např. nápadně zbarvená drobnovýtruska žlutá (Pleopsidium flavum, obr. 7) s jedi- ným výskytem na Týřově a s hrstkou lokalit v Čechách udává barevný ráz celých skalnatých krajin v některých kontinentálních oblastech Evropy a Asie. Dynamika vzácnosti a hojnosti druhů nevyhnutelně souvisí s postupnými proměnami jejich stanovišť. Týřov je dnes území s naprostou převahou lesů, ale ješ- tě nedávno tomu tak nebylo. Na svazích kolem hradu Týřov bylo udržováno bez- lesí přinejmenším od dob jeho vzniku ve 13. století a nejspíše i po jeho opuštění v 16. století extenzivní pastvou až do začátku 20. století. Rovněž údolí Úpořského potoka i okolní kopce byly v 19. století do značné míry odlesněny a sloužily jako pastviny (obr. 12). Prudké svahy nad Berounkou podléhaly větší erozi a byly skalnatější než dnes. Drobnější skalní útvary, krčící se dnes v zástinu lesa, výrazně vystupo- valy z bezlesé krajiny. Dá se tedy předpokládat, že mnohé dnes vzácné saxikolní lišejníky měly na Týřově v dřívějších do- bách o dost větší výběr útočišť. Podobně tomu zřejmě bylo i s terikolními lišejníky (vyskytujícími se na půdě) vázanými na stepní bezlesí. Je dost pravděpodobné, že mnohé vzácné saxikolní a terikolní druhy zde již vyhynuly vlivem postupné expan- ze lesa a zastínění vhodných stanovišť. Je otázkou, jaký byl vývoj v případě epi- fytických lišejníků. Přestože lesní porosty Týřova jsou podle porostních map maximálně 150 let staré, řadu nalezených epi- fytů lze považovat za „pralesní druhy“, tedy s vazbou na přestárlé či odumřelé stromy a jejich mikrostanoviště (např. dutiny, hlu- boké zářezy v borce, místa se zvětralou nebo omšelou borkou). Takové stromy jsou zpravidla starší, což se ukázalo i v případě Týřova (zatím nepublikovaná data). Znamená to, že tyto stromy už musely být přítomny v někdejší bezlesé krajině 18. a 19. století. Dobová malba (obr. 13) poukazuje na přítomnost stromů v převážně otevřené krajině parkového charakteru. Dokonce je viditelné jejich obhospodařo- vání ořezem větví, takže solitérní stromy i jejich skupiny zde mohly dlouhodobě přežívat a vytvářet pokroucené a všemožně zraňované kmeny se spoustou mikro-stanovišť pro vzácné lišejníky. Když uvážíme vlhké mikroklima Úpořského údolí a přítomnost přestárlých osvětlených kme- nů, získáme patrně velmi vhodnou kombi- naci podmínek vyhovujících rozsáhlému spektru epifytů. Z toho lze vyvodit, že tradičně kulturní bezlesá krajina mohla poskytovat mnohým nyní vzácným druhům vhodnější podmínky, než mají dnes v uzavřených lesních porostech Týřova. Jednotlivé nálezy těch nejvzácnějších lišejníků, např. kryptovek (Gyalecta spp.) a poprášenek (Sclerophora spp.), tak mohou být pozůstatky rozsáhlejších populací z dob tradiční otevřené krajiny.
34918Ossowska E.A., Kosecka M., Jaskólska J. & Kukwa M. (2022): Two taxa of the genus Sticta (Peltigerales, Ascomycota), S. andina and S. scabrosa subsp. scabrosa, new to Bolivia confirmed by molecular data. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 67(2): 45–54. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2022-0006.
The first records of Sticta andina and S. scabrosa subsp. scabrosa from Bolivia are presented. All records are confirmed by molecular data. Sticta andina has flattened, marginal isidia and phyllidia with abundant, submarginal apothecia, while tomentum is dark brown to black, whereas, S. scabrosa subsp. scabrosa has marginal and laminal phyllidia and pale to dark, grey tomentum. Two Bolivian specimens of the latter possess sparse, marginal to laminal apothecia, which previously have not been observed in this species. The haplotype network indicates that the S. andina specimens from Bolivia have three haplotypes, two of which are different from those previously reported. In the case of S. scabrosa subsp. scabrosa, two haplotypes were found, of which one is newly reported. A distribution map of Sticta species confirmed for Bolivia is presented. Key words: lichens, lichenized fungi, Peltigeraceae, Lobarioideae, nucITS rDNA, distribution, haplotype network.
34917Zhurbenko M.P. (2022): Atronectria thelotrematis (Sordariomycetes), a remarkable new pyrenomycete on Thelotrema lepadinum from Chile, with a key to the lichenicolous fungi growing on Thelotrema. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 67(2): 34–39. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2022-0004.
Atronectria thelotrematis, a lichenicolous pyrenomycete growing on Thelotrema lepadinum, is described as new to science from Chile. The species is characterized by black perithecioid ascomata; a brown, not changing color in K and lactic acid, N+ reddish orange exciple resembling textura angularis or textura epidermoidea; 0–4-septate periphyses; a I−, K/I− hymenium with rather rare lipid droplets; the absence of distinct interascal filaments; inoperculate, unitunicate, cylindrical, 8-spored, I−, K/I− asci; and hyaline to occasionally light brown, smooth to mostly finely verruculose, 1-septate, homopolar ascospores, uniseriate in the ascus. A key to ten species of lichenicolous fungi known to occur on Thelotrema is provided. Key words: lichen parasites, South America, taxonomy.
34916Giovanetti M., Máguas C. & Munzi S. (2022): Washboarding: are man-managed honeybees performing a vestigial activity fostered by cryptogams?. - Journal of Apicultural Science, 66(2): 179–197. https://doi.org/10.2478/jas-2022-0016.
A common view is that honeybees are mostly managed by beekeepers for commercial purposes or as a hobby, especially in Europe. This misconception is probably due to the lack of systematic studies on wild colonies of honeybees in Europe in comparison to other regions of the world. Since we are used to considering this species as “domesticated”, we may be induced to disregard activities not distinctly linked with colony survival, reproduction, or productivity. Washboarding is one of them in which the entire colony stops resource collection activities; numerous individual bees assemble on the front side of the hive and perform repetitive movements back and forth. They are curiously synchronised but apparently without a scope. In this exploratory work, we carried out a literature review of available, mostly grey, literature. Assuming this behaviour may be linked to cavity-nesting and to tree trunks or rocks being rough surfaces hosting various cryptogams, we performed preliminary observations and manipulative experiments. From our survey, we depict that washboarding is frequently reported in grey literature/beekeepers’ reports, but rarely mentioned in scientific literature. Beekeepers who responded to a designed questionnaire observed this behaviour in various ecological situations, with no trend emerging. Our preliminary experiment of placing cryptogams in front of managed hives resulted in honeybees removing lichens (foliose types) or covering with propolis, and all species were affected. Further research is needed to clarify if lichens are removed because of their chemical compounds, because of hosting potentially toxic microorganisms, or collected as resources. Keywords: Apis mellifera, bee behaviour, beekeepers, citizen science, lichens, online survey.
34915Marcinčinová M. & Tuptová V. (2022): Epiphytic lichen diversity in the urban area of Košice (E Slovakia) with some notes on its air quality. - Thaiszia – Journal of Botany, 32: 91–108. https://doi.org/10.33542/TJB2022-2-01.
Lichen diversity in the City of Košice was studied investigating lichen diversity on 160 trees distributed over 32 sites. Its relationship to pollution sources (steel plant, thermal power station) were determined by calculating the IAP (Index of Atmospheric Purity). A total of 60 lichen species was found, 30 of which are endangered. The rare species Parmelina quercina is reported for the first time. The lichen diversity in the City of Košice is decreasing as we move closer to the sources of pollution and also in the southern part of the city. An intermediate level of diversity was identified in residential areas, parks and forest parks. The highest diversity was found in the recreational area at the forest edge, Bankov. Keywords: lichen distribution, endangered species, eastern Slovakia, air pollution, Central Europe.
34914Di Pietro R., Giardini M., Iamonico D., Tondi G., Angeloni D., Carli E., Aleffi M., Azzella M.M., Di Pietro F., Proietti E., Ravera S. & Fortini P. (2022): Floristic and coenological data from the travertine substrates of the SAC “Travertini Acque Albule (Bagni di Tivoli)” (Lazio Region – Central Italy). - Plant Sociology, 59(2): 51–70. DOI 10.3897/pls2022592/05.
During a phytosociological field-work campaign on the vegetation of the travertine outcrops, included in the Special Area of Conservation (SAC) “Travertini Acque Albule (Bagni di Tivoli)” (Central Italy), several taxa of particular interest were identified. Carex vulpina, Lolium apenninum, Onosma echioides subsp. angustifolia, Typha domingensis, T. laxmannii and Vicia pannonica subsp. pannonica are new for the Lazio administrative Region, while Ophrys illyrica and Zannichellia peltata are confirmed for the flora of this Region. For each of these taxa phytosociological samples describing the plant communities in which they were found are provided. New records for rare species were also reported for cryptogams such as Algae, Lichens and Mosses. Keywords: flora, Habitat Directive, landscape planning, nature conservation, phytosociology, taxonomy.
34913Richardson D. (2022): The Secret World of Lichens: A Young Naturalist's Guide By Troy McMullin. 2022. Firefly Books, Buffalo, New York, USA, and Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada. Pp 48, over 50 colour photographs and illustrations, 20 × 20 cm. ISBN 13:978-0=2281-0398-1, Softbound. Widely available, including from Blackwell's and Amazon ($19.75 + postage). - Lichenologist, 54(6): 389–390. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0024282922000366.
book review
34912Orange A. (2022): The crustose species of Normandina (Verrucariaceae). - Lichenologist, 54(6): 371–378. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0024282922000317.
Normandina acroglypta, as recently circumbscribed, is shown to comprise two species: N. acroglypta s. str. with subsquamulose marginal areoles, two unidentified terpenoids by thin-layer chromatography, and growing over rock; and N. chlorococca, with convex marginal areoles, zeorin or no substances detected by thin-layer chromatography, and growing over bark. Normandina dictyospora is newly described from the Falkland Islands and is characterized by relatively large, submuriform ascospores, and no substances detected. Falkland Islands, terpenoids
34911Mamut R., Jiamahat A. & Abbas A. (2022): Lecidea glacierensis (Lecideaceae), a new lichen species from China revealed by morphology and molecular phylogenetics. - Lichenologist, 54(6): 363–369. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0024282922000226.
According to morphological and molecular data, a new species of Lecidea s. str., Lecidea glacierensis, is described from Xinjiang Province, China. It is distinctive due to its well-developed, regularly areolate to bullate thallus, and its habitat on calciferous rocks. This species was collected mostly in the area of Tianshan No.1 Glacier, which is located at an elevation of 3454 m and c. 118 km south-west of Urumqi and is considered to be one of the most important dryland glacier areas in Asia. An illustration and detailed description of the taxon are provided. Bogeda Peak, Lecidea s. str., phylogeny, taxonomy, Tianshan No. 1 Glacier
34910Fayyaz I., Afshan N. & Khalid A. (2022): Phaeophyscia kashmirensis sp. nov. (Lecanorales, Physciaceae) from Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. - Lichenologist, 54(6): 355–361. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0024282922000275.
A new species in the genus Phaeophyscia is described from Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan, supported by nrITS sequences, morphology and chemistry. The taxon is characterized by a green to greyish green thallus, usually narrow (0.5–2 mm), flat to convex lobes with abundant marginal soralia, black, dense small rhizines, small Physcia-type ascospores 18–22 × 8–10 μm and an absence of pycnidia. Differences from related species are discussed. moist temperate forest, molecular studies, Muzaffarabad, phylogenetics, siliceous rocks
34909Ellis C. (2022): A hypervolume approach to niche specialism, tested for the old-growth indicator status of calicioids. - Lichenologist, 54(6): 379–387. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0024282922000330.
Certain lichen epiphytes are restricted to old-growth forest stands with long ‘ecological continuity’, explained by i) niche specialism and their dependence on microhabitats associated with old stands including veteran or senescent trees, and/or ii) dispersal limitation with probabilities of colonization being relaxed over extended time periods. ‘Calicioid’ species are among the most important old-growth indicators, yet they reproduce sexually via small spores that appear widely dispersed at ecological scales. This suggests that they should have a high level of niche specialism compared to lichen epiphytes in general, explaining their role as old-growth indicators. However, comparisons of niche specialism are challenging, and this study uses epiphytic, corticolous calicioid species as an appropriate test case. Having measured 20 variables that constrain the lichen epiphyte niche, these were collapsed into a ‘hypervolume’ representing the sampled environmental space available for occupancy by lichens in Scotland as a study system. It was then possible to examine the occupancy of this hypervolume by individual lichens (niche breadth), with the proportion/percent occupied used to estimate a niche specialism score. Consequently, epiphyte calicioid species are confirmed to have a high degree of niche specialism compared to lichen epiphytes in general, and compared to other old-growth indicators, with their niche position directed towards drier climates including locally sheltered microhabitats associated with old-growth forest structure. niche position, old-growth structure, pin-head lichens, realized niche
34908Černajová I., Steinová J., Škvorová Z. & Škaloud P. (2022): The curious case of Cladonia luteoalba: no support for its distinction. - Lichenologist, 54(6): 345–354. https://doi.org/10.1017/S002428292200024X.
Cladonia luteoalba shows a specific pattern in chemical variability. Its chemotype coincides with that of the associated Cladonia thalli. This has led to the formation of various hypotheses, but its true nature has never been clarified. We collected C. luteoalba in Central Europe and Norway. The chemotypes were detected by TLC and the mycobionts and photobionts were identified by Sanger sequencing of ITS rDNA. Mycobiont cultures were obtained and Illumina metabarcoding of the fungal ITS1 rDNA region was performed targeting minor mycobionts within the thalli. None of the methods supported C. luteoalba as a distinct Cladonia species. In phylogenetic analyses, it was placed in C. straminea and the C. coccifera agg., following the pattern in chemistry. No minor Cladonia were detected by metabarcoding or cultivation. Thus, C. luteoalba remains enigmatic as our data did not support its distinction as a separate Cladonia species. Asterochloris, chemotypes, lichen, metabarcoding, mycobiont culture, phylogeny, Sanger sequencing
34907Miranda-González R., Bungartz F., Lücking R., Gaya E., Mendonça C.O., Viñas-Portilla C., Cáceres M.E.S. & Herrera-Campos M.A. (2022): Phylogeny of the Pyrenula ochraceoflava group (Pyrenulaceae) reveals near-cryptic diversification and the inclusion of the Mazaediothecium album aggregate. - Bryologist, 125(4): 541–557. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.4.541.
In this study we present an analysis of the Pyrenula ochraceoflava group (Pyrenulaceae), focusing on the Neotropics and based on morphological, chemical, and molecular data of the mtSSU, nuLSU and ITS markers. We described three new species from tropical dry forests of Mexico, confirm the monophyly of the P. ochraceoflava group and provide evidence for the inclusion of species currently placed in the genus Mazaediothecium within Pyrenula. Pyrenula aurantiacoretis sp. nov. is characterized by an orange pigment covering the thallus in net-like fashion, muriform ascospores with 4 rows of 1–4 cells each, 12–15.5 x 8– 10.5 µm, and 7-chloroemodin and emodin as major compounds. Pyrenula connexa sp. nov. is closely related to Mazaediothecium album, being characterized by mazaedioid pyrenocarps, basal and lateral excipular carbonization, highly variable mature ascospores, 1-septate to submuriform, thallus with abundant white verrucae, and lichexanthone as major compound. Pyrenula moldenkeorum sp. nov. is characterized by an orange thallus, submuriform ascospores that frequently show pigmented septa forming a cross septation pattern, 7.5–11 x 5.5–8.5 µm in size, and 7-chloroemodin and emodin as major compounds. The taxonomy of the most common and widespread species of the group, P. ochraceoflava and P. ochraceoflavens, is briefly discussed, presenting evidence to support the consideration of P. ochraceoflava as a species complex. The two species Mazaedothecium album and M. mohamedii are transferred to Pyrenula as P. aptrootiana nom. nov. [non Pyrenula alba (Schrad.) A.Massal.] and P. mohamedii comb. nov. Keywords: Lichen systematics, biodiversity, Neotropics, Mexico, Cuba, Brazil, Chamela Biological Station, Pyrenula aurantiacoretis, Pyrenula connexa, Pyrenula moldenkeorum.
34906Hollinger J., Noell N., Gasparyan A., Rockefeller A. & Leavitt S.D. (2022): Two new species of Anaptychia (Physciaceae) from western North America, with notes on the other species of section Protoanaptychia. - Bryologist, 125(4): 571–601. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.4.571.
Two new species belonging to the lichen genus Anaptychia are described from western North America. Anaptychia nevadensis is superficially similar to the Eurasian A. desertorum but is distinguished by having longer ascospores, in producing scant pruina only near the lobe tips, and in regularly producing variolaric acid. Anaptychia roemerioides is described to accommodate North American material which has previously been called A. ulotrichoides. It is macro-morphologically identical to the Asian species A. roemeri but differs in having longer ascospores and conidia. Both new species are strongly supported by phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences. We also call attention to the existence of a further undescribed but possibly cryptic species within A. elbursiana. Variolaric acid is newly reported to occur occasionally in A. desertorum and A. elbursiana. A global key to the desert species of Anaptychia is provided. Keywords: Cortical hairs, cryptic species, Great Basin, Nevada, phylogeny, phytogeography, pruina, variolaric acid.
34905Lendemer J.C. (2022): Recent literature on lichens—267. - Bryologist, 125(4): 649–655. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.4.649.
Bibliography
34904Brinker S., Evankow A.M. & Timdal E. (2022): Rhizoplaca ouimetensis sp. nov. (Lecanoraceae) from Ontario, the first sorediate species in the genus. - Bryologist, 125(4): 513–523. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.4.513.
Rhizoplaca ouimetensis is described new to science, growing on outcrops of diabase sills in the Lake Superior region of Ontario, Canada. It is the first known sorediate species of the genus, and a phylogenetic reconstruction based on the ITS and mtSSU markers place it in the R. chrysoleuca group. Morphologically, however, it resembles sorediate, yellow-green species of Lecanora with usnic acid, e.g., L. handelii and L. soralifera, but differs from those in forming larger, often pulvinate or minutely peltate areoles with a well-developed upper cortex and a medulla densely filled with calcium oxalate crystals. Keywords: Lecanorales, lichenized Ascomycota, new species, North America, taxonomy.
34903Khodosovtsev A., Darmostuk V., Prylutskyi O. & Kuzemko A. (2022): Silicicolous lichen communities of the Ukrainian Crystalline Shield. - Applied Vegetation Science, 25: e12699 [20 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12699.
Questions: How many different silicicolous lichen syntaxa occur on the Ukrainian Crystalline Shield and what ecological factors are influencing their distribution? Location: Ukrainian Crystalline Shield, Steppe and Forest–Steppe zones, Ukraine. Methods: The field research was performed during 2013–2020. Analysis was done with the JUICE software using agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis in the integrated PC-Ord with data transformation, pseudospecies cut levels 0–5– 25, distance measure –Jaccard, group linkage –Ward's method. For the ordination of the plots we used detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) with the “envfit” function, implemented in the R package vegan. As environmental variables we used mean indicator values obtained for each species from the ITALIC database. A generalized synoptic table, which combined both our own and literature data, was clustered using Euclidean distances and the Ward error sum of squares hierarchical clustering method with Ward's criterion. Results: Seven clusters were obtained after JUICE analysis based on 197 relevés of lichen communities that included 119 lichen species. The main axis in both DCA and NMDS ordination is similar to the vector of substrate pH value. Communities on overhanging surfaces are acidophilous. Communities of water tracks are moderately basophilous to basophilous. Other communities included relevés on different granite characterized as mainly neutrophilous. Lichen communities on siliceous rocks of the Ukrainian Crystalline Shield are assigned to the classes Rhizocarpetea geographici, Leprarietea chlorinae, and Collematetea cristati. Two new alliances (Aspicilion intermutantis and Staurothelion frustulentae), four new associations and three subassociation are described. Conclusion: Silicicolous lichen communities of the Ukrainian Crystalline Shield differ from the known units of Central Europe by species composition, where lichens with arid ecology are present. Their local distribution depends mainly on a combination of substrate pH, degree of eutrophication, protection from rain, and substrate moisture. Keywords: alliances, associations, granite, lichens, ordination, southeastern Europe, steppe zone, syntaxonomy.
34902Šoun J., Bouda F., Peksa O. & Uhlík P. (2022): Zajímavé nálezy lišejníků ze západních Čech I. - Erica, 29: 15–38. .
We present here interesting records of 65 lichen taxa from Western Bohemia (incl. Pilsen and the Karlovy Vary Region). Candelariella boleana is presented here as a new species for the Czech Republic, the finding of Carbonicola anthracophila represents the second country record for this taxon.
34901Šoun J. (2022): Lišejníky přírodní rezervace Zvoníčkovna. - Erica, 29: 3–14. .
A lichen inventory of the Zvoníčkovna Nature Reserve in the southern part of the Rokycany region (Western Bohemia, Czech Republic) is presented. The reserve includes a meadow enclave surrounded by a mixed forest on the site of a deserted medieval vil- lage with several springs. The forest part of the reserve is represented mainly by a well- preserved oak-hornbeam forest with many old oaks. A total of 116 lichens and 8 non- lichenized fungi were recorded. A major part was represented by epiphytic species (103 species), mainly those growing on oaks and hornbeams. Relatively high number of en- dangered species was found especially on old oaks. The most interesting of them were Arthonia thoriana, Caloplaca lucifuga, Chaenotheca phaeocephala, Inoderma byssace- um, Lecanographa amylacea, Varicellaria hemisphaerica and above all Loxospora cris- tinae, which represents a new species for the Czech Republic. Due to the large amount of lying wood, the community of lignicolous species was also relatively rich (30 species). biodiversity, deserted medieval village, epiphytes, Loxospora cristinae
34900Heiner M., Grimm T., Smith H., Leavitt S.D., Christensen W.F., Carling G.T. & St. Clair L.L. (2022): Multivariate receptor modeling with widely dispersed Lichens as bioindicators of air quality. - Environmetrics, 2022: e2785 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/env.2785.
Biomonitoring studies evaluating air quality via airborne element accumulation patterns in lichens typically control variability by focusing on narrow geographic regions and short time windows. Using samples of the widespread “rock-posy” lichen sampled across the Intermountain Region of the United States, we investigate whether accumulation patterns of generic pollution sources are detectable on broad geographic and temporal scales. We develop a novel Bayesian multivariate receptor modeling (BMRM) approach that sharpens detection and discrimination of candidate pollution sources through (i) regularization of source contributions to each sample and (ii) incorporating estimated lichen secondary chemistry as a factor. Through a simulation study, we demonstrate a distinct advantage in shrinking contributions when they are truly sparse, as would be expected with heterogeneous samples from dispersed collection sites. We contrast analyses employing both standard and sparse BMRMs, and positive matrix factorization (PMF). The sparse model better maintains source identity, as specified though informative prior distributions on elemental profiles. We advocate quantitative profile matching, which reveals that PMF primarily captures variations of the baseline profile for lichen secondary chemistry. Both PMF and BMRM results suggest that the most detectable signatures relate to aeolian dust deposition, while spatial patterns hint at sporadic anthropogenic influence. Keywords: Aeolian dust, Bayesian methods, elemental analysis, pollution source apportionment, positive matrix factorization, regularization.
34899Topal M., Topal E.I.A., Öbek E. & Aslan A. (2022): Potential human health risks of toxic/harmful elements by consumption of Pseudevernia furfuracea. - International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 32(9): 1889–1896. https://doi.org/10.1080/09603123.2021.1925635.
The potential human health risks of some toxic/harmful elements related to the consumption of Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf. were investigated. The toxic/harmful elements (cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn)) were determined in P. furfuracea. According to the analysis result, the maximum (max.) toxic/harmful element value was 62 ± 3.1 mg/kg for Mn and minimum (min.) value was 0.19 ± 0.01 mg/kg for Cd. The estimated daily exposure doses (EDEXDs) for men, women and children were dietary (bread) > dietary (tea) > dermal. For dietary (bread) and dietary (tea) noncarcinogenic (HQ) risk was children > women > men. For dermal, HQ risk was women > children > men. Hazard index (HI) value for men was >1 for Cr. HI value for men was 1.36 for Cr. HI value for women was >1 for Cr and Mn. HI values for women were 1.54 for Cr and 1.01 for Mn. Also, the HI value for children was >1 for Cr, Mn, and Pb. HI values for children were 3.44 for Cr, 2.24 for Mn, and 1.66 for Pb. This situation showed that there was a non-carcinogenic risk. Carcinogenic risk values were dietary (bread) > dietary (tea) > dermal. The total max. carcinogenic value was 1.97E-03 for Cr while the total min. carcinogenic value was 1.31E-05 for Pb. As a result, it has been determined that there may be a risk of cancer due to the consumption of lichen as bread and this situation may adversely affect human health.
34898Do T.-H., Nguyen T.-T., Dao T.-B.-N., Vo H.-C., Huynh B.-L.-C., Nguyen T.-A.-T., Mai D.-T., Vo T.-P.-G., Sichaem J., Nguyen N.-H. & Duong T.-H. (2022): A new diphenyl ether from Parmotrema indicum Hale growing in Vietnam. - Natural Product Research, 36(19): 4879–4885. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2021.1907748.
Chemical investigation of the lichen Parmotrema indicum Hale led to the isolation of one new diphenyl ether, parmetherine D (1), along with eight known compounds (2-9). The structures were determined by analysis of MS and NMR data and by comparison with the literature. Compounds 1, 2, and 7 were evaluated for a-glucosidase inhibition. Only compound 1 exhibited significant inhibition.
34897Ciężka M.M., Górka M., Trzyna A., Modelska M., Łubek A. & Widory D. (2022): The multi-isotope biogeochemistry (S, C, N and Pb) of Hypogymnia physodes lichens: air quality approach in the Świętokrzyski National Park, Poland. - Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies, 58: 340–362. https://doi.org/10.1080/10256016.2022.2110591.
The isotope biogeochemistry of bioindicators has widely demonstrated its added value in environmental issues by allowing to precisely identify sources of contamination. Most of the studies are based on studying one or two isotope systematics. Here, we are presenting an innovative multi-proxy approach that combines chemistry with both stable (C, S, N) and radiogenic (Pb) isotope systematics. Using Hypogymnia physodes bioindicators, we evaluated air quality in the complex environment of the Świętokrzyski National Park (ŚNP, Poland) with the ultimate objective of isotopically identifying the sources responsible for the observed contamination. Combining the isotope systematics showed that home heating is a major source of contamination in winter, whereas the contribution of road traffic increases during the summer. Pb isotope ratios identified industrial activities as the major source of this metal in the atmosphere.
34896Lovitt J., Richardson G., Rajaratnam K., Chen W., Leblanc S.G., He L., Nielsen S.E., Hillman A., Schmelzer I. & Arsenault A. (2022): A new U-net based Convolutional Neural Network for estimating caribou lichen ground cover from field-level RGB images. - Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 48(6): 849–872. https://doi.org/10.1080/07038992.2022.2144179.
High-quality ground-truth data are critical for developing reliable Earth Observation (EO) based geospatial products. Conventional methods of collecting these data are either subject to an unknown amount of human error and bias or require extended time in the field to complete (i.e., point-intercept assessments). Digital photograph classification (DPC) may address these drawbacks. In this study, we first assess the performance of a DPC method developed through licensed software to estimate ground cover percentage (%) of bright lichens, a critical caribou forage in fall and winter when other food resources are scarce. We then evaluate the feasibility of replicating this workflow in an open-source environment with a modified U-net model to improve processing time and scalability. Our results indicate that DPC is appropriate for generating ground-truth data in support of large-scale EO-based lichen mapping within the boreal forests of eastern Canada. Our final open-sourced classification model, Lichen Convolutional Neural Network (LiCNN), is comparably accurate yet more efficient than the licensed workflow. Therefore, the LiCNN approach successfully addresses the mentioned shortcomings of conventional ground-truth data collection methods efficiently and without the need for specialized software.
34895Eyupoglu C., Eyupoglu S. & Merdan N. (2022): Investigation of dyeing properties of mohair fiber dyed with natural dyes obtained from Candelariella reflexa. - Journal of Natural Fibers, 19(16): 12829–12848. https://doi.org/10.1080/15440478.2022.2076273.
The current study reports on using ascorbic acid as a possible substitute for improving fastness properties of natural dyes. In the mordanting process, microwave energy, which is a part of the sustainable and ecological production approach, was used. Renewable natural dye source Candelariella reflexa, which is a genus of lichen, was obtained from the trunk of Pinus nigra. Mohair fiber was dyed with natural dye extracted from Candelariella reflexa by using a conventional method. Before dyeing, mohair fiber was subjected to the premordanted process with iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) using microwave energy. In order to determine the effect of mordanting process parameters on dyeing properties, the mordanting process was performed with different concentrations and durations. In the dyeing process, ascorbic acid was added at different concentrations in the dyeing bath to improve the light fastness of samples. After the dyeing process, spectrophotometric features, light, and rubbing and washing fastness of samples were investigated. The color strength, washing, light, and rubbing fastness of dyed mohair fiber improve slightly with the premordanting process and by adding ascorbic acid. The spectrophotometric measurement results show that color coordinates vary from the mordanting time and amount of ascorbic acid. Furthermore, the use of microwave energy in the mordanting process leads to saving of energy and time. Besides, in this study, a machine learning-based model exploiting the artificial neural network (ANN) was developed for prediction of dyeing properties of mohair fiber dyed with natural dyes obtained from Candelariella reflexa. Experimental data obtained through various tests were first used to feed the proposed ANN, and then the trained ANN was validated and tested for the aim of prediction. The study results show that the proposed model can successfully predict most of the dyeing properties of mohair fiber. Therefore, this model can be used as an effective tool to estimate dyeing characteristics of mohair fiber.
34894Şenol Z.M. (2022): Effective biosorption of Allura red dye from aqueous solutions by the dried-lichen (Pseudoevernia furfuracea) biomass. - International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 102(16): 4550–4564. https://doi.org/10.1080/03067319.2020.1785439.
Allura red (AR), which is known as the monoazo class of synthetic food colourant(E129) has been widely used in food industries. Due to the potential toxicity of azo dyes and pathogenicity, the removal of AR from industrial wastewaters is very important environmentally. So, this article aims to investigate the biosorption process of AR by lichen (Pseudoevernia furfuracea) from aqueous solutions. Batch biosorption conditions of AR food dye onto lichen biosorbent as initial AR concentration, solution pH, contact time, temperature and recovery were investigated. From the results, it has been observed that the highest removal efficiency is approximately 87% at a contact time of 5 hours, initial AR food dye concentration of 1000 mgL−1 and agitation speed of 150 rpm at natural pH 8.0. The maximum ARbiosorption capacity from the Langmuir model was found as 0.280 mol kg−1 at 25°C. Biosorption kinetics were analysed by using intra-particle diffusion and pseudo-secondorder models. Biosorption thermodynamics has shown that ARbiosorption onto lichen biosorbent is endothermic, possible and spontaneous. The lichen (Pseudoevernia furfuracea) can become an alternative biosorbent for the removal of AR from the environment and wastewater.
34893Frisch A., Holien H., Klepsland J.T., Suija A. & Bendiksby M. (2022): New data on lichenicolous fungi in Norway. - Graphis Scripta, 34(7): 59–133. https://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/34_7/GS_34_59.pdf.
We report 31 species of lichenicolous fungi as new to Norway. Of these, 16 are new to Fennoscandia. Based on molecular phylogenetic results and newly discovered pycnidia in Phacographa protoparmeliae, the combination Phacographa lapponica (Ihlen) Frisch & Ihlen is introduced for Epicladonia lapponica Ihlen. A lectotype is selected for Phaeospora geographicola Arnold [= Opegrapha geographicola (Arnold) Hafellner]. New distribution data are given for 53 rare or seldom reported lichenicolous fungi. Our results evidence the limited state of knowledge on this diverse group of fungi in Norway. This study highlights the importance of intensified mapping efforts and of scientific collections for documenting unknown species diversity.
34892Timdal E. (2022): The taxonomic status of Nephroma parile chemotype 2. - Graphis Scripta, 34(7): 134–138. https://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/34_7/GS_34_134.pdf.
Chemotype 2 of Nephroma parile, occurring in southern South America, is confirmed as a distinct chemotype. However, it is genetically (nrITS and mtSSU) not differentiated from chemotype 1 in the Northern Hemisphere and does not merit status as a separate taxon. Nephroma parile is hence regarded as a monotypic, bipolar species.
34891Suwarso W.P., Gani R.L., Krohn K. & John M. (1999): Dasypogalactone, a new C3-symmetric macrolactone from the Indonesian lichen Usnea dasypoga Rohl. - European Journal of Organic Chemistry, 1999: 1719–1721. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0690(199907)1999:7<1719::AID-EJOC1719>3.0.CO;2-U|.
A structurally novel 24-membered C3-symmetrical macrolactone 2a, composed of three units of 3,7-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethyloctanoic acid, was isolated from the Indonesian lichen Usnea dasypoga Rohl.
34890Norqulov M. (2022): Ziaddin- zirabuloq togʻlari lixenoflorasida tarqalgan epigey lishayniklarning taksonomik tahlili [Taxonomical analysis of epigean lichens districted in the lichenoflora of the Ziaddin-Zirabulak mountains]. - Ilmiy axborotnoma, 2022: 103–107. .
[in Uzbek with Russian and English abstract: ] The article presents an analysis of epigean lichens common in the lichen flora of the Ziadin-Zirabulak mountains (Uzbekistan). As a result of the research, 6 species of epigean lichens were identified (Thalloidima sedifolia, T. candidum, Psora decipiens, P. globifera, Caloplaca tominii, Psorotichia taurica). Taxonomic analysis, ecological and geographical features of the identified species are given. Keywords: lichens, epigeum, lichen flora of the Ziadin-Zirabulak mountains, Thalloidima, Psora, Caloplaca, Psorotichia.
34889Golovkina D.A., Zhurishkina E.V., Ayrapetyan O.N., Komissarov A.E., Krylova A.S., Vinogradova E.N., Toshchakov S.V., Ermilov F.K., Barsegyan A.M., Kulminskaya A.A. & Lapina I.M. (2023): Effect of brown algae and lichen extracts on the SCOBY microbiome and kombucha properties. - Foods, 12(1): 47 [15 p.] . https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010047.
Kombucha tea was made by the fermentation of SCOBY culture of green tea broth with the addition of Fucus vesiculosus algae extract, Cetraria islandica lichen extract and their mixture. Kombucha was also made without the herbal supplements as a control. After 11 days of fermentation, in addition to the yeast Brettanomyces bruxellensis and the bacteria Komagataeibacter rhaeticus and Komagataeibacter hansenii contained in all of the samples, the yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii and bacteria Komagataeibacter cocois were detected in the samples with the herbal extracts. In all of the kombucha with herbal additives, the total fraction of yeast was decreased as compared to the control. The total content of polyphenols and the antioxidant activity of the beverages with and without the addition of herbal extracts were comparable. The kombucha made with the algae extract showed an increased content of sucrose and organic acids, while the fructose and glucose content in the samples with algae and the mixture of extracts were lower than in the other samples. The samples with the algae extract had the highest organoleptic indicators “aroma”, “clarity” and “acidity”, while the control samples had slightly higher indicators of “taste” and “aftertaste”. The results of this study indicate the potential of algae and lichens as functional supplements for obtaining non-alcoholic fermented beverages with additional nutraceutical value. Keywords: kombucha; Fucus vesiculosus; Cetraria islandica; sugar content; antioxidant activity; metagenomic analysis; nutraceutical; synbiotics.
34888Torres-Benítez A., Ortega-Valencia J.E., Sánchez M., Hillmann-Eggers M., Gómez-Serranillos M.P., Vargas-Arana G. & Simirgiotis M.J.J. (2023): UHPLC-MS chemical fingerprinting and antioxidant, enzyme inhibition, anti-inflammatory in silico and cytoprotective activities of Cladonia chlorophaea and C. gracilis (Cladoniaceae) from Antarctica. - Antioxidants, 12(1): 10 [22 p.] . https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12010010.
The lichen species Cladonia chlorophaea and C. gracilis (Cladoniaceae) are widely distributed in the island archipelago of maritime Antarctica and represent a natural resource of scientific interest. In this work, the metabolomic characterization of the ethanolic extracts of these species and the determination of the antioxidant activity, enzymatic inhibition and anti-inflammatory potential of selected compounds on the 5-lipoxygenase enzyme by molecular docking and cytoprotective activity in the SH-SY5Y cell line were carried out. Nineteen compounds were identified by liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) in each of the species. The contents of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, the inhibition of cholinesterases (acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase) and digestive enzymes (α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase) were variable among species, with better results in C. chlorophaea. Molecular docking evidenced significant binding affinities of some compounds for the 5-lipoxygenase enzyme, together with outstanding pharmacokinetic properties. Both extracts were shown to promote cell viability and a reduction in reactive oxygen species production in an H2O2-induced oxidative stress model. This study contributes to the chemical knowledge of the Cladonia species and demonstrates the biological potential for the prevention and promising treatment of central nervous system pathologies, inflammatory disorders and metabolic alterations. Keywords: Cladonia; secondary metabolites; antioxidant; enzyme inhibition; anti-inflammatory; cytoprotective; Antarctic lichens.
34887Hafellner J. (2022): Lichenicolous Biota (Nos 361–380). - Fritschiana (Graz), 100: 13–29. https://static.uni-graz.at/fileadmin/nawi-institute/Botanik/Fritschiana/fritschiana-100/2022-Hafellner-Lichenicolous-Biota-361-380.pdf.
The 16th fascicle (20 numbers) of the exsiccata 'Lichenicolous Biota' is published. The issue contains material of 15 non-lichenized fungal taxa (10 teleomorphs of ascomycetes, 4 anamorphic states of ascomycetes, 1 basidiomycete) and 5 lichenized ascomycetes, including paratype material of Lichenostigma supertegentis Ihlen & R.Sant. (no 375) and Verrucoccum spribillei V.Atienza et al. (no 380). Furthermore, collections of the type species of the following genera are distributed: Dacampia (D. hookeri), Mixtoconidium (M. canariense), and Paralecanographa (P. grumulosa).
34886Obermayer W. (2022): Dupla Graecensia Lichenum (numbers 1291–1330). - Fritschiana (Graz), 100: 1–12. https://static.uni-graz.at/fileadmin/nawi-institute/Botanik/Fritschiana/fritschiana-100/2022-Dupla-Graecensia-Lichenum-1291-1330-Obermayer.pdf.
The exsiccata 'Dupla Graecensia Lichenum (numbers 1291– 1330)' comprises 40 collections (271 specimens) of lichen duplicates (including the two non-lichenised fungi Mycocalicium subtile and Zythia resinae) from the following 10 countries: Artsakh (= Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Province Martakert), Australia (state of New South Wales), Austria (states of Carinthia, Salzburg, Styria, and Upper Austria), Czech Republic (Jihočeský kraj [=Southern Bohemia]), Greece (Karpathos Island), Italy (region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia), Portugal (Madeira Island), Slovenia (Primorska), Spain (Canary Islands), Switzerland (canton of Bern). TLC-investigations were carried out for 15 species. Apothecia of Letharia vulpina have been shown to contain relatively high amounts of norstictic acid. Apothecia of Zythia resinae contain - beside a reddish-orange pigment - several depside/depsidone like compounds in high concentration.
34885Habib K., Zulfiqar R., & Khalid A.N. (2022): Lecaimmeria pakistanica, a new lichen from Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. - European Journal of Taxonomy, 834(1): 94–101. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2022.834.1901.
A new lichen species Lecaimmeria pakistanica K.Habib, R.Zulfiqar & Khalid sp. nov. is described and illustrated from rocks in the temperate forests of the Himalaya of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. This species is characterized by its yellow-brown to brown thallus having areoles 0.4 to 1.5 mm across, branched and anastomosing paraphyses, a tall hymenium, large ascospores 20–32 × 10–16 μm, and no substance detected by thin layer chromatography. All other species of the genus have ascospore dimensions in the range of 14–22 × 5–14 μm. A phylogenetic analysis is provided based on ITS nrDNA sequences, and supports the separation of the novel species. Photographs and a comparative analysis with related species of Lecaimmeria are provided to confirm the status of the species.
34884Rokitskaya T.I., Arutyunyan A.M., Khailova L.S., Kataeva A.D., Firsov A.M., Kotova E.A. & Antonenko Y.N. (2022): Usnic acid-mediated exchange of protons for divalent metal cations across lipid membranes: Relevance to mitochondrial uncoupling. - International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23(24): 16203 [7 p.] . https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416203.
Usnic acid (UA), a unique lichen metabolite, is a protonophoric uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, widely known as a weight-loss dietary supplement. In contrast to conventional proton-shuttling mitochondrial uncouplers, UA was found to carry protons across lipid membranes via the induction of an electrogenic proton exchange for calcium or magnesium cations. Here, we evaluated the ability of various divalent metal cations to stimulate a proton transport through both planar and vesicular bilayer lipid membranes by measuring the transmembrane electrical current and fluorescence-detected pH gradient dissipation in pyranine-loaded liposomes, respectively. Thus, we obtained the following selectivity series of calcium, magnesium, zinc, manganese and copper cations: Zn2+ > Mn2+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+ >> Cu2+. Remarkably, Cu2+ appeared to suppress the UA-mediated proton transport in both lipid membrane systems. The data on the divalent metal cation/proton exchange were supported by circular dichroism spectroscopy of UA in the presence of the corresponding cations. Keywords: usnic acid; bilayer lipid membrane; mitochondrial uncoupler; protonophore; divalent metal cation/proton exchange; circular dichroism.
34883Jafarova M., Contardo T., Aherne J. & Loppi S. (2022): Lichen biomonitoring of airborne microplastics in Milan (N Italy). - Biology, 11(12): 1815 [7 p.] . https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11121815.
This study investigated the deposition of airborne microplastics (MPs) in the urban area of Milan across 12 sites and at a background control site (northern Italy) using 3-month transplants of the fruticose lichen species Evernia prunastri (exposed in triplicate). The primary objective was to evaluate the use of lichen transplants for the assessment of MP deposition; as such, the study sites spanned a gradient in vehicular traffic and population density across four concentric land-use zones (i.e., urban parks, centre, semi-periphery, and periphery). A total of 149 MP particles were detected in the exposed lichen samples; 94.6% were classified as fibres and 5.4% as fragments. The control site and urban parks experienced a similar number of MPs per gram of dry lichen (20–26 MP/g), while a higher number of MPs were detected in central and peripheral areas (44–56 MP/g), with a clear increasing gradient from the city centre towards the periphery. We estimated the MP deposition in Milan to be in the range of 43–119 MPs m2/d, indicating that people living in Milan are exposed to airborne MPs, with potential health effects. This study suggests that lichens are suitable biomonitors of airborne MPs under a relatively short exposure of three months in urban environments. Keywords: atmospheric deposition; biomonitoring; lichen; microplastics; microfibres; Milan.
34882Sancho L.G., Aramburu A., Pintado A., Casares M., Raggio J. & Sánchez-Pescador D. (2022): Sierra Nevada (Spain), the southernmost European locality for the polar-alpine Umbilicaria aprina and U. virginis. - Mediterranean Botany, 43: e77925 [4 p.] . https://doi.org/10.5209/mbot.77925.
Two strict polar-alpine Umbilicaria species (U. aprina and U. virginis) are reported growing together in Los Peñones de San Francisco. Other localities known on the highest summits of the Alps and Pyrenees are considered. We discussed the meaning of these isolated populations as glacial relicts. Keywords: Lichens, Polar-alpine, Biogeography, Umbilicaria, Sierra Nevada.
34881Rosentreter R. & McCune B. (1996): Distribution and ecology of Teloschistes contortuplicatus in North America. - Evansia, 13(1): 10–13. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346068.
34880Galloway C.M./ Burke C. & Leubert D. (1996): Roccella babingtonii in southern Texas. - Evansia, 13(2): 76. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346079.
34879Flenniken D. (1996): Tropical lichens in the University of Northern Iowa Herbarium. - Evansia, 13(2): 78. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346081.
34878Heiman K. (1996): Macrolichens of the Blue Ridge Parkway in North Carolina. - Evansia, 13(2): 47–57. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346074.
The purpose of this study was to inventory the existing macrolichen flora of the Blue Ridge Parkway National Park in North Carolina and to establish baseline data for future comparison. A general species list was compiled, twenty-nine permanent arboreal transects were established and samples were collected for elemental analysis. More than two hundred taxa were identified, including many rare or unusual species (of which seven are state-listed and one is Federally listed). Data showed no strong tendencies for cover or diversity relative to elevation or geographic position or tree diameter. Different tree species substrates did show differences in lichen cover. General observations noted that lichens within the Asheville Basin were less diverse, less abundant and less robust. High elevations were diverse, yet undergoing changes as fir forests were being lost. Generally, older deciduous trees in a fairly open, stable forest conditions appeared to have the greatest abundance of corticulous lichens in this study.
34877McCune B. (1996): Micarea botryoides new to North America. - Evansia, 13(2): 65–66. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346076.
34876Weber W.A. (1996): Aspicilia moenium in the Western Hemisphere. - Evansia, 13(4): 159–160. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346092.
34875McCune B. (1997): Lauderlindsaya, a parasitic fungus on Normandina, new to North America. - Evansia, 14(1): 13. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346403.
34874Ciegler A. (1997): South Carolina lichens: a preliminary survey. - Evansia, 14(2): 29–41. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346406.
34873McCune B. & Rosentreter R. (1997): Hypogymnia subphysodes new to North America. - Evansia, 14(3): 106. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346416.
34872Thomson J.W. (1998): Two Wisconsin lichen collections over 100 years old. - Evansia, 15(2): 84–90. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346453.
34871McCune B. & Rosentreter R. (1998): Macrolichens from Priest River Experimental Forest, Idaho. - Evansia, 15(1): 37–42. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346450.
A week-long lichen training in July 1997 at Priest River Experimental Forest in northern Idaho brought together 34 botanists from federal agencies in Montana, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. This note reports plot data and interesting finds from those activities. Contributors were K. Ahlenslager, M. Arvidson, J. Barker, W. Bernardy, R. Clausnitzer, A. Cochrane, J. Duff, L. Eno, S. Garvin, T. Gibson, V. Goodnow, M. Hays, J. Hill, J. Joy, B. Kelley, J. Hutton, D. Lebo, T. Lillybridge, M. Lolley, M. Lowry, M. Mousseaux, D. Penny, L. Pietarinen, A. Pipp, M. Roantree, S. Shelly, T. Spivey, T. Spribille, H.-G. Stroh, K. Suzuki, D. Svoboda, J. Tonn, and J. Warofka. Nomenclature follows Esslinger and Egan (1995) for the most part.
34870Bianchi E., Benesperi R., Giordani P., Martire L., Favero-Longo S.E. & Loppi S. (2022): Wood distillate as an alternative bio-based product against lichens on sandstone. - International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 170: 105386 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2022.105386.
Highlights: • 10% wood distillate devitalizes lichens as effectively as traditional biocides • The effect is verified on 4 species commonly growing on Pietra Serena sandstone • The application negligibly interferes with the sandstone colour and hardness • Wood distillate may be an alternative to control biodeterioration on sandstone • Some dissolution of calcite excludes the application on delicate heritage surfaces. The use of traditional biocides to halt or reduce biodeterioration is increasingly deterred, due to risks for human health and the environment, as well as for potential interference with stone materials. Alternative and eco-friendly substances are needed to limit these issues. Here we aim to evaluate the devitalization of lichens by a new bio-based product: wood distillate (also known as pyroligneous acid), a by-product of the use of plant biomass to produce bioenergy by pyrolysis without the addition of synthetic chemicals. We compared cellulose poultice applications of wood distillate at a concentration of 10% and two common chemical biocides against four epilithic lichen species on Pietra Serena, a sandstone widely used in Europe. The efficiency of devitalization was measured in terms of lichen vitality expressed by chlorophyll a fluorescence emission FV/FM and F0. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of wood distillate on physical properties of the stone material of relevance for its conservation, including colour, resistance to dissolution, and surface hardness. Wood distillate was as effective as chemical biocides in devitalizing the thalli and did not cause any relevant interference with the assayed sandstone, although a limited dissolution of its calcite cement was detected. Keywords: CIELAB colour measurement ; Circular economy ; Devitalization ; Lichen ; Stone cleaning ; Wood distillate.
34869Ciegler A. (1999): A catalogue of Tennessee lichens, revisited. - Evansia, 16(3): 113–129. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346812.
34868Wright D.M. (1999): A pocket calculator program to compute CMA in the genus Usnea (lichenized Ascomycetes). - Evansia, 16(2): 80–81. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346807.
34867Rosso A.L. & Rosentreter R. (1999): Lichen diversity and biomass in relation to management practices in forests of northern Idaho. - Evansia, 16(2): 97–104. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346809.
This note summarizes the results of a study comparing lichen diversity and biomass across four stand types in forests of Northern Idaho. The study was conducted as part of a week-long course on lichen ecology and identification, held at Priest River Experimental Forest Research Station during the summer of 1998. The course was taught by the authors, and sponsored by the USDA Forest Service. It brought together professional botanists and foresters from Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Participants included: Mike Arvidson, Teresa Catlin, Bonnie England, LeAnn Eno, Leslie Ferguson, Therese Gibson, Anne E. Hammet, Leonard Lake, Karen Larson, Mike Mancuso, Maria Mantas, Mark Mousseaux, Lee Paladina, Sara Pearl, Dianne Penny, Marlene Reynolds, Linda Swartz, and Arthur Zack.
34866Martin E. & Novak S.J. (1999): Composition and cover of epiphytic lichens on Pseudtosuga (sic!) menziesii and Populus tremuloides in southwestern Idaho. - Evansia, 16(3): 105–111. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346810.
Species composition and percent cover of epiphytic lichens were determined on trunks of Pseudotsuga menziesii and Populus tremuloides at two study sites in Southwest Idaho: Marshall Lake Trail and Mores Mountain. In this study, we tested whether bark pH and directional position on the tree trunk influenced the distribution of lichens on these two tree species. Forty trees were examined using a 5X10 cm quadrat to determine lichen cover in the four cardinal directions. Five lichen species were found on P. menziesii at the Marshall Lake Trail study site and six at the Mores Mountain study site. Three different lichen species were found on P. tremuloides at Marshall Lake Trail site: where as no lichens were detected on P. tremuloides at the Mores Mountain site. For both tree species, lichens were most abundant on the south aspect of the tree trunks. This result differs from other studies, and may be due to optimal lichen growth conditions occurring on the south aspect of tree trunks during cooler and moister winter season, at these arid study sites.
34865Manierre W.R. (1999): Bryophytes and lichens of the Huron Mountain Club. - Evansia, 16(4): 152–166. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346819.
34864Tønsberg T. & Henssen A. (1999): Additions to the lichen flora of North America VIII. Santessoniella grisea new to North America. - Evansia, 16(4): 184. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346824.
34863Glew K.A. (1999): Rinodina aspersa (Borrer) Laundon new to North America. - Evansia, 16(4): 168–169. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346821.
Rinodina aspersa (Borrer) Laundon is reported new to North America from the San Juan Islands of Washington state, U.S.A. The species was found on siliceous, sedimentary marine rocks.
34862Hansen E.S. (2000): Lichens collected at Cape Belknap near Alert, northeastern Ellesmere Island. - Evansia, 17(1): 15–17. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346474.
A total of 39 species of lichens are reported from the lichenologically badly known northeastern Ellesmere Island. Gyalidea lecideopsis is new to eastern North America. Northward range extensions in North America are reported for 10 species, viz. Caloplaca invadens, Diploschistes muscorum, Gyalidea lecideopsis, Lecanora dispersa, Lecidea atrobrunnea, Ochrolechia frigida, Pscra decipiens, Rinodina calcigena, Solorina bispora and Toninia arctica.
34861Harris R.C. & Buck W.R. (2000): Lichenological serendipity in Putnam County, New York . - Evansia, 17(1): 23–24. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346476.
Macentina dictyospora A. Orange and Thelocarpon intermediellum Nyl. presented as novelties for NY.
34860Fryday A.M. (2000): Bryonora rhypariza (Nyl.) Poelt - new to North America. - Evansia, 17(1): 37–39. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346481.
34859Thomson J.W. (2000): Using the ascus apex in lichen identification. - Evansia, 17(2): 41–43. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346482.
34858Breuss O. (2000): Topeliopsis toensbergii (Lichens, Thelotremataceae) new to Canada. - Evansia, 17(3): 90. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346492.
34857Spribille T. & Kolb A. (2000): Cetraria sepincola new to Idaho and Melanelia septentrionalis new to Montana, with notes on their distribution and ecology. - Evansia, 17(4): 112–115. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346498.
34856Tønsberg T. & Coppins B. (2000): Additions to the lichen flora of North America IX. Micarea alabastrites and M. synotheoides. - Evansia, 17(4): 135–136. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346502.
Micarea alabastrites and M. synotheoides are reported new to North America from U.S.A., Washington.
34855Egan R.S. (2001): Long-term storage of TLC data. - Evansia, 18(1): 19–20. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346505.
34854Goffinet B., Rosentreter R. & Sérusiaux E. (2001): A second locality for Xanthoparmelia idahoensis Hale, an endangered vagrant lichen, new to Canada. - Evansia, 18(2): 58–59. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346513.
34853Manierre W.R. (2001): Additions to the lichen of the Huron Mountain Club. - Evansia, 18(2): 51–52. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346511.
34852Kolb A. & Spribille T. (2001): Calicium corynellum (Ach.) Ach. in the United States, and Calicium montanum Tibell new for North America. - Evansia, 18(3): 90–92. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346522.
34851Fryday A.M. (2001): Additions to the lichen flora of North America??. Agonimia allobata and Aspicilia grisea. - Evansia, 18(3): 87–89. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346521.
Agonimia allobata and Aspicilia grisea are reported for the first time from North America from Michigan U.S.A.
34850Buck W.R. & Harris R.C. (2001): Leucocarpia biatorella (Verrucariaceae), new to North America. - Evansia, 18(3): 82–83. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346519.
34849Rosentreter R. (2002): New, rare, and interesting lichen taxa collected on the 2000 ABLS, field trip "Oregon Steppe to the Coast"; led by Dr. Bruce McCune. Aug. 10-13, 2000. - Evansia, 18(4): 129–132. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346528.
Thirty three lichen or lichen parasymbiont species are reported as new, rare, and interesting from the group of ABLS members on this four day field trip in Oregon. Roselliniella nephromatis (Crouan) Matzer & Hafellner is new to North America. Contributors to a list of species collected on the trip were: Othmar Breuss, William R. Buck, Robert S. Egan, Elisabeth Lay, Bruce McCune, Matt Nelsen, Judy Robertson, Roger Rosentreter, Constance S. Stubbs, and Susan Will-Wolf. This large number of rare or interesting species illustrates that a group with different backgrounds and trained eyes are better than one set of eyes.
34848Buck W.R. & Harris R.C. (2002): Epigloea (Epigloeaceae) new to North America. - Evansia, 19(3): 83–84. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346548.
34847Egan R.S. (2002): Revised catalog of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi of New Mexico. - Evansia, 19(2): 41–68. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346542.
34846Flenniken D. (2002): Rhode Island's foliose and fruticose lichens. - Evansia, 19(1): 13–16. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346535.
This paper reports on 92 species of lichens collected in Rhode Island from June 10 through August 14, 2001. Collections were made in 48 different sites, most of which are within protected areas under the control of The Rhode Island Nature Conservancy, Rhode Island Audubon Society, State, Town, and Municipal Parks, and cemeteries.
34845Hinds J.W., Lay E. & Greene D. (2002): Lichens found on the 25th A. L. Andrews Foray in northwestern Vermont. - Evansia, 19(4): 153–157. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346558.
A total of 164 species of lichens were found in northwestern VT on the 25th Andrew Foray, including 32 species newly reported for VT and 4 newly reported for New England.
34844Hinds J.W., Fryday A.M. & Dibble A.C. (2002): Three additions to the lichen flora of North America from Mt. Katahdin, Maine. - Evansia, 19(4): 137–141. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346554.
Carbonea intrusa, Cecidonia xenophana and Rhizocarpon amphibium are reported for the first time from North America.
34843Manierre W.R. (2002): Bryophytes and lichens of the Huron Mountain Club conclusion. - Evansia, 19(4): 131–136. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346553.
34842McHenry G. & Tønsberg T. (2002): Heterodermia sitchensis found in Oregon, U.S.A.. - Evansia, 19(4): 158–160. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346559.
Heterodermia sitchensis is reported new to U.S.A. from coastal Oregon, where it is corticolous or muscicolous on Picea sitchensis twigs also supporting, e.g., Heterodermia japonica, H. leucomela, and Teloschistes flavicans.
34841Nash T. (2002): Arsène historical collection from New Mexico. - Evansia, 19(4): 161. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346560.
ASU herbarium
34840Tønsberg T. (2002): Fertile Usnea longissima in Washington, U.S.A.. - Evansia, 19(2): 78–79. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346546.
An abundantly fertile specimen of Usnea \ongissima is reported from Washington, U.S.A.
34839Biechele L.T. (2002): The lichen flora of the lower eastern shore of the Delmarva Peninsula. - Evansia, 19(1): 17–19. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346536.
Seventy-eight collections of lichens are reported from the lower eastern shore of Maryland on the Delmarva Peninsula. This region is the northernmost range of bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps along the Atlantic Coastal Plain and supports a large number of lichen species.
34838Bruñas Gómez I., Casale M., Barreno E. & Catalá M. (2022): Near-infrared metabolomic fingerprinting study of lichen thalli and phycobionts in culture: aquaphotomics of Trebouxia lynnae dehydration. - Microorganisms, 10(12): 2444 [24 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10122444.
settingsOrder Article Reprints This is an early access version, the complete PDF, HTML, and XML versions will be available soon. Open AccessArticle Near-Infrared Metabolomic Fingerprinting Study of Lichen Thalli and Phycobionts in Culture: Aquaphotomics of Trebouxia lynnae Dehydration by Irene Bruñas Gómez 1,Monica Casale 2,Eva Barreno 3ORCID andMyriam Catalá 1,*ORCID 1 Department of Biology and Geology, School of Experimental Science & Technology, Rey Juan Carlos University, Av. Tulipán s/n, 28933 Madrid, Spain 2 DIFAR Department of Pharmacy, University of Genova, 16148 Genova, Italy 3 Instituto Cavanilles de Biodiversidad y Biología Evolutiva (ICBiBE), Departamento de Botánica y Geología, Universitat de València, C/Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Valencia, Spain * Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Microorganisms 2022, 10(12), 2444; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10122444 (registering DOI) Received: 8 October 2022 / Revised: 3 December 2022 / Accepted: 5 December 2022 / Published: 10 December 2022 (This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Collection in Environmental Microbiology Section 2021-2022) Download Review Reports Versions Notes Abstract Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an accurate, fast and safe technique whose full potential remains to be exploited. Lichens are a paradigm of symbiotic association, with extraordinary properties, such as abiotic stress tolerance and adaptation to anhydrobiosis, but subjacent mechanisms await elucidation. Our aim is characterizing the metabolomic NIRS fingerprints of Ramalina farinacea and Lobarina scrobiculata thalli, and of the cultured phycobionts Trebouxia lynnae and Trebouxia jamesii. Thalli collected in an air-dry state and fresh cultivated phycobionts were directly used for spectra acquisition in reflectance mode. Thalli water peaks were associated to the solvation shell (1354 nm) and sugar–water interactions (1438 nm). While northern–southern orientation related with two hydrogen bonded (S2) water, the site was related to one hydrogen bonded (S1). Water, lipids (saturated and unsaturated), and polyols/glucides contributed to the profiles of lichen thalli and microalgae. R. farinacea¸ with higher desiccation tolerance, shows higher S2 water than L. scrobiculata. In contrast, fresh phycobionts are dominated by free water. Whereas T. jamesii shows higher solvation water content, T. lynnae possesses more unsaturated lipids. Aquaphotomics demonstrates the involvement of strongly hydrogen bonded water conformations, polyols/glucides, and unsaturated/saturated fatty acids in the dehydration process, and supports a “rubbery” state allowing enzymatic activity during anhydrobiosis. Keywords: Anhydrobiosis; desiccation; phycobiont; Ramalina farinacea; Lobarina scrobiculata; Trebouxia lynnae; Trebouxia jamesii; aquaphotomics; metabolomic profile.
34837Rassabina A., Khabibrakhmanova V., Babaev V., Daminova A. & Minibayeva F. (2022): Melanins from the Lichens Lobaria pulmonaria and Lobaria retigera as eco-friendly adsorbents of synthetic dyes. - International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23(24): 15605 [14 p.] . https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232415605.
Synthetic dyes are widely used in the industry; they are chemically stable, difficult to neutralize, and therefore they are a threat to the environment when released into wastewaters. The dyes have a significant impact on plant performance by impairing photosynthesis, inhibiting growth, and entering the food chain and may finally result in the toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of food products. Implementation of the dark piment melanin for the adsorption of the synthetic dyes is a new ecologically friendly approach for bioremediation. The aim of the present work was to study the physico-chemical characteristics of melanins from the lichens Lobaria pulmonaria and Lobaria retigera, analyze their adsorption/desorption capacities towards synthetic dyes, and assess the capacity of melanins to mitigate toxicity of the dyes for a common soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Unique chelating properties of melanins determine the perspectives of the use of these high molecular weight polymers for detoxification of xenobiotics. Keywords: lichens; melanins; FT-IR; synthetic dyes; adsorbents.
34836Cozzolino A., Adamo P., Bonanomi G. & Motti R. (2022): The role of lichens, mosses, and vascular plants in the biodeterioration of historic buildings: A review. - Plants, 11(24): 3429 [19 p.] . https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11243429.
Biodeterioration is defined as the alteration of a given substrate due to a combination of physical and chemical factors produced by living organisms when attached to such materials. This phenomenon attracts scientific research attention due to its risk in causing destruction to outdoor cultural rock heritage sites. In this review, an update on the state-of-art regarding the biodeterioration phenomenon is represented in order to highlight the type of colonizing vegetation and possible mechanisms behind the corresponding deterioration. For this reason, 62 articles with a focus on lichens, mosses, and higher plants were investigated by evaluating the role of construction materials and different plant species related to the hazard index. The results showed that trees and shrubs are the most harmful plant life forms, for example, Ficus carica, Ailanthus altissima, and Capparis spinosa, while regarding building materials, those characterized by high porosity, such as andesite and argillaceous limestone, are more vulnerable to plant colonization. Further studies are needed to examine in detail the relationship between colonizing organisms, intrinsic elements of the substrate, and external factors, as well as the refinement of measures to prevent and control colonization by plants. Keywords: biodeterioration; monument conservation; higher plants deterioration; biodeteriogenic plants; hazard index.
34835Hansen C.J. ["& Freeman J.D."] (2003): A catalog and brief history of the lichen flora of Alabama. - Evansia, 20(3): 59–101. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346572..
A catalog of the lichens of Alabama obtained primarily from literature reports is presented. After adjusting for synonyms and misidentifications the lichen flora of Alabama includes at least 577 epithets (562 species, 10 varieties, and 5 subspecies across 174 genera). A short physical description of Alabama and a brief history of lichenological research in the state are also included.
34834Flenniken D. & Gibson E.S. (2003): The littoral species of Verrucaria of Cape Ann, MA. - Evansia, 20(2): 31–48. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346567.
A survey of the lichen genus Verrucaria on seashore rocks of Cape Ann in Gloucester, Massachusetts found the six species described in this paper. Keys, descriptions, illustrations, and distributions on Cape Ann are provided. Verrucaria amphibia Clemente is reported for the first time in eastern United States. Verrucaria ditmarsica Erichsen and Verrucaria erichsenii Zschacke are considered to be conspecific. Verrucaria maura Wahlenb. is discussed but not yet found.
34833Ciegler A., Eliasson U.H. & Keller H.W. (2003): Tree canopy lichens of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. - Evansia, 20(4): 114–131. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346576.
A study of the tree canopy lichens of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) based on a total of 2007 samples from 141 trees yielded 194 taxa from the canopy. Eighty-three of these taxa were new records for the GSMNP accessions list and appear to be unpublished records from the Park. The limited area covered, immensity of the Park and its considerable physiographic diversity, all suggest that many more new lichen records remain to be found. Phaeophyscia hispidula may represent a disjunct species normally found to the north. Taxa that could not be identified to species are listed with genus designation only.
34832Kneiper E., Lay E., Greene D., LaGreca S., LeBaron F. & LeBaron M. (2003): Clara Cummings Walk nets Lecanora conizaeoides for the Boston area. - Evansia, 20(4): 157–158. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346581.
34831McCune B. (2003): An unusual ammonia-affected lichen community on the Oregon coast. - Evansia, 20(4): 132–137. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346577.
34830St. Hilaire L. (2003): A report from the twenty-seventh annual Andrews Foray, September 2002, Saco Maine. - Evansia, 20(4): 144–156. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346580.
34829Flenniken D. (2004): New records for Myelochroa metarevoluta (Asahina) Hale in Ohio. - Evansia, 21(1): 37. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346585.
34828Cameron R. (2004): A second location for the rare boreal felt lichen in Nova Scotia. - Evansia, 21(1): 40–42. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346587.
Erioderma pedicellatum
34827Lay E. (2004): Wisconsin lichens and lichenicolous fungi collected during the 2002 Tuckerman Lichen Workshop. - Evansia, 21(1): 17–35. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346583.
34826Geiser L.H., Glavich D.A., Mikulin A.G., Ingersoll A.R. & Hutten M. (2004): New records of rare and unusual coastal lichens from the US Pacific Northwest. - Evansia, 21(3): 104–110. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346594.
34825Glavich D. & Geiser L. (2004): Dermatocarpon meiophyllizum Vainio in the US Pacific Northwest. - Evansia, 21(3): 137–140. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346599.
The aquatic lichen, Dermatocarpon meiophyllizum, is reported new to Oregon and Washington. The lichen was previously collected in these states but was mistaken for D. luridum. Differentiating characters, new sites, and confirmed historical sites, primarily in northern California, Oregon, Washington, are presented.
34824Zavarzin A. & Timdal E. (2004): Note on the occurence [sic!] of Nephroma occultum Wetm. in Alaska. - Evansia, 21(2): 101–102. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346593.
Recent study of lichens kept in the herbarium of Botanical Museum in Oslo, Norway (O) lead to finding of two specimens from Alaska that had previously been identified as “Nephroma cf. parile”. H.Krog collected both specimens in 1957 during fieldwork in Alaska Central Pacific Coast District (see below).
34823Washburn S.J. (2005): Epiphytic macrolichens of the greater Cincinnati metropolitan area — Part 1: Species lists and new county records. - Evansia, 22(4): 138–149. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346622.
A total of 31 species of lichens were found in southwestern Ohio and northern Kentucky, including 19 new county records for Ohio and 4 new county records for Kentucky. Keywords: Lichens, Cincinnati, Ohio, Kentuck.
34822Washburn S.J. (2005): A Visual Basic macro, which enables the use of Microsoft® Excel for dichotomous keys. - Evansia, 22(4): 122–125. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346620.
An Excel© macro is used to display positive choices in a dichotomous key for printing a permanent record of a taxonomic determination. Keywords: Dichotomous Keys, Macro, Microsoft Excel, Visual Basic.
34821Shevock J.R. (2005): Seeking funding opportunities for bryophyte and lichen inventories. - Evansia, 22(4): 150–153. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346623.
34820Bennett J.P. & Wetmore C.M. (2005): NPLichen: a database of lichens in the U.S. National Parks. - Evansia, 22(1): 39–42. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346608.
34819Darigo C. & Holmberg N. (2005): Bryophytes and lichens of Beckham County, Oklahoma, including Acaulon schimperianum new to Oklahoma. - Evansia, 22(2): 46–50. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346610.
During numerous visits to his family’s 360 acre farm property and other sites in Beckham County, Oklahoma, the junior author has collected a total of 29 bryophyte and lichen species, including Acaulon schimperianum (Sull.) Sull. in Sull. & Lesq., new to the state. While this number of species may seem small, the climate and topography of western Oklahoma, as described below, is not conducive to aggressive plant growth.
34818Knudsen K. & La Doux T. (2005): Lichen flora of the Southwestern Mojave Desert: Key's Ranch, Joshua Tree National Park, San Bernardino County, California, USA . - Evansia, 22(3): 103–109. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346617.
Thirty-four genera and 47 species are reported from the Key’s Ranch area in Joshua Tree National Park in the southwestern Mojave Desert of California. The flora differs substantially from other floristic reports from the Mojave Desert. Four species, Acarospora obnubila, Lecania polycycla, Placopyrenium noxium, and Verrucaria compacta are reported new for California. Keywords -- Lichens, Mojave Desert, California, Joshua Tree National Park, Key’s Ranch.
34817Andreas B.K., Showman R.E. & Zloba M.H. (2005): Formation of the Ohio Moss and Lichen Association, and report of the first fall foray to the Edge of Appalachia Preserve System, Adams Co., Ohio. - Evansia, 22(3): 92–100. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346615.
The Ohio Moss-Lichen Association was formed in 2004. Its first fall foray was held on October 23-24, 2004 at the Edge of Appalachia Preserve System, Adams County, OH. A total of 65 lichens, 49 mosses and 5 liverworts were recorded.
34816Hansen C.J. & Dute R.R. (2005): Additions to the lichen flora of Alabama I.. - Evansia, 22(3): 110–117. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346618.
Seventy-nine additional lichens and lichenicolous fungi are reported from Alabama, including 44 species new for the state and another 35 new county records.
34815Knudsen K. (2005): Acarospora amphibola Wedd. in Boston Harbor. - Evansia, 22(2): 43–45. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346609.
34814Nascimbene J., Gheza G., Bilovitz P.O., Francesconi L., Hafellner J., Mayrhofer H., Salvadori M., Vallese C. & Nimis P.L. (2022): A hotspot of lichen diversity and lichenological research in the Alps: the Paneveggio-Pale di San Martino Natural Park (Italy). - MycoKeys, 94: 37–50. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.94.95858.
A checklist of 916 lichenised taxa is reported from the Paneveggio-Pale di San Martino Natural Park and its surroundings (Trentino-Alto Adige, N Italy), based on 7351 records from: (a) 72 literature sources, (b) eight public and private herbaria and (c) field observations by some of the authors. The study area appears as a hotspot of lichen diversity, hosting 30.1% of the lichen biota of the Alps in a territory that has 0.064% of their total surface area. This is mainly due to its high climatical, geological and orographic heterogeneity, but also to the long history of lichenological exploration, that started in the 19th century with Ferdinand Arnold and is still ongoing. The present work highlights the importance of detailed species inventories to support knowledge of biodiversity patterns, taxonomy and ecology and to properly address conservation issues. Fuscidea mollis var. caesioalbescens, Hydropunctaria scabra, Protoparmelia badia var. cinereobadia and Variospora paulii are new to Italy, 18 other taxa are new to Trentino-Alto Adige. Keywords: Alps, biodiversity, checklists, conservation, herbarium studies, historical records, lichen inventories.
34813Prasad M., Schmid L.M.H., Marshall A.J., Blanchon D.J., Renner M.A.M., Baba Y., Padamsee M., & de Lange P.J. (2022): Ecological communities of Aotearoa / New Zealand species threatened by myrtle rust (Austropuccinia psidii (G. Winter) Beenken): The flora and mycobiota of the endemic genus Lophomyrtus Burret. - Perspectives in Biosecurity, 7: 34–70. https://doi.org/10.34074/pibs.00703.
The invasive rust Austropuccinia psidii, responsible for myrtle rust disease, poses a serious threat to the New Zealand Myrtaceae. Since the 2017 detection of Austropuccinia psidii in Aotearoa / New Z ealand, the rust has spread rapidly, resulting in the decline and death of a range of indigenous Myrtaceae, most notably the two species of the endemic genus Lophomyrtus, ramarama (L. bullata) and rōhutu (L. obcordata). While the threat Austropuccinia psidii poses to Lophomyrtus is now widely recognised, the indirect impact the rust has on the associated biota is poorly understood. Very little has been documented about the biota found in association with Lophomyrtus. To rectify this, we undertook a survey of the specimens held in three of the key Aotearoa / New Zealand herbaria that had been collected from Lophomyrtus. This was supplemented by field work in eight sites in western Te Ika a Maui / North Island, and north-western Te Wai Pounamu / South Island of Aotearoa / New Zealand. Although the herbarium searches located few specimens, and field work was limited to a few sample points within the range of Lophomyrtus, we found 221 taxa associated with Lophomyrtus, 176 taxa on ramarama, 81 on rōhutu and one on the naturally occurring hybrid between these two species Lophomyrtus ×ralphii. Of the 176 taxa found on ramarama, 59 are bryophytes (one hornwort, 33 liverworts and 25 mosses), five pteridophytes, 16 spermatophytes and 96 are lichenised mycobiota. Rōhutu supported 81 taxa: comprising one cyanobacterium, one alga, twentynine bryophytes (17 liverworts and 12 mosses), four pteridophytes, two spermatophytes and 44 lichenised mycobiota. Wild populations of Lophomyrtus ×ralphii were not investigated, and herbarium searches only disclosed one plant, the mistletoe Korthalsella lindsayi, associated with it. Several lichens and liverworts collected from Lophomyrtus represent potentially new species, and Lepra erythrella is a new addition to the lichenised mycobiota of Aotearoa / New Zealand. None of the putative new species are endemic to Lophomyrtus.
34812de Lange P.J., Marshall A.J., Schmid L.M.H., & Graham S. (2022): The biota and geology of Ngārango Otainui: A mixed indigenous / naturalised vegetation association of the Māngere Inlet, Manukau Harbour. - Perspectives in Biosecurity, 7: 5–33. https://doi.org/10.34074/pibs.00702.
An account of the geology, vegetation associations, mycobiota, flora and avifauna of Ngārango Otainui, a 0.309 ha island located at the eastern end of the Māngere Inlet, Manukau Harbour, Tāmaki Makaurau / Auckland is provided. This appears to be the first comprehensive account of the island’s geology, vegetation and biota. The island has been mapped by others as Puketoka Formation; our survey confirmed this, noting that the basal exposed portion of the island appears to be a distal, heavily weathered ignimbrite over which is deposited a series of tephras (Hamilton Ashes). The flora and mycobiota of the island, assessed over three visits (2009 and 2021) recorded 125 taxa from 57 families and 100 genera from Ngārango Otainui, and vouchers for 119 (95%) of these obtained. Fifty-two (54%) of the vascular plants and four (36%) of the bryophytes are naturalised to New Zealand and most of these dominate the island’s vegetation. Earliest imagery (1940) available suggests that the island was then dominated by grassland, and that since then the island has developed a woody vegetation dominated by naturalised plants, mostly from dispersal from nearby Auckland City urban sources. Fourteen of these plants are regarded as pest species within the Auckland Council Region. During two visits (January and November 2021) 14 species of bird were noted on or around the island. While no nationally threatened taxa were found, one plant, Bromus arenarius, five lichens and three birds seen are listed as ‘At Risk’ by threat listing panels using the New Zealand Threat Classification System. Nine vegetation associations (and sparsely vegetated landforms) were recognised. These are described in this paper and their extent given and mapped. Since aerial imagery became available for the island, 55% of the island has been lost through erosion, which is ongoing. Keywords: Ngārango Otainui; Māngere Inlet; Manukau Harbour; biota, vegetation associations; naturalised plants; erosion.
34811Gupta A., Sahu N., Singh A.P., Singh V.K., Singh S.C., Upadhye V.J., Mathew A.T., Kumar R. & Sinha R.P. (2022): Exploration of novel lichen compounds as inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro: Ligand-based design, molecular dynamics, and ADMET analyses. - Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 194: 6386–6406. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12010-022-04103-3.
In the year 2019–2020, the whole world witnessed the spread of a disease called COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2. A number of effective drugs and vaccine has been formulated to combat this outbreak. For the development of anti-COVID-19 drugs, the main protease (Mpro) is considered a key target as it has rare mutations and plays a crucial role in the replication of the SARS CoV-2. In this study, a library of selected lichen compounds was prepared and used for virtual screening against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro using molecular docking, and several hits as potential inhibitors were identified. Remdesivir was used as a standard inhibitor of Mpro for its comparison with the identified hits. Twenty-six compounds were identified as potential hits against Mpro, and these were subjected to in silico ADMET property prediction, and the compounds having favorable properties were selected for further analysis. After manual inspection of their interaction with the binding pocket of Mpro and binding affinity score, four compounds, namely, variolaric acid, cryptostictinolide, gyrophoric acid, and usnic acid, were selected for molecular dynamics study to evaluate the stability of complex. The molecular dynamics results indicated that except cryptostictinolide, all the three compounds made a stable complex with Mpro throughout a 100-ns simulation time period. Among all, usnic acid seems to be more stable and effective against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. In summary, our findings suggest that usnic acid, variolaric acid, and gyrophoric acid have potential to inhibit SARS-Cov-2 Mpro and act as a lead compounds for the development of antiviral drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2.
34810Lendemer J.C. & Yahr R. (2004): A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. - Evansia, 21(3): 118–136. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346598.
Between March 17, 2003 and March 21, 2003 the participants of Tuckerman Workshop #12 collected in a variety of habitats near the Outer Banks of North Carolina, USA.
34809Ai M., Zhong Q., Scheidegger C., Wang L. & Wang X. (2022): Revision of Dimelaena Norman (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) species containing usnic acid reveals a new species and a new combination from China. - Phytotaxa, 574(4): 259–272. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.574.4.1.
Dimelaena tibetica is described as a species new to science, characterized by a grayish yellow surface, usually with a covering of white pruina, a crustose thallus, areolate at center, radiate-plicate at margin, adnate apothecia and lacking gyrophoric acid. It differs from other usnic acid-containing Dimelaena species by its plane marginal lobes and adnate apothecia. Based on the study of fresh specimens from the environment of the type locality, Dimelaena altissima is proposed as a new combination. A fresh specimen of Dimelaena oreina (type species of the genus Dimelaena) was collected in the Swiss Alps, in the vicinity of the area where the type material of the species presumably was collected, and a sequence was generated to confirm the phylogenetic position of this genus. All three species share common characters: usnic acid content and a yellowish green upper surface. Descriptions of these species were based on a combination of morphological and phylogenetic analyses. A key and phylogram are provided for these three Dimelaena species which produce usnic acid. Keywords: lichenized fungi, nuITS-nuLSU-mtSSU, phylogeny, taxonomy, type locality, Lichens.
34808Maraun M., Thomas T., Fast E., Treibert N., Caruso T., Schaefer I., Lu J.-Z. & Scheu S. (2023): New perspectives on soil animal trophic ecology through the lens of C and N stable isotope ratios of oribatid mites. - Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 177: 108890 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2022.108890.
Knowledge of the trophic ecology of soil animals is important for understanding their high alpha diversity as well as their functional role in soil food webs and systems. In the last 20 years, the analysis of natural variations in stable isotope ratios (15N/14N, 13C/12C) has revolutionized our view on soil animal trophic ecology. Here, we review the state of the art of the trophic ecology of a highly abundant and diverse soil animal taxon, oribatid mites (Oribatida), investigated by stable isotope analyses. The review is based on 25 papers reporting stable isotope data of 292 oribatid mite taxa from 30 different sites. Four main findings emerged. (1) Oribatid mites cluster into six trophic groups, i.e. moss feeders, lichen feeders, primary decomposers, fungal feeders/secondary decomposers, predators/scavengers and marine algal feeders, plus one additional group, which incorporates CaCO3 in their cuticle for defence but still belongs to the fungal feeders/secondary decomposers group. (2) Of the 292 species studied 43.7% were classified as fungal feeders/secondary decomposers, 27.0% as primary decomposers and 15.7% as predators/scavengers, only few species include CaCO3 into their skeleton (6.1%), feed on lichens (4.9%), mosses (2.1%) or marine algae (0.7%). (3) In about one-third of the species studied the trophic niche was constant or varied little between sites or habitats, but in two-thirds of the species their trophic niche varied between habitats, with some species even shifting trophic levels, indicating trophic plasticity. (4) When aggregated at higher taxonomic level oribatid mite species clustered in only three instead of six trophic groups. This indicates that species within the same high level taxon often belong to different trophic groups, for example because feeding habits evolved convergently. Therefore, to accurately reflect the trophic ecology of oribatid mites their stable isotope signatures need to be analysed at species level. However, stable isotope analyses also have limitations, e.g. feeding on bacteria and fungi cannot be separated, and the same is true for feeding on ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Other methods such as fatty acid, amino acid and molecular gut content analyses as well as microbiome analyses may complement stable isotope studies and resolve oribatid mite trophic niche differentiation at a higher resolution. This will contribute to a better understanding of the local coexistence of large numbers of species in soil. Finally, we provide perspectives on how to integrate microarthropods into soil food webs using stable isotope and other methods allowing deeper insight into their trophic structure. Keywords: Soil mites; Trophic ecology; 15N; 13C; Niche differentiation; Diversity; Food web; Stable isotopes; Oribatida. [p. 4:] "Surprisingly, many species of oribatid mites neither were ascribed to decomposers nor to predators, but rather to lichen or moss feeders. Lichen feeders, such as Cymberemaeus cymba, Phauloppia spp., Carabodes labyrinthicus and Mycobates spp. (Norton and Behan-Pelletier, 2009), can easily be separated from all other taxa by having low 15N and high 13C signatures (Maraun et al., 2011). By contrast, mosses are characterized by 15N and 13C signatures close to those of vascular C3 plants, which also separates plant/moss feeders from other trophic groups."
34807Wang J., Zhao H., Guo Q. & Ding H. (2022): Identification and antibacterial activity of Thamnolia vermicularis and Thamnolia subuliformis. - Journal of Microbiological Methods, 203: 106628 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2022.106628.
Thamnolia vermicularis (Tv) and Thamnolia subuliformis (Ts) are two species from the same habitat with such similar external morphological characteristics that researchers often confuse the two in their scientific work and do not distinguish between them. This study applies three different methods to distinguish them. The diversity of endophytic fungi was also compared and their antibacterial activity in vitro was evaluated. The results show that all three methods can distinguish Tv and Ts, and can be used to cross-validate each other. The ultraviolet fluorescence method and the chemical colour change method are simpler strategies, while thin-layer chromatography is relatively complicated but can more clearly distinguish the chemical composition of the two species. In the analysis of the endophytic fungi community structure of Tv and Ts, it was found that the diversity of endophytic fungi in Tv was more abundant and had wider antibacterial activity and better inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria in vitro. Keywords: Lichen; Ultraviolet fluorescence; Chemical chromatography; Thin-layer chromatography; Antibacterial activity; ITS sequencing.
34806Esseen P.-A. & Ekström M. (2023): Influence of canopy structure and light on the three-dimensional distribution of the iconic lichen Usnea longissima. - Forest Ecology and Management, 529: 120667 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2022.120667.
Forest canopies modify microclimates and create habitats for nonvascular epiphytes, but we need to better understand the mechanisms regulating their vertical and horizontal distributions. Here we examine how canopy structure and light environment influence the 3D distribution of Usnea longissima, the world’s longest lichen, and associated with old-growth forests. We quantified forest structure, vertical profile of light (PPFD transmittance fraction), and horizontal as well as vertical distribution of the lichen in a 1 ha plot dominated by Picea abies. The forest had a multi-layered canopy with mortality driven by small-scale gap dynamics. The population size of the lichen had an approximate log-normal distribution with host trees showing strong clustering. The lichen extended up to mid-canopy and had a rather sharp upper limit. Population size increased with DBH and upper limit but did not correlate with basal area. The vertical profile of light was steeper in dead than in live trees, with the lichen occurring in a zone with low-intermediate light. The horizontal distribution was linked to the vertical distribution through short-distance asexual dispersal. The lichen’s 3D distribution was shaped by various interacting functional mechanisms. Its absence from the upper canopy was mainly explained by sensitivity to high light when desiccated and limited capacity for upward migration. The population dynamics was driven by source trees hosting large populations in mid-canopy. The lichen’s strong association with humid, old-growth forests is explained by narrow niche preferences and dispersal limitation, and not by slow growth. Protection of multi-layered forests with long continuity of tree cover is needed to secure substrates and suitable microcli- mates for development of viable lichen populations. Our study highlights that the 3D distribution of lichens in forest canopies is driven by forest dynamics, canopy structure, microclimate, and lichen functional traits. Keywords: Canopy structure; Lichen dispersal; Logistic regression; Microclimate; Spatial point pattern analysis; Vertical light profile.
34805Spribille T. (2002): Pilophorus clavatus and Pseudocyphellaria crocata new to the interior of western North America. - Evansia, 19(3): 81–82. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346547.
The same paper printed also in the following issue (Evansia 19(4): 128–130).
34804Tønsberg T. & McCune B. (2002): Additions to the lichen flora of North America X. Buellia arborea. - Evansia, 18(4): 128. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346527.
Buellia arborea is reported as new to North America from Montana, U.S.A.
34803Rosso A.L., McCune B., Tønsberg T. & Printzen C. (1999): Lichens of an old-growth forest in a little explored area of western Oregon, U.S.A.. - Evansia, 16(3): 137–142. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346815.
34802Ellis C.J. & Coppins B.J. (2019): Five decades of decline for old-growth indicator lichens in Scotland. - Edinburgh Journal of Botany, 76(3): 319–331. doi: 10.1017/S0960428619000088.
Systematic data collection for direct statistical analysis of biodiversity trends tends to be focused on charismatic fauna and flora such as birds or vascular plants. When subsequently applied by conservation agencies in summary metrics tracking habitat and species protection, these patterns in biodiversity loss or gain can fail to capture outcomes for groups that have a prominent importance in habitat composition, diversity and ecological function, such as algae, bryophytes, lichens and other fungi. Such species are primarily recorded on an ad hoc basis by taxonomic specialists, yielding noisy data that present problems in robustly identifying trends. This study explored the use of ad hoc field-recorded data as a potential source of biodiversity information, by comparing the pattern of recording for carefully selected indicator species with those for benchmark or control species as a proxy for recording effort. Focusing on Scotland’s internationally important epiphytic lichens, and especially ‘old-growth’ indicator species, British Lichen Society data revealed a decline in the extent of these species in Scotland, relative to recording effort, over a period of five decades. A recent slowing in the rate of decline is observed but remains to be confirmed. The longterm decline is consistent with the effect of land use intensification, resulting in small and isolated populations that are vulnerable to extinction debt. We caution that remedial protection and monitoring for such populations remains vital as a complement to Scotland’s larger scale ambition for increased woodland extent and connectivity. Keywords: Epiphyte, extinction debt, field recording, lichen, trend analysis, woodland.
34801Schulz M., Schmitt I., Weber D. & Dal Grande F. (2022): Fungal host affects photosynthesis in a lichen holobiont. - Journal of Fungi, 8(12): 1267 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121267.
Corals and lichens are iconic examples of photosynthetic holobionts, i.e., ecological and evolutionary units resulting from the tightly integrated association of algae and prokaryotic microbiota with animal or fungal hosts, respectively. While the role of the coral host in modulating photosynthesis has been clarified to a large extent in coral holobionts, the role of the fungal host in this regard is far less understood. Here, we address this question by taking advantage of the recent discovery of highly specific fungal–algal pairings corresponding to climatically adapted ecotypes of the lichen-forming genus Umbilicaria. Specifically, we compared chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics among lichen thalli consisting of different fungal–algal combinations. We show that photosynthetic performance in these lichens is not only driven by algal genotype, but also by fungal host species identity and intra-host genotype. These findings shed new light on the closely intertwined physiological processes of fungal and algal partners in the lichen symbiosis. Indeed, the specific combinations of fungal and algal genotypes within a lichen individual—and the resulting combined functional phenotype—can be regarded as a response to the environment. Our findings suggest that characterizing the genetic composition of both eukaryotic partners is an important complimentary step to understand and predict the lichen holobiont’s responses to environmental change. Keywords: photosynthetic performance; lichen-forming fungi; hologenome; fungal–algal pairings; symbiotic mosaic.
34800Marcano V. (2022): Eight new species of lichenized Basidiomycota in the genera Acantholichen, Cyphellostereum and Dictyonema s.str. (Agaricales, Hygrophoraceae) from northern South America. - Phytotaxa, 574(3): 199–225. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.574.3.1.
A study of Acantholichen P.M. Jørgensen, Cyphellostereum D.A. Reid and Dictyonema s.str. C. Agardh ex Kunth from the Venezuelan Andes (Sierra Nevada de Mérida) and the Guayana Highlands (Alto Orinoco) revealed the presence of eight species new to science, viz., Acantholichen dendroideus V. Marcano, Cyphellostereum mucuyense V. Marcano, Dictyonema andinum V. Marcano, D. duidense V. Marcano, D. laurae V. Marcano, D. subinvolutum V. Marcano, D. subsericeum V. Marcano and D. umbricola V. Marcano. Acantholichen dendroideus grows on mosses in shady and humid disturbed forest and is characterized by densely and dichotomously branched microsquamules, with a pruinose surface and large acanthohyphidia. Cyphellostereum mucuyense grows on mosses and sandy soils, lacks a jigsaw-puzzle-shaped hyphal sheath and prothallus, the fibrils are not penetrated by tubular fungal hyphae and the basidiocarp surface is finely arachnoid. This is the first record of Cyphellostereum in Venezuela. Dictyonema andinum might be confused with D. irrigatum (Berkeley & M. A. Curtis) Lücking from the Andaman Islands, but differs in the broader and ascending fibrils, a thicker photobiont layer and hypothallus, as well as the formation of stereoid-corticioid hymenophores. Dictyonema duidense from the Guayana Highlands and D. subsericeum from the Venezuelan Andes belong in the group of shelf-like morphotypes, with a semicircular thallus resembling D. sericeum s.str. Dictyonema duidense grows on tree trunks and is characterized by thick, very broad lobes and an areolate, rugose surface and it lacks clamp connections whereas D. subsericeum grows on tree branches and is characterized by variability of color (white, greenish blue, brown), size and shape (semicircular to hemispherical), filamentous lobes, a hirsute surface, fibrillose margins, clamp connections on the hyphae, cyphelloid hymenophores resembling attachment hapters, and very small, globose to subglobose basidiospores. Dictyonema laurae resembles D. subsericeum but is characterized by a continuous greenish blue crust-like thallus with an irregular surface, with discontinuous, fibrillose, and narrow margins projecting and ascending from the substrate, a hapteriform hymenophore, and its lacks clamp connections on the hyphae. Dictyonema subinvolutum is characterized by a jigsaw-puzzle-shaped hyphal sheath, fibrils penetrated by tubular fungal hyphae, and a smooth, pruinose, resupinate hymenophore. Finally, D. umbricola grows on mosses in very shady habitats and produces a corticioid hymenophore raised from the thallus, resembling apothecial discs, jigsaw-puzzle-shaped cells around the filaments and a distinct, discontinuous, white prothallus. Of the eight species of Dictyonema s.lat. registered from Venezuela, seven are known only from the Venezuelan Andes (A. dendroideus, C. mucuyense, D. andinum, D. laurae, D. subsericeum, D. subinvolutum, D. umbricola) and one is known only from the Venezuelan Amazonas (D. duidense). The high concentration of Acantholichen, Cyphellostereum and Dictyonema species in tropical America and especially of the latter genus in the Venezuelan Andes indicates that this region constitutes an important centre for speciation and endemism of Dictyonema clade/subtribe Dictyonematinae. Key words: Basidiolichens, new species, Venezuela.
34799Fryday A.M., Beckett R.P. & Kirika P.M. (2022): Lichenology in Africa. - Lichenologist, 54(5): 227-230. 10.1017/S0024282922000329.
book review
34798Aptroot A. (2022): Foliicolous lichens and their lichenicolous fungi in Macaronesia and Atlantic Europe By Pieter PG van den Boom. 2021. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 111. Pp 197, 101 figures. Page size 14 × 21cm, weight 410 g. ISBN 978-3-443-58090-2. Paperback. Price: €89.00. - Lichenologist, 54(5): 343. 10.1017/S0024282922000287.
book review
34797Temu S., Clerc P., Nadel M., Tibell L., Tibuhwa D. & Tibell S. (2022): Molecular, morphological and chemical variation of the Usnea pectinata aggregate from Tanzania, São Tomé and Príncipe. - Lichenologist, 54(5): 291-298. 10.1017/S0024282922000251.
This study investigated the molecular, chemical and morphological variation in the Usnea pectinata aggregate using 42 specimens, 22 from Tanzania and 20 from São Tomé and Príncipe. A total of 31 sequences (13 ITS, 13 nuLSU and 5 RPB1) were generated. The results are presented in two phylogenies: first a three-markers ‘backbone’ phylogeny for the U. pectinata aggregate, where six distinct, strongly supported subclades indicate considerable genetic variation in the dataset; and second, an ITS phylogeny with 47 terminals along with a mapping of morphological and chemistry data. Several well-supported monophyletic clades were recovered in both phylogenies and these may well represent separate species in the complex referred to here as the U. pectinata aggregate. Three morphotypes characterized by axis pigmentation and four by branch shape were noted. Six chemotypes were observed. chemistry, lichen, molecular phylogeny, Parmeliaceae, taxonomy
34796Nadel M. & Clerc P. (2022): Notes on the genus Usnea Adans. (lichenized Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae) from the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe in tropical West Africa. - Lichenologist, 54(5): 271-289. 10.1017/S0024282922000238.
An investigation of the genus Usnea, in the biodiversity hotspot of the Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe in tropical West Africa, is presented here. Fifteen species, or species aggregates, were recorded for the islands: Usnea articulata aggr., Usnea baileyi (Stirt.) Zahlbr., Usnea beckeri P. Clerc & Nadel, Usnea bicolorata Motyka, Usnea erinacea aggr., Usnea exasperata (Müll. Arg.) Motyka, Usnea firmula (Stirt.) Motyka, Usnea krogiana P. Clerc, Usnea longiciliata P. Clerc & Nadel, Usnea nodulosa Swinscow & Krog, Usnea pectinata aggr., Usnea sorediosula Motyka, Usnea submollis J. Steiner, and two undetermined species. Two species of lichen are described as new to science: U. beckeri and U. longiciliata. Both species are characterized by a dense and brittle, dark green thallus, the presence of apothecia surrounded by long cilia-like fibrils, a lack of soredia, and the presence of two unknown substances; however, whereas U. beckeri has a pendant growth form and can reach 25 cm in length, U. longiciliata is differentiated by a shrubby growth form of less than 6 cm. These two species also have different ascospore dimensions. A molecular phylogenetic analysis is presented that lends support to their description as new species. Additionally, Usnea krogiana is noted as new to continental Africa and nine Usnea species or aggregates are noted as new to the Islands of São Tomé and Príncipe in the Gulf of Guinea. biodiversity, lichens, phylogeny, U. beckeri, U. longiciliata
34795Mkhize K., Minibayeva F. & Beckett R. (2022): Adaptions of photosynthesis in sun and shade in populations of some Afromontane lichens. - Lichenologist, 54(5): 319-329. 10.1017/S0024282922000214.
Photosynthetic organisms have evolved a great variety of mechanisms to optimize their use of sunlight. Some of the clearest examples of adaptations can be seen by comparing photosynthesis in different species and in different individuals of the same species that grow under high and low light levels. While the adaptations of sun and shade higher plants have been relatively well studied, much less information is available on the photobionts of lichenized Ascomycetes. An important adaptation that can protect photosynthetic organisms from the potentially harmful effects of excess light is non-photochemical quenching (NPQ); NPQ can dissipate unused light energy as heat. Here we used chlorophyll fluorescence to compare the induction and relaxation of NPQ and the induction of electron transport (rETR) in collections of the same lichen species from exposed and from more shaded locations. All species have trebouxioid photobionts and normally grow in more exposed microhabitats but can also be readily collected from more shaded locations. Shade forms display generally higher NPQ, presumably to protect lichens from occasional rapid increases in light that occur during sunflecks. Furthermore, the NPQ of shade forms relaxes quickly when light levels are reduced, presumably to ensure efficient photosynthesis after a sunfleck has passed. The maximal relative electron transport rate is lower in shade than sun collections, probably reflecting a downregulation of photosynthetic capacity to reduce energy costs. We also compared collections of pale and melanized thalli from three species of shade lichens with Symbiochloris as their photobiont. Interestingly, NPQ in melanized thalli from slightly more exposed microhabitats induced and relaxed in a way that resembled shade rather than sun forms of the trebouxioid lichens. This might suggest that in some locations melanization induced during a temporary period of high light may be excessive and could potentially reduce photosynthesis later in the growing season. Taken together, the results suggest that lichen photobionts can flexibly adjust the amount and type of NPQ, and their levels of rETR in response to light availability. chlorophyll fluorescence, photoprotection, photosynthesis, sunfleck, xanthophyll cycle
34794Medeiros I. & Lutzoni F. (2022): Contribution to a modern treatment of Graphidaceae biodiversity in South Africa: genera of tribe Graphideae with hyaline ascospores. - Lichenologist, 54(5): 253-270. 10.1017/S0024282922000263.
Additions and corrections are provided for the South African species of Graphidaceae tribe Graphideae with hyaline ascospores. Allographa oldayana I. Medeiros sp. nov. is described as new to science based on morphological, chemical and molecular data. The new species is characterized by lirellae with striate labia and a complete thalline margin, a completely carbonized excipulum, large, muriform ascospores, and the presence of hirtifructic acid. Allographa consanguinea (Müll. Arg.) Lücking, A. leptospora (Vain.) Lücking & Kalb, Diorygma aff. minisporum Kalb et al., Graphis crebra Vain., Gr. dupaxana Vain., Gr. furcata Fée, Gr. handelii Zahlbr., Gr. longula Kremp., Gr. pinicola Zahlbr., Gr. proserpens Vain, Gr. subhiascens (Müll. Arg.) Lücking and Platythecium sp. are reported as new records for South Africa. Allographa striatula (Ach.) Lücking & Kalb, Graphis analoga Nyl. and Gr. scripta (L.) Ach. are shown to be misapplied names that should be removed from the South African checklist. The new combination Mangoldia bylii (Vain.) I. Medeiros comb. nov. (bas. Graphis bylii Vain) is made; this represents an earlier name for M. atronitens (A. W. Archer) Lücking et al. Taxonomic notes are provided for Graphis bylii var. lividula Vain. and Gr. denudans Vain., species that are known only from their South African holotypes. Phylogenetic analyses that include new DNA sequence data from the nrLSU, mtSSU and RPB2 loci confirm the generic placements of several species for which molecular data were lacking: Allographa consanguinea, Glyphis atrofusca (Müll. Arg.) Lücking, Graphis crebra and Gr. subhiascens. biodiversity, Graphis pergracilis complex, Northern Mistbelt Forest, savannah, Southern Afrotemperate Forest, taxonomy, tropical lichens
34793Kitara N., Munishi P. & Scheidegger C. (2022): Distribution of Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. in Mt Kilimanjaro and Mt Meru forests: altitudinal range and specificity to substratum tree species. - Lichenologist, 54(5): 331-341. 10.1017/S0024282922000305.
In this study, we sampled L. pulmonaria thalli from Mt Kilimanjaro and Mt Meru, Tanzania. Across all sampled tree species, a range of 1–35 thalli of L. pulmonaria were counted per trunk (up to 5 m above ground level), with sampling distributed across 13 (c. 1 ha) plots located in the sub-alpine to montane forest altitudinal gradients of Mt Kilimanjaro and Mt Meru. Descriptive analyses were performed to determine the association of L. pulmonaria with particular host trees among the study sites and regions, and linear mixed effects models (LMM) were used to explore relationships with tree-level variables. The analyses showed that most thalli of L. pulmonaria were unevenly distributed among the tree species in the montane and sub-alpine forests of Mt Kilimanjaro and Mt Meru. Host tree characteristics such as trunk circumference, height on trunk, bark texture and trunk shape appeared to have an effect on the local population size of L. pulmonaria and the frequency of occurrence. Also, the results indicated an effect of trunk circumference and tree bark on the development of L. pulmonaria thallus size among the study sites. Furthermore, host tree species, for example, Hypericum revolutum and Rapenea melanophloeos were important habitats for L. pulmonaria on both mountains, whereas Ilex mitis, Bersama abyssinica and Hagenia abyssinica were important only on one mountain. The wider literature on L. pulmonaria ecology is also reviewed and it is therefore recommended that for successful conservation of the threatened L. pulmonaria in tropical montane forests, strategies should consider the type of the forests, together with the host tree species and their size. Africa, conservation, lichen, phorophyte species, tropical tree species
34792Kirika P., Lumbsch H., Huéscar E., Quedensley T. & Divakar P. (2022): Canoparmelia texana (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) consists of two independent lineages. - Lichenologist, 54(5): 245-251. 10.1017/S0024282922000135.
Recent studies have demonstrated that species boundaries among the lichen-forming fungi are in need of revision with the discovery of cryptic species in numerous clades, especially in parmelioid lichens. Here we focus on addressing the species boundaries in Canoparmelia texana, a sorediate species with a pantropical distribution that extends into temperate regions. We extracted DNA sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), large subunit (nuLSU) and mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) from samples mostly collected in Kenya, and analyzed them in a phylogenetic framework. We illustrate that our samples of the species as currently circumscribed do not form a monophyletic group but fall into two distinct clades, with the apotheciate C. nairobiensis nested within. Both of the discovered lineages have a wide distributional range and are common in Kenya, and Parmelia albaniensis C. W. Dodge is resurrected to accommodate one of the clades; consequently a new combination, Canoparmelia albaniensis (C. W. Dodge) Divakar & Kirika comb. nov., is proposed. Africa, biodiversity, cryptic species, lichen, molecular systematics, parmelioid lichens, taxonomy
34791Kaasalainen U., Biermann L., Mollel N., Schmidt A. & Hemp A. (2022): Peltigera (Lecanoromycetes) on Mt Kilimanjaro, East Africa. - Lichenologist, 54(5): 231-243. 10.1017/S0024282922000184.
Tropical mountain forests are hotspots of biodiversity that are widely threatened by human population pressure and climate change. However, the cryptogamic species richness of many tropical mountain regions is insufficiently known, the poorly understood biodiversity of tropical African lichens being a prime example. To study the diversity of the genus Peltigera (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes) in East Africa, we studied lichens in a wide range of habitats on the slopes of Mt Kilimanjaro in Tanzania. Ranging from savannah to alpine heath vegetation and from natural forests to agricultural environments, 13 habitat types were sampled for lichens, which were then identified based on the nuITS genetic marker and morphology. We found eight Peltigera species on the slopes of Mt Kilimanjaro, including P. alkalicola sp. nov., P. dolichorhiza, P. polydactyloides, P. praetextata, P. rufescentiformis, P. seneca, P. sorediifera and P. ulcerata. Peltigera is most common and species-rich in the subalpine Erica forest zone, and four of the eight detected species were present only in the subalpine and alpine vegetation zones. Peltigera alkalicola was identified as a previously undescribed species, growing on trachybasaltic lava in the subalpine and alpine zones of Mt Kilimanjaro. The species resembles P. lepidophora but differs by possessing smaller thalli and peltate isidia that are distinctly dark on the lighter, tomentose lamina. Based on data from the NCBI GenBank, P. alkalicola probably also occurs in Alaska (USA) and Ningxia (China). This suggests that even though the species might generally be rare, it may have a global distribution in extreme mountain environments. For the first time, we report P. sorediifera from Tanzania and P. seneca from Africa. cyanolichens, Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot, lichenized fungi, montane ecosystems, Peltigerales, Tanzania, tropical lichen diversity
34790Farkas E. & Muhoro A. (2022): Identification key to the lichen species of the parmelioid clade in Kenya. - Lichenologist, 54(5): 299-318. 10.1017/S0024282922000299.
Of the c. 900 lichen species known from Kenya, 178 belong to the parmelioid clade. Several of these parmelioid taxa require further revisionary studies. An identification key to the species of the parmelioid clade, based on updated nomenclature, is produced to support the practical work in collecting and selecting certain parmelioid lichens for further research. A new combination Parmotrema nyasense (C. W. Dodge) R. S. Egan comb. nov. in Egan et al., Bibliotheca Lichenologica110, 383 (2016) is published here by R. S. Egan. East Africa, lichenized fungi, nomenclature, Parmeliaceae, species determination, taxonomy
34789Jüriado I., Marmor-Ohtla L., Martin L., Randlane T. & Suija A. (2022): Updates to the list of Estonian lichenized, lichenicolous and allied fungi. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 59: 83–91. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2022.59.12.
Herewith, we continue to upgrade Estonian checklist of lichenized, lichenicolous and allied fungi and report twelve fungal species as new for Estonia, of them eleven are lichenized and one is lichenicolous fungus.
34788Darmostuk V. & Sira O. (2022): New and remarkable records of lichenicolous fungi from Ternopil Oblast (Ukraine). II. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 59: 43–51. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2022.59.08.
Records of 25 species of lichenicolous fungi from Ternopil oblast (Ukraine) are provided. Among them, Dacampia cyrtellae, Didymocyrtis slaptonensis, Epithamnolia xanthoriae, Lichenotubeufia heterodermiae, Phoma peltigerae, Tremella caloplacae, Trichoconis physciicola, Unguiculariopsis lucaniae, Xenonectriella physciacearum, and X. zimmermanni are reported for the first time for Ukraine. Lichenotubeufia is a new genus to Ukraine. Descriptions, localities, ecology and distribution of the recorded species are given. Keywords: biodiversity, Lichenotubeufia, Trichoconis, Xenonectriella.
34787Kossowska M. (2022): Hornfels rocks as a habitat for saxicolous lichen biota. A case study from the Sudety Mountains (SW Poland). - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 59: 35–41. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2022.59.07.
The results of lichenological studies on hornfels outcrops in the Izerskie Mountains (Sudetes, SW Poland) are presented. This substrate is connected with the igneous intrusion into the country rocks and is characterized by a richer chemical and mineral composition than the surrounding rock bodies. In the six analyzed sites, a total of 48 saxicolous lichen species were found. Hornfels as a substrate for lichen vegetation is distinguished by the presence of lichens typical for rocks rich in metal compounds, in the study area represented by Rhizocarpon oederi, Lecidea silacea and Porpidia melinodes, and lichens that prefer mineral-enriched rocks, like Lecanora campestris, L. rupicola, Lecidea fuscoatra, Porpidia cinereoatra and Rimularia gibbosa. The three mentioned metallophilous species are some of the rarest components of the lichen biota in Poland, known from single localities. Other rare and locally endangered lichens recorded on hornfels include Lambiella furvella, Stereocaulon dactylophyllum and Umbilicaria pustulata. Keywords: saxicolous lichens, biodiversity, Hercynian mountains, Central Europe, metallophytes.
34786Jüriado I., Degtjarenko P., Oja E. & Randlane T. (2022): A recent update in red-listing of Estonian lichens: threat status of 168 species was assessed for the first time. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 59: 69–81. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2022.59.11.
The threat status of 168 lichenized species growing mostly on rocks or ground were assessed in 2022 for the first time in Estonia. The IUCN Red List system (categories and criteria) were used for that purpose. Most of the assessed taxa were microlichens (163), while five macrolichen species were also evaluated. Among the assessed species, 91 were assigned to the threat categories (Critically Endangered – CR, Endangered – EN and Vulnerable – VU), 17 species were assigned to the category Near Threatened (NT), and 41 species were assigned to the category Least Concerned (LC). Category Data Deficient (DD) was assigned for 17 species and the category Regionally Extinct (RE) for two species. Among the threat categories, 35 species were assigned to the category EN, 34 species to VU, and 22 species to CR. In general, most of the evaluated species (81%, 137 species) were growing on different types of rock, 16% (28 species) of species were growing on soil, mosses or plant debris, and three taxa were growing on other substrata. Most of the threatened epigeic and epilithic microlichens were recorded on alvar grasslands growing on ground, limestone pebbles and flatrock or erratic boulders. Er- ratic boulders in various forest types and calcareous cliffs in clint forest were also important habitats for threatened species. Moreover, different rock substrates of anthropogenic origin (walls, buildings and abandoned limestone quarries) performed as significant habitat type for epilithic species. Bush encroachment of open habitats, especially in semi-natural grasslands, serves as the main threat for epigeic and epilithic lichens. Keywords: alvars, crustose lichens, epilithic lichens, epigeic lichens, microlichens, IUCN, lichen habitats, threat status.
34785Jannah M., A`yun Q., Afifah N., Prasetya E. & Hariri M.R. (2022): Usnea in West Java: a potential source of bioactive secondary metabolites. - Berkala Penelitian Hayati, 28: 26–31. https://doi.org/10.23869/bphjbr.28.1.20224.
Lichen is a symbiotic organism consisting of algae (photobionts) and fungi (mycobiont). In Indonesia, Usnea is the only genus of lichen that has been widely recognized and used by the local community for traditional medicine. It is locally known as kayu angin, rusuk angin, or janggot Kai. Furthermore, it produces lichen acid and other compounds as secondary metabolites that need investigation. Therefore, this study aimed to identify species and determine the secondary metabolites of Usnea in West Java. There were 13 species of Usnea identified, with U. rubrotincta, U. mutabilis, and U. barbata being new to West Java. The extraction of U. esperantiana has the highest number of lichen acids, with 20 different types identified. This study showed that Usnea contains lichen acid, flavonoid, and saponin compounds. The secondary metabolites are a potential source of natural products for bioprospecting. Keywords: West Java / secondary metabolites / lichen / Usnea / angin / compounds.
34784Acharius E. (1809): Förteckning pa de i Sverige växande arter af Lafvarnes familj (Fortsaettning). - Kongl. Vetenskaps Akademiens Nya Handlingar Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [2. ser.], 30[3]: 145–169. .
34783Acharius E. (1809): Förteckning pa de i Sverige växande arter af Lafvarnes familj. - Kongl. Vetenskaps Akademiens Nya Handlingar Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [2. ser.], 30[2]: 97–102. .
34782Acharius E. (1808): Förteckning pa de i Sverige växande arter af Lafvarnes familj (Fortsaettning). - Kongl. Vetenskaps Akademiens Nya Handlingar Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [2. ser.], 29[4]: 259–283. .
34781Popovici V., Musuc A.M., Matei E., Karampelas O., Ozon E.A., Cozaru G.C., Schröder V., Bucur L., Aricov L., Anastasescu M., Așchie M., Badea V., Lupuliasa D. & Gîrd C.E. (2022): ROS-induced DNA-damage and autophagy in oral squamous cell carcinoma by Usnea barbata oil extract—An in vitro study. - International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23(23): 14836 [33 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232314836.
Oxidative stress is associated with aging, cancers, and numerous metabolic and chronic disorders, and phenolic compounds are well known for their health-promoting role due to their free-radical scavenging activity. These phytochemicals could also exhibit pro-oxidant effects. Due to its bioactive phenolic secondary metabolites, Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex. F.H. Wigg (U. barbata) displays anticancer and antioxidant activities and has been used as a phytomedicine for thousands of years. The present work aims to analyze the properties of U. barbata extract in canola oil (UBO). The UBO cytotoxicity on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) CLS-354 cell line and blood cell cultures was explored through complex flow cytometry analyses regarding apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, the enzymatic activity of caspase 3/7, cell cycle, nuclear shrinkage (NS), autophagy (A), and synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). All these studies were concomitantly performed on canola oil (CNO) to evidence the interaction of lichen metabolites with the constituents of this green solvent used for extraction. The obtained data evidenced that UBO inhibited CLS-354 oral cancer cell proliferation through ROS generation (316.67 × 104), determining higher levels of nuclear shrinkage (40.12%), cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 (92.51%; G0 is the differentiation phase, while during G1 phase occurs preparation for cell division), DNA fragmentation (2.97%), and autophagy (62.98%) than in blood cells. At a substantially higher ROS level in blood cells (5250.00 × 104), the processes that lead to cell death—NS (30.05%), cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 (86.30%), DNA fragmentation (0.72%), and autophagy (39.37%)—are considerably lower than in CLS-354 oral cancer cells. Our work reveals the ROS-mediated anticancer potential of UBO through DNA damage and autophagy. Moreover, the present study suggests that UBO pharmacological potential could result from the synergism between lichen secondary metabolites and canola oil phytoconstituents. Keywords: Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg; canola oil; phenolic secondary metabolites; reactive oxygen species; cytotoxicity; CLS-354 OSCC cell line; blood cell cultures.
34780León C.A. & Benítez-Mora A. (2022): Key abiotic parameters for the management of the richness of bryolichenic communities in bogs of North Patagonia (Chile). - Acta Botanica Brasilica, 36: e2021abb0190 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-33062021abb0190.
Peatlands are ecosystems that play a special role in conserving biodiversity because they are refugia for unusual wetland-dependent species. Nevertheless, these ecosystems are threatened in southern South America by the overharvesting of Sphagnum moss, used in horticulture as substrate. Moreover, the biodiversity measurement as species richness has not been considered in management practices. Thus, our purpose was to study the bryophyte and lichen diversity and abiotic factors of Chiloé peatlands to distinguish habitat preferences and key abiotic factors to improve peatland management. The study was conducted in eight peatlands of Chiloé Island in Chile (42-43° S and 75-73° W). We found good predictors to overall species richness and each organism group. The observed patterns of cryptogamic species richness are well explained by microtopographic variables and moisture, increasing in tree base, and decreasing in saturated substrate and carpet. We highly recommend conserving “tree base” microtopographic areas as reservoirs of species richness in intervened areas by harvesting. Furthermore, we also suggest monitoring water chemistry variables such as pH or ionic ratio (IR), to provide information to predict impacts on the biodiversity of peatlands under Sphagnum harvesting. These recommendations give rise to sustainable management and to transforming moss into a renewable resource for farmers. Keywords: Chiloé; peatlands; bryo-lichen flora; richness; diversity.
34779Kitaura M.J., Torres J.-M., Scur M.C., Lorenz A.P. & Faria R.R. (2022): New species and new records of Peltula (Lichinales, Ascomycota lichenized) from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. - Rodriguésia, 73: e02202020 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1590/2175-7860202273034.
Peltula species occur in arid and semi-arid environments, with new species being regularly described worldwide. Lichen diversity is being studied in the diverse but poorly known Midwest region of Brazil, and new species and records are being proposed. In this paper, Peltula anthracina is proposed as new to science, and P. leptophylla and P. lingulata are reported as new records from Mato Grosso do Sul state. As it is a region highly threatened by the expansion of agricultural activities, the authors highlight the importance of the conservation of native flora to preserve lichens’ hidden diversity. Key words: arid habitat; cyanolichen; diversity; fire forest; new species.
34778Kitaura M.J., Scur M.C., Spielmann A.A. & Lorenz A.P. (2022): An integrative study of Pannaria hookeri (Ascomycota lichenized) from Argentina and the update of the taxon circumscription based on specimens from the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. - Acta Botanica Brasilica, 36: e2021abb0357 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-33062021abb0357.
Pannaria hookeri (Borrer ex Sm.) Nyl. is reported as a bipolar cyanolichen that occurs in more than twenty countries in both Hemispheres. In the Northern Hemisphere, a minor variation is attributed to the species, whereas larger morphological and chemical variations have been reported in specimens from the Southern Hemisphere. Six P. hookeri DNA sequences are available in GenBank, and only one (from Australia) is associated with a published morphological description. In this study, we performed a preliminary phylogenetic analysis including seven nuITS and mtSSU sequences from eight specimens collected in south Argentina. In addition, we provide an update of the taxon circumscription based on 50 specimens from 13 countries. Here, the molecular analyses revealed a well-supported monophyletic group formed by the P. hookeri sequences from Argentina, Australia, Norway and USA (Alaska). Regarding the morphological and anatomical characteristics, the Southern Hemisphere specimens did not present the historical reported variations, resulting in the proposition of a concise species description that accomplishes most of P. hookeri known geographical distribution. Keywords: species circumscription; cyanolichen; lichenized fungi; nuITS; taxonomy; Tierra del Fuego.
34777Acharius E. (1808): Förteckning pa de i Sverige växande arter af Lafvarnes familj (Fortsättning). - Kongl. Vetenskaps Akademiens Nya Handlingar Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [2. ser.], 29[3]: 228–237. .
34776Kondratyuk S.Y., Lőkös L., Kärnefelt I., Kondratiuk T.O., Parnikoza I.Yu., Yamamoto Y., Hur J.-S. & Thell A. (2022): New and noteworthy lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi, 12. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 64: 337–368. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.64.2022.3-4.8.
Seven species new to science are described, illustrated and compared with closely related taxa. Of them, one species, i.e.: Coppinsidea vernadskiensis S. Y. Kondr., T. O. Kondratiuk et I. Yu. Parnikoza is from the Argentine Islands, Western Maritime Antarctic Peninsula, Jacke lixia hosseussii S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, from South America (Argentina and Uruguay), Loekoeslaszloa reducta Yoshik. Yamam. et S. Y. Kondr. from Eastern Asia (Japan), Orientophila viticola S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur from Eastern Asia (South Korea), Ovealmbornia ovei S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös, I. Kärnefelt et A. Thell, and Xanthokarrooa elsiae S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös, I. Kärnefelt et A. Thell from Africa, as well as Oxneria imshaugii S. Y. Kondr. from North America. The new combination Jackelixia australis (for Xanthoria parietina var. australis Zahlbr.) is proposed. Jackelixia hosseussii is for the first time recorded as host for the lichenicolous fungus Arthonia anjutii S. Y. Kondr. et Alstrup. The latter species is for the first time recorded from South America. Intralichen christiansenii (D. Hawksw.) D. Hawksw. et Cole is for the first time recorded from South Korea. Keywords: Antarctica; Arthonia anjutii; Coppinsidea; Dufourea clade; Jackelixia; Japan; Intralichen; Langeottia; Loekoeslaszloa; Orientophila; Ovealmbornia; South America; Xanthokarrooa.
34775Kondratyuk S.Y., Persson P.-E., Hansson M., Lőkös L., Kondratiuk A.S., Fayyaz I, Kouser R., Afshan N.S., Niazi A.R., R. Zulfiqar, Khalid A.N., Kärnefelt I., Farkas E., Hur J.-S. & Thell A. (2022): Contributions to molecular phylogeny of lichens 4. New names in the Teloschistaceae. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 64: 313–336. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.64.2022.3-4.7.
The new genus Kudratoviella for the former Caloplaca zeorina group having the highest level of bootstrap support in the phylogenetic tree of the Teloschistaceae, based on combined dataset of nrITS, 28S nrLSU DNA and 12S SSU mtDNA sequences, which does not belong to any other earlier proposed genera of the subfamily Xanthorioideae, is described. The genus Oceanoplaca Arup, Søchting et Bungartz found to be a new synonym of the genus Loekoeslaszloa S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt, A. Thell et Hur, and Villophora onas Søchting, Søgaard et Arup appeared to be new synonym of Raesaeneniana maulensis (S. Y. Kondr. et Hur) S. Y. Kondr., Elix, Kärnefelt et A. Thell. Sixteen new combinations are proposed, i.e. Honeggeria leoncita (for Xanthomendoza leoncita Bungartz et Søchting), Honeggeria wetmorei (for Xanthoria wetmorei S. Y. Kondr. et Kärnefelt), Kudratoviella anularis (for Caloplaca anularis Clauzade et Poelt), Kudratoviella bohlinii (for Caloplaca bohlinii H. Magn.), Kudratoviella rajasthanica (for Caloplaca rajasthanica S. Y. Kondr., Upreti et G. P. Sinha), Kudratoviella scrobiculata (for Caloplaca scrobiculata H. Magn.), and Kudratoviella zeorina (for Caloplaca zeorina B. G. Lee et Hur), Loekoeslaszloa caesioisidiata (for Caloplaca caesioisidiata Arup et van den Boom), Loekoeslaszloa caesiosorediata (for Caloplaca caesiosorediata Arup et van den Boom), Loekoeslaszloa chemoisidiosa (for Oceanoplaca chemoisidiosa Søchting et Bungartz), Loekoeslaszloa isidiosa (for Placodium isidiosum Vain.), Loekoeslaszloa sideritoides (for Oceanoplaca sideritoides Søchting et Bungartz), Raesaeneniana darwiniana (for Villophora darwiniana Søchting, Søgaard et Arup), Raesaeneniana patagonica (for Villophora patagonica Søchting et Søgaard), Raesaeneniana rimicola (for Villophora rimicola Søchting), and Raesaeneniana wallaceana (for Villophora wallaceana Søchting et Søgaard). Iqbalia kashmirensis is for the first time confirmed from South Korea and India on the basis of ‘extraneous mycobiont DNA’ (sensu Kondratyuk et al. 2019 b). Keywords: Honeggeria; Iqbalia; lichenised fungi; Loekoeslaszloa; Oceanoplaca; Raesaeneniana; Telo schistaceae; Villophora.
34774Joshi Y. (2022): A new species of Labrocarpon (Asterinales), a lichenicolous Ascomycota with submuriform ascospores from India. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 64: 285–291. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.64.2022.3-4.5.
During lichenicolous fungal studies in India, lichen genus Ochrolechia was found infected with a black lirellate fungus. Critical microscopical examination of the fungus revealed that it is a new species of Labrocarpon, which differs from L. canariense in having narrow exciple (15.0–20.0 µm vs 20.0–50.0 µm thick), 4-spored asci, 1-septate to submuriform, constricted ascospores with larger l/w value [(2.5–)2.9–3.4–3.9(–4.5) vs (1.9–)2.1–2.5(–2.8)], habitat preference (corticolous vs saxicolous) and host selection (Ochrolechia vs Pertusaria). The new species Labrocarpon submuriforme is described in detail. Keywords: Himalaya; Melaspilea; Pertusaria; submuriform.
34773van den Boom P., Divakar P., Ertz D., Etayo J., Moberg R. & Sipman H. (2022): New or otherwise interesting records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from mainland Ecuador and surroundings with descriptions of five new species. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 64: 417–450. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.64.2022.3-4.13.
Altogether 322 taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are reported from Ecuador of which many are probably new records for the country. These include five species which are described as new to science: Bacidia andina, Bacidina pulverula, Distopyrenis epidiorygma, Pertusaria lucidotetra and P. pseudoparnassia. From the separately treated genera Lepra and Pertusaria, 12 species are recorded for Ecuador and/or other Neotropical countries. Notes on morphology, chemistry and ecology are given. Keywords: biodiversity; chemistry; ecology; lichenised Ascomycetes; S. America; taxonomy.
34772Coassini-Lokar L., Nimis P.L. & Ciconi G. (1986): Chemistry and chorology of the Cladonia chlorophaea-pyxidata complex (Lichenes, Cladoniaceae) in Italy. - Webbia, 39(2): 259–273. .
252 samples of lichens of the Cladonia chlorophaea - pyxidata complex collected in Italy were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. Six chemospecies occur in Italy; they are: Cladonia chlorophaea s.str. (80.9% of the samples), throughout the Peninsula, Cladonia grayi (4.0%) restricted to mountain areas on acid substrate in the North, Cladonia merochlorophaea (5.5%) and Cladonia cryptochlorophaea (2.4%), most frequent in Central Italy, at the western side of the peninsula, Cladonia conoidea (5.5%) most frequent in Central and Southern Italy, in lowlands and within mediterranean vegetation, Cladonia perlomera (1.6%), very rare throughout the country. Five of the six chemospecies are new to Italy; one (C. perlomera) is new to Europe. The higher freguency of C. chlorophaea s.str. is probably due to the fact that this is the only chemospecies within the complex that grows on limestone soils. Key words: Chemotaxonomy, Cladonia chlorophaea-pyxidata (Lichenes), chorology, Italy.
34771Coassini-Lokar L., Nimis P.L. & Geatti M. (1987): Chemistry and chorology of the genus Parmotrema Massal. (Lichenes, Parmeliaceae) in Italy. - Webbia, 41(1): 125–142. .
The status of 183 samples of lichens belonging to the genus Parmotrema, collected in Italy, has been revised on the basis of morphological and chemical characters. Chemical analyses were carried out by microchemical crystal tests, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seven species of Parmotrema occur in Italy: P. arnoldii, P. crinitum, P. hypoleucinum, P. perlatum, P. reticulatum, P. robustum and P. stuppeum. Their distribution patterns within Italy differ, but have in common a clear frequency maximum in regions with a suboceanic climate. The results of the quantitative chemical analyses show the presence of traces of several substances that were never reported before from some of the species. Key words: Italy, Lichens, Parmotrema.
34770Torres-Benítez A., Ortega-Valencia J.E., Sanchez M., Divakar P.K., Simirgiotis M.J. & Gómez-Serranillos M.P. (2022): Metabolomic profiling, antioxidant and enzyme inhibition properties and molecular docking analysis of Antarctic lichens. - Molecules, 27(22): 8086 [22 p.] . https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27228086.
The lichen species Lecania brialmontii, Pseudephebe pubescens, and Sphaerophorus globosus are part of the prominent lichenoflora of the Antarctic territory. In this work, we report the metabolomic identification of ethanolic extracts of these species, their antioxidant and cholinesterase enzyme inhibitory activity, and conduct a molecular docking analysis with typical compounds. Eighteen compounds were identified by UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS in L. brialmontii, 18 compounds in P. pubescens, and 14 compounds in S. globosus. The content of phenolic compounds was variable among the species, ranging from 0.279 to 2.821 mg AG/g, and all three species showed high inhibition potential on the cholinesterase enzymes. Molecular docking showed important interactions between AChE and BChE with the selected compounds. This study evidences the chemical fingerprint of three species of the order Lecanorales that support the continuation of the study of other biological activities and their potential for medical research. Keywords: Lecania; Pseudephebe; Sphaerophorus; bioactive compounds; antioxidant; enzyme inhibition; Antarctica; neuroprotective potential.
34769Ladd D. (2022): Lichen survey of Bryant Creek State Park Douglas County, Missouri. - NatureCITE report to Missouri Department of Natural Resources. NatureCITE, Springfield, MO, 48 pp. .
A comprehensive survey of lichens and lichen-associated fungi was conducted at Bryant Creek State Park during 18 field days from October 2020 through May 2022, documenting a total of 331 taxa. Despite areas of previous intensive logging and other impacts, the site contains an impressive level of lichen biodiversity, ranking among the highest lichen diversity recorded for a single site in the Interior Highlands and lower Midwest. Of the 331 taxa documented, there were 297 lichens (274 chlorolichens and 23 cyanolichens), 16 lichenicolous fungi (including one lichenized lichen parasite), and 18 non-lichenized, non-lichenicolous fungi often associated with lichens. Several of these taxa are new records for Missouri and/or the Ozark Ecroregion, and some are significant extensions of the known North American ranges for the species. Bryant Creek State Park constitutes a unique complex of extensive mesic sandstone ravine systems in a landscape context of contiguous intact or recoverable woodlands. In addition to the stunning scenic aspects of the extensive, seasonally flowing mesic ravines with diverse bedrock expressions, this system supports an unusual diversity of cryptogams, including lichens and associated fungi, with some uncommon and conservative species in abundances not known elsewhere in the Ozarks. Several small patch natural communities, such as seeps, glades, and bluffs of both sandstone and dolomite, occur at the park, further enhancing microhabitat diversity and supporting a diverse biota of lichens and associated fungi. With continuing, ecologically based management and restoration of degraded sites, as well as careful, sustainable development of visitor facilities and trails, this site will exemplify a distinct component of the Ozark landscape created by the characteristics of the region’s Roubidoux bedrock system, which is typified here more completely than perhaps any other area in the Ozarks.
34768Afshan N.S., Fayyaz I., Iftikhar F., Habib K., Razzaq F., Niazi A.R. & Khalid A.N. (2022): A taxonomic and phylogenetic study of some Cladonia species from Pakistan. - Nova Hedwigia, 115: 535–548. DOI: 10.1127/nova_hedwigia/2022/0711.
For this study, a number of species of the genus Cladonia were collected from different areas of Pakistan and characterized using morpho-anatomical and molecular techniques. The present work revealed that the collected specimens belong to four species. Among these, C. rei, C. ochrochlora and C. cariosa are new records for Pakistan, while the reports of C. pocillum represent range extensions within Pakistan. Complete morpho-anatomical descriptions and notes on ecology and distribution are provided, along with ITS-based molecular analysis. Keywords: Cladoniaceae; lichen-forming fungi; macrolichens; Muzaffarbad; phenotypic; Swat.
34767Haughian S.R., Gray L. & Harper K.A. (2022): Factors influencing the distributions of two endangered lichens in Nova Scotia, Canada. - Écoscience, 29(4): 345–361. https://doi.org/10.1080/11956860.2022.2129527.
The lichens Erioderma pedicellatum (Hue) P.M. Jørg. and Erioderma mollissimum (G. Sampaio) Du Rietz are endangered species in Canada. Both species are obligate epiphytes found in forested wetlands near the Atlantic Coast. They are thought to be primarily threatened by logging and acid pollution, but the influence of these factors has not been examined at large-extents or relative to other habitat features. Critical habitat for protection has remained difficult to define beyond observed occurrences, because of the low accuracy of existing habitat models. To facilitate improved recovery planning and understanding of their ecology in the province of Nova Scotia, we created high-resolution distribution models for both species, incorporating elements of climate, forest composition, hydrology, acid pollution, and anthropogenic influence using the MaxEnt algorithm and a backwards stepwise selection process. The most important predictors were related to rainfall or an oceanic moderation of thermal optima. Depth to water table and the presence of suitable forest composition were also included, as was distance from roads for E. pedicellatum. The putative threats, acid pollution and silvicultural treatment, were not important and therefore excluded from models. Although both species have highly specific habitat requirements, E. pedicellatum appears to be more sensitive to human activities.
34766Lendemer J.C. (2022): Herpothallon rubrogranulosum, a new species with granular pseudoisidia from the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of southeastern North America. - Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 149(4): 280–285. .
Herpothallon rubrogranulosum is described from forested wetlands in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of southeastern North America. It appears to be infrequent throughout its range, but locally abundant on bald cypress trees in areas of Francis Marion National Forest, South Carolina, USA. The species is characterized by a cream colored, ecorticate thallus with small, coarse granular pseudoisidia that are covered with variable amounts of orangered pigment that reacts Kþred-pink, and the production of abundant psoromic acid. It was previously confused with H. rubroechinatum, which is a rarer tropical species that differs markedly in having large, conspicuous pseudoisidia. Key words: Asexual reproduction, biodiversity, Cryptothecia, subtropical lichens, taxonomy, Trentepholia.
34765Choi B.Y., Lee S., Kim J., Park H., Kim J.-H., Kim M., Park S.-J., Kim K.-T., Ryu H. & Shim D. (2022): Comparison of endophytic and epiphytic microbial communities in surviving and dead Korean Fir (Abies koreana) using metagenomic sequencing. - Forests, 13(11): 1932 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f13111932.
Plant endophyte and epiphyte communities cooperatively interact with their host plants and play crucial roles in sustaining plant fitness. In Korea, a variety of studies have been conducted to elucidate the reasons for the declining population of the endangered Korean fir (Abies koreana), but the relationship between microbiota and the healthy condition of trees remains unclear. Here, we conducted bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS sequence analyses to dissect the composition of endophytic and epiphytic microbiota in both live and dead trees located in the same Mt. Jiri habitat. In the live trees, the bacterial class Armatimonadia and the lichenized fungi groups were significantly dominant, whereas many bacterial and fungal taxa mainly found in rotten wood were enriched in the dead trees. Functional prediction of the microbial communities in live trees suggested the possibility that bacterial endophytes and epiphytes play a role in inorganic nutrient metabolism and fungal endophytes and epiphytes produce biologically active secondary metabolites, thereby contributing to the healthy condition of Korean fir trees. The ecological function of endophytes and epiphytes in dead trees was predicted to be involved in the decomposition of wood for nutrient recycling. Our analyses revealed a distinct difference in microbial communities depending on the health condition of Korean fir trees. The results from this study would be useful for understanding the ecological function of endophytic and epiphytic microorganisms to conserve and manage this endangered species from ecologically vulnerable environments. Keywords: community diversity; Abies koreana; plant endophyte; plant epiphyte; metagenome; endangered species.
34764Ravera S., Puglisi M., Vizzini A., Totti C., Aleffi M., Bacilliere G., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Boccardo F., Bolpagni R., von Brackel W., Canali G., Celli G., Cogoni A., De Giuseppe A.B., Di Natale S., Di Nuzzo L., Dovana F., Gheza G., Giordani P., Giorgi C.M., Giugia D., Iberite M., Isocrono D., Malíček J., Mayrhofer H., Muscioni M., Nascimbene J., Nimis P.L., Ongaro S., Passalacqua N.G., Piccardo P., Poponessi S., Prieto Álvaro M., Prosser F., Puntillo D., Santi F., Scassellati E., Schultz M., Sciandrello S., Sicoli G., Soldano A., Tiburtini M. & Vallese C. (2022): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 14. - Italian Botanist, 14: 61–80. https://doi.org/10.3897/italianbotanist.14.95956.
In this contribution, new data concerning bryophytes, fungi and lichens of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the algal genus Chara, for the bryophyte genera Bryum, Grimmia, Cephaloziella, Hypnum, Nogopterium, Physcomitrium, Polytrichastrum, Rhynchostegiella, Saelania, and Schistostega, the fungal genera Cortinarius, Lentinellus, Omphalina, and Xerophorus, and the lichen genera Acarospora, Agonimia, Candelariella, Cladonia, Graphis, Gyalolechia, Hypogymnia, Lichinella, Megalaria, Nephroma, Ochrolechia, Opegrapha, Peltigera, Placidium, Ramalina, Rhizoplaca, Ropalospora, Strangospora, Toniniopsis, Usnea, and Zahlbrucknerella. Keywords: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Bryidae, Charophyceae.
34763Abas A., Asnawi N.H., Aiyub K., Awang A. & Abdullah S.R. (2022): Lichen Biodiversity Index (LBI) for the assessment of air quality in an industrial city in Pahang, Malaysia. - Atmosphere, 13(11): 1905 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13111905.
Lichen is a well-documented useful biological indicator for monitoring air pollution using various methods such as the biodiversity of lichens. However, the use of lichen biodiversity to estimate air pollution levels in industrial areas, particularly in Malaysia, is still weak, and the determinants of its diversity are unknown. As a result, the purpose of this research is to analyse air pollution in Malaysia’s industrial urban area using the lichen biodiversity index and its determining factor. This research was carried out at Gebeng, Pahang, Malaysia. A total of 14 sample locations were chosen, each with three replication stations. The Lichen Biodiversity Index (LBI) approach was employed in this study to estimate the degree of air pollution in Gebeng. This study also investigated three potential determinants of lichen biodiversity: carbon monoxide (CO) concentration, relative humidity (%), and vehicle motor frequency (per hour). The LBI was plotted and analysed using the Geographical Information System (GIS) programme ArcGIS 10.8.1, and the determining variables were identified using Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient software PAST 4.03. This study discovered a total of 11 lichen species known as metropolitan lichen. The average LBI across Gebeng is 19.5 (moderate alteration). In the industrial region, CO has an inversely significant relation with lichen biodiversity (r = −0.7433), relative humidity has a significant relation with lichen biodiversity (r = 0.8249), and vehicle motors are not significant as a determining factor for lichen biodiversity (r = 0.2068). This study demonstrates that lichen, with its diversity of species in one place, can be utilised to measure and quantify the degree of air pollution in industrial areas. In addition to that, in the context of an industrial city, vehicle motors do not have a significant impact on lichen biodiversity due to the existence of other pollutants sources from industrial activities. Relative humidity is a sign of clean air and humid surroundings, which is good for lichen growth; meanwhile, higher CO concentration will restrict the growth of sensitive-type lichen and will only allow the resistant type of lichen to grow. Keywords: biological indicators; environmental monitoring; environmental management; lichens; urban ecosystem.
34762Christensen S.N. (2022): Epiphytic lichens from towns and villages in Greece. - Parnassiana Archives, 10: 31–37. .
Thirty-nine epiphytic lichens from towns and villages across Greece are recorded. Ten species are new for one or more Greek provinces. Species composition reflects the nutrient enrichment of such human environments. An alternative interpretation of the results of Diamantopoulos et al. (1992) and Pirintsos et al. (1993) on the distribution of epiphytic lichens in the Thessaloniki area is provided. The list of species growing on Platanus in Greece (Christensen 2014) is supplemented with six species.
34761Arcadia L. in (2021): Lichens of the area around Vonitsa, NW Aitoloakarnania, Greece. - Parnassiana Archives, 9: 93–107. .
Study of six sites in the north west of Aitoloakarnania, in the autumn of 2019, yielded records of 120 species of lichens, lichenicolous and allied fungi. They include Petractis crozalsii, new to Greece. A summary of all previous reports for Aitoloakarnania is also included, and the total for the Nomos now stands at 187 taxa.
34760Arcadia L. in (2020): New lichen records for the Peloponnese, Greece, with an updated checklist for Peloponnese. - Parnassiana Archives, 8: 57–101. .
357 previously unpublished reports of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from a variety of localities in the Peloponnese are presented. An updated checklist for the Peloponnese is given. It contains 623 accepted taxa at species rank and below. Sixty taxa (Arthonia punctiformis, Aspicilia subfarinosa, Bagliettoa cazzae, Buellia aethalea, B. chloroleuca, B. maritima, Caloplaca coralliza, C. flavocitrina, C. geleverjae, C. oasis, C. oleicola, C. rubelliana, C. xerica, Candelariella lutella, Diplotomma pulverulentum, Endococcus verrucosus, Haematomma nemetzii, Lecanora lividocinerea, L. meridionalis, L. praepostera, L. strobilina, L. subcarnea, Lecidea grisella, L. promiscua, Lepra amara, Leptochidium albociliatum, Lobothallia chadefaudiana, Micarea misella, Ocellomma picconianum, Opegrapha parasitica, Parmelia serrana, Pertusaria parotica, Physcia biziana var. phyllidiata, Placynthium tremniacum, Polychidium muscicola, Porina chloritica, Porpidia albocaerulescens, P. macrocarpa, Protoblastenia cyclospora, P. lilacina, Protoparmeliopsis laatokkaensis, Ramalina fraxinea var. calicariformis, Rinodina archaea, R. septentrionalis, R. trachytica, Sarcogyne hypophaea, Scytinium pulvinatum, Seirophora contortuplicata, Sonenopsora holophaea, Stigmidium lecidellae, Thelidium papulare, Toninia cinereovirens, T. rosulata, T. toepfferi, T. tristis subsp. pseudotabacina, Toniniopsis bagliettoana, T. verrucarioides, Verrucaria fuscoatroides, Xanthoria aphrodites and X. monofoliosa) are new to Peloponnese. Three species (Cladonia squamosa, Dermatocarpon intestiniforme and Xanthoparmelia protomatrae) are confirmed for Peloponnese and eighteen taxa (Buellia stellulata, Caloplaca chlorina, C. herbidella, C. sarcopidioides, Chrysothrix chrysophthalma, Endococcus rugulosus, Lecidella asema, Lobothallia cheresina var. cheresina, Micarea denigrata, Pertusaria flavida, Porpidia crustulata, Rhizocarpon obscuratum, Sarcogyne privigna, Schismatomma dirinellum, Solenopsora cesatii, Usnea filipendula, Verrucaria aethiobola and V. cinereorufa) are deleted from Peloponnese list. Five species (Caloplaca fuscoblastidiata, Lecanora conizella, L. hypopta, Myriolecis oyensis and Pertusaria huneckiana) are here reported as new to Greece. Some corrections are made to previously published reports.
34759Arcadia L. in (2020): The lichens of Alonisos, Sporades Islands, Greece. - Parnassiana Archives, 8: 3–10. .
Only two reports of lichen species have been published previously for Alonisos. Following a visit by the author in October 2018, a total of 120 species plus 2 infra-specific taxa are now known from the island. No lichenicolous fungi are known.
34758Gavalas I. & Sipman H.J.M. (2019): A lichen inventory on the island of Iraklia (Cyclades Islands, Greece). - Parnassiana Archives, 7: 31–49. .
A total of 161 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi and 4 varieties are recorded on the island of Iraklia (Central Cyclades, Greece) in 2018 and early 2019. This figure is surprisingly high in comparison with surrounding islands. Four lichen species are recorded as new for Greece, Agonimia allobata (Stizenb.) P. James, Buellia caloplacivora Llimona & Egea, Gloeoheppia erosa (J. Steiner) Marton and Pertusaria lactescens Mudd. Discussions of these are provided, as well as for a squamulose form of Dirina massiliensis Durieu & Mont. and an unusual form of Physcia adscendens H. Olivier, which is compared with P. ucrainica S.Y. Kondr. et al. A list of all recorded species with vouchers and habitat information is included. Keywords: lichenized fungi, distribution, systematics, Mediterranean, diversity, lichenicolous fungi, Aegean Sea.
34757Porada P. & Giordani P. (2022): Do lichens and mosses drink from tree bark?. - Frontiers for Young Minds, 10: 704022 [8 p.]. doi: 10.3389/frym.2022.704022.
Lichens and mosses often live on tree branches in the forest canopy. They store large amounts of rain, fog, or dew, because they cannot reach water in the soil. However, we do not know what their most important source of water actually is. For example, is water uptake from wet bark important? This is hard to answer, because these lichens and mosses live high above us, so it is difficult to make direct measurements. Computer mathematical simulations can be useful to answer this question. We used a computer model of lichens and mosses to calculate how much water these organisms may take up from bark. We found that water from bark supports about 20% of the growth of lichens and mosses per year, so it is important for their survival. We also found that lichens and mosses are well adapted to taking up water from bark.
34756Urbanska N., Simko P., Leskanicova A., Karasova M., Jendzelovska Z., Jendzelovsky R., Rucova D., Kolesarova M., Goga M., Backor M. & Kiskova T. (2022): Atranorin, a secondary metabolite of lichens, exhibited anxiolytic/antidepressant activity in Wistar rats. - Life, 12(11): 1850 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/life12111850.
Atranorin (ATR) is one of lichens’ many known secondary metabolites. Most current studies have investigated the various effects of ATR in vitro and only sporadically in vivo. The latest data indicate that ATR may have anxiolytic/antidepressive effects. This study aimed to analyze the potential of ATR in a depression-like state in male Wistar rats. Pregnant females were stressed by restricting their mobility in the final week of pregnancy three times a day for 45 min each, for three following days. After birth, progeny aged 60 days was stressed repeatedly. The male progeny was divided into three groups as follows: CTR group as a healthy control (n = 10), DEP group as a progeny of restricted mothers (n = 10), and ATR group as a progeny of restricted mothers, treated daily for one month with ATR (n = 10; 10 mg/kg of body weight, p.o.). Our results show that ATR acts as an antioxidant and markedly changes animal behavior. Concomitantly, hippocampal neurogenesis increases in the hilus and subgranular zone, together with the number of NeuN mature neurons in the hilus and CA1 regions. Our results indicate a potential antidepressant/anxiolytic effect of ATR. However, further studies in this area are needed. Keywords: atranorin; depression; anxiety; Wistar rats; hippocampus; neurogenesis; stress; reactive oxygen species
34755Fávaro A., Demetrio G.R. & Coelho F.F. (2022): Size-dependent reproductive investment in a tropical cyanolichen. - Bryologist, 125(4): 507–512. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.4.507.
Reproductive strategies in lichens are a rarely studied field, and little is known about which variables affecting the production of reproductive structures are most important. Here, we investigated how lichen size and cardinal direction affected the density of apothecia in the cyanolichen Leptogium marginellum. We hypothesized that larger thalli and thalli facing south (towards the pole) would have a higher density of apothecia. Individuals with larger body sizes may store more resources that can be invested in sexual reproduction, and thalli facing south in the southern hemisphere could be exposed to more favorable abiotic conditions, similar to the north in the northern hemisphere. We collected L. marginellum thalli along a stream in a protected southeast Brazil area. Cardinal directions and the largest diameter of each thallus were registered with a GPS and a digital pachymeter, respectively. We observed the thalli with a stereomicroscope, delimited a region of 1×1 cm, and photographed it to count the number of apothecia with ImageJ. We found that cardinal direction did not affect the body size or the density of apothecia. However, lichen size was an important variable in the density of apothecia, explaining almost 60% of the variation observed. According to our findings, reproduction can be considered an allometric process, and reproductive patterns can vary with the hemisphere where the lichen is found. To our knowledge, this is the first research studying reproductive allocation in a tropical lichen. Keywords: Allometry; apothecia; body size; cardinal directions; lichen ecology; life-history strategy; reproductive allocation.
34754Halıcı M., Güllü M., Kahraman Yiğit M. & Barták M. (2022): Three new records of lichenised fungi for Antarctica. - Polar Record, 58: e22 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1017/ S0032247422000195.
As part of a project aiming to determine the lichenised fungal biodiversity of James Ross Island (Eastern coast ofAntarctic Peninsula), we identified three infrageneric taxa which were previously not reported from Antarctica: Farnoldia micropsis (A. Massal.) Hertel, Gyalolechia epiphyta (Lynge) Vondrák and Placidium squamulosum var. argentinum (Räsänen) Breuss. Detailed morphological and anatomical properties of these species along with photographs based on the Antarctic specimens are provided here. In addition, the nrITS, mtSSU and/or RPB1 gene regions of the selected specimens are studied and the phylogenetic positions of the species are discussed. The DNA sequence data for Farnoldia micropsis are provided for the first time. Farnoldia micropsis and Gyalolechia epiphyta are also new to the Southern Hemisphere. Keywords: Antarctic Peninsula; Biodiversity; James Ross Island; Lichens.
34753Ravera S. (2000): Contributo alla conoscenza della flora epifitica dell'Umbria. - Studia Geobotanica, 19: 49–55. .
47 species of epiphytic lichens are reported as additions to the poorly known lichen flora of Umbria. The ecology and distribution of selected species are discussed. Keywords: Epiphytic lichens, Flora, Umbria, Central Italy.
34752Acharius E. (1808): Förteckning pa de i Sverige växande arter af Lafvarnes familj. - Kongl. Vetenskaps Akademiens Nya Handlingar Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [2. ser.], 29[2]: 125–132. .
34751Acharius E. (1804): Beiträge zum Methodus Lichenum. - Weber et Mohr, Archiv für die Systematische Naturgeschichte, 1: 81–110. .
34750Lee B.G. & Hur J.-S. (2022): A new species and four new records of Bacidia (Lecanorales, Ramalinaceae) from South Korea, with a key to Korean species. - Mycokeys, 93: 107–130. doi: 10.3897/mycokeys.93.89283.
A new species, Bacidia fuscopallida Lee & Heo and four new records, B. ekmaniana R. C. Harris, Ladd & Lendemer, B. friesiana (Hepp) Körb., B. heterochroa (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. and B. suffusa (Fr.) A. Schneid., are described from South Korea. Bacidia fuscopallida differs from B. diffracta S. Ekman, the most similar species, by warted but non-granular thallus, paler and smaller apothecia without pruina, proper exciple without crystals, over 11-septate ascospores and smaller pycnidia and pycnoconidia. Bacidia ekmaniana is recorded new to Asia, B. heterochroa is reported new to northeastern Asia and B. friesiana and B. suffusa are new to Korea. Molecular analyses employing internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences strongly support the classification of the five species of Bacidia. A surrogate key is provided to assist in the identification of all 19 taxa in Bacidia of Korea. Keywords: biodiversity, corticolous, lichen, phylogeny, taxonomy.
34749Morris C. & Stone D. (2022): Nephroma orvoi in western North America. - Evansia, 39(3): 82–86. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-39.2.82.
The recently described species Nephroma orvoi is part of the Nephroma parile complex. Both species are generally medium to dark brown, with rounded, smooth to distinctly foveolate lobes bearing sorediate to isidiate propagules. The best distinguishing character morphologically is the location of propagule formation. On N. orvoi they originate laminally while on N. parile they originate marginally. However, TLC provides the most accurate identification results, as the two species differ in terpenoids. We examined 76 presumed N. parile herbarium specimens from OSC, both morphologically and by TLC, and found that N. orvoi and N. parile have overlapping ranges in western North America and occur in similar boreal and temperate forest habitats. Key words. Lichens, distribution, boreal, temperate, Nephroma parile, TLC.
34748McCune B. & Stone D.F. (2022): Eight new combinations of North American macrolichens. - Evansia, 39(3): 123–128. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-39.3.123.
Eight new taxonomic combinations are made for macrolichens that occur in North America. These combinations attempt to improve the practicality of taxonomic revisions resulting from molecular systematics. The new combinations are in the genera Bryoria, Cetraria, Peltigera, Scytinium, and Sulcaria. Key words. Lichens, Ahtiana, Bryoria, Cetraria, Peltigera, Scytinium, Sulcaria.
34747Haldeman M. (2022): New and interesting records of lichens, lichenicolous fungi and other Ascomycota from northwestern USA V. - Evansia, 39(3): 129–137. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-39.3.129.
The lichenicolous fungus Sphaerellothecium taimyricum is reported as new to North America. The lichenicolous fungus Lichenopeltella leprosulae and the lichen Protothelenella leucothelia are reported as new to the USA and the hepaticolous fungus Pleostigma jungermannicola is reported as new to western North America. Arthonia xanthoparmeliarum is reported as new to northwestern North America and seven other species of lichenicolous fungi are reported as new to the contiguous 48 states of the USA. In total, 18 species are reported new to the state of Washington, 2 to California and Oregon, and one new species is reported for each of three other western states. Key words. Arthonia, biodiversity, Llimoniella, Phaeophyscia, Washington, Whatcom County.
34746Jones H., St. Clair L.L., Hollinger J., Cooper L.S., Rosentreter R., Keuler R. & Leavitt S.D. (2022): Anderson and Shushan: Lichens of Western North America Fascicle VIII. - Evansia, 39(3): 69–81. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-39.2.69.
Twenty-five North American lichens are issued in Fascicle VIII of the “Anderson and Shushan: Lichens of Western North America” series, numbers 176– 200. This fascicle is comprised of material representing specimens from the Rhizoplaca melanophthalma aggregate, including the vagrant taxa R. arbuscula, R. haydenii, and R. idahoensis; two collections representing unattached forms in the R. porteri group – R. melanophthalma ssp. crispa and an erratic form of R. porteri; and two umbilicate saxicolous taxa, R. robusta and R. shushanii, the former described as new to science here. We also provide the first morphological description for R. shushanii, a species that was initially described based on diagnostic DNA sequence characters. Key words. Biodiversity, lichens, collections-based research, herbarium, Intermountain West, USA.
34745Baugh M & Leavitt S. (2022): Investigating potential factors influencing shifting lichen distributions—a case study of the maritime sunburst lichen (Xanthoria parietina) on a university campus in the Great Basin. - Evansia, 39(3): 115–122. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-39.3.115.
There are growing numbers of lichens observed outside their expected distributions. A recent discovery of Xanthoria parietina in Provo, Utah, USA is added to that list. Other individuals of this species have been noted in inland western United States, but this specimen was believed to be the first sighting of X. parietina in the Great Basin. Herbaria records were investigated for distribution data for other collections of X. parietina outside of their typical habitat. The identity of this unexpected lichen occurring in Provo was confirmed via DNA sequencing, and based on herbarium records, was found to be the second known occurrence in the Great Basin. This discovery raises questions regarding human facilitated dispersal and establishment of lichens. Key words. Conservation, Great Basin, lichenized fungi.
34744Genovesi V., Puntillo D. & Ravera S. (2001): Studia lichenologica in Italia Centrale. III. Specie nuove per l'Umbria. - Studia Geobotanica, 20: 61–66. .
31 infrageneric taxa are reported as new to the lichen flora of Umbria (Central Italy). Notes conceming their ecology and distribution are given. The new combination Phaeocalicium mildeanum (Hepp) Puntillo is proposed. Keywords: Central ltaly, Flora, Lichens, Umbria.
34743Chesnokov S.V. & Konoreva L.A. (2022): Checklist of lichens of Shikotan Island (Southern Kuril Islands, Russian Far East). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 56(2): 413–439. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2022.56.2.413.
Information on lichens of Shikotan Island based on original and literature data is provided. Altogether 278 lichen species and allied fungi are documented, of which Xylographa hians is new to Eurasia, Candelariella subdeflexa is new to Russia, nine species are new to the Russian Far East, 28 species are new to the Sakhalin Region, 39 species are new to Kuril Islands, and 94 species are new to Shikotan Island. For each species, data on distribution in the Sakhalin Region and neighboring regions are given. Key words: distribution of lichens, new records, Kuril Islands.
34742Frolov I.V., Evdokimov G.S. & Kataeva O.A. (2022): Calogaya elvebakkiana (Teloschistaceae), a new combination and a new lichen species to Russia. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 56(2): 405–412. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2022.56.2.405.
Caloplaca elvebakkiana is a rare lichen from the family Teloschistaceae known only from Svalbard. Due to lack of molecular data, it still does not have a certain generic affiliation in the current taxonomy of Teloschistaceae, remaining within an unsorted pile of species called “Caloplaca s. l.”. Here we present two new records of the species from Russia — from Wrangel Island and the southeastern part of the Chukotka Peninsula. On the base of two nrITS sequences obtained from the fresh material, we discovered that the species belongs to the genus Calogaya and formally proposed a new combination Calogaya elvebakkiana. Key words: Caloplaca s. l., lichens, ITS, new records, taxonomy, Arctic, Chukotka, Far East, Wrangel Island.
34741Kuznetsova E.S., Dudov S.V. & Ryabenko O.I. (2022): New data on diversity of lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Amur Region and the Russian Far East. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 56(2): 357–370. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2022.56.2.357.
The lichen biota of the Amur Region (southern Russian Far East) was studied in the course of several geobotanical expeditions. In total 38 species of lichens and three lichenicolous fungi are reported for the first time for the Amur Region. Among them four species (Fulgidea oligospora, Peltigera frippii, Psora globifera, and Rhizoplaca subdiscrepans) are new to the Russian Far East and nine more — to the southern Russian Far East. Four and 38 species are new to the Zeya Reserve and Tokinsko-Stanovoy National Park, respectively. Key words: distribution of lichens, lichenicolous fungi, new records, Zeya Nature Reserve, Stanovoy Range, Tokinsko-Stanovoy National Park, Tukuringra Range.
34740Stepanchikova I.S., Himelbrant D.E., Chesnokov S.V., Konoreva L.A. & Timofeeva E.A. (2022): Modern and historical lichen biota of Karelian Isthmus: the case of Motornoe-Zaostrovje proposed protected area (Leningrad Region, Russia). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 56(2): 371–404. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2022.56.2.371.
The revealed lichen diversity of the proposed protected area Motornoe-Zaostrovje counts 452 species, including 400 lichens, 34 lichenicolous fungi, four facultatively lichenicolous fungi, and 14 non-lichenized saprobic fungi. Micarea synotheoides and Tremella hypocenomycis are new to Russia; Rhizocarpon sublavatum is new to European Russia; Absconditella celata, Biatora albidula, Cyphobasidium hypogymniicola, Karschia talcophila, Micarea melanobola, Pyrenula laevigata, Sclerococcum microsporum, Sphinctrina anglica, and Trapeliopsis glaucolepidea are new to North-Western European Russia; Arthrorhaphis alpina, Lecaimmeria cupreoatra, Micarea nowakii, Protothelenella petri, Pycnora xanthococca, and Sagedia simoënsis are new to the Leningrad Region. Of particular interest are lichens of old-growth spruce forest in the Rytovka stream valley in its middle course. The lichen biota of Motornoe-Zaostrovje is one of the richest lichen biotas known in the Leningrad Region. It comprises 32 red-listed species, 20 habitat specialists (i. e., species restricted to biologically valuable forests) and 24 indicator species, and deserves protection on the regional level. Key words: Micarea synotheoides, Tremella hypocenomycis, protected areas, Isthmus karelicus.
34739Kotkova V.M., Afonina O.M., Androsova V.I., Arslanov S.N., Belyakov E.A., Chernova A.M., Czernyadjeva I.V., Davydov E.A., Doroshina G.Ya., Erokhina O.V., Garin E.V., Gorbunova I.A., Grishutkin O.G., Guziev Kh.Yu., Ignatenko M.E., Ignatov M.S., Ivchenko T.G., Kapitonov V.I., Kharpukhaeva T.M., Komarova A.S., Kuzmina E.Yu., Liksakova N.S., Makarova M.A., Melekhin A.V., Philippov D.A., Potemkin A.D., Romanov R.E., Ryzhkova P.Yu., Shiryaeva O.S., Sonina A.V., Storozhenko Yu.V., Tarasova V.N., Timdal E., Vishnyakov V.S., Yakovchenko L.S. & Yatsenko-Stepanova T.N. (2022): New cryptogamic records. 10. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 56(2): 477–517. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2022.56.2.477.
First records of Xanthophyceae for the Vologda and Sverdlovsk regions, and Moscow, Characeae for the Vologda, Orenburg, Tver regions and the Crimea Peninsula, diatoms for the Orenburg Region, aphyllophoroid fungi for the Novgorod and Tyumen regions, agaricoid fungi for the Novosibirsk and Vologda regions, and for the Republic of Altai, lichens for the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk regions, Altai Territory, the Republic of Buryatia and Primorye Territory, mosses for the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, the Republic of Buryatia, Novaya Zemlya Archipelago and the Kuril Islands, liverwort for the Kurgan Region are presented. The data on their localities, habitats, distribution are provided. The specimens are kept in the herbaria of the Altai State University (ALTB), of the Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBIW), of the Institute of Problems of Industrial Ecology of the North KSC RAS (INEP), of the Polar-alpine botanical garden-institute KSC RAS (KPABG), of the Komarov Botanical Institute RAS (LE), of the Mire Research Group of the Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters RAS (MIRE), the Central Siberian botanical garden SB RAS (NSK), of the Natural History Museum in Oslo, Norway (O), of the Petrozavodsk State University (PZV), of the Museum of the Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology (SVER), of the Tobolsk complex scientific station of the UB RAS (TOB), of the Institute of General and Experimental Biology SB RAS (UUH) and algological collection in the laboratory of the Algology Group of the Institute for Cellular and Intracellular Symbiosis of the UB RAS. Key words: Amaurodon viridis, Aneura pinguis, Aphanobasidium pseudotsugae, Aporpium macroporum, Bacidia herbarum, Bacidia rosella, Bacidia rosellizans, Bacidina chloroticula, Bagliettoa calciseda, Biatoridium monasteriense, Brachythecium udum, Bryonora rhypariza, Bryum caespiticium, Caloneis biconstrictoides, Cephalozia connivens, Cephalozia lunulifolia, Cephaloziella spinigera, Ceriporiopsis mucida, Chaenotheca cinerea, Chamaepinnularia krookii, Chara papillosa, Chiloscyphus fragilis, Chiloscyphus pallescens, Clitocybe dryadicola, Conocybe juniana, Conocybe merdaria, Cortinarius rufostriatus, Cyclostephanos invisitatus, Cyclostephanos makarovae, Cyclotella atomus, Diploneis oculata, Diploschistes gypsaceus, Discostella pseudostelligera, Entoloma atrosericeum, Fallacia subhamulata, Farnoldia jurana, Flammulina fennae, Gomphonema augur, Hemimycena hirsuta, Hydnum umbilicatum, Hyphodontia alienata, Inocybe cincinnata, Inocybe pusio, Isopterygiopsis muelleriana, Lecidea berengeriana, Lepista densifolia, Leptodontium flexifolium, Mesoptychia rutheana, Metulodontia nivea, Mylia anomala, Nitellopsis obtusa, Nitzschia aurariae, Pellia epiphylla, Pellia neesiana, Phaeorrhiza nimbosa, Phlegmacium durus, Pholiota populnea, Pluteus exiguous, Protothelenella sphinctrinoidella, Protothelenella sphinctrinoides, Pseudofallacia tenera, Pseudosperma obsoletum, Reimeria uniseriata, Rhizochaete sulphurina, Rhizoctonia ochracea, Sagiolechia protuberans, Sarcogyne regularis, Sarmentypnum tundrae, Scoliciosporum umbrinum, Staurothele rupifraga, Stereocaulon wrightii, Tetramelas geophilus, Thelidium papulare, Thelocarpon intermediellum, Tomentellopsis pulchella, Vaucheria alaskana, Vaucheria bursata, Vaucheria canalicularis, Vaucheria cruciata, Vaucheria dichotoma, Vaucheria frigida, Vaucheria geminata, Vaucheria hercyniana, Vaucheria pseudogeminata, Volvariella volvacea, Xanthophyceae, Xenasma pruinosum.