33545Joseph R.G. (2021): Lichens on Mars vs the Hematite Hoax. Why Life Flourishes on the Radiated Iron-Rich Red Planet. (Fungus, Melanin, Calcium Oxalate, Photosynthesis). - Journal of Cosmology, 30: 1–97. .
There is life on Mars as documented with 100 comparative photos. This evidence includes pigmented/melanized fungi and lichens, fungi shedding crustose and secreting calcium oxalate, fungi preparing to spore, spores on the surface sprouting embryonic mushrooms, fungus growing out of the ground, lichens with hollow stalks, vast colonies of lichens attached to rocks and oriented skyward similar to photosynthesizing lichens on Earth, and documentation that the claims of spherical hematite is a hoax--a byproduct of religious extremism at NASA--which is why the hematite claims were immediately rejected as inappropriate and implausible by a number of investigators who proposed instead they are tektites and accretionary lapilli produced by meteor impact and volcano. Be they on the surface or attached to Martian rocks they have no resemblance to terrestrial hematite. The “spheres” of Mars are uniform in shape and size (1mm or 3mm to 6 mm) and all were initially described as “yellow” “orange” “purple” and “blue” the pigmented colors of photosynthesizing organisms. Terrestrial hematite “spheres” are colored red to dark red, consist of less than 2% hematite which form a thin layer on the surface and have a wide variety of sizes and shapes and are infiltrated by fungi and lichens. A review of the Opportunity teams’ methodology and instrumentation reveals that data was contaminated and confounded by numerous uncontrolled variables including problems with instrument calibrations and they relied on inference, speculation, data manipulation, and spectra from panoramic images that were selectively eliminated in a failed attempt to make it conform to laboratory samples. The iron-rich radiation-intense Red Planet provides an ideal environment for fungus and lichens to flourish and promotes growth and sporing and production of melanin which protects against while simultaneously utilizing radiation for metabolic energy. Fungi secrete calcium and lichens and fungi produce calcium oxalate that “weathers” and dissolves minerals and metals which are utilized as nutrients and are stored on cellular surfaces. Terrestrial species are iron-rich and precipitate hematite which makes these fungi and lichens ideal bioindicators of metal and minerals; whereas on Mars they are likely supersaturated with these and other minerals and metals as reflected by spectral data. Fungi and lichens secrete calcium oxalate which coats and surrounds mycelium, but upon exposure to dry surface conditions forms waves of calcium “cement” that may cement these organisms to layers of calcium oxalate fossilizing and making them “harder than rock.” Yet others grow out of the ground and are obviously alive. Given evidence documenting biological residue in Martian meteorites, biological activity in soil samples, seasonal increases in methane and oxygen which parallel biological fluctuations on Earth, and pictorial and quantitative morphological evidence of stromatolites fossilized tube worms and metazoans, growth of mushrooms and fungi, and vast colonies of rock-dwelling lichens, it is concluded that the evidence is obvious: There is life on Mars. Key Words: Hematite Hoax, Tektites, Accretionary Lapilli, Calcium Oxalate, Lichens, Martian Mushrooms, Puffballs, Volcanos on Mars, Meteor Impact, Hematite spheres, Whewellite.
33544Vellend M., Béhé M., Carteron A., Crofts A.L., Danneyrolles V., Gamhewa H.T., Ni M., Rinas C.L. & Watts D.A.1 (2021): Plant responses to climate change and an elevational gradient in Mont Mégantic National Park, Québec, Canada. - Northeastern Naturalist, 28(Special Issue 11): 4–28. .
With steep climatic gradients over short distances, montane ecosystems provide exceptional opportunities to study ecological responses to climate and other environmental changes. Here we present a summary and synthesis of 10 years of research on this theme in a protected area in southern Québec, Canada (Parc National du Mont Mégantic), with ecological conditions closely similar to the northern Appalachians. During the ~150 years since European settlement, anthropogenic disturbance has reduced the abundance of certain taxa (e.g., Picea [spruce]), while favoring other taxa that thrive during succession (e.g., Betula [birch], Acer [maple]). In more recent decades, climate warming (~0.21 °C per decade) appears to have prompted upward elevational range shifts for many plant species, although such responses lag behind changes in climate itself. Experimental studies with seeds and seedlings of Acer saccharum (Sugar Maple) suggest that upward range expansion might be constrained by non-climatic factors such as belowground properties and seed predators, while escape from insect herbivores might actually accelerate range expansion. Similar studies with understory plants have not revealed clear evidence of non-climatic constraints on range limits, although some preliminary data presented here suggest a possible role of a lack of microsites with rich, moist soil at high elevation. Current studies focus on the lower elevational range limits of species restricted to mountaintops, such as certain lichens. Vegetation and flowering phenology are also sensitive to climate, and we have found that earlier springs are associated with decreased potential gene flow across populations at different elevations; ongoing studies will determine how differential sensitivity of herbs vs. trees might influence the duration of a high light period in spring in the understory. Overall, we have found clear signals of plant responses to long-term anthropogenic disturbances and recent climatic warming, but considerable uncertainty remains about how climatic and non-climatic factors will interact to determine the future of this montane ecosystem.
33543Zarabska-Bożejewicz D. & Kujawa K. (2021): The lichen biota of Pinus sylvestris under the impact of some stand-related factors: A case study from the south-eastern part of Żerków-Czeszewo Landscape Park (Wielkopolska-Kujawy Lowland). - Acta Mycologica , 56: 562 [13 p.]. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0792-9854.
A lichenological inventory was conducted in the pine stands in the south-eastern region of Żerków-Czeszewo Landscape Park. The aim of this study was to recognize the lichen species diversity on the bark of Pinus sylvestris by considering tree age and forest habitat type. In total, 26 species of lichenized fungi were found on the bark of P. sylvestris. The biota comprises common and widespread species in Poland. Tree age positively and significantly influenced the species richness on the bark of P. sylvestris. The suitability of the pine tree age for lichens evident as alpha diversity seemed to be independent from the habitat of the trees. The age of phorophytes strongly affected the presence of Hypocenomyce scalaris. Mixed fresh coniferous forests were characterized by higher beta- and gamma diversity compared to fresh coniferous forests. There was no correlation between the number of species per tree (alpha diversity) and diversification of species composition in relation to the distance between pines. The findings indicate that maintenance of a variety of phorophytes and age-diversified tree stands can prevent impoverishment of the lichen biota in the south-eastern part of Żerków-Czeszewo Landscape Park. Keywords: lichenized fungi; species richness; pine; coniferous forest; west-central Poland.
33542Pykälä J., Kantelinen A. & Myllys L. (2021): Corrigendum: Pykälä J, Kantelinen A, Myllys L (2020) Taxonomy of Verrucaria species characterised by large spores, perithecia leaving pits in the rock and a pale thin thallus in Finland. MycoKeys 72: 43–92. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.72.56223. - MycoKeys, 80: 163–164. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.80.67870.
33541Nascimento E.L.L., Maia L.C., Cáceres M.E.S. & Lücking R. (2021): Phylogenetic structure of lichen metacommunities in Amazonian and Northeast Brazil. - Ecological Research, 36(2): 440–463. https://doi.org/10.1111/1440-1703.12206.
Amazon, Atlantic forest, Brejos de Altitude, Caatinga, Carrasco, Cerrad~ao and Restinga are major vegetation units in North and Northeast Brazil. Little is known about lichen metacommunity structure in these habitats. While species richness and composition generally depend on climatic factors, in azonal vegetation edaphic factors may have a filtering effect on tree bark structure and hence the composition of epiphytic lichen communities. We hypothesized that climatic stress and a tree bark filtering effect would result in reduced richness and phylogenetic clustering in Caatinga, Carrasco, Cerrad~ao and Restinga, whereas high richness and phylogenetic overdispersion were predicted for Amazon and Atlantic Forest. To test this, we analyzed 2,090 lichenized species in the study area, with a supertree to assess phylogenetic metacommunity structure. Amazon and Atlantic forest exhibited high richness and phylogenetic diversity, with phylogenetic overdispersion only in the Amazon. The zonal Caatinga with drought stress and the extrazonal Brejos both exhibited phylogenetic clustering. Among the azonal, edaphic vegetation units, Cerrad~ao exhibited phylogenetic overdispersion, whereas Restinga showed phylogenetic clustering. Nearest taxon phylogenetic distance indicated a close relationship between Amazon and Atlantic forest, Atlantic forest and Brejos and Atlantic forest and Caatinga. Carrasco was mostly closely related to Cerrad~ao, and Restinga was distantly related to any other unit. These findings indicate more complex patterns in the phylogenetic structure of lichen metacommunities, partly reflecting those of plant metacommunities, as a result of concurrent macroecological evolutionary histories. Our data supported floristic evidence that Carrasco is part of the Cerrado complex and not related to Caatinga. Keywords: Amazon–Atlantic forest Pleistocene corridors, Caliciales, ecological equivalence, Phylocom, Trypetheliaceae.
33540Markle C.E., Wilkinson S.L. & Waddington J.M. (2020): Initial effects of wildfire on freshwater turtle nesting habitat. - Journal of Wildlife Management, 84(7): 1373–1383. https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.21921.
Natural wildfire regimes are important for ecosystem succession but can have negative ecological effects depending on fire characteristics. A portion of a granite rock barrens landscape that extends along the eastern shoreline of Georgian Bay, Lake Huron to eastern Ontario, Canada, burned in 2018 during a wildfire that affected >11,000 ha. This landscape is a biodiversity hotspot providing habitat for many species at risk where freshwater turtles nest in soil deposits in cracks and crevices in the bedrock dominated by moss (Polytrichum spp.) and lichen (Cladonia spp.) cover. To assess the initial effect of wildfire on freshwater turtle nesting habitat, we measured soil depths and estimated moss, lichen, and vascular plant cover at 2 morphology types (crevice, flat) in burned and unburned areas of the landscape. The probability that burned flat plots supported soil was near zero; the burned flat plots had 98% less soil volume compared to unburned flat plots. Although crevices were more resistant to soil loss, burned crevices still had a 15% lower probability of having soil and 35% less soil volume compared to unburned crevice plots. We estimated nest site availability by calculating the number of locations with shallow (5–10 cm), intermediate (10–20 cm), and deep (>20 cm) soils required for a small (5 cm × 5 cm) or medium (10 cm × 10 cm) nest chamber. Overall, the burned open rock barrens had 71–73% fewer sites with suitable soil depth and volume for a nest chamber of either size. Furthermore, burned plots had almost no lichen and moss cover but were dominated by bare soil, forbs, and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings. Although the loss of tree cover in previously forested areas may increase nest site availability for freshwater turtles in newly open areas, we suggest that organic soil combustion and soil erosion may require restoration activities in the post-fire landscape to support successful nesting of at-risk turtles.
33539Komaty S., Sauvager A., Bazureau J.-P., Tomasi S. & Paquin L. (2021): Efficiency and selectivity of ionic liquids in microwave-assisted extraction of major lichen phenolic compounds: a scalable process with recycling of ionic liquids. - Phytochemical Analysis, 32: 592–600. https://doi.org/10.1002/pca.3008.
Introduction: Pseudevernia furfuracea, a lichen used classically for cosmetic applications, contains interesting metabolites possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory or antioxidant properties. Objectives: Ionic liquid combined to microwave-assisted extraction (IL–MAE) was successfully applied for metabolites extraction from Pseudevernia furfuracea. Materials and methods: Three imidazolium and pyridinium-based ionic liquids (ILs): 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulphate [C1C1Im][MeSO4], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulphate [C2C1Im][EtSO4], and N-ethylpyridinium ethylsulphate [C2Py][EtSO4] were assessed for this process. The efficiency of the extraction method was evaluated using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) coupled to a Camag® spectrophotodensitometer and using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Results: ILs under MAE showed extraction time efficiency (15 min vs. 24 h for conventional heating) and high selectivity in extracting the targeted metabolites: atranorin (AT), methyl-β-orcinol carboxylate (MOC), fumarprotocetraric acid (Fum. Ac.), and physodic acid (Phys. Ac.) despite the increased degradation of AT under MAE. We showed a tunable selectivity of ILs towards extracting metabolites by changing anion or cation due to the modification of the interaction between the IL and the metabolites. While [C2Py][EtSO4] was the most efficient IL and could extract all the targeted metabolites, [C2C1Im][EtSO4] was the most selective. It fully extracted AT and partially Fum. Ac. Moreover, the lichen prepared by mixing procedure provided AT and Fum. Ac. more than the milled one. A 100 times scale-up extraction was successfully performed on mixed samples with full IL recycling after back extraction. Conclusion: IL–MAE is reliable for lichen metabolites extraction. The method is reproducible, scalable, with possible IL recycling, opening the door for potential industrial applications. Keywords: ionic liquid, lichens, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), phenolic compounds, pilot-scale, Pseudevernia furfuracea, recycling of ionic liquids.
33538Wegener U. & Kison H.-U. (2002): Die Vegetation des Brockens im Nationalpark Hochharz (Exkursion G). - Tuexenia, 22: 243–267. https://www.tuexenia.de/publications/tuexenia/Tuexenia_2002_NS_022_0243-0267.pdf.
[in German] Germany; Harz. Vegetation / phytosociology paper with numerous records of lichens
33537Scholz P. (1995): Zur Artabgrenzung und Benennung einiger Erdflechten. - Informationen zur floristischen Kartierung in Thüringen [Jena], 8: 18–20. .
[in German] distribution map of Psora saviczii included
33536Isocrono D., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Di Nuzzo L., Catalano I., Gheza G., Giordani P., Matteucci E., Ongaro S., Potenza G., Puntillo D., Ravera S. & Pittao E (2018): Lichenes Italici Exsiccati ex Società Lichenologica Italiana. Fascicle II (Nos. 13-24). - Notiziario della Società Lichenologica Italiana, 31: 97–99. .
The second issue of Lichenes Italici exsiccati ex Società Lichenalagica Italiana, the series of exsiccata distributed by the ltalian Lichen Society (Società Lichenologica Italiana, S.L.I.), is presented. The labels of 13-24 numbers are listed. Key words: Lichens, exsiccata.
33535Frolov I., Vondrák J., Košnar J. & Arup U. (2021): Phylogenetic relationships within Pyrenodesmia sensu lato and the role of pigments in its taxonomic interpretation. - Journal of Systematics and Evolution, 59(3): 454–474. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.12717.
Most lichens of the family Teloschistaceae (Ascomycota) produce yellow-orange-red anthraquinone pigments. However, the genus Pyrenodesmia encompasses species in which anthraquinones are absent and replaced by a gray pigment Sedifolia-gray. It was shown recently that these species are related to taxa with both anthraquinones and Sedifolia-gray (Caloplaca xerica group, C. haematites group, and C. cretensis) and to species with a brown pigment instead of both anthraquinones and Sedifolia-gray (C. demissa, C. obscurella, and C. reptans). Nevertheless, relationships between mentioned anthraquinone-containing and anthraquinone-lacking species remained unclear. In total, 8 DNA loci from 41 species were used here to resolve these uncertainties. We concluded that C. demissa, C. obscurella, and C. reptans are rather distant from the core of Pyrenodesmia, and we place them outside of Pyrenodesmia sensu lato. Within Pyrenodesmia sensu lato, three lineages were revealed and recognized on a generic level: the genus Pyrenodesmia sensu stricto (21 species), the genus Kuettlingeria (14 species), which is resurrected here, and the genus Sanguineodiscus (4 species), which is newly described here. The genus Pyrenodesmia includes taxa that never contain anthraquinones, but Sedifolia-gray. It matches with the former C. variabilis group. Taxa of the genera Kuettlingeria and Sanguineodiscus have anthraquinones in their apothecia and Sedifolia-gray in their thalli. The genus Kuettlingeria includes the former C. xerica group plus C. cretensis and C. diphyodes. The genus Sanguineodiscus includes the former C. haematites group and C. bicolor. The identity of Kuettlingeria (Caloplaca) diphyodes was clarified and the name Pyrenodesmia helygeoides was resurrected. Twenty-four new combinations were proposed. Key words: anthraquinones, Caloplaca haematites group, Caloplaca variabilis group, Caloplaca xerica group, Kuettlingeria, Pyrenodesmia sensu stricto, Sanguineodiscus, Sedifolia‐gray, Teloschistaceae.
33534Halıcı M.G., Kahraman M., Kistenich S. & Timdal E. (2021): Toniniopsis bartakii - A new species of lichenised fungus from James Ross Island (Antarctic Peninsula). - Turkish Journal of Botany, 45: 216–223. https://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/botany/issues/bot-21-45-3/bot-45-3-4-2101-24.pdf.
The new lichen species Toniniopsis bartakii is described from James Ross Island, the North-East Antarctic Peninsula region. It is phylogenetically most closely related to T. bagliettoana but differs mainly in forming a more developed, squamulose thallus. It is morphologically more similar to T. coelestina but differs mainly in the pigmentation in the proper exciple. An identification key to the known species of Toniniopsis is also provided. Key words: Antarctica, biodiversity, lichenized fungi, Ramalinaceae, mtSSU, nrITS.
33533Wang Y., Zheng Y., Wang X., Wei X. & Wei J. (2016): Lichen-associated fungal community in Hypogymnia hypotrypa (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) affected by geographic distribution and altitude. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 7: 1231 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01231.
Lichen-associated fungal species have already been investigated in almost all the main growth forms of lichens, however, whether or not they are homogeneous and constant within each lichen species are still inconclusive. Moreover, the related ecological factors to affect and structure the fungal composition have been poorly studied. In order to answer these questions, we took Hypogymnia hypotrypa as a model to study the relationship between the lichen-associated fungal composition and two ecological factors, i.e., site and altitude, using the method of IlluminaMiSeq sequencing. Four different sites and two levels of altitude were included in this study, and the effects of site and altitude on fungal community composition were assessed at three levels, i.e., operational taxonomic unit (OTU), class and phylum. The results showed that a total of 50 OTUs were identified and distributed in 4 phyla, 13 classes, and 20 orders. The lichen-associated fungal composition within H. hypotrypa were significantly affected by both site and altitude at OTU and class levels, while at the phylum level, it was only affected by altitude. While the lichen associated fungal communities were reported to be similar with endophytic fungi of the moss, our results indicated the opposite results in some degree. But whether there exist specific OTUs within this lichen species corresponding to different sites and altitudes is still open. More lichen species and ecological factors would be taken into the integrated analyses to address these knowledge gaps in the near future. Keywords: lichens, endolichenic fungi, lichenicolous fungi, fungal community, 18S rRNA gene, Tibetan Plateau.
33532Kalra R., Conlan X.A., Areche C., Dilawari R. & Goel M. (2021): Metabolite profiling of the Indian food spice lichen, Pseudevernia furfuracea combined with optimised extraction methodology to obtain bioactive phenolic compounds. - Frontiers in Pharmacology, 12: 629695 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.629695.
Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf (Parmeliaceae) is a well-known epiphytic lichen commonly used in Indian spice mixtures and food preparations such as curries. This study is an attempt to find the best extraction methodology with respect to extractive yield, total polyphenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of lichen P. furfuracea. Two phenolic compounds, atraric acid and olivetoric acid were isolated and quantified in their respective extracts with the aid of reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The highest concentration of both the compounds, atraric acid (4.89 mg/g DW) and olivetoric acid (11.46 mg/g DW) were found in 70% methanol extract. A direct correlation was also observed between the concentrations of these compounds with the free radical scavenging potential of the extracts which might contribute towards the antioxidant potential of the extract. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy and HPLC analysis which was used to study the effect of pre-processing on extraction process highlighted the capacity of a mixer grinder technique for improved separation of surface localized metabolites and enrichment of the fraction. An investigation of the chemical profile of the bioactive extract 70% methanol extract using UHPLC-DAD-MS lead to tentative identification of forty nine compounds. This extract was also assessed towards HEK 293 T cell line for cytotoxicity analysis. Concentration range of 0.156 to 100 µg/ml of PF70M extract exhibited no significant cell death as compared to control. Further, the active extract showed protective effect against hydroxyl radical’s destructive effects on DNA when assessed using DNA nicking assay. Based upon this, it can be concluded that optimization of extraction solvent, sample pre-proceesing and extraction techniques can be useful in extraction of specific antioxidant metabolites. Keywords: lichen, antioxidants, atraric acid, olivetoric acid, UHPLC-MS, metabolomics profiling, Pseudevernia furfuracea, spatial localization.
33531Cernava T., Müller H., Aschenbrenner I.A., Grube M. & Berg G. (2015): Analyzing the antagonistic potential of the lichen microbiome against pathogens by bridging metagenomic with culture studies. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 6: 620 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00620.
Naturally occurring antagonists toward pathogens play an important role to avoid pathogen outbreaks in ecosystems, and they can be applied as biocontrol agents for crops. Lichens present long-living symbiotic systems continuously exposed to pathogens. To analyze the antagonistic potential in lichens, we studied the bacterial community active against model bacteria and fungi by an integrative approach combining isolate screening, omics techniques, and high resolution mass spectrometry. The highly diverse microbiome of the lung lichen [Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm.] included an abundant antagonistic community dominated by Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Burkholderia. While antagonists represent 24.5% of the isolates, they were identified with only 7% in the metagenome; which means that they were overrepresented in the culturable fraction. Isolates of the dominant antagonistic genus Stenotrophomonas produced spermidine as main bioactive component. Moreover, spermidine-related genes, especially for the transport, were identified in the metagenome. The majority of hits identified belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, while Stenotrophomonas-specific spermidine synthases were not present in the dataset. Evidence for plant growth promoting effects was found for lichen-associated strains of Stenotrophomonas. Linking of metagenomic and culture data was possible but showed partly contradictory results, which required a comparative assessment. However, we have shown that lichens are important reservoirs for antagonistic bacteria, which open broad possibilities for biotechnological applications. Keywords:lichen,antagonisticbacteria,plantgrowthpromotion, Stenotrophomonas, spermidine.
33530Ivanova A.A., Kulichevskaya I.S., Merkel A.Y., Toshchakov S.V. & Dedysh S.N. (2016): High diversity of Planctomycetes in soils of two lichen-dominated sub-Arctic ecosystems of northwestern Siberia. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 7: 2065 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.02065.
A wide variety of terrestrial ecosystems in tundra have a ground vegetation cover composed of reindeer lichens (genera Cladonia and Cetraria). The microbial communities of two lichen-dominated ecosystems typical of the sub-arctic zone of northwestern Siberia, that is a forested tundra soil and a shallow acidic peatland, were examined in our study. As revealed by molecular analyses, soil and peat layers just beneath the lichen cover were abundantly colonized by bacteria from the phylum Planctomycetes. Highest abundance of planctomycetes detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization was in the range 2.2–2.7 × 107 cells per gram of wet weight. 16S rRNA gene fragments from the Planctomycetes comprised 8–13% of total 16S rRNA gene reads retrieved using Illumina pair-end sequencing from the soil and peat samples. Lichen-associated assemblages of planctomycetes displayed unexpectedly high diversity, with a total of 89,662 reads representing 1723 operational taxonomic units determined at 97% sequence identity. The soil of forested tundra was dominated by uncultivated members of the family Planctomycetaceae (53–71% of total Planctomycetes-like reads), while sequences affiliated with the Phycisphaera-related group WD2101 (recently assigned to the order Tepidisphaerales) were most abundant in peat (28–51% of total reads). Representatives of the Isosphaera–Singulisphaera group (14–28% of total reads) and the lineages defined by the genera Gemmata (1–4%) and Planctopirus–Rubinisphaera (1–3%) were present in both habitats. Two strains of Singulisphaera-like bacteria were isolated from studied soil and peat samples. These planctomycetes displayed good tolerance of low temperatures (4–15°C) and were capable of growth on a number of polysaccharides, including lichenan, a characteristic component of lichen-derived phytomass. Keywords: Planctomycetes, tundra wetland, lichen-dominated forested tundra, high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing, FISH, cultivation studies.
33529Noh H.-J., Lee Y.M., Park C.H., Lee H.K., Cho J.-C. & Hong S.G. (2020): Microbiome in Cladonia squamosa is vertically stratified according to microclimatic conditions. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 11: 268 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00268.
Lichens are miniature ecosystems that contain fungi, microalgae, and bacteria. It is generally accepted that symbiosis between mycobiont and photobiont and microbial contribution to the ecosystem support the wide distribution of lichens in terrestrial ecosystems, including polar areas. The composition of symbiotic components can be affected by subtle microenvironmental differences within a thallus, as well as large-scale climate differences. In this study, we investigated fine-scale profiles of algal, fungal, and bacterial compositions through horizontal and vertical positions of the Antarctic lichen Cladonia squamosa colonies by next-generation sequencing of the nuclear large subunit rRNA gene (nucLSU) of eukaryotes and the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria. Apical parts of thalli were exposed to strong light, low moisture, and high variability of temperature compared with basal parts. Microbial diversity increased from apical parts to basal parts of thalli. Asterochloris erici was the major photobiont in apical positions of thalli, but other microalgal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Trebouxiophyceae and Ulvophyceae were major microalgal components in basal positions. Photochemical responses of algal components from apical and basal parts of thalli were quite different under variable temperature and humidity conditions. Several fungal OTUs that belonged to Arthoniomycetes and Lecanoromycetes, and diverse bacterial OTUs that belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria_Gp1, and candidate division WPS-2 showed a clear distribution pattern according to their vertical positions within thalli. The overall lichen microbiome was significantly differentiated by the vertical position within a thallus. These results imply that different microclimate are formed at different lichen thallus parts, which can affect microbial compositions and physiological responses according to positions within the thalli. Keywords: Antarctica, lichen, bacteria, fungi, microalgae, microbiome.
33528Zhang T., Wang N.-F., Liu H.-Y., Zhang Y.-Q. & Yu L.-Y. (2016): Soil pH is a key determinant of soil fungal community composition in the Ny-Ålesund region, Svalbard (High Arctic). - Frontiers in Microbiology, 7: 227 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00227.
This study assessed the fungal community composition and its relationships with properties of surface soils in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic). A total of thirteen soil samples were collected and soil fungal community was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing with fungi-specific primers targeting the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The following eight soil properties were analyzed: pH, organic carbon (C), organic nitrogen (N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), silicate silicon (SiO42--Si), nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N), phosphate phosphorus (PO43--P), and nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N). A total of 57,952 reads belonging to 541 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found. of these OTUs, 343 belonged to Ascomycota, 100 to Basidiomycota, 31 to Chytridiomycota, 22 to Glomeromycota, 11 to Zygomycota, 10 to Rozellomycota, whereas 24 belonged to unknown fungi. The dominant orders were Helotiales, Verrucariales, Agaricales, Lecanorales, Chaetothyriales, Lecideales, and Capnodiales. The common genera (>eight soil samples) were Tetracladium, Mortierella, Fusarium, Cortinarius, and Atla. Distance-based redundancy analysis (db-rda) and analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) revealed that soil pH (p = 0.001) was the most significant factor in determining the soil fungal community composition. Members of Verrucariales were found to predominate in soils of pH 8–9, whereas Sordariales predominated in soils of pH 7–8 and Coniochaetales predominated in soils of pH 6–7. The results suggest the presence and distribution of diverse soil fungal communities in the High Arctic, which can provide reliable data for studying the ecological responses of soil fungal communities to climate changes in the Arctic. Keywords: soil fungi, fungal community composition, arctic tundra, soil properties, high-throughput sequencing.
33527Zwolicki A., Zmudczyńska-Skarbek K., Matuła J., Wojtuń B. & Stempniewicz L. (2016): Differential responses of Arctic vegetation to nutrient enrichment by plankton and fish-eating colonial seabirds in Spitsbergen. - Frontiers in Plant Science, 7: 1959 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.01959.
The role of seabirds as sea-land biovectors of nutrients is well documented. However, no studies have examined whether and how colonial seabirds that differ in diet may influence terrestrial vegetation. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to describe and compare plant communities located in the vicinity of the two most common types of seabird colonies in Arctic, occupied by piscivorous or planktivorous species. Within 46 plots arranged in four transects in the vicinity of planktivorous (little auk, Alle alle) and piscivorous colonies (mixed colony of Brunnich’s guillemot, Uria lomvia, and black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla) we measured the following: guano deposition, physical and chemical characteristics of soil, total nitrogen and its stable isotope signatures in soil and plants, ground vegetation cover of vascular plants and mosses, and the occurrence of lichens, algae and cyanobacteria. Using LINKTREE analysis, we distinguished five plant communities, which reflected declining influence along a birds fertilization gradient measured as guano deposition. SIMPROOF test revealed that these communities differed significantly in species composition, with the differences related to total soil nitrogen content and d15N, distinctive levels of phosphates, potassium and nitrates, and physical soil properties, i.e., pH, conductivity and moisture. The communities were also clearly distinguished by distance from the bird colony. The two colony types promoted development of specific plant communities: the immediate vicinity of the planktivorous colony characterized by a Deschampsia alpina–Cerastium arcticum community while under the piscivorous colony a Cochlearia groenlandica– Poa alpina community was present. Despite the similar size of the colonies and similar magnitude of guano input, differences between ornithogenic communities were connected mostly to phosphate content in the soil. Our results show that the guano input from seabirds which have different diets can affect High Arctic vegetation in specific and more complex ways than previously realized. Keywords: guano deposition, bird cliff vegetation, plant communities, soil chemistry, little auk, kittiwake, guillemot.
33526Pointing S.B., Büdel B., Convey P., Gillman L.N., Körner C., Leuzinger S. & Vincent W.F. (2015): Biogeography of photoautotrophs in the high polar biome. - Frontiers in Plant Science, 6: 692 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2015.00692.
[A review paper] The global latitudinal gradient in biodiversity weakens in the high polar biome and so an alternative explanation for distribution of Arctic and Antarctic photoautotrophs is required. Here we identify how temporal, microclimate and evolutionary drivers of biogeography are important, rather than the macroclimate features that drive plant diversity patterns elsewhere. High polar ecosystems are biologically unique, with a more central role for bryophytes, lichens and microbial photoautotrophs over that of vascular plants. Constraints on vascular plants arise mainly due to stature and ontogenetic barriers. Conversely non-vascular plant and microbial photoautotroph distribution is correlated with favorable microclimates and the capacity for poikilohydric dormancy. Contemporary distribution also depends on evolutionary history, with adaptive and dispersal traits as well as legacy influencing biogeography. We highlight the relevance of these findings to predicting future impacts on diversity of polar photoautotrophs and to the current status of plants in Arctic and Antarctic conservation policy frameworks. Keywords: antarctic, arctic, bryophytes, cryptogams, cyanobacteria, lichen, plant biogeography.
33525Borruso L., Bani A., Pioli S., Ventura M., Panzacchi P., Antonielli L., Giammarchi F., Polo A., Tonon G. & Brusetti L. (2021): Do aerial nitrogen depositions affect fungal and bacterial communities of oak leaves?. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 12: 633535 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.633535.
The amount of nitrogen (N) deposition onto forests has globally increased and is expected to double by 2050, mostly because of fertilizer production and fossil fuel burning. Several studies have already investigated the effects of N depositions in forest soils, highlighting negative consequences on plant biodiversity and the associated biota. Nevertheless, the impact of N aerial inputs deposited directly on the tree canopy is still unexplored. This study aimed to investigate the influence of increased N deposition on the leaf-associated fungal and bacterial communities in a temperate forest dominated by Sessile oak [Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.]. The study area was located in the Monticolo forest (South Tyrol, Italy), where an ecosystem experiment simulating an increased N deposition has been established. The results highlighted that N deposition affected the fungal beta-diversity and bacterial alpha-diversity without affecting leaf total N and C contents. We found several indicator genera of both fertilized and natural conditions within bacteria and fungi, suggesting a highly specific response to altered N inputs. Moreover, we found an increase of symbiotrophic fungi in N-treated, samples which are commonly represented by lichen-forming mycobionts. Overall, our results indicated that N-deposition, by increasing the level of bioavailable nutrients in leaves, could directly influence the bacterial and fungal community diversity. Keywords: microbial communities, Quercus petraea, temperate forest, Alps, forest ecology.
33524Choe Y.-H., Kim M. & Lee Y.K. (2021): Distinct microbial communities in adjacent rock and soil substrates on a high Arctic polar desert . - Frontiers in Microbiology, 11: 607396 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.607396.
Understanding microbial niche variability in polar regions can provide insights into the adaptive diversification of microbial lineages in extreme environments. Compositions of microbial communities in Arctic soils are well documented but a comprehensive multidomain diversity assessment of rocks remains insufficiently studied. In this study, we obtained two types of rocks (sandstone and limestone) and soils around the rocks in a high Arctic polar desert (Svalbard), and examined the compositions of archaeal, bacterial, fungal, and protistan communities in the rocks and soils. The microbial community structure differed significantly between rocks and soils across all microbial groups at higher taxonomic levels, indicating that Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Latescibacteria, Rokubacteria, Leotiomycetes, Pezizomycetes, Mortierellomycetes, Sarcomonadea, and Spirotrichea were more abundant in soils, whereas Cyanobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, FBP, Lecanoromycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Trebouxiophyceae, and Ulvophyceae were more abundant in rocks. Interestingly, fungal communities differed markedly between two different rock types, which is likely to be ascribed to the predominance of distinct lichen-forming fungal taxa (Verrucariales in limestone, and Lecanorales in sandstone). This suggests that the physical or chemical properties of rocks could be a major determinant in the successful establishment of lichens in lithic environments. Furthermore, the biotic interactions among microorganisms based on co-occurrence network analysis revealed that Polyblastia and Verrucaria in limestone, and Atla, Porpidia, and Candelariella in sandstone play an important role as keystone taxa in the lithic communities. Our study shows that even in niches with the same climate regime and proximity to each other, heterogeneity of edaphic and lithic niches can affect microbial community assembly, which could be helpful in comprehensively understanding the effects of niche on microbial assembly in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems. Keywords: polar desert, lithic niche, edaphic niche, rock microbes, Arctic.
33523Maestre F.T., Escolar C., Bardgett R.D., Dungait J.A.J., Gozalo B. & Ochoa V. (2015): Warming reduces the cover and diversity of biocrust-forming mosses and lichens, and increases the physiological stress of soil microbial communities in a semi-arid Pinus halepensis plantation. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 6: 865 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00865.
Soil communities dominated by lichens and mosses (biocrusts) play key roles in maintaining ecosystem structure and functioning in drylands worldwide. However, few studies have explicitly evaluated how climate change-induced impacts on biocrusts affect associated soil microbial communities. We report results from a field experiment conducted in a semiarid Pinus halepensis plantation, where we setup an experiment with two factors: cover of biocrusts (low [<15%] versus high [>50%]), and warming (control versus a ∼2°C temperature increase). Warming reduced the richness and cover (∼45%) of high biocrust cover areas 53 months after the onset of the experiment. This treatment did not change the ratios between the major microbial groups, as measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Warming increased the physiological stress of the Gram negative bacterial community, as indicated by the cy17:0/16:1ω7 ratio. This response was modulated by the initial biocrust cover, as the increase in this ratio with warming was higher in areas with low cover. Our findings suggest that biocrusts can slow down the negative effects of warming on the physiological status of the Gram negative bacterial community. However, as warming will likely reduce the cover and diversity of biocrusts, these positive effects will be reduced under climate change. Keywords: biocrusts, climate change, lichen, moss, PLFA, drylands, microbial communities.
33522Cernava T., Vasfiu Q., Erlacher A., Aschenbrenner I.A., Francesconi K., Grube M. & Berg G. (2018): Adaptions of lichen microbiota functioning under persistent exposure to arsenic contamination. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 9: 2959 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02959.
Host-associated microbiota play an important role in the health and persistence of more complex organisms. In this study, metagenomic analyses were used to reveal microbial community adaptations in three lichen samples as a response to different arsenic concentrations at the sampling sites. Elevated arsenic concentrations at a former mining site expanded the spectrum and number of relevant functions in the lichen-associated microorganisms. Apparent changes affected the abundance of numerous detoxification-related genes, they were substantially enhanced in arsenicpolluted samples. Complementary quantifications of the arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase (arsM) gene showed that its abundance is not strictly responding to the environmental arsenic concentrations. The analyzed samples contained rather low numbers of the arsM gene with a maximum of 202 gene copies ml
33521Calla-Quispe E., Robles J., Areche C. & Sepulveda B. (2020): Are ionic liquids better extracting agents than toxic volatile organic solvents? A combination of ionic liquids, microwave and LC/MS/MS, applied to the lichen Stereocaulon glareosum. - Frontiers in Chemistry, 8: 450 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2020.00450.
We report a green strategy for the extraction of lichen substances from Stereocaulon glareosum. This sustainable alternative does not use volatile toxic organic solvents, but it is assisted by microwave and is checked by UHPLC/ESI/MS/MS. Ionic liquids may provide a better alternative in the extraction of natural products from lichens. Keywords: lichens, ionic liquids, LC/MS, natural products, Stereocaulon.
33520Erlacher A., Cernava T., Cardinale M., Soh J., Sensen C.W., Grube M. & Berg G. (2015): Rhizobiales as functional and endosymbiontic members in the lichen symbiosis of Lobaria pulmonaria L.. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 6: 53 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00053.
Rhizobiales (Alphaproteobacteria) are well-known beneficial partners in plant-microbe interactions. Less is known about the occurrence and function of Rhizobiales in the lichen symbiosis, although it has previously been shown that Alphaproteobacteria are the dominating group in growing lichen thalli. We have analyzed the taxonomic structure and assigned functions to Rhizobiales within a metagenomic dataset of the lung lichen Lobaria pulmonaria L. One third (32.2%) of the overall bacteria belong to the Rhizobiales, in particular to the families Methylobacteriaceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae, and Rhizobiaceae. About 20% of our metagenomic assignments could not be placed in any of the Rhizobiales lineages, which indicates a yet undescribed bacterial diversity. SEED-based functional analysis focused on Rhizobiales and revealed functions supporting the symbiosis, including auxin and vitamin production, nitrogen fixation and stress protection. We also have used a specifically developed probe to localize Rhizobiales by confocal laser scanning microscopy after fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-CLSM). Bacteria preferentially colonized fungal surfaces, but there is clear evidence that members of the Rhizobiales are able to intrude at varying depths into the interhyphal gelatinous matrix of the upper lichen cortical layer and that at least occasionally some bacteria also are capable to colonize the interior of the fungal hyphae. Interestingly, the gradual development of an endosymbiotic bacterial life was found for lichen- as well as for fungal- and plant-associated bacteria. The new tools to study Rhizobiales, FISH microscopy and comparative metagenomics, suggest a similar beneficial role for lichens than for plants and will help to better understand the Rhizobiales-host interaction and their biotechnological potential. Keywords: Rhizobiales, lichensymbiosis, Lobariapulmonaria, metagenomics, Rhizobiales-specific FISHprobe, endosymbiont.
33519Ingelfinger R., Henke M., Roser L., Ulshöfer T., Calchera A., Singh G., Parnham M.J., Geisslinger G., Fürst R., Schmitt I. & Schiffmann S. (2020): Unraveling the pharmacological potential of lichen extracts in the context of cancer and inflammation with a broad screening approach. - Frontiers in Pharmacology, 11: 1322 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.01322.
Lichen-forming fungi are symbiotic organisms that synthesize unique natural products with potential for new drug leads. Here, we explored the pharmacological activity of six lichen extracts (Evernia prunastri, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Umbilicaria pustulata, Umbilicaria crustulosa, Flavoparmelia caperata, Platismatia glauca) in the context of cancer and inflammation using a comprehensive set of 11 functional and biochemical in vitro screening assays. We assayed intracellular Ca2+ levels and cell migration. For cancer, we measured tumor cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis, as well as the angiogenesis-associated proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs). Targeting inflammation, we assayed leukocyte adhesion onto ECs, EC adhesion molecule expression, as well as nitric oxide production and prostaglandin (PG)E2 synthesis in leukocytes. Remarkably, none of the lichen extracts showed any detrimental influence on the viability of ECs. We showed for the first time that extracts of F. caperata induce Ca2+ signaling. Furthermore, extracts from E. prunastri, P. furfuracea, F. caperata, and P. glauca reduced cell migration. Interestingly, F. caperata extracts strongly decreased tumor cell survival. The proliferation of ECs was significantly reduced by E. prunastri, P. furfuracea, and F. caperata extracts. The extracts did not inhibit the activity of inflammatory processes in ECs. However, the pro-inflammatory activation of leukocytes was inhibited by extracts from E. prunastri, P. furfuracea, F. caperata, and P. glauca. After revealing the potential biological activities of lichen extracts by an array of screening tests, a correlation analysis was performed to evaluate particular roles of abundant lichen secondary metabolites, such as atranorin, physodic acid, and protocetraric acid as well as usnic acid in various combinations. Overall, some of the lichen extracts tested in this study exhibit significant pharmacological activity in the context of inflammation and/or cancer, indicating that the group lichen-forming fungi includes promising members for further testing. Keywords: lichen extracts, screening, cancer, inflammation, cytotoxicity, migration.
33518Newsham K.K., Davey M.L., Hopkins D.W. & Dennis P.G. (2021): Regional diversity of maritime Antarctic soil fungi and predicted responses of guilds and growth forms to climate change. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 11: 615659 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.615659.
We report a metabarcoding study documenting the fungal taxa in 29 barren fellfield soils sampled from along a 1,650 km transect encompassing almost the entire maritime Antarctic (60–72°S) and the environmental factors structuring the richness, relative abundance, and taxonomic composition of three guilds and growth forms. The richness of the lichenised fungal guild, which accounted for 19% of the total fungal community, was positively associated with mean annual surface air temperature (MASAT), with an increase of 1.7 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of lichenised fungi per degree Celsius rise in air temperature. Soil Mn concentration, MASAT, C:N ratio, and pH value determined the taxonomic composition of the lichenised guild, and the relative abundance of the guild was best predicted by soil Mn concentration. There was a 3% decrease in the relative abundance of the saprotrophic fungal guild in the total community for each degree Celsius rise in air temperature, and the OTU richness of the guild, which accounted for 39% of the community, was negatively associated with Mn concentration. The taxonomic composition of the saprotrophic guild varied with MASAT, pH value, and Mn, NH4+-N, and SO42− concentrations. The richness of the yeast community, which comprised 3% of the total fungal community, was positively associated with soil K concentration, with its composition being determined by C:N ratio. In contrast with a similar study in the Arctic, the relative abundance and richness of lichenised fungi declined between 60°S and 69°S, with those of saprotrophic Agaricales also declining sharply in soils beyond 63°S. Basidiomycota, which accounted for 4% of reads, were much less frequent than in vegetated soils at lower latitudes, with the Ascomycota (70% of reads) being the dominant phylum. We conclude that the richness, relative abundance, and taxonomic composition of guilds and growth forms of maritime Antarctic soil fungi are influenced by air temperature and edaphic factors, with implications for the soils of the region as its climate changes during the 21st century. Keywords: Agaricales, ascomycetes, climate warming, phylogenetic marker (ITS2) sequencing, lichenised fungi, maritime Antarctica, saprotrophic fungi, yeasts.
33517Rattan R., Shukla S., Sharma B. & Bhat M. (2021): A mini-review on lichen-based nanoparticles and their applications as antimicrobial agents. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 12: 633090 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.633090.
Biological entities such as green plants, fungi, and lichens are now a days persistently explored for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Lichen-based nanoparticles are also becoming increasingly popular owing to their biocompatibility, eco-friendliness, and cost-effectiveness. The lichen-based metal nanomaterials, particularly synthesized using green chemistry approaches, have turned out to be great substitutes to conventional antimicrobial therapies. Many scientific reports established the significant antimicrobial properties exhibited by the lichen nanoparticles. Therefore, the present mini-review summarizes an overview of lichen-based nanomaterials, their synthesis, their applications, and the molecular mechanism of their potential as broad spectrum antimicrobial agents for biomedical applications.
33516Míguez F., Schiefelbein U., Karsten U., García-Plazaola J.I. & Gustavs L. (2017): Unraveling the photoprotective response of lichenized and free-living green algae (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) to photochilling stress. - Frontiers in Plant Science, 8: 1144 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01144.
Lichens and free-living terrestrial algae are widespread across many habitats and develop successfully in ecosystems where a cold winter limits survival. With the goal of comparing photoprotective responses in free-living and lichenized algae, the physiological responses to chilling and photochilling conditions were studied in three lichens and their isolated algal photobionts together as well as in a fourth free-living algal species. We specifically addressed the following questions: (i) Are there general patterns of acclimation in green algae under chilling and photochilling stresses? (ii) Do free-living algae exhibit a similar pattern of responses as their lichenized counterparts? (iii) Are these responses influenced by the selection pressure of environmental conditions or by the phylogenetic position of each species? To answer these questions, photosynthetic fluorescence measurements as well as pigment and low molecular weight carbohydrate pool analyses were performed under controlled laboratory conditions. In general, photochemical efficiency in all free-living algae decreased with increasing duration of the stress, while the majority of lichens maintained an unchanged photochemical activity. Nevertheless, these patterns cannot be generalized because the alga Trebouxia arboricola and the lichen Ramalina pollinaria (associated with Trebouxia photobionts) both showed a similar decrease in photochemical efficiency. In contrast, in the couple Elliptochloris bilobata-Baeomyces rufus, only the algal partner exhibited a broad physiological performance under stress. This study also highlights the importance of the xanthophyll cycle in response to the studied lichens and algae to photochilling stress, while the accumulation of sugars was not related to cold acclimation, except in the alga E. bilobata. The differences in response patterns detected among species can be mainly explained by their geographic origin, although the phylogenetic position should also be considered, especially in some species. Keywords: carotenoid, high light, lichen, low molecular weight carbohydrates, low temperature, pigments, violaxanthin cycle.
33515de la Torre Noetzel R., Miller A.Z., de la Rosa J.M., Pacelli C., Onofri S., García Sancho L., Cubero B., Lorek A., Wolter D. & de Vera J.P. (2018): Cellular responses of the lichen Circinaria gyrosa in Mars-like conditions. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 9: 308 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00308.
Lichens are extremely resistant organisms that colonize harsh climatic areas, some of them defined as “Mars-analog sites.” There still remain many unsolved questions as to how lichens survive under such extreme conditions. Several studies have been performed to test the resistance of various lichen species under space and in simulated Mars-like conditions. The results led to the proposal that Circinaria gyrosa (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota) is one of themost durable astrobiologicalmodel lichens. However, although C. gyrosa has been exposed to Mars-like environmental conditions while in a latent state, it has not been exposed in its physiologically active mode. We hypothesize that the astrobiological test system “Circinaria gyrosa,” could be able to be physiologically active and to survive under Mars-like conditions in a simulation chamber, based on previous studies performed at dessicated-dormant stage under simulated Mars-like conditions, that showed a complete recover of the PSII activity (Sánchez et al., 2012). Epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that living algal cells were more abundant in samples exposed to niche conditions, which simulated the conditions in micro-fissures and micro-caves close to the surface that have limited scattered or time-dependent light exposure, than in samples exposed to full UV radiation. The medulla was not structurally affected, suggesting that the niche exposure conditions did not disturb the lichen thalli structure and morphology as revealed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). In addition, changes in the lichen thalli chemical composition were determined by analytical pyrolysis. The chromatograms resulting from analytical pyrolysis at 500◦C revealed that lichen samples exposed to niche conditions and full UV radiation consisted primarily of glycosidic compounds, lipids, and sterols, which are typical constituents of the cell walls. However, specific differences could be detected and used as markers of the UV-induced damage to the lichen membranes. Based on its viability responses after rehydration, our study shows that the test lichen survived the 30-day incubation in the Mars chamber particularly under niche conditions. However, the photobiont was not able to photosynthesize under theMars-like conditions, which indicates that the surface of Mars is not a habitable place for C. gyrosa. Keywords: Mars environment, extremotolerance, lichens, Circinaria gyrosa, photosynthetic activity, analytical pyrolysis.
33514Nazem-Bokaee H., Hom E.F.Y., Warden A.C., Mathews S. & Gueidan C. (2021): Towards a systems biology approach to understanding the lichen symbiosis: Opportunities and challenges of implementing network modelling. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 12: 667864 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.667864.
Lichen associations, a classic model for successful and sustainable interactions between micro-organisms, have been studied for many years. However, there are significant gaps in our understanding about how the lichen symbiosis operates at the molecular level. This review addresses opportunities for expanding current knowledge on signalling and metabolic interplays in the lichen symbiosis using the tools and approaches of systems biology, particularly network modelling. The largely unexplored nature of symbiont recognition and metabolic interdependency in lichens could benefit from applying a holistic approach to understand underlying molecular mechanisms and processes. Together with ‘omics’ approaches, the application of signalling and metabolic network modelling could provide predictive means to gain insights into lichen signalling and metabolic pathways. First, we review the major signalling and recognition modalities in the lichen symbioses studied to date, and then describe how modelling signalling networks could enhance our understanding of symbiont recognition, particularly leveraging omics techniques. Next, we highlight the current state of knowledge on lichen metabolism. We also discuss metabolic network modelling as a tool to simulate flux distribution in lichen metabolic pathways and to analyse the codependence between symbionts. This is especially important given the growing number of lichen genomes now available and improved computational tools for reconstructing such models. We highlight the benefits and possible bottlenecks for implementing different types of network models as applied to the study of lichens. Keywords: systems biology, network modelling, signalling, metabolic model, lichen symbiosis.
33513Leavitt S.D., Westberg M., Nelsen M.P., Elix J.A., Timdal E., Sohrabi M., St. Clair L.L., Williams L., Wedin M. & Lumbsch H.T. (2018): Multiple, distinct intercontinental lineages but isolation of Australian populations in a cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungal taxon, Psora decipiens (Psoraceae, Ascomycota). - Frontiers in Microbiology, 9: 283 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00283.
Multiple drivers shape the spatial distribution of species, including dispersal capacity, niche incumbency, climate variability, orographic barriers, and plate tectonics. However, biogeographic patterns of fungi commonly do not fit conventional expectations based on studies of animals and plants. Fungi, in general, are known to occur across exceedingly broad, intercontinental distributions, including some important components of biological soil crust communities (BSCs). However, molecular data often reveal unexpected biogeographic patterns in lichenized fungal species that are assumed to have cosmopolitan distributions. The lichen-forming fungal species Psora decipiens is found on all continents, except Antarctica and occurs in BSCs across diverse habitats, ranging from hot, arid deserts to alpine habitats. In order to better understand factors that shape population structure in cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungal species, we investigated biogeographic patterns in the cosmopolitan taxon P. decipiens, along with the closely related taxa P. crenata and P. saviczii. We generated a multi-locus sequence dataset based on a worldwide sampling of these taxa in order to reconstruct evolutionary relationships and explore phylogeographic patterns. Both P. crenata and P. decipiens were not recovered as monophyletic; and P. saviczii specimens were recovered as a monophyletic clade closely related to a number of lineages comprised of specimens representing P. decipiens. Striking phylogeographic patterns were observed for P. crenata, with populations from distinct geographic regions belonging to wellseparated, monophyletic lineages. South African populations of P. crenata were further divided into well-supported sub-clades. While well-supported phylogenetic substructure was also observed for the nominal taxon P. decipiens, nearly all lineages were comprised of specimens collected from intercontinental populations. However, all Australian specimens representing P. decipiens were recovered within a single well-supported monophyletic clade consisting solely of Australian samples. Our study supports up to 10 candidate species-level lineages in P. decipiens, based on genealogical concordance and coalescent-based species delimitation analyses. Our results support the general pattern of the biogeographic isolation of lichen-forming fungal populations in Australia, even in cases where closely related congeners have documented intercontinental distributions. Our study has important implications for understanding factors influencing diversification and distributions of lichens associated with BSC. Keywords: biogeography, biological soil crusts (BSC), cryptic species, disjunct populations, long-distance dispersal, Psora, semi-arid, South Africa.
33512Klarenberg I.J., Keuschnig C., Warshan D., Jónsdóttir I.S. & Vilhelmsson O. (2020): The total and active bacterial community of the chlorolichen Cetraria islandica and its response to long-term warming in sub-Arctic tundra. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 11: 540404 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.540404.
Lichens are traditionally defined as a symbiosis between a fungus and a green alga and or a cyanobacterium. This idea has been challenged by the discovery of bacterial communities inhabiting the lichen thalli. These bacteria are thought to contribute to the survival of lichens under extreme and changing environmental conditions. How these changing environmental conditions affect the lichen-associated bacterial community composition remains unclear. We describe the total (rDNA-based) and potentially metabolically active (rRNA-based) bacterial community of the lichen Cetaria islandica and its response to long-term warming using a 20-year warming experiment in an Icelandic sub-Arctic tundra. 16S rRNA and rDNA amplicon sequencing showed that the orders Acetobacterales (of the class Alphaproteobacteria) and Acidobacteriales (of the phylum Acidobacteria) dominated the bacterial community. Numerous amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) could only be detected in the potentially active community but not in the total community. Long-term warming led to increases in relative abundance of bacterial taxa on class, order and ASV level. Warming altered the relative abundance of ASVs of the most common bacterial genera, such as Granulicella and Endobacter. The potentially metabolically active bacterial community was also more responsive to warming than the total community. Our results suggest that the bacterial community of the lichen C. islandica is dominated by acidophilic taxa and harbors disproportionally active rare taxa. We also show for the first time that climate warming can lead to shifts in lichen-associated bacterial community composition. Keywords: lichen, lichen microbiome, tundra, climate change, host–microbiome, lichen-associated bacteria, long-term warming.
33511Kaasalainen U., Tuovinen V., Mwachala G., Pellikka P. & Rikkinen J. (2021): Complex interaction networks among cyanolichens of a tropical biodiversity hotspot. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 12: 672333 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.672333.
Interactions within lichen communities include, in addition to close mutualistic associations between the main partners of specific lichen symbioses, also more elusive relationships between members of a wider symbiotic community. Here, we analyze association patterns of cyanolichen symbionts in the tropical montane forests of Taita Hills, southern Kenya, which is part of the Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot. The cyanolichen specimens analyzed represent 74 mycobiont taxa within the order Peltigerales (Ascomycota), associating with 115 different variants of the photobionts genus Nostoc (Cyanobacteria). Our analysis demonstrates wide sharing of photobionts and reveals the presence of several photobiont-mediated lichen guilds. Over half of all mycobionts share photobionts with other fungal species, often from different genera or even families, while some others are strict specialists and exclusively associate with a single photobiont variant. The most extensive symbiont network involves 24 different fungal species from five genera associating with 38 Nostoc photobionts. The Nostoc photobionts belong to two main groups, the Nephroma-type Nostoc and the Collema/Peltigera-type Nostoc, and nearly all mycobionts associate only with variants of one group. Among the mycobionts, species that produce cephalodia and those without symbiotic propagules tend to be most promiscuous in photobiont choice. The extent of photobiont sharing and the structure of interaction networks differ dramatically between the two major photobiont-mediated guilds, being both more prevalent and nested among Nephroma guild fungi and more compartmentalized among Peltigera guild fungi. This presumably reflects differences in the ecological characteristics and/or requirements of the two main groups of photobionts. The same two groups of Nostoc have previously been identified from many lichens in various lichen-rich ecosystems in different parts of the world, indicating that photobiont sharing between fungal species is an integral part of lichen ecology globally. In many cases, symbiotically dispersing lichens can facilitate the dispersal of sexually reproducing species, promoting establishment and adaptation into new and marginal habitats and thus driving evolutionary diversification. Keywords: lichen, symbiosis, mycobiont, photobiont, photobiont-mediated guild, peltigerales, Nostoc.
33510Powell M. (2015): Two overlooked but widespread crusts: Verrucaria obfuscans and V. ochrostoma. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 117: 1–6. .
These two diminutive species have been overlooked by British lichenologists. Verrucaria ochrostoma was described by Borrer in the first half of the nineteenth century. Victorian lichenologists such as Leighton (1879) considered V. ochrostoma to be a rare species of plastered walls. The BLS database indicates only three hectad records during the twentieth century and, as recently as the publication of the 2009 ‘Flora’ (Orange et al. 2009), V. ochrostoma was considered to be a rare species of SE England. V. obfuscans was added to the British list in February 2015 but it is unlikely to be a recent arrival and it is not a recently described species. The nineteenth century type specimen was collected in the Jardin du Luxembourg, Paris
33509Fryday A. (1999): The genus Rimularia in the British Isles. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 84: 18–21. .
The only species included in the Rimularia in The Lichen Flora of Great Britain and Ireland (Purvis et al. 1992) were R. limborina Nyl. and the recently described, R. fuscosora Muhr & Tonsberg. However, two further species - Lecidia gyrizans and Mosigia illita - were mentioned by Purvis et al. (1992) as having recently been transferred to Rimularia (the latter as R. badioatra) while two others, Lecidea furvella and L. insularis, had already been moved to the genus by Hertel & Rambold (1990), although this placement was not universally accepted in the restricted sense of the genus then current. In the subsequent checklist (Purvis et al. 1993) two further species were transferred to Rimularia; Lecidea mullensis - considered by Hertel & Rambold to be a chemical race of R. gyrizans - and Mosigia intercedens - which they considered to be the anamorph of R. badioatra. Field work in Scotland has shown that several species are more frequent than previously reported and added two further species, the bryophilous R. sphacelata and an apparently undescribed species resembling R. gyrizans but with larger ascospores. A revised key to the genus is, therefore, required and this is provided here along with notes on the montane/upland species.
33508Marcano V., Morales Méndez A. & Palacios Prü E. (2021): The genus Ramalina Acharius (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes, Ramalinaceae) in northern South America. - Phytotaxa, 504(1): 1–77. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.504.1.1.
Fifty three taxa of Ramalina Acharius have been found in northern South America (including Colombia and Venezuela), with 8 varieties and 48 species. Seven species and four varieties are described as new to science viz. R. anteojina V. Marcano & A. Morales sp. nov. (Venezuela), R. canaguensis V. Marcano & A. Morales var. colombiana Marcano & Morales var. nov. (Colombia), R. canaguensis Marcano & Morales var. guascasensis Marcano & Morales var. nov. (Colombia), R. canaguensis V. Marcano & A. Morales var. mucumpisensis V. Marcano & A. Morales var. nov. (Colombia and Venezuela), R. reducta Krog & Swinscow var. colombiana V. Marcano & A. Morales var. nov. (Colombia), R. maegdefraui V. Marcano & A. Morales sp. nov. (Venezuela), R. mirandensis V. Marcano & A. Morales sp. nov. (Venezuela), R. subcalcarata V. Marcano & A. Morales sp. nov. (Venezuela), R. tenaensis V, Marcano & Morales sp. nov. (Colombia), R. venezuelensis V. Marcano & A. Morales sp. nov. (Venezuela), and R. victoriana V. Marcano & L. Castillo sp. nov. (Venezuela); 8 taxa are reported for first time from Venezuela: R. anceps Nylander, R. bogotensis Nylander, R. chilensis Bertero, R. holstii Krog & Swinscow, R. rigida Persoon ex Acharius, R. sorediosa (Bouly de Lesdain) Landrón, R. subfraxinea Nylander var. subfraxinea, and R. tenella Müller Argoviensis, whereas 5 taxa are reported for the first time from Colombia: R. africana (Stein) Dodge, R. asahinae W. Culberson & C. Culberson, R. subfraxinea Nylander var. confirmata, R. tenuissima V. Marcano & A. Morales and R. vareschii V. Marcano & A. Morales. A key to the species is presented together with data on morphology, anatomy, chemistry, variation, taxonomy, habitat and distribution. The chemical analyses show that the sekikaic (24 taxa), boninic (16 taxa) and homosekikaic (15 taxa) acids are the most common depsides found. Divaricatic acid is present in 10 of the taxa but is frequently replaced by sekikaic acid and its aggregates. The most common depsidones are salazinic acid (22 taxa), and protocetraric acid (25 taxa). The distribution of the secondary compounds reveals they are able to produce quite different substances which appears be not dependent to the habitat where occur the species, neither to the occurrence of minute morphological or anatomical differences at similar species. Often, several chemical strains (chemosyndromes) can be recognized within a single population of a particular species, but have no correlation with morphology or ecology. Biogeographic data indicate that of the 53 taxa known from northern South America, 28.3% (15) are known only from Venezuela, 7.5% (4) are known only from Colombia and 18.9% (10) are known only from Venezuela and Colombia. Of the 50 taxa known from Venezuela, 70% (37) of the taxa have their main distribution in the Andean region. The high concentration of Ramalina species seen in the Andes indicates that this region constitutes an important centre for speciation and endemism of Ramalina both in northern South America but also throughout the world. Keywords: Ramalina, new species, chemosyndromic variation, endemism, Colombia, Venezuela, Lichens.
33507Thomson J.W. (1973): Notes on American Arctic species of Candelariella. - Revista da Facultade de Ciencias de Lisboa, 2. ser., C, 17: 747–759. .
A key, synonymies, short descriptions, statements of ranges, and clarification of nomenclatorial problems are given for 8 species of the lichen genus Candelariella occurring in the American arctic. The range of Candelariella tercigena is mapped. The lichen Candelariella coralliza and the lichen parasite Lecidea vitellinaria are reported as new to North America
33506Pino-Bodas R. & Burgaz A.R. (2021): Chorological novelties of the genus Cladonia in Toledo province (Spain). - Botanica Complutensis, 45: 1–4. https://dx.doi.org/10.5209/bocm.75353.
Cladonia gracilis subsp. gracilis and Cladonia uncialis subsp. biuncialis are newly recorded to Toledo province. Furthermore, the distribution of C. macilenta and C. diversa is extended in this province. The habitats and distribution of these species in the Iberian Peninsula are discussed. Keywords: Lichens, Iberian Peninsula, Castilla-La Mancha.
33505Gómez-Bolea A., Burgaz A.R., Atienza V., Dumitru C., Chesa M.J. , Chiva S., Force L., Muriel S., Prieto M., Rico V.J., Rodríguez-Arribas C. & Casares M. (2021): Checklist of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Sierra Nevada (Spain). - Botanica Complutensis, 45: e74427 [21 p.]. https://dx.doi.org/10.5209/bocm.74427.
A checklist of lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Sierra Nevada (Granada, southeast Spain) is presented, fruit of the collecting field trip carried out by the Spanish Lichen Society (SEL), complemented with literature references. The authors identified 194 taxa (171 lichens and 23 lichenicolous fungi). As a result of these identifications, 46 lichens and nine lichenicolous fungi are reported for the first time in Sierra Nevada. To date, the catalogue includes 551 taxa (528 lichens and 23 lichenicolous fungi). We confirm both the scarce presence of terricolous lichens in the cryoromediterranean belt and the absence of alpine belt terricolous lichens.Keywords: South Europe; biodiversity; National Park; Biosphere Reserve; High Mountain.
33504Gauslaa Y., Goward T. & Asplund J. (2021): Canopy throughfall links canopy epiphytes to terrestrial vegetation in pristine conifer forests. - Fungal Ecology, 52: 101075 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2021.101075.
To what extent does epiphytic community composition in boreal forests reflect soil nutrient status? To answer this question, we investigated potential links between terrestrial plants and lichen-dominated communities in Picea glauca x engelmannii canopies in south-central British Columbia. We combined original data on vegetational composition in the ground and tree layers with published data on elemental uptake in standardized transplants of the lichen Lobaria pumonaria affixed to the lower branches of studied trees. Procrustean association metrics revealed a significant concordance between community composition among the epiphytic and terrestrial vegetation, which was stronger in Mn-enriched conifer canopy settings, and weaker within the cation-enriched dripzones of adjacent Populus trees. We also found that the NMDS1-gradient for each vegetation layer was strongly correlated with base cations (and inversely with Mn) in canopy throughfall, as well as with soil and bark pH. We conclude that elemental composition in canopy throughfall forms a functional link between terrestrial and epiphytic vegetation. Keywords: Ca ; Dripzone ; Epiphytic lichens ; Forest canopy ; Ground vegetation ; Leaching ; Mn ; Nutrient cycling ; pH ; Throughfall chemistry.
33503Galinato M.G.M., Bungihan M.E., Santiago K.A.A., Sangvichien E. & dela Cruz T.E.E. (2021): Antioxidant activities of fungi inhabiting Ramalina peruviana: insights on the role of endolichenic fungi in the lichen symbiosis. - Current Research in Environmental and Applied Mycology, 11(1): 119–136. Doi 10.5943/cream/11/1/10.
Apart from the fungal component (the mycobiont), other fungi reside inside lichens. Referred to as “lichen-associated fungi” or “endolichenic fungi” (ELF), these microorganisms have a poorly understood role in the lichen symbiosis. In this study, 11 morphoculturally-distinct ELF were isolated from the fruticose lichen Ramalina peruviana and identified as belonging to the genera Colletotrichum (1), Daldinia (3), Hypoxylon (1), Nemania (1), Nigrospora (1), and Xylaria (4). Each ELF was grown in two separate setups – submerged and solid-state fermentation – and were extracted with ethyl acetate for their secondary metabolites. Similarly, metabolites from the lichen host were also extracted. Among the 11 isolates, crude culture extracts of Nemania primolutea grown via the solid-state fermentation setup exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity (RSA = 89.7%), followed by Colletotrichum eschscholtzii grown using similar fermentation type (RSA = 80%). In contrast, extracts of the lichen host exhibited a slightly lower RSA (= 45.89%). Results showed that endolichenic fungi exhibited antioxidant activities greater than the lichen host, and possibly contributes to the protection of the lichen symbiosis through the synthesis of antioxidant compounds. Key words – free radical scavengers – fruticose lichen – lichen-associated fungi – Philippine lichens – secondary metabolites.
33502de Lange P.J., de Lange T.J.P., Hitchon T. & Patterson E. (2021): New Chatham Islands locations for Caloplaca maculata D.J.Galloway (Teloschistaceae). - Trilepidea, 207: 3–6. .
33501Ament-Velásquez S.L., Tuovinen V., Bergström L., Spribille T., Vanderpool D., Nascimbene J., Yamamoto Y., Thor G. & Johannesson H. (2021): The plot thickens: Haploid and triploid-like thalli, hybridization, and biased mating type ratios in Letharia. - Frontiers in Fungal Biology, 2: 656386 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/ffunb.2021.656386.
The study of the reproductive biology of lichen fungal symbionts has been traditionally challenging due to their complex lifestyles. Against the common belief of haploidy, a recent genomic study found a triploid-like signal in Letharia. Here, we infer the genome organization and reproduction in Letharia by analyzing genomic data from a pure culture and from thalli, and performing a PCR survey of the MAT locus in natural populations. We found that the read count variation in the four Letharia specimens, including the pure culture derived from a single sexual spore of L. lupina, is consistent with haploidy. By contrast, the L. lupina read counts from a thallus' metagenome are triploid-like. Characterization of the mating-type locus revealed a conserved heterothallic configuration across the genus, along with auxiliary genes that we identified. We found that the mating-type distributions are balanced in North America for L. vulpina and L. lupina, suggesting widespread sexual reproduction, but highly skewed in Europe for L. vulpina, consistent with predominant asexuality. Taken together, we propose that Letharia fungi are heterothallic and typically haploid, and provide evidence that triploid-like individuals are hybrids between L. lupina and an unknown Letharia lineage, reconciling classic systematic and genetic studies with recent genomic observations. Keywords: lichens, heterothallism, mating type locus, ploidy, hybridization.
33500Łubek A., Kukwa M., Jaroszewicz B. & Czortek P. (2021): Shifts in lichen species and functional diversity in a primeval forest ecosystem as a response to environmental changes. - Forests, 12(6): 686 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12060686.
Research highlights: shifts in the composition and functional diversity of lichen biota reflect changes in the environment caused by climate warming and eutrophication. Background and objectives: studies on lichen functional diversity and refinement in the functional traits of lichen biota under the pressure of changing environmental factors are currently of great scientific interest. The obtained results are interpreted in relation to specific habitat properties and their modifications due to the potential effects of climate change and atmospheric pollution. The aim of the work was to investigate changes in lichen species composition and functional diversity, as well as to identify factors responsible for them at different forest ecosystem scales. Materials and Methods: we identified factors responsible for changes in lichen biota in a unique Białowieża Forest ecosystem by analyzing shifts in species optima and functional diversity at the forest community, tree phorophyte, and substrate levels. We examined individual lichen species’ responses and temporal shifts in the species composition for each historical and resampled dataset using a community-weighted means of functional lichen traits and Wirth ecological indicator values. Results: the most evident change took place at the level of individual species, which shifted their realized optima: 25 species demonstrated a shift to co-occur with lichens of higher nitrogen demands, 15 demonstrated higher light demands, 14 demonstrated higher temperature preferences, and six demonstrated lower moisture preferences. At the level of forest communities, biota shifted towards the higher proportion of nitrogen-demanding and the lower proportion of moisture-demanding species. At the level of phorophyte species, biota changed towards an increased proportion of lichens of higher temperature preferences. For the substrate level, no directional shifts in lichen species composition were found. Conclusions: climate change has influenced lichen biota in Białowieża Forest, but the main driver of lichen species composition was found to be eutrophication. We suppose that other overlapping factors may contribute to biota shifts, e.g., the extinction and expansion of phorophyte tree species. Keywords: Białowieża Forest; functional traits; climate change; eutrophication; old-growth.
33499Eckstein J. (2021): Trizodia acrobia, ein mit Cyanobakterien assoziierter Ascomycet auf Torfmoosen [Trizodia acrobia, an ascomycet associated with cyanobacteria on peat moss]. - Boletus, 42(1): 53–55. .
A record of Trizodia acrobia Laukka from the Thuringian Forest near Schmiedefeld is presented and illustrated by macro- and microphotographs. The ascomycete always grows on peat mosses and also is associated with Cyanobacteria of the genus Nostoc Vaucher ex Bornet & Flahault. This interesting life style is regarded as ancient yet poorly characterized symbiotic interaction and is described as borderline lichen. The species is hitherto known only from Finland and Norway. The collection in Thuringia is the first record for Germany. Keywords: Ascomycetes, Insertae sedis, Nostoc, Sphagnum, borderline lichen, Germany, Thuringia.
33498Frolov I., Vondrák J., Konoreva L., Chesnokov S., Himelbrant D., Arup U., Stepanchikova I., Prokopiev I., Yakovchenko L. & Davydov E. (2021): Three new species of crustose Teloschistaceae in Siberia and the Far East. - Lichenologist, 53(3): 233-243. .
Three species of the family Teloschistaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) are described as new to science from Southern and Eastern Siberia and the Far East. Corticolous Caloplaca saviczii belongs to the genus Caloplaca s. str.; it has C. cerina-like apothecia and green to grey- green, crateriform soralia with a white rim. Lendemeriella aureopruinosa is a saxicolous taxon with a thin grey thallus and small apothecia 0.3–0.6 mm in diameter, with a dark orange disc usually bearing epipsamma and often with a grey true exciple containing the pigment Cinereorufa-green. Orientophila infirma is a corticolous species with an endophloeodal thallus and small orange apothecia, 0.2–0.3 mm in diameter, usually with an inconspicuous thalline exciple. All new taxa presumably have a boreal north-eastern distribution in Asia. Caloplaca s. lat., combined phylogeny, Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, lichen, Primorye, Russia, Sakhalin, Tuva, Yakutia
33497Sinigla M., Szurdoki E., Lőkös L., Bartha D., Galambos I., Bidló A. & Farkas E. (2021): Distribution and habitat preference of protected reindeer lichen species (Cladonia arbuscula, C. mitis and C. rangiferina) in the Balaton Uplands (Hungary). - Lichenologist, 53(3): 271-282. .
The maintenance of protected lichen species and their biodiversity in general depends on good management practices based on their dis- tribution and habitat preferences. To date, 10 of the 17 protected lichen species of Hungary have been recorded in the Bakony Mts including the Balaton Uplands region. Habitat preferences of three protected Cladonia species (C. arbuscula, C. mitis and C. rangiferina) growing on underlying rocks of red sandstone, basalt, Pannonian sandstone and gravel were investigated by detailed sampling. We recorded aspect, underlying rock type, soil depth, pH and CaCO3 content, habitat type (as defined by the General National Habitat Classification System Á-NÉR), all species of lichen, bryophyte and vascular plants as well as percentage cover of exposed rock, total bryophytes, lichens, vascular plants and canopy, degree of disturbance and animal impacts. Sporadic populations of these species mostly exist at the top of hills and mountains in open acidofrequent oak forests, but they may occur in other habitats, such as closed acidofrequent oak forests, slope steppes on stony soils, siliceous open rocky grasslands, open sand steppes, wet and mesic pioneer scrub and dry Calluna heaths. Cladonia rangifer- ina was found to grow beneath higher canopy cover than either C. arbuscula or C. mitis in the Balaton Uplands. Furthermore, there were significant differences in canopy cover between occupied and unoccupied quadrats in the case of all three species. Cladonia rangiferina is a good indicator species of natural habitats in Hungary due to its restricted distribution and low ecological tolerance. These results may lead to the adoption of effective conservation methods (e.g. game exclusion, artificial dispersal) in the future. box and whisker plots, Cladina, lichen-forming fungi, PCA, protected species
33496Moyo C., Minibayeva F., Liers C. & Beckett R. (2021): Quinone reductase activity is widespread in lichens. - Lichenologist, 53(3): 265-269. .
In our earlier work, we demonstrated that the oxidases tyrosinase (TYR), laccase (LAC), and a heme peroxidase (POX) occur widely in lichens. Here we report on the occurrence of another oxidoreductase enzyme, quinone reductase (QR) (EC While QR has been reported to occur widely in other organisms, there is currently no information on QR activities in lichens. Here we present a survey of QR activity in 14 species of lichens. Results demonstrate that QR activity is readily detectable in all lichen species tested. However, activities vary greatly, with ‘jelly’ lichens in the genera Collema and Leptogium having the highest activities. QR, LAC and POX are all believed to have a role in extracellular hydroxyl radical production. However, in this study no correlation was found between the activities of these enzymes and the rates at which hydroxyl radicals were produced. Possible roles for QR in lichen biology are discussed. detoxification, extracellular redox cycling, hydroxyl radical, survey
33495Mead O. & Gueidan C. (2021): Testing carbon and nitrogen sources for the in vitro growth of the model lichenized fungus Endocarpon pusillum Hedw. - Lichenologist, 53(3): 257-264. .
To improve the efficiency of isolating and culturing lichen mycobionts, we performed a growth assay on an Australian strain of the soil-crust lichenized fungus Endocarpon pusillum Hedw. This assay determined the preferred nitrogen and carbon sources of the fungus by limiting the available nitrogen or carbon sources to single compounds found in soils, plants and lichen thalli. We found that the non-proteinaceous amino acid, GABA, produced the most growth of all nutrients when provided as the sole nitrogen source but was a poor carbon source. Fructose, glucose, cellobiose and sorbitol produced the most growth of all the carbon sources tested. Ammonium, nitrate and polyamines were poor nutrient sources. These findings correspond with reports of primary metabolite pools in other lichen species and may guide future studies involving growth of recalcitrant lichen mycobionts. aminobutyric, GABA, growth, medium, nutrition, polyalcohol, polyol, rate
33494Søchting U., Søgaard M., Sancho L. & Arup U. (2021): The lichen genus Villophora (Teloschistaceae, Ascomycota). - Lichenologist, 53(3): 245-255. .
The Southern Hemisphere lichen genus Villophora in subfamily Teloschistoideae is analyzed based on DNA sequence data. Six species are described, five of which are new to science: V. darwiniana and V. wallaceana grow on lignum and bark in southern Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego; V. onas and V. patagonica are lichenicolous or saxicolous on rocks in southern Patagonia; V. rimicola is saxicolous in Antarctica. Based on a three-gene DNA analysis, Tayloriellina is shown to be closely related to Villophora, and Tayloriellina microphyllina is established as a new combination. A key is provided to all species of the two genera. Raesaeneniana maulensis is combined into Villophora. Antarctica, Caloplaca, Chile, Raesaeneniana, South America, Tayloriellina
33493Randlane T. & Mark K. (2021): Response to Clerc & Naciri Usnea dasopoga (Ach.) Nyl. and U. barbata (L.) F. H. Wigg. (Ascomycetes, Parmeliaceae) are two different species: A plea for reliable identifications in molecular studies. - Lichenologist, 53(3): 231-232. .
During the last thirty years phylogenetic analyses based on molecular characters have developed from simple single-locus studies into complicated surveys containing multi-locus phyloge- nies, species trees and possibilities to evaluate the evolutionary history of characters. This has been an exciting era for systema- tists, including fungal taxonomists. The majority of lichenized taxa have originally been described using morphological charac- ters s. lat. (i.e. traits related to morphology, anatomy and chemis- try), and thus the congruence between traditional species description and species delimitation based on their molecular evolutionary history remains a challenge. The use of morpho- logical characters has not been abandoned, as predicted or advo- cated by some researchers (Lumbsch & Leavitt 2011; Hibbett et al. 2016). However, we now know that the morphology-based approach to species recognition has also been demonstrated in several cases to substantially misrepresent diversity, as it either underestimates the occurrence of cryptic species (Altermann et al. 2014; Boluda et al. 2016) or, on the contrary, overestimates the true diversity due to high levels of intra-specific morpho- logical and chemical variation (Leavitt et al. 2011; Velmala et al. 2014). Therefore, morphological characters continue to be useful for the delimitation of species, but only if their discrimina- tive ability has been verified using phylogenetic analyses.
33492Clerc P. & Naciri Y. (2021): Usnea dasopoga (Ach.) Nyl. and U. barbata (L.) F. H. Wigg. (Ascomycetes, Parmeliaceae) are two different species: A plea for reliable identifications in molecular studies. - Lichenologist, 53(3): 221-230. .
Using molecular data to delimit species or reconstruct their evolutionary history is now widely used across all organisms. However, such analyses can suffer from poor or false specimen identifications leading to incorrect conclusions. Here we show that the use of misidentified specimens in a phylogenetic framework resulted in questionable conclusions in a previously published study (Mark et al. 2016). Using mor- phological, chemical and statistical analyses on the specimens used in that study, we found support for Usnea barbata and U. dasopoga being morphologically and anatomically distinct species with separate clusters in the molecular phylogeny. Furthermore, our revision of specimen identifications refutes the synonymization of U. substerilis with U. lapponica. In conclusion, we discuss the issue of correct iden- tification of voucher specimens in DNA databases and conclude with some general suggestions to avoid false specimen identifications in phylogenetic studies. GenBank, lichens, misidentification, taxonomy, Usnea lapponica, Usnea perplexans, Usnea substerilis
33491Nirhamo A., Pykälä J., Halme P. & Komonen A. (2021): Lichen communities on Populus tremula are affected by the density of Picea abies. - Applied Vegetation Science, 24(2): e12584 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12584.
Questions: Aspen (Populus tremula) is declining in the old-growth forests of boreal Fennoscandia. This threatens the numerous taxa that are dependent on old aspens, including many epiphytic lichens. Potential methods to aid epiphytic lichens on aspen are centered around treatments which affect the density of Norway spruce (Picea abies). In this study, we investigated how epiphytic lichen communities on aspen are affected by the variation of spruce density in the immediate vicinity of the focal aspen. Location: Southern boreal forests in Finland. Methods: We recorded the occurrence of lichens from 120 aspens in 12 semi-natural forest sites. We used spruce basal area as the measure for spruce density. The selected aspens represented a gradient in spruce basal area in the vicinity of the aspen from 0 to 36 m2/ha. We also measured other tree-and stand-level variables that are known to influence lichen occurrence. Results: Lichen communities on aspen were affected by spruce density, stand age and bark pH. Both lichen species richness and the richness of red-listed species were highest at an intermediate spruce density, and both increased with stand age. Lichen species richness was higher when bark pH was lower. Additionally, community composition was influenced the most by spruce density, followed by bark pH. Conclusions: Our study highlights the detrimental effects of high spruce density on lichen diversity on aspens. This is caused by high spruce density resulting in low light availability. Lichen diversity on aspens was highest when spruce density was intermediate. Spruce thinning in aspen-rich old-growth forests can be helpful in ensuring the long-term persistence of old-growth lichens on aspen in protected forests. Keywords: Biodiversity, boreal forests, community ecology, cyanolichens, epiphytic lichens, European aspen, Norway spruce, old-growth forests, protected areas, red-listed species, succession.
33490Sinyutkina A. (2021): Drainage consequences and self-restoration of drained raised bogs in the south-eastern part of Western Siberia: Peat accumulation and vegetation dynamics. - Catena, 205: 105464 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2021.105464.
This study analysed the drainage influence on vegetation and peat deposit and assessed the self-restoration of ecological functions of Western Siberia bogs. As a case study, we selected four raised bogs – two are the eastnorthern spurs of the Great Vasyugan Mire and two are small, raised bogs on the terrace of the Bakchar River and the Ob River. The consequences of drainage and the ability to self-restore are influenced by the moisture conditions before drainage, bog size, distance between ditches and microtopography characteristics. The dominant species under wet conditions, such as Sphagnum magellanicum and Sphagnum balticum, changed with drainage to Sphagnum fuscum, and the peat accumulation rate increased. The sites with more dry conditions and dominated by Sphagnum fuscum were characterised by the intense degradation of Sphagnum, Bryidae and lichen growth and a low peat accumulation rate. Large raised bogs are relatively stable and capable of self-restoration. The drainage effect was more significant within some parts of the small bogs. Drainage consequences were less dramatic for large bogs, even in the marginal parts and near the ditches. A distance between ditches of 40 m and less is critical for self-restoration. Our study demonstrates that modern peat accumulation occurred in most parts of the plots; the mean peat accumulation rate over the last 35 years was 0.43 cm per year. Drainage influence in the south-eastern part of Western Siberia is less significant than in European bogs, not only because of the high stability of raised bogs but also because of the lower drainage intensity as well as the absence of forest planting, fertilisation and peat mining.
33489Krajka‑Kuźniak V., Paluszczak J., Kleszcz R. & Baer‑Dubowska W. (2021): (+)‑Usnic acid modulates the Nrf2‑ARE pathway in FaDu hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells. - Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 476: 2539–2549. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-021-04092-7.
Naturally occurring phytochemicals of different origin and structure, arctigenin, bergenin, usnic acid and xanthohumol, were shown to affect Nrf2 pathway in the context of various diseases, but their effect on this pathway in cancer cells was not extensively investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of these compounds on Nrf2 expression and activation in hypopharyngeal FaDu squamous cell carcinoma cells. FaDu cells were treated with 2 or 10 μM arctigenin, bergenin, (+)- usnic acid or xanthohumol for 24 h. While arctigenin, bergenin, and xanthohumol did not affect either Nrf2 expression or activation, (+)-usnic acid treatment increased its transcript level and increased the nuclear/cytosol Nrf2 protein ratio—the measure of Nrf2 pathway activation. Consequently, (+)-usnic acid enhanced the transcription and translation of Nrf2 target genes: NQO1, SOD, and to a lesser extent, GSTP. The treatment of FaDu cells with (+)-usnic acid decreased both GSK-3β transcript and protein level, indicating its possible involvement in Nrf2 activation. All the tested compounds decreased Bax mRNA but did not change the level of Bax protein. (+)-Usnic acid tended to increase the percentage of early apoptotic cells and LC3 protein, autophagy marker. Significant induction of p53 also was observed after treatment with (+)-usnic acid. In summary, the results of this study indicate that low concentrations of (+)-usnic acid activate Nrf2 transcription factor, most probably as a result of ROS accumulation, but do not lead to FaDu hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells death. Keywords: FaDu cells · Nrf2 · (+)-usnic acid · Arctigenin · Bergenin · Xanthohumol.
33488Dohi T., Ohmura Y., Yoshimura K., Sasaki T., Fujiwara K., Kanaizuka S., Nakama S. & Iijima K. (2021): Radiocaesium accumulation capacity of epiphytic lichens and adjacent barks collected at the perimeter boundary site of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station. - PLoS ONE, 16(5): e0251828 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0251828.
We investigated the radiocaesium content of nine epiphytic foliose lichens species and the adjacent barks of Zelkova serrata (Ulmaceae, "Japanese elm") and Cerasus sp. (Rosaceae, "Cherry tree") at the boundary of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station six years after the accident in 2011. Caesium-137 activities per unit area (the 137 Cs-inventory) were determined to compare radiocaesium retentions of lichens (65 specimens) and barks (44 specimens) under the same growth conditions. The 137 Cs-inventory of lichens collected from Zelkova serrata and Cerasus sp. were respectively 7.9-and 3.8-times greater than the adjacent barks. Furthermore, we examined the radiocaesium distribution within these samples using autoradiography and on the surfaces with an electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). Autoradiographic results showed strong local spotting and heterogeneous distributions of radioactivity in both the lichen and bark samples, although the intensities were lower in the barks. The electron microscopy analysis demonstrated that particulates with similar sizes and compositions were distributed on the surfaces of the samples. We therefore concluded that the lichens and barks could capture fine particles, including radiocaesium particles. In addition, radioactivity was distributed more towards the inwards of the lichen samples than the peripheries. This suggests that lichen can retain 137 Cs that is chemically immobilised in particulates intracellularly, unlike bark.
33487Shen M., Zhang J.Q., Zhao L.L., Groenewald J.Z., Crous P.W. & Zhang Y. (2020): Venturiales. - Studies in Mycology, 96: 185–308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.simyco.2020.03.001.
Members of Venturiales (Dothideomycetes) are widely distributed, and comprise saprobes, as well as plant, human and animal pathogens. In spite of their economic importance, the general lack of cultures and DNA data has resulted in taxa being poorly resolved. In the present study five loci, ITS, LSU rDNA, tef1, tub2 and rpb2 are used for analysing 115 venturialean taxa representing 30 genera in three families in the current classification of Venturiales. Based on the multigene phylogenetic analysis, morphological and ecological characteristics, one new family, Cylindrosympodiaceae, and eight new genera are described, namely Bellamyces, Fagicola, Fraxinicola, Fuscohilum, Neofusicladium, Parafusicladium, Pinaceicola and Sterila. In addition, 12 species are described as new to science, and 41 new combinations are proposed. The taxonomic status of 153 species have been re-evaluated with 20 species excluded from Venturiales. Based on this revision of Venturiales, morphological characteristics such as conidial arrangement (solitary or in chains) or conidiogenesis (blastic-solitary, sympodial or annellidic), proved to be significant at generic level. Venturia as currently defined represents a generic complex. Furthermore, plant pathogens appear more terminal in phylogenetic analyses within Venturiaceae and Sympoventuriaceae, suggesting that the ancestral state of Venturiales is most likely saprobic. New lichenicolous taxa: Bellamyces quercus Crous, Coppins & U. Braun, gen. et spec. nov. (on apothecia of Lecanora chlarotera); Tyrannosorus lichenicola Crous, M. Shen & Y. Zhang spec. nov. (on Letharia sp.); Venturia peltigericola (Crous & Diederich) Crous, M. Shen & Y. Zhang, comb. nov. (bas. Fusicladium peltigericola) (on Peltigera rufescens).
33486Osyczka P. & Kubiak D. (2020): Data on epiphytic lichens and their host-trees in relation to non-forested area and natural deciduous lowland forest. - Data in Brief, 31: 105711 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105711.
The article includes raw and analyzed data directly related to the research paper entitled “Non-forested vs forest environments: the effect of habitat conditions on host tree parameters and the occurrence of associated epiphytic lichens” [1]. These data concern the relationships between the composition of lichen communities and host-tree parameters in non-forested area and a natural lowland deciduous forest in northern Poland. Lichen species confined to non-forested area, associated with forest habitat, and non-specific mutual species occurring in both habitat types are listed together with their host-tree preferences. Data on the phenotypic variability of five common and native to Central Europe tree species in relation to the habitat type are provided. Data that concerns tree parameters are analyzed by the mixed model ANOVA and Principal Component Analysis. Additionally, sample rarefactions and indices of potential lichen species richness for both habitat types are included. Presented data could be used in further studies to compare epiphytic community structure and may be support for campaigns aimed at lichen conservation and at shaping the environment with concern for biodiversity. Keywords: Lichenized fungi; Lichen communities; Habitat factors; Ecology, Tree parameters; Lowland deciduous forest; Tree avenues; Rural landscape.
33485Goel M., Kalra R., Ponnan P., Jayaweera J.A.A.S. & Kumbukgolla W.W. (2021): Inhibition of penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) in methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by combination of oxacillin and a bioactive compound from Ramalinaroesleri [sic!]. - Microbial Pathogenesis, 150: 104676 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104676.
Lichens are known to be useful and important in ethanopharmacology since ages and still possess substantial interest in alternative medical practices around the world. The intent of this investigation was to evaluate and to understand the antibacterial potential of usnic acid which was isolated from Himalyan fruticose lichen Ramalina roesleri. Usnic acid is predicted for its pharmaceutical properties through in -silico studies. Binding efficiency of usnic acid with Penicillin binding protein-PBP2a, a protein which is responsible for conferring resistance in Staphylococcus aureus was accessed using in-silico interaction assays comparing with oxacillin and ceftaroline. Further, the validation of in-silico modelling was checked by determining the antibacterial potential of usnic acid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates. In total, 28 clinical isolates collected from hospitals/medical students were included in the study and the anti-Staphylococcal activity was determined using agar plate dilution method followed by time-kill kinetics and synergistic studies. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) pictures were obtained to show the cell wall disruption of MRSA by usnic acid. Docking results clearly indicated the enhanced binding potential of usnic acid (Glide XP G Score: 10.968; Glide energy −64.869) with PBP2a which is better than the energy range of reference compound, oxacillin (Glide XP G Score: 6.596; Glide energy −53.285) and roughly comparable to the co-crystallized ligand ceftaroline (Glide XP G Score: 12.20; Glide energy −70.322). Cefteroline is known to be more active against MRSA compared to oxacillin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of usnic acid against the clinical isolates of MRSA and reference strain (NCTC-6571) were in the range of 32–128 μg/ml. The high affinity of usnic acid to bind with PBP2a which is demonstrated via in-silico studies is further confirmed by the impressive inhibitory activity of usnic acid on MRSA clinical isolates. Keywords: Lichen; Usnic acid; Antibacterial; MRSA.
33484Neufeld H.S. & Perkins F.S. (2021): Host tree species mediate corticolous lichen responses to elevated CO2 and O3 after 10 years exposure in the Aspen-FACE system. - Science of the Total Environment, 764: 142875 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142875.
Lichens contribute significantly to the biodiversity and functioning of many ecosystems. Although lichens are useful air pollution bioindicators and may respond in significant ways to global change, they are studied infrequently under field conditions in chamberless exposure systems. We surveyed corticolous lichens on paper birch (Betula papyrifera) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) after 10 years exposure (1998–2007) to elevated CO2 (eCO2) and O3 (eO3) in the Aspen-FACE experiment in Rhinelander, WI, USA. This experiment utilized chamberless exposure rings, 30 m in diameter, with both host trees planted together in one quadrant. Four treatments were allocated among 12 rings: ambient, eCO2, eO3, and the combination of eCO2 + eO3, each replicated once in each of three blocks. Over the course of the experiment, ambient CO2 increased from 343 to 386 ppm while eCO2 averaged ~530 ppm CO2. Ambient ozone concentrations averaged ~37 ppb and ~49 ppb for eO3 although exposures decreased with time. Tree growth and leaf area index were negatively affected by eO3 and stimulated by eCO2, resulting in higher photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in eO3 and lower in eCO2. We assessed lichen richness and cover on five host trees per ring on the north-facing side of the trunks, which were higher on birch than on aspen. Neither of the lichen measures on birch responded to the exposure treatments, while on aspen lichen cover was highest in eO3 and lowest in eCO2. On aspen, lichen cover was positively related to PAR and dominated by Caloplaca. No relationship was found for birch, although Lecanora exhibited a negative relationship with PAR. These lichens were insensitive to direct effects of eCO2 and eO3 at the levels applied. Instead, they responded to indirect effects, such as host tree species, and changes in understory PAR, resulting from direct effects of eO3 and eCO2 on the host trees. Keywords: Epiphytic; PAR; Air pollution; Global change; Species richness; Species cover.
33483Moya P., Chiva S., Molins A., Garrido-Benavent I. & Barreno E. (2021): Unravelling the symbiotic microalgal diversity in Buellia zoharyi (lichenized Ascomycota) from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands using DNA metabarcoding. - Diversity, 13(6): 220 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13060220.
Buellia zoharyi is a crustose placodioid lichen, usually occurring on biocrusts of semiarid ecosystems in circum-Mediterranean/Macaronesian areas. In previous work, we found that this lichenized fungus was flexible in its phycobiont choice in the Canary Islands. Here we test whether geography and habitat influence phycobiont diversity in populations of this lichen from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands using Sanger and high throughput sequencing (HTS). Additionally, three thallus section categories (central, middle and periphery) were analyzed to explore diversity of microalgal communities in each part. We found that B. zoharyi populations hosted at least three different Trebouxia spp., and this lichen can associate with distinct phycobiont strains in different habitats and geographic regions. This study also revealed that the Trebouxia composition of this lichen showed significant differences when comparing the Iberian Peninsula with the Balearics thalli. No support for differences in microalgal communities was found among thallus sections; however, several thalli showed different predominant Trebouxia spp. at each section. This result corroborate that thallus parts selected for DNA extraction in metabarcoding analyses are key to not bias the total phycobiont diversity detected. This study highlights that inclusion of HTS analysis is crucial to understand lichen symbiotic microalgal diversity. Keywords: coexistence; high throughput sequencing; Illumina; metabarcoding; symbiosis; Trebouxia.
33482Kakeh J., Gorji M., Mohammadi M.H., Asadi H., Khormali F. & Sohrabi M. (2021): Effect of biocrusts on profile distribution of soil water content and salinity at different stages of evaporation. - Journal of Arid Environments, 191: 104514 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2021.104514.
In this study, the effect of biocrusts on daily variations of evaporation in soils of an arid rangeland was investigated during 142 days. Temporal and spatial variations of soil water and solute content were analyzed in three times of 17, 50 and 103 days, and four depths of 10, 20, 30 cm and 40 cm in six columns (20 cm diameter × 50 cm height) containing biocrusts (43 cm saline soil + 5 cm biocrusts) and four columns filled with bare soil (48 cm saline soil) respectively. Temporal variation of evaporation rate was supposed as a 3-stages process. Results showed that stage 1 and stage 2 are not distinguishable. We further found that, compared to bare soil, the biocrusts retarded water evaporation from soil surface (24 vs. 30 mm and 34 vs. 44 mm after 17 and 50 days respectively), and reduced solute accumulation in top soil, especially in the stage 2 of evaporation process (5 vs. 8 dS/m and 13 vs. 20 dS/m after 17 and 50 days respectively). The effect of biocrusts on the evaporation rate at the stage 3 of evaporation was not significant (9 vs. 9 mm after 103 days). Reduction of evaporation by biocrusts resulted in less soil salinity within entire soil profile. The effects of biocrusts on evaporation reduction are attributed to i) the biocrusts create mats on the soil surface, and swelling of mats blocks the soil pores in wet condition, and ii) the large pores of biocrusts disrupt the hydraulic connectivity between topsoil and subsoil, which minimizes the capillary rise. Since major part of water is evaporated during stage 2, and is controlled by water flow within the soil and at the surface, so conservation of the BSCs would be important for preserving hydrological functions advantage such as reducing evaporation and enhancing water retention in the salt affected and dry soils. Keywords: Biological soil crusts; Dry land; Soil salinization; Soil solute dynamics; Water preservation.
33481Battista S., Köber M., Vargas-Nadal G., Veciana J., Giansanti L. & Ventosa N. (2021): Homogeneous and stable (+)-usnic acid loaded liposomes prepared by compressed CO2. - Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 624: 126749 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2021.126749.
The administration of hydrophobic actives and drugs for medical or cosmetical purposes generally requires a formulation that ensures adequate water solubility, which can be achieved through the encapsulation in liposomes. For the vehiculation of (+)-usnic acid (UA), a hydrophobic compound with antioxidant activity, we have prepared liposomes in a one-step process using compressed CO2. The investigated formulations are mainly composed of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and cholesterol, but contain also a small molar fraction (10%) of a synthetic surfactant derived from L-prolinol. In previous investigations liposomes containing L-prolinol derivatives showed a higher efficacy as DNA or drug delivery systems with respect to liposomes of mere phospholipids. As a consequence, they were added to liposomes to make them more suitable UA delivery systems. By testing different surfactant chain lengths and headgroups, we studied how the chemical nature of the surfactant affects the physicochemical vesicle properties and their interaction with UA. Most formulations, especially those containing surfactants with longer alkyl chains (C14 and C16), show a good potentiality as UA delivery systems because they exhibit a higher stability, vesicle-to-vesicle homogeneity and bilayer compaction with respect to analog liposomes prepared by the conventional thin film hydration previously investigated. Our results confirm the advantages of DELOS-SUSP also in the case of mixed liposomes containing phospholipids and synthetic ionic surfactants. Moreover, this study demonstrates that liposomes composed of the same lipids can feature different properties if prepared according to different methodologies. In addition, this investigation points out that also the properties that a solute included in the bilayer show can be affected by the technique used for liposomes preparation. Keywords: Depressurization of an expanded liquid organic solution-suspension (DELOS-SUSP); Liposomes; L-prolinol derivatives; (+)-usnic acid; Structure-properties relation.
33480Xu S.-Y., Huang H., Song W. & Liu X.-Y. (2021): Lichen nitrogen concentrations and isotopes for indicating nitrogen deposition levels and source changes. - Science of the Total Environment, 787: 147616 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147616.
Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) emissions triggered acid deposition and affected the environmental quality and ecosystem functions. Lichen N and S concentrations have been found increasing with N and S deposition at relatively low levels, respectively. However, it remains unclear whether lichen N and S concentrations can respond to corresponding deposition fluxes under high pollution environments and how to use lichen N isotopes (δ15N) to evaluate source contributions of N deposition quantitatively. Along an urban-to-rural transect surrounding a polluted area in northern China, we investigated lichen N and S to examine their sensitivity and applicability in estimating N and S deposition. Moreover, we established a new method to reconstruct site-based δ15N values of ammonium N (NHx) and oxidized N (NOy) deposition using lichen δ15N and then to differentiate relatively contributions of major N emission sources. Lichen N (1.0–3.9%, 2.5 ± 0.6%) and S (0.09–0.33%, 0.21 ± 0.06%) decreased linearly with distances from the polluted center area. Wet inorganic N and sulfate deposition (29.0 ± 6.1 kg-N/ha/yr and 25.8 ± 7.9 kg-S/ha/yr, respectively) estimated by integrating relationships from previous literature data were comparable with levels based on direct deposition observations in the study area. Lichen δ15N varied between −12.1 to −4.1‰ and averaged −7.1 ± 2.0‰ among our study sites, and reconstructed δ15N values of NHx and NOy deposition averaged −12.8 ± 1.0‰ and −3.2 ± 0.5‰, respectively. Source contribution analyses revealed significant contributions of volatilization ammonia (66 ± 3%) from wastes and fertilizers to NHx deposition and non-fossil fuel N oxides (62 ± 7%) from biomass burnings and microbial N cycles to NOy deposition. These results indicate that lichen N and S are sensitive to deposition fluxes under high pollution and applicable to estimating deposition levels. This work improves the methodology of atmospheric deposition biomonitoring based on lichen element and isotope records. Keywords: N deposition; Lichen N; Lichen δ15N; S deposition; Atmospheric pollution.
33479Goodenough U. (2021): Introduction to the lichen ultrastructure series. - Algal Research, 56: 102026 [3 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2020.102026.
33478Roth R., Wagner R. & Goodenough U. (2021): Lichen 3. Outer layers. - Algal Research, 56: 102332 [20 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2021.102332.
A lichen is a slow-growing niche-constructing organism that forms a thallus via scripted symbiotic/mutualist relationships between fungi, algae, and bacteria. Here we use quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy (QFDEEM), in conjunction with light microscopy, to document the structural manifestations of hyphal differentiation during the formation of three lichen tissues that localize between the algal layer and the surface of the thallus: the outer cortex of foliose lobes; the outer layer of fruticose stems; and the enwrapping layer of asexual propagules called soredia that protrude from squamulose podetia and foliose lobes. Our observations document features of outer-layer architecture and the role played by extracellular matrices (ECM). They also lead us to propose the medullary stem-cell hypothesis for lichen organization wherein totipotent medullary hyphae produce lateral branches that undergo specific differentiation pathways in specific domains of the thallus. Keywords: Lichen; Ascomycete; Alga; Hyphal branching; Fungal extracellular matrix (ECM); Medullary stem-cell; Quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy.
33477Dron J., Ratier A., Austruy A., Revenko G., Chaspoul F. & Wafo E. (2021): Effects of meteorological conditions and topography on the bioaccumulation of PAHs and metal elements by native lichen (Xanthoria parietina). - Journal of Environmental Sciences, 109: 193–205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2021.03.045.
The bioaccumulation of PAHs and metal elements in the indigenous lichens Xanthoria parietina was monitored during two years at a quarterly frequency, in 3 sites of contrasted anthropic influence. The impact of the meteorological factors (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, wind speed) was first estimated through principal component analysis, and then by stepwise multilinear regressions to include wind directions. The pollutants levels reflected the proximity of atmospheric emissions, in particular from a large industrial harbor. High humidity and mild temperatures, and in a lower extent low wind speed and rainfall, also favored higher concentration levels. The contributions of these meteorological aspects became minor when including wind direction, especially when approaching major emission sources. The bioaccumulation integration time towards meteorological variations was on a seasonal basis (1–2 months) but the wind direction and thus local emissions also relied on a longer time scale (12 months). This showed that the contribution of meteorological conditions may be prevalent in remote places, while secondary in polluted areas, and should be definitely taken into account regarding long-term lichen biomonitoring and inter-annual comparisons. In the same time, a quadruple sampling in each site revealed a high homogeneity among supporting tree species and topography. The resulting uncertainty, including sampling, preparation and analysis was below 30% when comfortable analytical conditions were achieved. Finally, the occurrence of unexpected events such as a major forest fire, permitted to evaluate that this type of short, although intense, events did not have a strong influence on PAH and metals bioaccumulation by lichen. Keywords: Indigenous lichen; Biomonitoring; Climate; Seasonal impacts; Sampling uncertainties; Integration time.
33476Petersson L., Nilsson S., Holmström A., Lindbladh M. & Felton A. (2021): Forest floor bryophyte and lichen diversity in Scots pine and Norway spruce production forests. - Forest Ecology and Management, 493: 119210 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2021.119210.
Bryophytes and lichens are two main components of the forest floor vegetation. They provide essential ecosystem services, including nutrient recycling and water regulation. Here, we contrast the species richness, cover and community composition of forest floor bryophytes and lichens in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) dominated production forests. The study sites were located in the hemiboreal zone of southern Sweden, and represented early-, mid- and late rotation stands. Our aim was to examine the potential consequences for forest floor biodiversity from the decreasing use of Scots pine production forests in this region. Whereas Scots pine and Norway spruce stands did not differ in bryophyte cover, we found a higher cover of lichens in Scots pine stands, and highest in the intermediate aged stands. Also the species richness of lichens was higher in the Scots pine stands, while bryophyte species richness was higher in the Norway spruce stands. Differences in canopy cover and associated light transmittance to the forest floor appears to be important drivers for distinctive different forest floor communities in the Scots pine and Norway spruce stands, as revealed by NonMetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS). Mean Ellenberg indicator values for bryophytes and lichens showed that species associated with Scots pine stands were characterized by their tolerance of brighter conditions, higher insolation, and better adaptation to a continental climate. Norway spruce stands instead had a comparably larger proportion of species tolerating lower light, but also indicators of higher available nutrient levels, humidity, and pH. The outcome of the Ellenberg indicator species analysis, as well as the larger cover of lichens,and adaptations to drought found among some mosses, revealed that forest floor communities are shaped by different environmental factors in Scots pine and Norway spruce production stands. These environmental differences, and the quantified shifts in forest floor communities identified in this study, indicate the large shifts in understory bryophyte and lichen species composition and abundance that is likely to occur if Scots pine stands are converted to Norway spruce. Keywords: Understory vegetation ; Biodiversity; Moss ; Liverwort ; Pinus sylvestris ; Picea abies ; Managed coniferous; plantations ; Ellenberg indicator values.
33475Kim W.-Y., Jeong M.-H., Yun S.-H. & Hur J.-S. (2021): Transcriptome analysis identifies a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of biruloquinone, a rare phenanthraquinone, in a lichen-forming fungus Cladonia macilenta. - Journal of Fungi, 7(5): 398 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7050398.
Lichens are prolific producers of natural products of polyketide origin. We previously described a culture of lichen-forming fungus (LFF) Cladonia macilenta that produces biruloquinone, a purple pigment that is a phenanthraquinone rarely found in nature. However, there was no genetic information on the biosynthesis of biruloquinone. To identify a biosynthetic gene cluster for biruloquinone, we mined polyketide synthase (PKS) genes from the genome sequence of a LFF isolated from thalli of C. macilenta. The 38 PKS in C. macilenta are highly diverse, many of which form phylogenetic clades with PKS previously characterized in non-lichenized fungi. We compared transcriptional profiles of the 38 PKS genes in two chemotypic variants, one producing biruloquinone and the other producing no appreciable metabolite in vitro. We identified a PKS gene (hereafter PKS21) that was highly upregulated in the LFF that produces biruloquinone. The boundaries of a putative biruloquinone gene cluster were demarcated by co-expression patterns of six clustered genes, including the PKS21. Biruloquinone gene clusters exhibited a high degree of synteny between related species. In this study we identified a novel PKS family responsible for the biosynthesis of biruloquinone through whole-transcriptome analysis. Keywords: biruloquinone; Cladonia; polyketide; PKS; secondary metabolite.
33474Root H.T., Jovan S., Fenn M., Amacher M., Hall J. & Shaw J.D. (2021): Lichen bioindicators of nitrogen and sulfur deposition in dry forests of Utah and New Mexico, USA. - Ecological Indicators, 27: 1017727 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.107727.
Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) deposition can negatively affect ecosystem functions and lichen biomonitors can be a cost-effective way to monitor air pollution exposure across the landscape. Interior dry forests of the southwestern United States face increasing development pressures; however, this region differs from others with well-developed biomonitoring programs in having drier climates and a greater fraction of deposition delivered in dry forms. We measured throughfall N and S deposition at 12 sites in Utah and 10 in New Mexico and co-located collection of 6 lichen species. Throughfall N deposition ranged from 0.76 to 6.96 kg/ha/ year and S deposition from 0.57 to 1.44 kg/ha/year with elevated levels near human development that were not predicted by commonly used simulation models. Throughfall N was 4.6 and 1.6 times higher in summer compared with fall-spring in Utah and New Mexico and S deposition was 3.9 and 1.8 times higher in summer. Lichen N and S concentrations ranged from 0.97 to 2.7% and 0.09 to 0.33%. Replicate samples within plots showed high variability in N and S concentrations with within-plot coefficients of variation for N ranging between 5 and 10% and for S between 7 and 15%. In Utah, N and S concentrations in lichen species were correlated with each other in most cases, with R2 ranging from 0.52 to 0.85. N concentrations in Melanohalea exasperatula and Melanohalea subolivacea could be correlated with average annual throughfall N deposition in Utah (R2 = 0.58 and 0.31). Those relationships were improved by focusing on deposition in fall-spring prior to lichen sampling in Utah (R2 for M. exasperatula, M. subolivacea, and X. montana = 0.59, 0.42, and 0.28). In New Mexico, lichens exhibited greater coefficients of variability within plots than between plots and could not be correlated with throughfall N deposition. In neither study area was S correlated between lichens and throughfall deposition, which may be the result of low S deposition over a narrow deposition range or complex lichen assimilation of S. Lichen biomonitoring for N deposition in the region shows promise, but could potentially be improved by sampling more thalli to reduce within-plot variability, repeated lichen collection synchronized with throughfall changeouts to explore temporal variability, and washing lichen collections to distinguish N and S that has been incorporated by the thalli from dry deposition that may accumulate on lichen surfaces. Keywords: Energy development; Lichen; Seasonal deposition; Throughfall; TDep; CMAQ; Ion exchange resin samplers.
33473Davydov E.A., Yakovchenko L. & Printzen C. (2021): Validation of the combination Lecanora brandegeei (≡ Lecidea brandegeei). - Opuscula Philolichenum, 20: 71–72. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=20.
In a recent paper on the Lecanora pringlei group a new combination was proposed for the taxon long recognized as either Lecidea brandegeei or Lecanora pringlei subsp. brandegeei. Unfortunately, the new combination Lecanora brandegeei was invalidly published as it lacked a registration number. The combination is validly published here. Keywords. – Lichens, nomenclature, North America, taxonomy, T.S. Brandegee.
33472Nguyen T.T., Nguyen Quoc Chau T., Mai Van H., Phan Quoc T., Do Phuoc Q., Nguyen T.D., Nguyen P.D., Nguyen Thi Thu T., Le T.D., Dai Thi Xuan T., Kaeko K. & Kenji K. (2021): A new hopane derivative from the lichen Dirinaria applanata. - Natural Product Research, 35(7): 1167–1171. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2019.1644511.
Chemical investigation of the lichen Dirinaria applanata led to isolate nine compounds including a new hopane derivative, 1β-acetoxy-21α-hopane-3β,22-diol (1) together with six phenolic compounds naming divaricatinic acid (2), methyl divaricatinate (3), methyl-β-orcinolcarboxylate (4), methyl haematommate (5), divarinol (6), ramalinic acid A (7), and two xanthones namely lichenxanthone (8), 4,5-dichlorolichenxanthone (9). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data in combination with published literature. Except compound 2, all compounds were isolated from this species for the first time. Keywords: Dirinaria applanata; lichen;1β-acetoxy-21α-hopane-3β,22-diol.
33471Retallack G.J. (2021): Zebra rock and other Ediacaran paleosols from Western Australia. - Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 68(4): 532–556. https://doi.org/10.1080/08120099.2020.1820574.
Zebra rock is an ornamental stone from the early Ediacaran, Ranford Formation, around and in Lake Argyle, south of Kununurra, Western Australia. It has been regarded as a marine clay, liquid crystal, groundwater alteration, unconformity paleosol or product of acid sulfate weathering. This study supports the latter hypothesis and finds modern analogues for its distinctive red banding in mottling of gleyed soils. Other acid sulfate paleosols of desert playas (Gypsids) are also are found in the Ranford Formation, as well as calcareous desert paleosols (Calcids). The megafossil Palaeopaschnicnus also found in associated grey shales may have been a chambered protozoan, but Yangtziramulus in calcic paleosols is most like a microbial earth lichen. Soil climofunctions are evidence of an arid, cool temperate climate during the early Ediacaran.
33470Gül Ü.D., İrdem E., Yavuz Ş.A. & İlhan S. (2021): Determination of dye biosorption capacity of lichens and reusability of wastes as antimicrobial agents. - Journal of the Textile Institute, 112(6): 1014–1022. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405000.2020.1797263.
Determination of dye biosorption capacity by lichen biosorbent and reusability of the waste lichen biosorbent as an antimicrobial agent are the aims of this study. The study has three stages: 1. to carry out dye biosorption assays, 2. to scan antimicrobial activity of waste lichen biosorbent after dye loaded, 3. to examine the antimicrobial function of a fabric which absorbed waste lichen extract. The optimal conditions for the best dye biosorption were determined. After the biosorption experiments, the waste lichen biomass was harvested from the working solution and the extraction of dye-loaded waste biomass was done using methanol and ethanol. The extracts obtained from both dye-loaded and un-loaded biosorbents were scanned for antimicrobial activity potential by the disk diffusion method. The results of this study showed that the waste lichen biosorbent of biosorption processes can be reused as antimicrobial agents. Keywords: Antimicrobials; biotechnology; environmental; pollutants; wastewater treatment.
33469Karim S.H., Salih S.A. & Al-Zubaidy A.A. (2021): A checklist of lichens from Iraq, with four new records of lichens from Iraq. - Lindbergia, 44: linbg-01140 [6 p.]. doi: 10.25227/linbg.01140.
The lichen species of Iraq are poorly known and no accurate checklist has been produced so far. Here we carried out an extensive review of existing literature and carried out additional field work to expand the knowledge of lichens in Iraq. We present the first checklist of lichens in Iraq which comprises a total of 236 species. The field survey identified four lichen species as new to Iraq. Although this checklist is not a full checklist of the lichens of Iraq it represents the most complete list to date. It is likely that increased sampling will lead to further new records of lichen species in Iraq. Keywords: checklist, Halabja province, Iraq, lichens, new records,
33468Slimani A., Ait Hammou M., Hamel T., Boulemtafes A., Brakni R., Zeghouma D., Belili A. & Djamel Miara M. (2020): Lasallia pustulata (L.) Mérat, a new species for the lichen flora of Algeria. - Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles, 99: 119–128. .
[in French with English summary:] In this paper, authors indicate the presence of a species that had never been mentioned in the literature on Algerian lichen flora « Lasallia pustulata (L.) Mérat ». This foliose lichen species with an umbilicate thallus belongs to the exceptional Umbilicariaceae family, found for the first time in the Edough peninsula (North-East of Algeria). Keywords : Lichen, Umbilicariaceae, Edough peninsula, North Africa.
33467Martínez Colín P., Lücking R. & Herrera-Campos M.Á. (2021): Diversity begets diversity: Phorophyte and microsite relations of foliicolous lichens in the lowland rain forest at Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve (Veracruz, Mexico). - Ecological Research, 36: 313–328. https://doi.org/10.1111/1440-1703.12201.
We analyzed the structure of foliicolous lichen communities in the northernmost lowland forest of the Neotropics, Los Tuxtlas Tropical Biology Station in Veracruz, Mexico, and its dependence on phorophyte and microclimate. Along a 420-m long transect with 15 equidistant sampling points, within a 10 m radius of each point, we sampled a total 137 phorophytes and 411 leaves. The phorophytes represented 13 species, with diverse leaf traits regarding size, texture, presence of hairs and/or glands, and longevity, including: Astrocaryum mexicanum (Arecaceae), Chamaedorea ernesti-augustii (Arecaceae), Costus scaber (Costaceae), Guarea glabra (Meliaceae), Heliconia latispatha (Heliconiaceae), Monstera acuminata (Araceae), Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae), Piper hispidum (Piperaceae), Poulsenia armata (Moraceae), Pseudolmedia oxyphyllaria (Moraceae), Salacia megistophylla (Celastraceae), Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae) and Syngonium podophyllum (Araceae). NDMS ordination and cluster analysis grouped the phorophytes into hierarchically structured clusters variously correlated with microsite, phorophyte species and foliicolous lichen species richness. Indicator species analysis revealed statistically significant foliicolous lichen species characteristic for terminal clusters and for phorophyte species. We conclude that the principle of “diversity begets diversity” may apply, in that phorophyte diversity influences the diversity of foliicolous lichen communities through the manifestation of subtle phorophyte preferences, best seen in well-developed communities on leaves with higher longevity. Thus, wellpreserved forest ecosystems, with a higher diversity of suitable phorophytes, will support a higher diversity of foliicolous lichens, a phenomenon that extents to epiphytes in general. Keywords: biodiversity maintenance, environmental monitoring, epiphyte diversity, phyllosphere, tropical rainforest.
33466Lendemer J.C. (2021): Recent literature on lichens—261. - Bryologist, 142(2): 313–322. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.2.313.
33465Knudsen K., Kocourková J., Hodková E., Adams J.N. & Wang Y. (2021): Three species of Trimmatothelopsis (Acarosporaceae) from Europe and North America. - Bryologist, 142(2): 271–280. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.2.271.
A phylogenetic analysis recovered Acarospora oreophila in the monophyletic Trimmatothelopsis clade and a new combination was made. Trimmatothelopsis oreophila is closely related to T. terricola. Acarospora benedarensis and A. sphaerosperma are transferred to Trimmatothelopsis based on morphological and anatomical analyses. Globose apothecia with the disc usually less 0.5 mm in diam., a high hymenium, narrow paraphyses, and long conidia (3–6 × 1–1.5 µm) are diagnostic characters of the genus. Five species occur in North America. Keywords. California, calciphytes, terricolous lichens, Trimmatothelopsis versipellis.
33464Boutabia L., Telailia S. & de Bélair G. (2015): Corticolous lichen flora on Quercus suber L. in the wetlands of El Kala National Park (north-eastern Algeria). - Advances in Environmental Biology, 9(4): 360–372. .
The national park of El Kala is caracterised with an exceptional lichen flora, taking in to account the diversity of the phorophytes. Three sites have made the object of our study: Lake Tonga, Lake Oubeïra and Lake Mellah. The associations with Quercetum suberis being the most representative in the round of wetlands, where we studied the lichen flora on Quercus suber and making systematic surveys on 2 m high for four faces of the substrate. Moreover, a number of data on environmental conditions of the stations studied was considered and thus allowed us to appreciate the importance of specific lichen biodiversity in defined micro-climatic conditions. We have examined the influence of phorophyte diameter on the lichen cover and with respect to inter-category competitions observed during the statistical analysis. Our survey of epiphytic lichens in the cork forests of the wetlands of El Kala National Park was a success. From a systematics point of view, with 25 families comprising 135 catalogued species, we can certainly say that the region supports a wide variety of lichens. Most of the lichen taxa are essentially from the Parmeliaceae family, principally represented by the genus Parmelia, and from the Physciaceae family, represented by the genera Physcia and Physconia recognized by their nitrophilous species. From a morphological point of view, the catalogued taxa are divided into 69 crustose species, 37 foliose species, 15 fruticose species, 9 gelatinous species, 4 compound species and 1 squamulose species. Keywords: Lichens, Quercus suber, Wetlands, El Kala National Park, North-Eastern Algeria.
33463Boutabia L., Telailia S., Slimani A. & Mokni R.E. (2018): Diversity of epiphytic lichen flora of kermes oak formations (Quercus coccifera) from the El kala littoral (extreme northeastern Algeria). - Journal of new sciences, Agriculture and Biotechnology, CIRS, 7: 3299–3307. .
The study of the lichenic flora on Quercus coccifera carried out in the region of El Kala which is in the extreme Northeast Algeria proved very interesting. More than 50 lichens were recorded represented by two types of photobionts; green algae and Trentepohlia. The systematic spectrum indicates that the listed lichens belong to 14 families, the most important of which are the Parmeliaceae and the Physciaceae. The physiognomic spectrum notes the presence of only 3 lichenic categories: crustaceans, foliaceae and fruit. The total wealth quantified by type of vegetation stage mentions the importance of the lichens of the thermomediterranean stage with 50%. The ecological index relating to the phytogeographical aspect indicates that the lichenic flora of the phorophyte studied consists of two main chorotypes; the temperate and the suboceanic. Keywords: Lichens, phorophyte, Quercus coccifera, El Kala, Algeria.
33462Belguidoum A., Lograda T. & Ramdani M. (2021): Diversity and distribution of epiphytic lichens on Cedrus atlantica and Quercus faginea in Mount Babor Forest, Algeria. - Biodiversitas, 22: 887–899. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d220244.
Information about lichen diversity in Algeria is limited despite their important role as biological indicators of ecosystem health. The aim of the study was to carry out an inventory of epiphytic lichens in the Mount Babor Forest on two types of phorophytes (host trees), i.e., Cedrus atlantica and Quercus faginea, in varying altitudinal gradients and the diameter of host tree. The similarity of the sampled sites was assessed by the Sorensen index (?). Sixty-six species of epiphytic lichens were identified, which belong to 24 families and 38 genera. C. atlantica hosted a higher number of species than Q. faginea. The majority of lichen on C. atlantica belonged to the Parmeliaceae family, whereas those on Q. faginea belonged to the Physciaceae family. Crustose and foliose lichens were the most common species in the study area. The results showed the existence of a distinct relationship between the parameters of the distribution (i.e., tree diameter, elevation) and the specific lichen richness. The greatest number of lichen species (59 species) was observed on large diameter trunks (41-60 cm). Lichen diversity increased along with the increase in altitude. Sorensen’s similarity index revealed the presence of heterogeneity in the community composition of lichen vegetation. Keywords: Algeria, biodiversity, Cedrus atlantica, epiphytic lichens, Mount Babor Forest, Quercus faginea.
33461Phillips T., Storms K., Slack N. & LaGreca S.A. (2021): The mosses, liverworts and lichens of the Dyken Pond Environmental Education Center, Grafton, NY. - Evansia, 38(1): 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-38.1.1.
Bryophytes and lichens from the Dyken Pond Environmental Center in the Rensselaer Plateau region of eastern New York were inventoried from 1998 to 2020. Sixteen species of liverworts, 80 species of mosses and 53 species of lichens were identified. Two species of mosses are on the New York State Rare Moss List. A review of specimens listed from the Center on the Consortium of North American Bryophyte Herbaria (CNABH) showed seven additional species of mosses previously identified, but a review of the Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria (CNALH) did not show additional species. Key words. Biodiversity, Rensselaer Plateau, bryophytes, lichens.
33460LaGreca S.A., Perlmutter G.B., Goldman D.H., Seavey F.C. & Seavey J.L. (2021): Lichen diversity on an arborescent runner oak (Quercus pumila) in South Florida, USA. - Evansia, 38(1): 16–26. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-38.1.16.
Lichens from an unusually large, arborescent runner oak (Quercus pumila) from Miami-Dade County, Florida, were collected and inventoried. A total of 56 lichen species and one lichenicolous lichen species were found, representing 17 families with Graphidaceae bearing the most (14) species. Several species recorded were also recently reported or newly described from South Florida, which has a tropical climate and ecoregion that are distinct in the continental United States. Some lichen species (especially crustose Arthoniaceae and Graphidaceae) are twig specialists not normally found on trunks and branches; therefore, future studies of lichen diversity on single trees should include as much twig material as possible. Key words. Biodiversity, corticolous lichens, oak, South Florida.
33459Brodo I.M. (2021): Calogaya schistidii (Ascomycota, Teloschistaceae), a lichen new to North America from the northern Rocky Mountains. - Evansia, 38(1): 28–31. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-38.1.28.
Calogaya schistidii (syn. Caloplaca schistidii, Fulgensia schistidii) looks much like a Caloplaca growing on bryophytes over calcareous rock in arctic and alpine habitats but has unusual, 2-celled, non-polarilocular spores, slightly constricted at the middle. This is the first report of the species for North America. The material from British Columbia is described and illustrated, and comments are made on its classification. Key words. Biogeography, Canada, Gyalolechia, muscicolous.
33458Kiviat E., Davison P.G., Harris R.C. & Dickman S. (2021): Novel hepatic and lichen assemblage on Phragmites stubble in a Florida freshwater swamp. - Evansia, 38(1): 9–14. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-38.1.9.
Common reed (Phragmites) interacts with a large suite of other organisms including cryptogams attached to live or dead culm bases. We report an unusual observation of at least ten taxa of lichens and hepatics attached to persistent reed stubble on the swampy bank of freshwater Cypress Creek north of Tampa, Hillsborough County, Florida. This bryoid material included the minute, leafy hepatics Microlejeunea globosa, Microlejeunea cf. ulicina, Myriocoleopsis minutissima, and Frullania cf. inflata; and the lichens Arthonia subdiffusa, Chrysothrix xanthina, Opegrapha viridis, Phaeographis sp., Physcia sp., and an unidentified species of Parmeliaceae. These generally corticolous or epiphyllous taxa have not previously been reported from common reed, and suggest unrecognized complexity in both cryptogamic microhabitats and reed epiphytes. Key words. Epiphytes, hepatics, lichens, wetland.
33457Sohrabi M. & Sipman H. (2020): An updated checklist of the lichenized and lichenicolous fungi of Arasbaran, UNESCO-Man and Biosphere Reserve, Northwest of Iran. - Mycologia Iranica, 7(1): 45–62. DOI: 10.22043/mi.2020.122654.
Based on revision of 533 herbarium specimens and literature review, 227 lichenized and 36 lichenicolous fungi belonging to 115 genera and 52 families (including 8 "incertae sedis" taxa) are reported from Arasbaran UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve. In addition, 103 taxa are reported for the first time from Arasbaran. Of these nineteen lichenized fungi and two lichenicolous fungi were not known from Iran before, the lichenized fungi Aspicilia pavimentans, Bryobilimbia hypnorum Caloplaca phaeothamnos, Cetrelia monachorum, Circinaria elmorei, Cladonia borealis, L. populicola, Lecidea auriculata, Pertusaria flavicans, P. pluripuncta, P. pseudocorallina, P. xanthoplaca, Phaeophyscia poeltii, Rinodina trachytica, Scytinium aragonii, Usnea glabrata, Varicellaria lactea, Xanthocarpia tominii, and the lichenicolous fungi Rosellinula haplospora and Telogalla olivieri. ITS rDNA was used to confirm the identity of Lecidea auriculata. The history of floristic study and the diversity of lichen species in the region are briefly discussed. Keywords: Azerbaijan, biodiversity, Caucasus region, forest-steppe, Irano-turanian region.
33456Davydov E.A., Yakovchenko L.S., Konoreva L., Chesnokov S., Ezhkin A., Galanina I.A. & Paukov A.G. (2021): New records of lichens from the Russian Far East. II. Species from forest habitats. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 20: 54–70. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=20.
Micarea xanthonica and Trapelia elacista are reported as new to Asia and Russia, Lecania coreana and Lepraria pseudoarbuscula are reported new to Russia, Micarea globulosella is reported for the first time for the Russian Far East, Rinodina herreri is reported for the second time for Asia and Russia from Khabarovsk Territory, and Coenogonium isidiatum is reported for the second time for Russia from Primorye Territory. A comparison of known isidiate Coenogonium species is made. Lichenomphalia umbellifera is reported as new to the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin Region. Ramalina thrausta is newly reported from Sakhalin Island. The characteristic features of the specimens from the Russian Far East and comparisons with similar species are given. Keywords. – Asia, basidiolichens, lichen biodiversity, Russia, Sikhote-Alin’.
33455Treviño I.F., Sotomayor D.A., Cueva M.A., Perez R., Cáceres L., Ramos D., Ortiz E.M. & Quipuscoa V. (2012): Herbarium Areqvipense (HUSA): informatización y representatividad de su colección. - Revista Peruana de Biología, 19(2): 219–222. .
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Scientific collections and herbaria are essential sources of information and education for researchers and practitioners in biological sciences. The Herbarium Areqvipense (HUSA), registered at Index Herbariorum since 2004, holds one of the most important collections in Peru. In this paper we provide information about the collection, and its representativeness for the Peruvian flora. HUSA has more than 11000 specimens recorded to date, with more than 2300 determined species, consisting mostly of Magnoliophyta and Pteridophyta (ca. 98%), and a smaller proportion of Basidiomycetes, Ascomycetes (fungi and lichens) and Bryophyta (mosses). The collection includes specimens from 23 departments of Peru, where the samples belonging to Arequipa have the largest number of individuals collected (3375) accounting for 31% of the collection. Asteraceae and Solanaceae are the most collected with 1571 and 964 specimens, respectively. The majority of geo-referenced specimens came from the tropical wet forest with 15%, followed by the tropical pre-montane wet forest with 8%. We also provide a list of the nomenclatural types and a brief summary of the history and development of HUSA since its creation. Palabras clave : collection; herbarium; HUSA; types; Peruvian flora.
33454Gholamhosseinian A., Sepehr A., Sohrabi M. & Emadodin I. (2021): Assessing the role of lichens in the prevention of dust emission in dryland: Case study at north-eastern Iran. - Aeolian Research, 50: 100697 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeolia.2021.100697.
The dominance of aeolian processes in arid areas created a harsh environment in these regions for soil and vegetation where soil fertility, ecosystem productivity, air clarity, and human health is dependent to aeolian activities and rate of dust emission. Biological soil crusts (bio-crusts) are the communities of living organisms on the soil surface which play an important role in soil ecosystem services in arid land. Lichens are known as organisms that can accumulate certain elements or substances at high concentrations in the atmosphere. The relation between lichens species and soil geochemistry as well as dust capture in geomorphic zones in northeastern Iran were studied. Different lichens species and soil particles were analyzed by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS). The results of XRF and XRD analysis showed lichen crusts affected soil mineralisation. By creating microtopography, indicated the lichens trapped dust. They also increased the amount of clay on the soil surface. The results indicted the significant role of lichens in soil ecosystem services dryland. Keywords: Geochemistry; Granulometry; Lichen crusts; Mineralogy; Soil erosion; Dryland.
33453Wietrzyk-Pełka P., Rola K., Patchett A., Szymański W., Węgrzyn M.H. & Björk R.G. (2021): Patterns and drivers of cryptogam and vascular plant diversity in glacier forelands. - Science of the Total Environment, 770: 144793 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144793.
Vascular and nonvascular plants are affected by environmental factors determining their distribution and shaping their diversity and cover. Despite the cryptogam commonness in Arctic communities, previous studies have often focused on limited number of factors and their impact on only selected species of vascular plants or cryptogams. Our study aimed to investigate in detail the differences in species diversity and cover of cryptogams and vascular plants in the glacier forelands and mature tundra on Svalbard. Furthermore, we determined the biotic and abiotic factors that affected diversity, cover and distribution of cryptogam and vascular plant species. In 2017, we established 201 plots in eight locations (each including habitat type of foreland and mature tundra) and surveyed species abundance, sampled soils and environmental data. Results revealed that diversity and cover of analysed groups differed significantly between locations and habitat types, except for cryptogam cover in mature tundra in terms of location. Distance to the glacier terminus, slope, soil conductivity, nutrient content, and clay content impacted both plant groups' diversity. In contrast, distance to the glacier terminus, nutrient content and soil pH affected their cover. In addition, for cryptogam diversity and cover, foreland location and vascular plant cover were also important, while for vascular plant cover time elapsed after glacier retreat was significant. Distribution of both groups' species in forelands was associated with time elapsed after glacier retreat, soil pH, and nutrient contents. Soil texture and distance to the glacier terminus additionally influenced cryptogam distribution. The positive impact of vascular plants on cryptogam diversity and cover indicates complex relationships between these groups, even in forelands' relatively simple communities. As the cryptogam diversity in the polar areas is high but still largely unknown, future studies on species ecology and climate change impact on vegetation should consider both vascular plants and cryptogams and interactions between these groups. Keywords: Arctic cryptogams; Arctic vascular plants; Environmental variables; Plant-soil interactions; Svalbard.
33452Tuovinen V., Millanes A.M., Freire-Rallo S., Rosling A. & Wedin M. (2021): Tremella macrobasidiata and Tremella variae have abundant and widespread yeast stages in Lecanora lichens. - Environmental Microbiology, 23(5): 2484–2498. https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15455|.
Dimorphism is a widespread feature of tremellalean fungi in general, but a little-studied aspect of the biology of lichen-associated Tremella. We show that Tremella macrobasidiata and Tremella variae have an abundant and widespread yeast stage in their life cycles that occurs in Lecanora lichens. Their sexual filamentous stage is restricted to a specific lichen: T. macrobasidiata only forms basidiomata on Lecanora chlarotera hymenia and T. variae only on Lecanora varia thalli. However, the yeast stage of T. macrobasidiata is less specific and can occur in L. varia lichens, whilst all life stages of T. variae may be specific to L. varia. Contrary to the hyphal stages, the yeasts are distributed across the thalli and hymenia of Lecanora lichens, and not limited to specimens with basidiomata. Tremella macrobasidiata was present in all studied L. chlarotera, and in 59% of L. varia specimens. Only in 8% of the L. varia thalli could none of the two Tremella species be detected. Our results indicate that lichen-associated Tremella may be much more abundant and widespread than previously assumed leading to skewed estimations about their distribution ranges and lichen specificity, and raise new questions about their biology, ekology and function in the symbiosis.
33451Harańczyk H., Strzałka K., Kubat K., Andrzejowska A., Olech M., Jakubiec D., Kijak P., Palfner G. & Casanova‑Katny A. (2021): A comparative analysis of gaseous phase hydration properties of two lichenized fungi: Niebla tigrina (Follman) Rundel & Bowler from Atacama Desert and Umbilicaria antarctica Frey & I. M. Lamb from Robert Island, Southern Shetlands Archipelago, maritime Antarctica. - Extremophiles, 25: 267–283. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00792-021-01227-y.
Gaseous phase hydration properties for thalli of Niebla tigrina from Atacama Desert, and for Umbilicaria antarctica from Isla Robert, maritime Antarctica, were analyzed using 1H-NMR relaxometry, spectroscopy, and sorption isotherm analysis. The molecular dynamics of residual water was monitored to distinguish the sequential binding very tightly, tightly, and loosely bound water fractions. These two species differ in hydration kinetics faster for Desert N. tigrina [A1 = 0.51(4); t1 = 0.51(5) h, t2 = 15.0(1.9) h; total 0.7 for p/p0 = 100%], compared to Antarctic U. antarctica [A1 = 0.082(6), t1 = 2.4(2) h, t2 = [26.9(2.7)] h, total 0.6 for p/p0 = 100%] from humid polar area. The 1H-NMR measurements distinguish signal from tightly bound water, and two signals from loosely bound water, with different chemical shifts higher for U. antarctica than for N. tigrina. Both lichen species contain different amounts of water-soluble solid fraction. For U. antarctica, the saturation concentration of water soluble solid fraction, cs = 0.55(9), and the dissolution effect is detected at least up to Δm/m0 = 0.7, whereas for N. tigrina with the similar saturation concentration, cs = 053(4), this fraction is detected up to the threshold hydration level equal to ΔM/m0 = 0.3 only.
33450Valcárcel C.P. & López de Silanes M.E. (2010): Especies acuáticas del género Verrucaria s.l. (Ascomycetes liquenizados) en la península Ibérica. - Nova Acta Científica Compostelana (Bioloxía), 19: 5–20. .
Freshwater Verrucaria s.l. species (liquenized Ascomycetes) in the Iberian Peninsula. [in Galician with English abstract: ] A Study of freshwater Verrucaria s.l. species is presented. Specimens have been collected from the beds and banks of lakes, rivers and streams, in 92 localities from the Iberian Peninsula. An identification key of the 13 freshwater taxa is also proposed. Four of these are new records for Portugal: Hydropunctaria rheitrophila, Verrucaria funckii, V. hydrela and V. pachyderma. Most of them are widespread throughout the Iberian Peninsula, except for V. mundula, previously recorded for the first time in the Northern Hemisphere in 2010. Keywords: Freshwater lichens, saxicolous, Spain, Portugal.
33449Bhandari B.S., Falswal A., Ranchi & Priyanka (2020): Dominance and diversity of fallen epiphytic lichens in a broad-leaved forest ecosystem of Garhwal Himalaya. - Journal of Mountain Research, 15: 197–200. https://doi.org/10.51220/jmr.v15i1.23.
The communication is aimed at providing quantitative information on fallen epiphytic lichens in a broad-leaved forest ecosystem dominated by Oak (Quercus semecarpifolia). A total of 17 lichen species were encountered during the field samplings. Parmotrema perlatum was the dominant lichen species with higher values of density and diversity followed by Lecanora chlaroteraa, the co-dominant species. Medium diversity index (Shannon-Wiener) is an indicator for further investigation at broader level of forest ecosystems. Keywords: Epiphytic lichens, Dominance, Diversity, Garhwal Himalaya.
33448Timdal E. & Tønsberg T. (2021): Lepraria lobificans (syn. L. santosii) and L. sylvicola new to northern Europe from Norway. - Graphis Scripta, 33(3): 50–58. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/33_3/GS_33_50.pdf.
The two lichen species Lepraria lobificans (syn. L. santosii) and L. sylvicola are reported new to northern Europa, based on collections from Western Norway and Northern Norway, respectively. The specimens were identified by morphology, thin-layer chromatography, and the DNA barcode marker. The common species currently named L. lobificans in Northern Europe should be named L. finkii.
33447Arup U., Blom H.H. & Lindblom L. (2021): The Gaupne area in Sogn og Fjordane – a hot-spot for lichens in Norway. - Graphis Scripta, 33(3): 31–49. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/33_3/GS_33_31.pdf.
During a three-day field trip to the Gaupne area, Luster kommune, three main localities were visited in search of lichens. A total of 35 lichens or lichenicolous fungi were found to be new to Sogn og Fjordane, most of which are also rare on a national scale. Three species on rocks, Calogaya biatorina, Lecanora gislerianaand L. subaurea, are red-listed and two species, Blastenia monticolaand Caloplaca squamuleoisidiata, are new to Norway. Most of the species new to Sogn og Fjordane are calcicolous or prefer siliceous rocks containing high levels of heavy metals. The area around Gaupne is shown to be a previously unknown lichen hot-spot.
33446Haldeman M. (2021): New and interesting records of lichens, lichenicolous fungi and other Ascomycota from northwestern USA III. - Evansia, 37(3): 71–80. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-37.3.71.
The lichenicolous fungi Lichenochora aipoliae, Stigmidium leprariae and Taeniolella toruloides are reported as new to North America, and Monodictys epilepraria as new to western North America. A record of Lawalreea cf. lecanorae from the region is discussed. The lichen Biatora oligocarpa is reported as new to the contiguous 48 states of the USA. Also reported new to northwestern North America are two Ascomycota microfungi, Gloniopsis subrugosa and Nemania maritima. In total, new state records are provided for Idaho (6), Michigan (1), Montana (1), Oregon (4) and Washington (12). Key words. Idaho, Lichenothelia, microfungi, Oregon State University, Washington.
33445Kapets N. (2020): An annotated list of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Teteriv River Basin (Ukraine). - Journal of Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, 7(4): 76–85. https://doi.org/10.15330/jpnu.7.4.76-85.
First data on lichens of the Teteriv River Basin appeared in the second part of 19th century. First records of lichenicolous fungi in this area were published at the end of the 20th century. An annotated list of lichens and lichenophilous fungi is based on literature data and materials of own researche of lichenobiota of the upper and middle course of the Teteriv river basin. Llist of lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the area includes 300 species. The distribution of 117 species (80 lichens, 37 lichenicolous fungi) are for the first time recorded for area studied. Five species (Cercidospora macrospora, Lichenostigma epipolina, Lichenothelia tenuissima, Polysporina subfuscescens і Taeniolella beschiana) are new to Ukraine, 7 species (Anisomeridium polypori, Coenogonium pineti, Lichenoconium usneae, Monodictys epilepraria, Rinodina efflorescens, Sphaerellothecium propinquellum, Taeniolella punctata) are new for the Ukrainian Plains, while 11 species (Cornutispora lichenicola, Erythricium aurantiacum, Heterocephalacria physciacearum, Intralichen christiansenii, Laetisaria lichenicola, Lichenothelia convexa, Marchandiomyces corallinus, Psoroglaena dictyospora, Pyrenochaeta xanthoriae, Sarcogyne lapponica, Scoliciosporum gallurae, Stigmidium xanthoparmeliarum) are new for the Polissia subprovince of mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forests, and one species is new for the territory of the Ukrainian forest-steppe subprovince. In addition, new information on the distribution of a number of rare to Ukraine lichen and lichenicolous fungal species (Absconditella lignicola, Cornutispora lichenicola, Clypeococcum hypocenomycis, Lichenochora obscuroides, Lichenodiplis lecanorae, Marchandiomyces corallinus, Psoroglaena dictyospora, Sclerococcum sphaerale, Strangospora deplanata, Thelocarpon epibolum ect.) is obtained. Keywords: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, lichenobiota, rare species, Teteriv River, Ukraine.
33444Aime M.C., Miller A.N., Aoki T., Bensch K., Cai L., Crous P.W., Hawksworth D.L., Hyde K.D., Kirk P.M., Lücking R., May T.W., Malosso E., Redhead S.A., Rossman A.Y., Stadler M., Thines M., Yurkov A.M., Zhang N. & Schoch C.L. (2021): How to publish a new fungal species, or name, version 3.0. - IMA Fungus, 12: 11 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43008-021-00063-1.
It is now a decade since The International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF) produced an overview of requirements and best practices for describing a new fungal species. In the meantime the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICNafp) has changed from its former name (the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature) and introduced new formal requirements for valid publication of species scientific names, including the separation of provisions specific to Fungi and organisms treated as fungi in a new Chapter F. Equally transformative have been changes in the data collection, data dissemination, and analytical tools available to mycologists. This paper provides an updated and expanded discussion of current publication requirements along with best practices for the description of new fungal species and publication of new names and for improving accessibility of their associated metadata that have developed over the last 10 years. Additionally, we provide: (1) model papers for different fungal groups and circumstances; (2) a checklist to simplify meeting (i) the requirements of the ICNafp to ensure the effective, valid and legitimate publication of names of new taxa, and (ii) minimally accepted standards for description; and, (3) templates for preparing standardized species descriptions. Keywords: Data repositories, Dual nomenclature, FAIR principles, Legitimate publication, New combinations, Taxonomic best practices, Typification, Valid publication.
33443Davydov E.A., Yakovchenko L.S., Hollinger J., Bungartz F., Parrinello C. & Printzen C. (2021): The new genus Pulvinora (Lecanoraceae) for species of the ‘Lecanora pringlei’ group, including the new species Pulvinora stereothallina. - Bryologist, 124(2): 242–256. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.2.242.
Phylogenetic reconstructions based on ITS/5.8S, mtSSU and nuLSU DNA sequence data suggest that Lecanora pringlei from North America and a closely related new species from the Altai Mountains, Russia, should be transferred to a new genus Pulvinora, phylogenetically related to Frutidella. It is distinguished by Lecanora-type asci, mycolecanorine apothecia soon becoming convex with an algal layer pushed below the hypothecium, and a pulvinate thallus with squamules at the tip of pseudopodetialike, branched, pale brownish structures. Lecanora subcavicola and L. pringlei subsp. brandegeei do not belong to this new genus Pulvinora; consequently, we propose the new combination L. brandegeei to accommodate the latter taxon. Pulvinora stereothallina is distinguished from P. pringlei in the shape and size of its squamules (plane to concave, up to 3.0 mm long vs. remaining convex, up to 1.5 mm long), by the lack of maculae, the presence of a whitish pruina on the margins and elevated parts of its squamules, by apothecia coalescing into clusters (vs. single), an ochre-yellow to brownish (vs. colorless) proper exciple, larger ascospores, and different secondary metabolites. Lectotypes of Lecidea pringlei Tuck. and L. brandegeei Tuck. are designated here from the collections deposited in FH. Keywords: Altai, Asia, growth form, Kazakhstan, lectotypification, lichen systematics, molecular phylogeny, North America, Russia, Siberia.
33442Haldeman M. & McCune B. (2021): Tephromela eviolacea, a new species of Tephromela (Tephromelataceae) lacking a violet hymenium from northwestern North America. - Bryologist, 124(2): 230–241. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.2.230.
We describe Tephromela eviolacea as a new species from California, Idaho and Washington, U.S.A. Externally we cannot distinguish it from T. atra and T. pacifica, but it differs from both in ITS sequences, secondary metabolites and in lacking all violet coloration in the hymenium. In the Pacific Northwest, T. atra is found on rock and T. eviolacea and T. pacifica are found on bark and wood on the east and west sides of the Cascade Range, respectively. We provide a key to the genus in the region. Keywords: California, key, Idaho, lichen systematics, United States of America, Washington.
33441Kondratyuk S.Y., Popova L.P., Khodosovtsev O.Y., Lőkös L., Fedorenko N.M. & Kapets N.V. (2021): The fourth checklist of Ukrainian lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi with analysis of current additions. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 63: 97–163. DOI: 10.1556/034.63.2021.1-2.8.
The “Fourth checklist of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi of Ukraine”, including 2150 accepted scientific names based on published records as well as analysis of current additions are provided. Current additions include 439 taxa newly recorded for Ukraine after the third checklist of lichens of Ukraine by Kondratyuk et al. (2010) and 262 nomenclatural novelties. Annotations to each taxon of 318 newly recorded to Ukraine are provided in the style of the second checklist by Kondratyuk et al. (1998), i.e. data on phytogeographical regions and administrative districts (oblasts) of Ukraine as well as references to published papers are provided. Among current additions 99 taxa were annotated in the Checklist of lichenicolous fungi of Ukraine by Darmostuk and Khodosovtsev (2017) and consequent references to the latter are provided. The conclusion confirms the earlier recommendation that national checklists of lichens are to be re-published more often than once a decade. Key words: administrative districts, checklist, current additions, lichen-forming, lichenicolous fungi, Ukraine.
33440Joshi Y. (2021): Two new species of lichenicolous fungus Sclerococcum (Dactylosporaceae, Sclerococcales) from India. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 63: 67–75. DOI: 10.1556/034.63.2021.1-2.5.
Two new species of Sclerococcum, viz. S. dendriscostictae and S. physciae, colonising members of Dendriscosticta, Physcia and Sticta, are described from Uttarakhand and Andhra Pradesh states of India, respectively. S. dendriscostictae colonising the host thallus as well as apothecial disc of Dendriscosticta and Sticta species is generally characterised by its small sized (0.1–0.4 mm) black apothecia, hyaline hymenium, paraphyses without dark apical caps, asci 8-spored, ascospores ellipsoid, hyaline at immature stage and brown at maturity, 1-septate, smooth walled, 9–10–11(–12) × (3–)3.8–5–6.1(–7) μm, while S. physciae colonising thallus of Physcia sp. is characterised by black, rounded to irregular sporodochia (40–100 μm diam.) having ellipsoid or angular, medium to dark brown, mostly simple, rarely 1-septate conidia [(5–)7.5– 10–11.7(–14) × (4–)4.7–5.8–6.9(–7) μm]. A key to known Indian taxa is also being provided. Key words: Dactylospora, lichens, Sclerococcaceae, taxonomy.
33439Farkas E. (2021): Notes and schedae to Lichenes Delicati Exsiccati Editae in memoriam Antonín Vězda (1920–2008), Fasc. 6 . - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 63: 51–66. DOI: 10.1556/034.63.2021.1-2.4.
Lichenes Delicati Exsiccati Editae of little, fine, special lichens is edited in honour of Antonín Vězda (1920–2008). The sixth fascicle of the exsiccate is consisted of 20 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi and distributed to 12 lichen herbaria of the world. Collectors are J. Halda, G. Kantvilas, L. Lőkös, Z. Palice, N. Varga and E. Farkas. Key words: exsiccate, lichens, lichenicolous fungi.
33438Popovici V., Bucur L., Popescu A., Schröder V., Costache T., Rambu D., Cucolea I.E., Gîrd C.E., Caraiane A., Gherghel D., Vochita G. & Badea V. (2021): Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Usnea barbata (L.) F.H. Wigg. dry extracts in different solvents. - Plants, 10(5): 909 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10050909.
Lichens represent a significant source of antioxidants due to numerous metabolites that can reduce free radicals. Usnea barbata (L.) F.H. Wigg. has been recognized and used since ancient times for its therapeutic effects, some of which are based on its antioxidant properties. The present study aims to analyze the phytochemical profile and to evaluate the antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of this lichen species. Five dry extracts of U. barbata (UBDE) in different solvents (acetone, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol, water) were prepared by refluxing at Soxhlet to achieve these proposed objectives and to identify which solvent is the most effective for the extraction. The usnic acid content (UAC) was quantified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). The total polyphenols content (TPC) and tannins content (TC) were evaluated by spectrophotometry, and the total polysaccharides (PSC) were extracted by a gravimetric method. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) free radical method was used to assess the antioxidant activity (AA) and the Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL) assay was the biotest for cytotoxic activity evaluation. The ethyl acetate extract had the highest usnic acid content, and acetone extract had the highest content of total polyphenols and tannins. The most significant antioxidant effect was reported to methanol extract, and all the extracts proved high cytotoxicity. The water extract has the lowest cytotoxicity because usnic acid is slightly soluble in this solvent, and it was not found at UHPLC analysis. All extracts recorded a moderate correlation between the content of usnic acid, polyphenols, tannins, and AA; furthermore, it has been observed that the cytotoxicity varies inversely with the antioxidant effect. Keywords: U. barbata; usnic acid; UHPLC; polyphenols; tannins; polysaccharides.
33437Shirokova L.S., Chupakov A.V., Ivanova I.S., Moreva O.Y., Zabelina S.A., Shutskiy N.A., Loiko S.V. & Pokrovsky O.S. (2021): Lichen, moss and peat control of C, nutrient and trace metal regime in lakes of permafrost peatlands. - Science of the Total Environment, 782: 146737 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146737.
Permafrost thaw in continental lowlands produces large number of thermokarst (thaw) lakes, which act as a major regulator of carbon (C) storage in sediments and C emission in the atmosphere. Here we studied thaw lakes of the NE European permafrost peatlands - shallow water bodies located within frozen peat bogs and receiving the majority of their water input fromlateral (surface) runoff.Wealso conductedmesocosm experiments via interacting lake waters with frozen peat and dominant ground vegetation - lichen and moss. There was a systematic decrease in concentrations of dissolved C, CO2, nutrients and metals with an increase in lake size, corresponding to temporal evolution of the water body and thermokarst development.We hypothesized that ground vegetation and frozen peat provide the majority of C, nutrients and inorganic solutes in thewater columnof these lakes, and that microbial processing of terrestrial organic matter controls the pattern of CO2 and nutrient concentrations in thermokarst lakes. Substrate mass-normalized C, nutrient (N, P, K), major and trace metal releasewas maximal in moss mesocosms. After first 16 h of reaction, the pCO2 increased ten-fold in mesocosms with moss and lichen; this increase was much less pronounced in experiments with permafrost peat. Overall, moss and lichen were the dominant factors controlling the enrichment of the lake water in organic C, nutrients, and trace metals and rising the CO2 concentration. The global significance of obtained results is that the changes in ground vegetation, rather than mere frozen peat thawing, may exert the primary control on C, major and trace element balance in aquatic ecosystems of tundra peatlands under climate warming scenario. Keywords: Organic carbon; CO2; Thermokarst; Mesocosm; Enclosure; Vegetation; Thaw pond; Micronutrient.
33436Prokopiev I., Sleptsov I. & Filippova G. (2021): Effect of several phenolic compounds of lichens on the physiological, cytological, and biochemical characteristics of Allium fistulosum seedlings. - Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 33: 102000 [5 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcab.2021.102000.
Here we report the effects of atranorin (ATR), gyrophoric acid (GPA), and thamnolic acid (TMA) on the physiological, biochemical, and cytological characteristics of Allium fistulosum L. seedlings for the first time. Of the lichen substances investigated, ATR and TAM had the highest phytotoxicity effects. ATR (4000 - 1000 μM) and TAM (4000 μM) inhibited the growth processes and increased the intensity of lipid peroxidation in A. fistulosum, and as a result the activities of the protective enzymes peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase increased, and the contents of photosynthetic pigments in the A. fistulosum seedlings decreased. ATR at concentrations 2000 and 4000 μM caused decrease of mitotic activity and increase of chromosomal aberrations frequency in root cells. The weakest phytotoxic properties were shown by GPA, which caused no changes in the physiological, cytological, or biochemical parameters of the A. fistulosum seedlings across the entire range of concentrations tested. Keywords: Allium fistulosum; Phytotoxicity; Atranorin; Thamnolic acid; Gyrophoric acid.
33435Ivanov D., Yaneva G., Potoroko I. & Ivanova D.G. (2021): Contribution of cyanotoxins to the ecotoxicological role of lichens. - Toxins, 13(5): 321 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13050321.
The fascinating world of lichens draws the attention of the researchers because of the numerous properties of lichens used traditionally and, in modern times, as a raw material for medicines and in the perfumery industry, for food and spices, for fodder, as dyes, and for other various purposes all over the world. However, lichens being widespread symbiotic entities between fungi and photosynthetic partners may acquire toxic features due to either the fungi, algae, or cyano-procaryotes producing toxins. By this way, several common lichens acquire toxic features. In this survey, recent data about the ecology, phytogenetics, and biology of some lichens with respect to the associated toxin-producing cyanoprokaryotes in different habitats around the world are discussed. Special attention is paid to the common toxins, called microcystin and nodularin, produced mainly by the Nostoc species. The effective application of a series of modern research methods to approach the issue of lichen toxicity as contributed by the cyanophotobiont partner is emphasized. Keywords: toxic lichens; toxic cyanoprokaryotes; lichen toxins.
33434Lücking R., Aime M.C., Robbertse B., Miller A.N., Aoki T., Ariyawansa H.A., Cardinali G., Crous P.W., Druzhinina I.S., Geiser D.M., Hawksworth D.L., Hyde K.D., Irinyi L., Jeewon R., Johnston P.R., Kirk P.M., Malosso E., May T.W., Meyer W., Nilsson H.R., Öpik M., Robert V., Stadler M., Thines M., Vu D., Yurkov A.M., Zhang N. & Schoch C.L. (2021): Fungal taxonomy and sequence-based nomenclature. - Nature Microbiology, 6: 540–548. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-021-00888-x.
The identification and proper naming of microfungi, in particular plant, animal and human pathogens, remains challenging. Molecular identification is becoming the default approach for many fungal groups, and environmental metabarcoding is contributing an increasing amount of sequence data documenting fungal diversity on a global scale. This includes lineages represented only by sequence data. At present, these taxa cannot be formally described under the current nomenclature rules. By considering approaches used in bacterial taxonomy, we propose solutions for the nomenclature of taxa known only from sequences to facilitate consistent reporting and communication in the literature and public sequence repositories.
33433Romanova E.V. (2013): Lichens in the urban environment within south-east of western Siberia, Russia. - Mongolian Journal of Biological Sciences, 11: 35–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.22353/mjbs.2013.11.06.
Lichen species diversity and trend of their distribution were studied in two big cities and five towns in south-east of Western Siberia. In total of 348 species from 46 families and 98 genera were found in all studied urban and suburban areas. All local checklists are characterized by high degree of the lichen species similarity between each other and smaller lists are included in bigger ones on to 64-100%. Epiphytic lichens were the largest group in all studied areas and almost half of them were occupied two and more substrates. Crustose life-form and mesophytes prevailed everywhere. Share of sensitive lichens exceeded percent of tolerant ones in big cities and was lower than tolerant ones in smaller towns. The sixteen species were the most tolerant, commonly present everywhere and have been recognized as the key species for urban lichen synusiae within south-east of Western Siberia. Five zones have been determined with IP-mapping (mapping on the base of index of air pollution tolerance) in studied areas: IP=3-5 is a “normal zone”, IP=5-7 is a “moderate exposure zone”, IP=7-9 is a “mixed zone”, IP=9-10 is a “struggle zone”, and finally – lichen-free zone. The most studied urban areas had got quite extensive lichen-free zone (up to 35% of their areas). Key words: lichens, synusiae, IP-mapping, Western Siberia, urban areas.
33432Sforzi A., Bastianini M., Bianchi E., Bonari G., Bruni G., Canovai R., Cantini D., Chelazzi L., Chiadini E., Cianferoni F., Colombini I., Fanciulli P.P., Fastelli P., Forbicioni L., Lenzini L., Letardi A., Maccherini S., Martelli C., Monterastelli E., Monti F., Mori E., Nappini S., Paoli L., Petruzzi E., Porciani M., Rizzo Pinna V., Selvi F., Zuffi M. & Vitillo C. (2019): BioBlitz 2016 Lago dell’Accesa. - Atti del Museo di Storia Naturale della Maremma, 24: 77–111. .
[in Italian with English abstract: ] The Maremma Natural History Museum is active in the field of Citizen Science at the Tuscan, national and international level. Among the founding bodies of the European Citizen Science Association (ECSA), it has promoted meetings for a national Citizen Science strategy in Italy, actively participated in the drafting of national guidelines on the subject and developed Citizen Science projects in Tuscany and other regions nearby. BioBlitzes are one of the best-known activities in the field of environmental Citizen Science. In May 2016, the Museum organized its fourth BioBlitz at the Accesa Lake Special Protection Area. On this occasion, data collected attested the presence of 784 different taxonomic entities, 678 of which were identified at the species level and 18 at the subspecies level. Nineteen alien species and two endemic species have been identified. Thirty-nine species protected by national or international laws and 13 endangered species have been detected. The area has been confirmed to be an important biodiversity hotspot; future utilization plans must be developed with due consideration for the fragility of the habitats close to the lake from the conservation point of view.
33431Kondratyuk, S. Y., Kärnefelt, I., Elix, J. A. & Thell, A. (2009b): Contributions to the Teloschistaceae, with peculiar reference to the Southern Hemisphere. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 100: 207–281. .
Thirty-five new species of the lichen family Teloschistaceae are described: Caloplaca aseptatospora S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. bartlettii S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. begaensis S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. burneyensis S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. cliffwetmorei S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. dorrigoensis S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, Caloplaca erichansenii S. Y. Kondr., A. Thell, Kärnefelt & Elix, C. ferdinandmuelleri S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. feuereri S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt & A. Thell, C. filsoniorum S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt & Elix, C. fraserensis S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. gintarasii S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. hafellneri S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. hnatiukii S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. hopetounensis S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. jackelixii S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt & A. Thell, C. johnwhinrayi S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. kaernefeltii S. Y. Kondr., Elix & A. Thell, C. kilcundaensis S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. maccarthyi S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt & Elix, C. magnetensis S. Y. Kondr., Elix, Kärnefelt & Kalb, C. marchantiorum S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. michelagoensis Elix, S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. occidentalis Elix, S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. seawardii S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt & A. Thell, C. seppeltii S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. stewartensis S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. subluteoalba S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. tibellii S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. yammeraensis S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt & Elix, C. yarraensis S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, Xanthomendoza kashiwadanii S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, Xanthoria angustata S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, X. kangarooensis S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt and X. yorkensis S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt. Two further names, Caloplaca wilsonii S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt nom. novum (Synonym: Callopisma aurantiacum var. subgilvum Müll. Arg.) and Caloplaca ochroleuca (Müll. Arg.) S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt comb. nova (Basionym: Blastenia ochroleuca Müll. Arg.) are proposed.
33430McCarthy D.P. (2021): A simple test of lichenometric dating using bidecadal growth of Rhizocarpon geographicum agg. and structure-from-motion photogrammetry. - Geomorphology, 385: 107736 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2021.107736.
Digital photogrammetry was used to measure growth rates and track changes at the margins of marked Rhizocarpon geographicum agg. thalli on quartzite at the Illecillewaet Glacier in western Canada. The decadal rates were used to validate a lichenometric “growth curve” calibrated using the five largest thalli on historically and tree-ring dated surfaces. Macro-photographs of lichens were orthocorrected by ‘Structure from Motion’ (SfM) techniques to create a 20 yr image timeline. Model resolution was high (0.01 to 0.03 mm pix), photo alignment was accurate (mean relative error < 1.4%) and measurements were validated. Mean areal growth in 59 thalli was highly variable ( x¯  = 9.43 mm2 yr−1 for 1996–2006; and 7.72 mm2 yr−1 for 2006–2016). Tiny thalli (<5 mm long axis) had jagged outlines and slow irregular growth (0 to 0.2 mm yr−1). Long axis growth in the five fastest of 45 thalli (>5 mm long axis) with circular outlines was 0.5 to 0.92 mm yr−1 and mean annual radial growth on four radii per thallus was 0.23 to 0.31 mm yr−1. Several thalli kept a nearly circular shape even after fusing with others. Extrapolated mean radial growth of the fastest thallus in either decade closely predicted the largest and five thallus sizes on historically dated surfaces (−5.43 mm difference at 53 yr, <1.75 mm at 75 to 101 yr). This is an error of about one year at 75 to 101 yr. The findings validate indirectly calibrated rates and surface ages at this site and challenge key assumptions and claims made by proponents of lichenometric dating. Keywords: Lichenometric dating; Lichenometry; Rhizocarpon geographicum; Lichen growth; Structure-from-motion (SfM); Close-range photogrammetry.
33429Rashki S., Alshamsi H.A., Amiri O., Safardoust-Hojaghan H., Salavati-Niasari M., Nazari-Alam A. & Khaledi A. (2021): Eco-friendly green synthesis of ZnO/GQD nanocomposites using Protoparmeliopsis muralis extract for their antibacterial and antibiofilm activity. - Journal of Molecular Liquids, 335: 116195 [6 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2021.116195.
Over the last few years, the emergence and widespread distribution of microbial resistance to antibiotics is world-wide challenge in the medical science. In this regard, lichens are one promising antimicrobial agent which could be replaced by traditional antibiotics due broad-spectrum with potent antimicrobial activity. In this study, the ZnO/GQDs nanocomposites (NCs) and Protoparmeliopsis muralis extract-grafted ZnO/GQDs NCs have been prepared via green method. The prepared products are characterized with XRD analysis, SEM and FTIR. Interestingly, the linking of Protoparmeliopsis muralis extract into ZnO/GQDs NCs demonstrated strong antibacterial activity with to 5-log reduction in bacterial CFU/ml compared to P. muralis for at 4 days. Additionally, the nanocarrier demonstrated to 88 and 83% inhibition of biofilm formation when tested against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) respectively. Finally, results this study reported that the use of the P. muralis/ZnO/GQDs–NCs formulation could be employed as a novel agent antibacterial to inhibit bacterial growth and the biofilm formation. Keywords: Lichen; Nanocarrier system; Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA); Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE); ZnO/GQDs nanocomposites.
33428Lucadamo L., Gallo L. & Corapi A. (2021): PAHs in an urban-industrial area: The role of lichen transplants in the detection of local and study area scale patterns. - Environmental Pollution, 284: 117136 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117136.
Spatial variation of the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated within an urbanindustrial district where the main anthropogenic pressures are a 15MW biomass power plant (BPP) and road traffic. The use of a high-density lichen transplant network and wind quantitative relationships made it possible to perform a hierarchical analysis of contamination. Combined uni-bi and multivariate statistical analyses of the resulting databases revealed a dual pattern. In its surroundings (local scale), the BPP affected the bioaccumulation of fluoranthene, pyrene and total PAHs, although a confounding effect of traffic (mostly petrol/gasoline engines) was evident. Spatial variation of the rate of diesel vehicles showed a significant association with that of acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene and naphthalene. The series of high-speed wind values suggests that wind promotes diffusion rather than dispersion of the monitored PAHs. At the whole study area scale, the BPP was a source of acenaphthylene and acenaphthene, while diesel vehicles were a source of acenaphthylene. PAHs contamination strongly promotes oxidative stress (a threefold increase vs pre-exposure levels) in lichen transplants, suggesting a marked polluting effect of anthropogenic sources especially at the expense of the mycobiont. The proposed monitoring approach could improve the apportionment of the different contributions of point and linear anthropogenic sources of PAHs, mitigating the reciprocal biases affecting their spatial patterns. Keywords: PAHs; Biomass power plant; Lichen transplants; Wind quantitative relationships.
33427Eldridge D.J., Mallen-Cooper M. & Ding J. (2021): Biocrust functional traits reinforce runon-runoff patchiness in drylands. - Geoderma, 400: 115152 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2021.115152.
Spatial patchiness in resources is a pervasive feature of drylands worldwide. This patchiness manifests itself as two distinct geomorphic zones that are characterised by the loss (runoff) or gain (runon) of resources such as water, seed and organic matter. Most studies have examined how vascular plants vary across these two distinct zones, but there are few studies of the non-vascular components of these patterned landscapes. We examined the distribution of soil crust lichens and bryophytes (moss, liverworts) in relation to three geomorphic positions within a patterned Acacia aneura woodland grazed by sheep and kangaroos. We found that the distribution of biocrust taxa was strongly related to geomorphic position, with lichens dominating the runoff zones and liverworts restricted to the runon areas (groves). The runon zones were characterised by a greater cover of litter, and greater species richness, cover, and functional richness of biocrusts, while biocrusts in the runoff zones had greater functional diversity and dispersion. Importantly, biocrusts growing in the runon areas were taller, had shorter rhizines, and a greater capacity to trap sediment and absorb water. There were no effects of grazing intensity nor herbivore type (sheep cf. kangaroo) on any diversity or functional measures of biocrusts. Overall, our study indicates that the functional attributes of biocrusts align with those reported for vascular plants (e.g., perennial grasses), by affecting hydrological processes and sediment capture, albeit at smaller spatial scales. Biocrusts may be important, therefore, for sequestering small falls of water emanating from resource-shedding zones, thereby reinforcing landscape patchiness, particularly as hotter and drier climates reduce the cover of vascular plants in drylands. Keywords: Biocrust; Grazing; Hydrological function; Lichen; Moss; Mulga groves; Patterned landscape; Plant traits.
33426Root H.T., Jovan S., Fenn M., Amacher M., Hall J. & Shaw J.D. (2021): Lichen bioindicators of nitrogen and sulfur deposition in dry forests of Utah and New Mexico, USA. - Ecological Indicators, 127: 107727 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.107727.
Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) deposition can negatively affect ecosystem functions and lichen biomonitors can be a cost-effective way to monitor air pollution exposure across the landscape. Interior dry forests of the southwestern United States face increasing development pressures; however, this region differs from others with well-developed biomonitoring programs in having drier climates and a greater fraction of deposition delivered in dry forms. We measured throughfall N and S deposition at 12 sites in Utah and 10 in New Mexico and co-located collection of 6 lichen species. Throughfall N deposition ranged from 0.76 to 6.96 kg/ha/ year and S deposition from 0.57 to 1.44 kg/ha/year with elevated levels near human development that were not predicted by commonly used simulation models. Throughfall N was 4.6 and 1.6 times higher in summer compared with fall-spring in Utah and New Mexico and S deposition was 3.9 and 1.8 times higher in summer. Lichen N and S concentrations ranged from 0.97 to 2.7% and 0.09 to 0.33%. Replicate samples within plots showed high variability in N and S concentrations with within-plot coefficients of variation for N ranging between 5 and 10% and for S between 7 and 15%. In Utah, N and S concentrations in lichen species were correlated with each other in most cases, with R2 ranging from 0.52 to 0.85. N concentrations in Melanohalea exasperatula and Melanohalea subolivacea could be correlated with average annual throughfall N deposition in Utah (R2 = 0.58 and 0.31). Those relationships were improved by focusing on deposition in fall-spring prior to lichen sampling in Utah (R2 for M. exasperatula, M. subolivacea, and X. montana = 0.59, 0.42, and 0.28). In New Mexico, lichens exhibited greater coefficients of variability within plots than between plots and could not be correlated with throughfall N deposition. In neither study area was S correlated between lichens and throughfall deposition, which may be the result of low S deposition over a narrow deposition range or complex lichen assimilation of S. Lichen biomonitoring for N deposition in the region shows promise, but could potentially be improved by sampling more thalli to reduce within-plot variability, repeated lichen collection synchronized with throughfall changeouts to explore temporal variability, and washing lichen collections to distinguish N and S that has been incorporated by the thalli from dry deposition that may accumulate on lichen surfaces. Key words: Energy development; Lichen; Seasonal deposition; Throughfall; TDep; CMAQ; Ion exchange resin samplers.
33425Leiva D., Fernández-Mendoza F., Acevedo J., Carú M., Grube M. & Orlando J. (2021): The bacterial community of the foliose macro-lichen Peltigera frigida is more than a mere extension of the microbiota of the subjacent substrate. - Microbial Ecology, 81: 965–976. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-020-01662-y.
Lichens host highly diverse microbial communities, with bacteria being one of the most explored groups in terms of their diversity and functioning. These bacteria could partly originate from symbiotic propagules developed by many lichens and, perhaps more commonly and depending on environmental conditions, from different sources of the surroundings. Using the narrowly distributed species Peltigera frigida as an object of study, we propose that bacterial communities in these lichens are different from those in their subjacent substrates, even if some taxa might be shared. Ten terricolous P. frigida lichens and their substrates were sampled from forested sites in the Coyhaique National Reserve, located in an understudied region in Chile. The mycobiont identity was confirmed using partial 28S and ITS sequences. Besides, 16S fragments revealed that mycobionts were associated with the same cyanobacterial haplotype. From both lichens and substrates, Illumina 16S amplicon sequencing was performed using primers that exclude cyanobacteria. In lichens, Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum (37%), whereas soil substrates were dominated by Acidobacteriota (39%). At lower taxonomic levels, several bacterial groups differed in relative abundance among P. frigida lichens and their substrates, some of them being highly abundant in lichens but almost absent in substrates, like Sphingomonas (8% vs 0.2%), and others enriched in lichens, as an unassigned genus of Chitinophagaceae (10% vs 2%). These results reinforce the idea that lichens would carry some components of their microbiome when propagating, but they also could acquire part of their bacterial community from the substrates.
33424Mendili M., Essghaier B., Seaward M.R.D. & Khadhri A. (2021): In vitro evaluation of lysozyme activity and antimicrobial effect of extracts from four Tunisian lichens: Diploschistes ocellatus, Flavoparmelia caperata, Squamarina cartilaginea and Xanthoria parietina. - Archives of Microbiology, 203: 1461–1469. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-020-02129-x.
Since lichens have been recognised as a potential natural source of bioactive substances, the aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial, lysozyme and antifungal effects of methanol, acetone and quencher extracts from four lichens: Diploschistes ocellatus, Flavoparmelia caperata, Squamarina cartilaginea and Xanthoria parietina. The results showed that the tested extracts had antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and anti-candida, and inhibit the spore germination of tested fungi. The different extracts varied in their effect as determined by the diameter of the inhibition zone, the highest values being observed with the methanol and acetone extracts (29.5 and 27.5 mm, respectively) for S. cartilaginea against Enterococcus faecalis. For powdered material (quencher), F. caperata showed the highest inhibition diameter (25.5 mm) against Staphylococcus aureus. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values varied from 125 to 2000 μg mL−1. Methanol extracts of S. cartilaginea were more active against Enterobacter cloacae (MIC 125 μg mL−1) and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 125 μg mL−1), and also affected lysozyme activity against Staphylococcus aureus, as well as the morphology of fungal hyphae. This study demonstrated that the investigated species are a potential source of bioactive compounds which are potentially important antimicrobial agents. Keywords: Antifungal potential · Antimicrobial power · Lichenicolous fungi · Lysozyme effect · Spore germination.
33423Shendge A.K., Panja S. & Mandal N. (2021): Tropical lichen, Dirinaria consimilis, induces ROS-mediated activation of MAPKs and triggers caspase cascade mediated apoptosis in brain and cervical cancer cells. - Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 476: 2181–2192. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-021-04087-4.
Lichens are the symbiotic association between photobiont algae and mycobiont fungi having diverse phytochemicals. However, they are still an underexplored natural resource for biological activities. In the present report, we have evaluated the anti-brain and anti-cervical cancer activity of tropical lichen, Dirinaria consimilis (DCME) through the cell viability assay, cell cycle analysis, annexin V-FLUOS staining, morphological analysis, ROS-induction mechanism, evaluation of antioxidant levels, and western blotting study. The WST-1-based cell viability assay showed the cytotoxic nature of DCME towards U87 (IC50-52.65 ± 1.04 µg/ml) and HeLa (IC50-77.60 ± 2.23 µg/ml) cells. Interestingly, DCME does not showed any toxicity towards non-malignant fibroblast cell line WI-38 (IC50-685.80 ± 19.51 µg/ml). Furthermore, the cell cycle analysis showed sub-G1 arrest (apoptosis), and annexin V-FLUOS staining showed an increase in early apoptosis population dose-dependently. Confocal-based morphological data confirmed the DNA condensation and fragmentation upon treatment. Furthermore, DCME treatment induces ROS and regulates the levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, Catalase, GST, and GSH) in both U87 and HeLa cells. Finally, the western blotting data revealed the increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activation of Bid, Caspase-8, -9 and -3 along with degradation of PARP. Moreover, regulation of MAP kinases and activation of p53 was also observed upon DCME treatment. Herein, we first reported the anticancer activity of D. consimilis against brain and cervical cancer cells. Performed in-depth anticancer study revealed the ROS-mediated regulation of MAP kinases and activation of caspase cascade in U87 and HeLa cells upon DCME treatment.
33422Greuel R.J., Degré-Timmons G.É., Baltzer J.L., Johnstone J.F., McIntire E.J.B., Day N.J., Hart S.J., McLoughlin P.D., Schmiegelow F.K.A., Turetsky M.R., Truchon-Savard A., van Telgen M.D. & Cumming S.G. (2021): Predicting patterns of terrestrial lichen biomass recovery following boreal wildfires. - Ecosphere, 12(4): e03481 [25 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.3481.
Increased fire activity due to climate change may impact the successional dynamics of boreal forests, with important consequences for caribou habitat. Early successional forests have been shown to support lower quantities of caribou forage lichens, but geographic variation in, and controls on, the rates of lichen recovery has been largely unexplored. In this study, we sampled across a broad region in northwestern Canada to compare lichen biomass accumulation in ecoprovinces, including the Saskatchewan Boreal Shield, the Northwest Territories Taiga Shield, and Northwest Territories Taiga Plains, divided into North and South. We focused on the most valuable Cladonia species for boreal and barren-ground caribou: Cladonia mitis and C. arbuscula, C. rangiferina and C. stygia, and C. stellaris and C. uncialis. We developed new allometric equations to estimate lichen biomass from field measurements of lichen cover and height; allometries were consistent among ecoprovinces, suggesting generalizability. We then used estimates of lichen biomass to quantify patterns of lichen recovery in different stand types, ecoprovinces, and with time following stand-replacing fire. We used a hurdle model to account both for the heterogeneous nature of lichen presence (zero inflation) and for the range of abundance in stands where lichen was present. The first component of the hurdle model, a generalized linear model, identified stand age, stand type, and ecoprovince as significant predictors of lichen presence.With a logistic growth model, a measure of lichen recovery (time to 50% asymptotic value) varied from 28 to 73 yr, dependent on stand type and ecoprovince. The combined predictions of the hurdle model suggest the most rapid recovery of lichen biomass across our study region occurred in jack pine in the Boreal Shield (30 yr), while stands located in the Taiga Plains (North and South) required a longer recovery period (approximately 75 yr). These results provide a basis for estimating future caribou habitat that encompasses some of the large variation in fire effects on lichen abundance and vegetation types across the range of boreal and barren-ground caribou in North America. Key words: Caribou forage; chronosequence; Cladonia; hurdle model; natural disturbance; nonlinear mixed-effects models; Rangifer; wildfire; zero-inflated distribution.
33421Mapari S., Gaikwad S., Khare R., Syed M., Doshi P. & Behera B.C. (2021): Neuroprotective potential of selected lichen compounds on mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells. - EXCLI Journal, 20: 491–494. https://doi.org/10.17179/excli2020-3130.
The results of our in silico work were justified by in vitro studies, which showed potent dual cholinesterase inhibition. The lichen compound Zeorin showed promising neuroprotective potential via antioxidation, AChE inhibition and cytoprotective activity against H2O2-induced toxicity in mouse Neuroblastoma (N2a) cell line. Our results indicate that Zeorin, being a natural resource is a better choice of treatment for AD as it exhibits significant neuroprotection. However, exhaustive studies are needed to provide sufficient insights on the mechanism/path-way of lichen compound Zeorin in neuroprotection ability. Keywords: lichen, metabolites, antioxidant, anticancer, neuroprotection, docking.
33420Černohorský Z. (1957): Fluorescence lišejníků v ultrafialovém světle. II. Rod Cladonia (Hill.) Vain. [Fluoreszenz der Flechten im ultravioletten Licht. II. Gattung Cladonia (Hill.) Vain.)]. - Preslia, 29: 1–4. http://www.preslia.cz/archive/Preslia_29_1957_1-4.pdf.
[in German with Czech title and introduction] On fluorescence (UV reactions) of members of the genus Cladonia known from the former Czechoslovakia.
33419Yang J.H., Oh S.‐Y., Kim W., Woo J.‐J., Kim H. & Hur J.‐S. (2021): Effect of isolation conditions on diversity of endolichenic fungal communities from a foliose lichen, Parmotrema tinctorum. - Journal of Fungi, 7: 335 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7050335.
Endolichenic fungi (ELF) are emerging novel bioresources because their diverse second‐ ary metabolites have a wide range of biological activities. Metagenomic analysis of lichen thalli demonstrated that the conventional isolation method of ELF covers a very limited range of ELF, and the development of an advanced isolation method is needed. The influence of four variables were investigated in this study to determine the suitable conditions for the isolation of more diverse ELF from a radially growing foliose lichen, Parmotrema tinctorum. Four variables were tested: age of the thallus, severity of surface‐sterilization of the thallus, size of a thallus fragment for the inoculation, and nutrient requirement. In total, 104 species (1885 strains) of ELF were isolated from the five in‐ dividual thalli of P. tinctorum collected at five different places. Most of the ELF isolates belong to Sordariomycetes. Because each part of lichen thallus (of different age) has unique ELF species, the whole thallus of the foliose lichen is needed to isolate diverse ELF. Moderate sterilization is appro‐ priate for the isolation of diverse ELF. Inoculation of small fragment (1 mm2) of lichen thallus re‐ sulted in the isolation of highest diversity of ELF species compared to larger fragments (100 and 25 mm2). Moreover, ELF species isolated from the small thallus fragments covered all ELF taxa de‐ tected from the medium and the large fragments in this study. The use of two media—Bold’s basal medium (nutrient poor) and potato dextrose agar (nutrient rich)—supported the isolation of diverse ELF. Among the tested variables, size of thallus fragment more significantly influenced the isolation of diverse ELF than other three factors. Species composition and richness of ELF communities from different lichen thalli differed from each other in this study. Keywords: diversity; endolichenic fungi; foliose lichen; isolation method.
33418Morillas L., Roales J., Cruz C. & Munzi S. (2021): Resilience of epiphytic lichens to combined effects of increasing nitrogen and solar radiation. - Journal of Fungi, 7: 333 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7050333.
Lichens are classified into different functional groups depending on their ecological and physiological response to a given environmental stressor. However, knowledge on lichen response to the synergistic effect of multiple environmental factors is extremely scarce, although vital to get a comprehensive understanding of the effects of global change. We exposed six lichen species belonging to different functional groups to the combined effects of two nitrogen (N) doses and direct sunlight involving both high temperatures and ultraviolet (UV) radiation for 58 days. Irrespective of their functional group, all species showed a homogenous response to N with cumulative, detrimental effects and an inability to recover following sunlight, UV exposure. Moreover, solar radiation made a tolerant species more prone to N pollution’s effects. Our results draw attention to the combined effects of global change and other environmental drivers on canopy defoliation and tree death, with consequences for the protection of ecosystems. Keywords: nitrogen pollution; forest decay; global change; chlorophyll fluorescence; Fv/Fm ratio; mediterranean ecosystems.
33417Kumar V., Ngangom R., Nayaka S. & Ingle K.K. (2021): New species and new records in the lichen genus Rinodina (Physciaceae) from India. - Taiwania, 66(2): 193‒202. DOI: 10.6165/tai.2021.66.193.
A new species, Rinodina indica Vishal Kumar, R. Ngangom & Nayaka is described from India. It is characterized by ochraceous, areolate, blastidiate thallus with brown, 1-septate Teichophila-type ascospores. Eight additional species of the genus viz., R. archaea (Ach.) Arnold, R. dolichospora Malme, R. mniaroeiza (Nyl.) Arnold, R. obnascens (Nyl.) H. Olivier, R. oleae Bagl., R. plana H. Magn., R. pyrina (Ach.) Arnold and R. trevisanii (Hepp) Körb., are reported for the first time from India. Detailed description, illustration and distribution for new species and new records are provided. A key to all species of Rinodina presently known from India is also provided. Key words: Biodiversity, Caliciales, lichenized fungi, Rinodina herrei, Rinodina indica, revision, taxonomy.
33416Cera A., Masó G., Llimona X. & Gómez-Bolea A. (2020): Assessing changes in epiphytic lichen community after 45 years, a study case in white poplars from northern Iberian Peninsula (Jaca, Aragon). - Collectanea Botanica, 39: e012 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3989/collectbot.2020.v39.012.
Epiphytic lichens are used broadly as bioindicators, as they are sessile organisms with slow growth and different species display a wide range of environmental sensitivity. Most studies on epiphytic lichens focus on their use as indicators of the present environmental conditions, but few studies assess the changes that occur over decades. Comparative temporal approaches in lichens are rare, since there are few old datasets and in most cases substrates have disappeared, especially trees. However, in 1973 one of us (X. Llimona) described the lichen community on urban Populus alba in Jaca, and those trees are still alive. Our aim was to study the epiphytic lichen community in 2018 and compare it with the study of 1973. Species richness decreased during these 45 years. While only 36% of species found in 1973 persisted until 2018, these species remaining were observed at a high frequency in the 2018 sampling. Lichens communities from both years were similar on its tolerance to environmental variables, and the locality and their surroundings had the same land use in both years. Thus, the changes in lichen composition between both samplings might be explained by autogenic succession or limitation on dispersion rather than habitat filtering. Our data suggests that, under stable environments, lichen community assembly over decades depends on other traits such as competition rather than lichen sensitivity. Key words: autogenic succession; biotypes; community assembly; growth forms; photobiont; temporal changes.
33415Kosecka M., Guzow-Krzemińska B., Černajová I., Škaloud P., Jabłońska A. & Kukwa M. (2021): New lineages of photobionts in Bolivian lichens expand our knowledge on habitat preferences and distribution of Asterochloris algae. - Scientific Reports, 11: 8701 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88110-0.
We studied the biodiversity of Asterochloris photobionts found in Bolivian lichens to better understand their global spatial distribution and adaptation strategies in the context of a worldwide phylogeny of the genus. Based on nuclear ITS rDNA, the chloroplast rbcL gene and the actin type I gene we reconstructed a phylogenetic tree that recovered nine new Asterochloris lineages, while 32 Bolivian photobiont samples were assigned to 12 previously recognized Asterochloris lineages. We also show that some previously discovered Asterochloris photobiont species and lineages may occur in a broader spectrum of climatic conditions, and mycobiont species and photobionts may show diferent preferences along an altitude gradient. To reveal general patterns of of mycobiont specifcity towards the photobiont in Asterochloris, we tested the infuence of climate, altitude, geographical distance and efects of symbiotic partner (mycobiont) at the species level of three genera of lichen forming fungi: Stereocaulon, Cladonia and Lepraria. Further, we compared the specifcity of mycobionts towards Asterochloris photobionts in cosmopolitan, Neotropical, and Pantropical lichen forming fungi. Interestingly, cosmopolitan species showed the lowest specifcity to their photobionts, but also the lowest haplotype diversity. Neotropical and Paleotropical mycobionts, however, were more specifc.
33414Wilk K., Pabijan M., Saługa M., Gaya E. & Lücking R. (2021): Phylogenetic revision of South American Teloschistaceae (lichenized Ascomycota, Teloschistales) reveals three new genera and species. - Mycologia, 113(2): 278–299. https://doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2020.1830672.
Members of the poorly investigated family Teloschistaceae in South America, mostly from Bolivia and Peru, were examined using molecular and morphological data here for the first time. In recent phylogenetic reclassifications of Teloschistaceae, South American representatives were poorly represented but shown to belong to subfamilies Teloschistoideae and Xanthorioideae. In this study, we expanded the sampling of South American taxa and investigated mainly the lobate, sublobate, and squamulose members of Caloplaca s.l., using morphological characters and a molecular phylogeny based on a combined three-locus data set (one mitochondrial and two nuclear loci). Building upon new phylogenies at the family and subfamily levels (Teloschistoideae), we propose here three new genera: Andina, Aridoplaca, and Cinnabaria, with the type species Andina citrinoides, Aridoplaca peltata, and Cinnabaria boliviana. We also propose to reduce Tarasginia to synonymy with Sirenophila and Tayloriellina to synonymy with Villophora and introduce three new combinations: Dufourea ottolangei, D. volkmarwirthii, and Villophora erythrosticta. Scutaria andina is reported as new to Bolivia. A critical revision of the subfamily Brownlielloideae confirmed recent findings that it is an artifactual taxon based on a “chimeric” data set, with the type genus being part of Teloschistoideae. Keywords: Bolivia; ITS; lichenized fungi; molecular phylogeny; mtSSU; nuclear 28S; Peru; ribosomal DNA; South America; Teloschistoideae; 9 new taxa.
33413Coleine C., Stajich J.E., de los Ríos A. & Selbmann L. (2021): Beyond the extremes: Rocks as ultimate refuge for fungi in drylands. - Mycologia, 113(1): 108–133. https://doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2020.1816761.
In an era of rapid climate change and expansion of desertification, the extremely harsh conditions of drylands are a true challenge for microbial life. Under drought conditions, where most life forms cannot survive, rocks represent the main refuge for life. Indeed, the endolithic habitat provides thermal buffering, physical stability, and protection against incident ultraviolet (UV) radiation and solar radiation and, to some extent, ensures water retention to microorganisms. The study of these highly specialized extreme-tolerant and extremophiles may provide tools for understanding microbial interactions and processes that allow them to keep their metabolic machinery active under conditions of dryness and oligotrophy that are typically incompatible with active life, up to the dry limits for life. Despite lithobiontic communities being studied all over the world, a comprehensive understanding of their ecology, evolution, and adaptation is still nascent. Herein, we survey the fungal component of these microbial ecosystems. We first provide an overview of the main defined groups (i.e., lichen-forming fungi, black fungi, and yeasts) of the most known and studied Antarctic endolithic communities that are almost the only life forms ensuring ecosystem functionality in the ice-free areas of the continent. For each group, we discuss their main traits and their diversity. Then, we focus on the fungal taxonomy and ecology of other worldwide endolithic communities. Finally, we highlight the utmost importance of a global rock survey in order to have a comprehensive view of the diversity, distribution, and functionality of these fungi in drylands, to obtain tools in desert area management, and as early alarm systems to climate change.
33412Porada P. & Giordani P. (2021): Bark water storage plays key role for growth of Mediterranean epiphytic lichens. - Frontiers in Forests and Global Change, 4: 668682 [17 p.]. doi: 10.3389/ffgc.2021.668682.
Epiphytic lichens are a characteristic feature of many forests around the world, where they often cover large areas on stems and branches. Recently, it has been found that lichens may contribute substantially to carbon and nutrient uptake in forests. Moreover, they have a large influence on interception of rainfall at the global scale, which leads to a shift of the water balance toward evaporation and a cooling of near-surface air temperature. It is thus crucial to understand which environmental factors are relevant for their growth and survival, and which potential risks may result from climate change. Water supply is a key factor which controls active time and, consequently, the carbon balance of the epiphytes. However, it is largely unclear, to what extent different modes of water uptake, which include bark water, may affect active time and growth under varying environmental conditions. Quantitative estimates on the relevance of bark water storage and its interspecific variation are, however, missing. Here, we apply the process-based, dynamic non-vascular vegetation model LiBry to assess the relevance of bark water for epiphytic lichens. LiBry not only accounts for the main physiological processes of mosses and lichens, it also represents explicitly the diversity of the organisms, by simulating a large number of possible physiological strategies. We run the model for a site in Sardinia, where epiphytic lichens are abundant. Moreover, the Mediterranean region is of interest due to likely substantial effects of global warming on local epiphytes. For current climatic conditions, the LiBry model predicts net primary production (NPP) of 32 gCm−2a−1 per stem area and biomass of 48 gCm−2 for the study region. In a second run, where uptake of bark water is switched off in the model, estimated NPP is reduced by 21%. Moreover, the simulated number of surviving strategies, representing physiological diversity, decreases by 23%. This is accompanied by changes in the simulated community composition, where strategies which have a more compact thallus increase their share on the total cover. Hence, our model simulation suggests a substantial role of bark water for growth and morphology of epiphytic lichens in Sardinia. Keywords: vegetation model, ecophysiology, functional diversity, epiphytic lichen, Mediterranean vegetation, DGVM, non-vascular plants, precipitation partitioning.
33411Gasulla F., del Campo E.M., Casano L.M. & Guéra A. (2021): Advances in understanding of desiccation tolerance of lichens and lichen-forming algae. - Plants, 10(4): 807 [24 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040807 .
Lichens are symbiotic associations (holobionts) established between fungi (mycobionts) and certain groups of cyanobacteria or unicellular green algae (photobionts). This symbiotic association has been essential in the colonization of terrestrial dry habitats. Lichens possess key mechanisms involved in desiccation tolerance (DT) that are constitutively present such as high amounts of polyols, LEA proteins, HSPs, a powerful antioxidant system, thylakoidal oligogalactolipids, etc. This strategy allows them to be always ready to survive drastic changes in their water content. However, several studies indicate that at least some protective mechanisms require a minimal time to be induced, such as the induction of the antioxidant system, the activation of non-photochemical quenching including the de-epoxidation of violaxanthin to zeaxanthin, lipid membrane remodeling, changes in the proportions of polyols, ultrastructural changes, marked polysaccharide remodeling of the cell wall, etc. Although DT in lichens is achieved mainly through constitutive mechanisms, the induction of protection mechanisms might allow them to face desiccation stress in a better condition. The proportion and relevance of constitutive and inducible DT mechanisms seem to be related to the ecology at which lichens are adapted to. Keywords: desiccation tolerance; lichen; phycobionts; poikilohydric; stress response.
33410Исмаилов А.Б. [Ismailov A.B.] (2021): Новые виды лишайников для Дагестана [New species of lichens for Dagestan]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskii Zhurnal], 106(1): 77–80. .
[in Russian with English summary: ] Five new species (Hypocenomyce scalaris, Nephromopsis laureri, Peltigera extenuata, Pertusaria pertusa, Platismatia glauca) and three genera (Hypocenomyce, Nephromopsis, Platismatia) are reported for the lichen flora of Dagestan. The species Nephromopsis laureri and Peltigera extenuata, as well as the genus Nephromopsis, were not previously known within the East Caucasus. The actual information on distribution in the Caucasus and data of the localities with some comments are given for each species. Keywords: lichens, new records, Nephromopsis laureri, Hypocenomyce scalaris, Peltigera extenuata, Pertusaria pertusa, Platismatia glauca, Dagestan, East Caucasus.
33409Яцына А.П. [Yatsyna A.P.] (2021): Лишайники и родственные им грибы заказника «Свислочско-Березинский» (Беларусь) [Lichens and related fungi of the reserve “Svislochsko-Berezinsky” (Belarus)]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(1): 215–227. .
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Based on studies of the Svislochsko-Berezinsky Reserve (Belarus) carried out mainly in 2016–2020 in 27 locations, an annotated list of the lichen flora is provided. Altogether 203 species are recorded for the nature reserve, including 193 species of lichens and 10 non-lichenized saprobic fungi. Fellhanera viridisorediata and Micarea tomentosa are published for the first time for Belarus, and 43 other species are new for the Mogilev Region. Moreover, 34 indicator species of biologically valuable forests are known from the study area. Calicium adspersum, Cetrelia cetrarioides, C. olivetorum, Chaenotheca chlorella, Peltigera horizontalis, Hypotrachyna revolut, Lobaria pulmonaria, and Menegazzia terebrata are included in the Red Data Book of Belarus. Keywords: Fellhanera viridisorediata, Micarea tomentosa, new finds, protected species.
33408Урбанавичене И.Н. & Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichene I.N. & Urbanavichus G.P.] (2021): Дополнения к лихенофлоре Керженского заповедника и Нижегородской области [Additions to the lichen flora of the Kerzhensky Nature Reserve and Nizhny Novgorod Region]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(1): 195–213. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2021.55.1.195.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The results of field studies of the lichen flora of the Kerzhensky Reserve (Nizhny Novgorod Region), carried out mainly in the Kerzhenets River valley in May 2019, are presented. An annotated list of taxa previously unknown for the reserve includes 121 species from 70 genera. Of these, 97 species and 31 genera are new to the Nizhny Novgorod Region. The species Micarea soralifera and Rinodina excrescens are published for the first time for European Russia. We have found some very rare species in European Russia previously known from single records (Agonimia repleta, Bacidina indigens, Gyalideopsis alnicola, Sclerophora amabilis, Stigmidium mycobilimbiae, Telogalla olivieri, and Verrucaria ochrostoma). Keywords: Micarea soralifera, Rinodina excrescens, lichens, new records, Russia.
33407Kuznetsova E.S., Stepanchikova I.S., Skirina I.F., Chesnokov S.V. & Himelbrant D.E. (2021): A revision of the lichen genus Platismatia (Parmeliaceae) in Russia, with a key to the species. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(1): 179–194. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2021.55.1.179.
The paper presents the results of the study on Platismatia species in Russia. The genus Platismatia counts 11 species, distributed mainly in the Pacific region, with some endemics of western North America and northeastern Asia. Six species were known from Russia by the beginning of our studies, but a revision of the herbarium collections showed that three species (P. erosa, P.herrei, and P. lacunosa) were reported erroneously. Based on morphological and chemotaxonomical (HPTLC) examination of the herbarium collections and our own material, as well as the study of relevant litera ture, four species of Platismatia are here accepted for Russia: P. glauca, P. interrupta, P.lacunosa, and P. norvegica. Platismatia lacunosa is reported here as a new for Russia from the Commander Islands. The distribution of P. glauca and P. interrupta is clarified. A key to all species of the genus reported from Russia and brief descriptions of the Russian species are presented. Keywords: Platismatia lacunosa, foliose lichens, herbarium, Commander Islands Nature and Biosphere Reserve, Russian Far East.
33406Konoreva L.A., Chesnokov S.V. & Tagirdzhanova G.M. (2021): Remarkable records of Micarea (Pilocarpaceae) from the Russian Far East. II. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(1): 163–177. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2021.55.1.163.
We report several new findings of Micarea species in the Russian Far East: M. fennica new to Russia and Asia; M. botryoides new to the Far East; M. misella and M. tomentosa new to the southern Russian Far East. Six species from the genus Micarea, including rather rare M. adnata and M. contexta, were found in the Khabarovsk Territory. Keywords: lichens, biogeography, distribution, new records, Asia, Far East, Russia.
33405Himelbrant D.E., Stepanchikova I.S., Ahti T. & Neshataeva V.Yu. (2021): New exploration in Koryakia— the lichens of the Cape Goven, Bering Sea coast (Northern Kamchatka, Russia). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(1): 121–162. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2021.55.1.121.
The lichen diversity of the Cape Goven within the Koryak State Reserve counts 394‘ species: 373 lichens, 18 lichenicolous fungi and 3 non-lichenized saprobic fungi related to lichens. Altogether 4 species are new to Russia (Miriquidica pulvinatula, Myriolecis andrewii, Ochrolechia alaskana, Rhizocarpon sublavatum), 1‘— to Asiatic Russia (Collemopsidium foveolatum), 29‘other species are new to the Russian Far East, 4‘— to the northern part of the Far East. Additionally, 51 other species are new to Kamchatka Territory, and 92 more are new to Koryakia. Among the new species to Russia or Russian Far East, 11 are also reported for the first time for Beringia. A total of 500 species of lichens and allied fungi are known from Koryakia now. The richest habitats in Cape Goven are rocky outcrops and tundras; unlike in the earlier explored Parapolsky Dale, shrublands, floodplain stands and bogs play relatively insignificant role in the lichen diversity. The lichens of seashore communities enrich the lichen flora of Cape Goven compared to inland areas. The lichen diversity of Cape Goven is significantly higher than in Parapolsky Dale due to its mountainous landscape and coastal position. Keywords: lichen flora, new records, Far East, Beringia, Koryak State Reserve.
33404Galanina I.A., Yakovchenko L.S., Zheludeva E.V. & Ohmura Y. (2021): The genus Rinodina (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in the Magadan Region (Far East of Russia). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(1): 97–119. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2021.55.1.97.
The lichen genus Rinodina in the Magadan Region is revised on the basis of extensive collections by the authors in 2011–2015. Fifteen species have been recorded, of which Rinodina cinereovirens, R. endospora, R. laevigata, R. metaboliza, R. olivaceobrunnea, R. parasitica, and R. subparieta are new for the study area. Rinodina endospora and R. sicula are rare in Russia and have only recently been found in Northeastern Asia. The presence of R. archaea and R. exigua in the Far East of Russia has not yet been confirmed. Keywords: biodiversity, biogeography, lichens, new records, North-East Asia.
33403Czernyadjeva I.V., Davydov E.A., Efimova A.A., Gogorev R.M., Himelbrant D.E., Kotkova V.M., Kuzmina E.Yu., Leostrin A.V., Moroz E.L., Neshataeva V.Yu., Notov A.A., Novozhilov Yu.K., Paukov A.G., Popova N.N., Potemkin A.D., Stepanchikova I.S., Storozhenko Yu.V., Yakovchenko L.S., Yurchak M.I., Volosnova L.F., Zhurbenko M.P. & Zyatnina M.V. (2021): New cryptogamic records. 7. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(1): 249–277. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2021.55.1.249.
First records of trebouxiophycean alga and fungi for the Lenin grad Region, myxomycetes for the Republic of Belarus, lichens, saprobic and lichenicolous fungi for European Russia, the Nenets Autonomous Area, the Kostroma and Tver regions, the republics of Altai and Tuva, Altai and Primorye territories, bryophytes for the Orel and Ryazan regions, the arctic part of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), the North Koryakia are presented. The data on their localities, habitats, distribution, and specimens are provided. Keywords: Anomodon viticulosus, Arthonia didyma, Athelia arachnoidea, Biatora chrysantha, Calicium lenticulare, Carbonicola myrmecina, Cephalozia affinis, Cephaloziella hampeana, Cercidospora parva, Chaenotheca gracilenta, Chiloscyphus pallescens, Clypeococcum hypocenomycis, Collema subflaccidum, Comatricha alta, Cribraria languescens, Endogemma caespiticia, Fontinalis antipyretica, Frullania bolanderi, Fuligo leviderma, Fuscopannaria cheiroloba, Grimmia donniana, Gyalecta foveolaris, Isopaches bicrenatus, Lentinus arcularius, Lepra multipuncta, Lepraria finkii, Lichenopeltella ramalinae, Lophozia guttulata, Metzgeria furcata, Micarea laeta, Micractinium quadrisetum, Paraleucobryum longifolium, Parmeliella triptophylla, Pellia neesiana, Phaeocalicium praecedens, Phaeopyxis punctum, Polysporina urceolata, Psilopilum laevigatum, Pyrenidium actinellum, Seligeria pusilla, Taeniolella delicata, Tulasnella pallida, Basidiomycota, bryophytes, green algae, lichen parasites, lichens, lichenicolous fungi, myxomycetes, saprobic fungi, Trebouxiophyceae, Altai Territory, European Russia, Kostroma Region, Leningrad Region, National Park “Narochansky”, Nenets Autonomous Area, Northern Koryakia, Oksky State Reserve, Orel Region, Primorye Territory, Republic of Altai, Republic of Belarus, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Republic of Tuva, Russia, Ryazan Region, Tver Region.
33402Sulistyo B.P., Larsson K.-H., Haelewaters D. & Ryberg H. (2021): Multigene phylogeny and taxonomic revision of Atheliales s.l.: Reinstatement of three families and one new family, Lobuliciaceae fam. nov.. - Fungal Biology, 125: 239–255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2020.11.007.
Atheliales (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) is an order mostly composed of corticioid fungi, containing roughly 100 described species in 20 genera. Members exhibit remarkable ecological diversity, including saprotrophs, ectomycorrhizal symbionts, facultative parasites of plants or lichens, and symbionts of termites. Ectomycorrhizal members are well known because they often form a major part of boreal and temperate fungal communities. However, Atheliales is generally understudied, and molecular data are scarce. Furthermore, the order is riddled with many taxonomic problems; some genera are nonmonophyletic and several species have been shown to be more closely related to other orders. We investigated the phylogenetic position of genera that are currently listed in Atheliales sensu lato by employing an Agaricomycetes-wide dataset with emphasis on Atheliales including the type species of genera therein. A phylogenetic analysis based on 5.8S, LSU, rpb2, and tef1 (excluding third codon) retrieved Atheliales in subclass Agaricomycetidae, as sister to Lepidostromatales. In addition, a number of Atheliales genera were retrieved in other orders with strong support: Byssoporia in Russulales, Digitatispora in Agaricales, Hypochnella in Polyporales, Lyoathelia in Hymenochaetales, and Pteridomyces in Trechisporales. Based on this result, we assembled another dataset focusing on the clade with Atheliales sensu stricto and representatives from Lepidostromatales and Boletales as outgroups, based on ITS (ITS1 e5.8SeITS2), LSU, rpb2, and tef1. The reconstructed phylogeny of Atheliales returned five distinct lineages, which we propose here as families. Lobulicium, a monotypic genus with a distinct morphology of sevenlobed basidiospores, was placed as sister to the rest of Atheliales. A new family is proposed to accommodate this genus, Lobuliciaceae fam. nov. The remaining four lineages can be named following the family-level classification by Jülich (1982), and thus we opted to use the names Atheliaceae, Byssocorticiaceae, Pilodermataceae, and Tylosporaceae, albeit with amended circumscriptions. Keywords: Agaricomycetes; Basidiomycota; Corticioid fungi; Multi-locus phylogeny; Family-level taxonomy.
33401Harikrishnan A., Veena V., Lakshmi B., Shanmugavalli R., Theres S., Prashantha C.N., Shah T., Oshin K., Togam R. & Nandi S. (2021): Atranorin, an antimicrobial metabolite from lichen Parmotrema rampoddense exhibited in vitro antibreast cancer activity through interaction with Akt activity. - Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, 39(4): 1248–1258. https://doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2020.1734482.
Atranorin (ATR), lichenized secondary metabolite and depside molecule with several biological potentials such as antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, wound healing and photoprotective activities. Cytotoxic reports of ATR are documented in several cancer cells and in vivo models but its molecular interaction studies are poorly understood. Therefore, in this present investigation, we have used the in silico studies with biological validation of the molecular targets for the anti-breast cancer mechanism of ATR. The molecular docking studies with the breast cancer oncoproteins such as Bcl-2, Bax, Akt, Bcl-w and Bcl-xL revealed the highest interaction was observed with the Akt followed by Bax, Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 & least with the Bcl-w proteins. The cytotoxicity studies showed ATR selectively inhibited MDA MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells in differential and dosedependent manner with the IC50 concentration of 5.36 ± 0.85 lM and 7.55 ± 1.2 lM respectively. Further mechanistic investigations revealed that ATR significantly inhibited ROS production and significantly down-regulated the anti apoptotic Akt than Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bcl-w proteins with a significant increase in the Bax level and caspases-3 activity in the breast cancer cells when comparison with Akt inhibitor, ipatasertib. In vitro biological activities well correlated with the molecular interaction data suggesting that atranorin had higher interaction with Akt than Bax and Bcl-2 but weak interaction with Bcl-w and Bcl-xL. In this present study, the first time we report the interactions of atranorin with molecular targets for anti-breast cancer potential. Hence, ATR represents the nature-inspired molecule for pharmacophore moiety for design in targeted therapy. Keywords: Breast cancer; interaction; cytotoxicity; atranorin; biological validation.
33400Sujetovienė G. & Česynaitė J. (2021): Assessment of air pollution at the indoor environment of a shooting range using lichens as biomonitors. - Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 84(7): 273–278. https://doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2020.1862006.
The aim of the study was to examine the changes in ecophysiological parameters and accumulation of heavy metals in lichens transplanted to a shooting-range environment. Thalli of the epiphytic lichen were transplanted from an unpolluted site to a shooting range. Chlorophyll a fluorescence, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and damage to cell membranes in the lichen Evernia prunastri and Ramalina farinacea thalli were determined after 3 months exposure period indoors in a shooting range. The concentrations of some heavy metals including cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, antimony, and zinc were measured in lichens as indicators of the levels of air pollution in the studied environment. Thalli of the lichens transplanted to the shootingrange environment showed stress symptoms where the presence of metal pollutants produced a loss of integrity of lichen cell membranes and induced oxidative stress as evidenced by increased levels of TBARS. The response of lichens transplanted to indoors of shooting range demonstrated a significant accumulation of Pb indicating potential increased metal exposure and consequent adverse health effects. Keywords: Shooting range; trace metals; lichens; indoor pollution; Pb.
33399Plymale A.E., Wells J.R., Pearce C.I., Brislawn C.J., Graham E.B., Cheeke T.E., Allen J.L., Fansler S.J., Arey B.W., Bowden M.E., Saunders D.L., Danna V.G., Tyrrell K.J., Weaver J.L., Sjöblom R., Paul R., McCloy J.S., Hjärthner-Holdar E., Englund M., Ogenhall E., Peeler D.K. & Kruger A.A. (2021): Niche partitioning of microbial communities at an ancient vitrified hillfort: implications for vitrified radioactive waste disposal. - Geomicrobiology Journal, 38(1): 36–56. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490451.2020.1807658.
Because microbes cannot be eliminated from radioactive waste disposal facilities, the consequences of bio-colonization must be understood. At a pre-Viking era vitrified hillfort, Broborg, Sweden, anthropogenic glass has been subjected to bio-colonization for over 1,500 years. Broborg is used as a habitat analogue for disposed radioactive waste glass to inform how microbial processes might influence long-term glass durability. Electron microscopy and DNA sequencing of surficial material from the Broborg vitrified wall, adjacent soil, and general topsoil show that the ancient glass supports a niche microbial community of bacteria, fungi, and protists potentially involved in glass alteration. Communities associated with the vitrified wall are distinct and less diverse than soil communities. The vitrified niche of the wall and adjacent soil are dominated by lichens, lichen-associated microbes, and other epilithic, endolithic, and epigeic organisms. These organisms exhibit potential bio-corrosive properties, including silicate dissolution, extraction of essential elements, and secretion of geochemically reactive organic acids, that could be detrimental to glass durability. However, long-term biofilms can also possess a homeostatic function that could limit glass alteration. This study documents potential impacts that microbial colonization and niche partitioning can have on glass alteration, and subsequent release of radionuclides from a disposal facility for vitrified radioactive waste. Keywords: Community structure; habitat analogue; microbes and surfaces; molecular ecology; near surface radioactive waste disposal.
33398Ellis C.J. & Eaton S. (2021): Microclimates hold the key to spatial forest planning under climate change: Cyanolichens in temperate rainforest. - Global Change Biology, 27:1915–1926. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15514.
There is deepening interest in how microclimatic refugia can reduce species threat, if suitable climatic conditions are maintained locally, despite global climate change. Microclimates are a particularly important consideration in topographically heterogeneous landscapes, while in some habitats, such as forests and woodlands, microclimates are also extremely labile and affected by management practices that could consequently be used to offset climate change impact. This study explored a conservation priority guild—cyanolichen epiphytes in temperate rainforest—quantifying the niche response to macroclimate, and landscape or woodland stand structures that determine the microclimate. Based on epiphyte survey in a core region of European temperate rainforest (western Scotland), a ‘random forest’ machine-learning model confirmed a strong cyanolichen response to summer dryness, as well as the effects of distance to running water, topographic heatload and tree species identity, which modify the local moisture regime and/or lichen growth rates. By quantifying this response to macroclimate, landscape and stand structures, it was possible to estimate an extent to which woodland may be expanded in the future, to offset a negative effect of increasing summer dryness projected through to the 2080s. Using current policy as a yardstick, sufficient woodland expansion could be delivered relatively quickly for median impacted sites, but with times to woodland delivery extending over 10, 20 and 25 years for sites at the 75th, 90th and 95th percentiles of cyanolichen decline. Furthermore, the extent of new woodland required, and delivery times, increase almost threefold on average, as new woodland becomes distributed over wider riparian zones. These contrasting implications emphasize an urgent need for afforestation that achieves targeted spatial planning responsive to microclimates as refugia. Keywords: climate change adaptation, epiphytes, microclimate, moisture index, reforestation, riparian woodland, summer drought.
33397Suno H., Machida M., Dohi T. & Ohmura Y. (2021): Quantum chemical calculation studies toward microscopic understanding of retention mechanism of Cs radioisotopes and other alkali metals in lichens. - Scientific Reports, 11: 8228 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87617-w.
We evaluate stability of cesium (Cs) and other alkali-metal cation complexes of lichen metabolites in both gas and aqueous phases to discuss why lichens can retain radioactive Cs in the thalli over several years. We focus on oxalic acid, (+)-usnic acid, atranorin, lecanoric acid, and protocetraric acid, which are common metabolite substances in various lichens including, e.g., Flavoparmelia caperata and Parmotrema tinctorum retaining Cs in Fukushima, Japan. By performing quantum chemical calculations, their gas-phase complexation energies and aqueous-solution complexation free energies with alkali-metal cations are computed for their neutral and deprotonated cases. Consequently, all the molecules are found to energetically favor cation complexations and the preference order is Li+ >Na+ >K+ >Rb+ >Cs+ for all conditions, indicating no specific Cs selectivity but strong binding with all alkali cations. Comparing complexation stabilities among these metabolites, lecanoric and protocetraric acids seen in medullary layer are found to keep higher affinity in their neutral case, while (+)-usnic acid and atranorin in upper cortex exhibit rather strong affinity only in deprotonated cases through forming stable six atoms’ ring containing alkali cation chelated by two oxygens. These results suggest that the medullary layer can catch all alkali cations in a wide pH range around the physiological one, while the upper cortex can effectively block penetration of metal ions when the metal stress grows. Such insights highlight a physiological role of metabolites like blocking of metalcation migrations into intracellular tissues, and explain long-term retention of alkali cations including Cs in lichens containing enough such metabolites to bind them.
33396Sforzi A., Baini M., Bastianini M., Bianchi E., Bonari G., Cantini D., Castagnini P., Chelazzi L., Colombini I., Dragonetti M., Fačkovcová Z., Fanciulli P.P., Fastelli P., Forbicioni L., Giovacchini P., Lenzini L., Letardi A., Maccherini S., Martelli C., Nappini S., Paoli L., Pezzi G., Porciani M., Rizzo Pinna V., Vannini A. & Vitillo C. (2019): BioBlitz 2017 Monte Labro. - Atti del Museo di Storia Naturale della Maremma, 24: 113–137. .
[in Italian with English abstract: ] The threat to the survival of many species, caused by emerging ecological crises, has favored the development of a new environmental awareness. In recent decades, especially in the most industrialized nations, an increasing participation of citizens in the collection of scientific data has also been recorded. The active involvement of society in different aspects of science has been defined by the sociologist Alan Irwin as “Citizen Science”. Although environmental Citizen Science brings together the largest number of projects, the fields of application of this new way of doing science are innumerable. BioBlitz is one of the best-known examples of citizen science activities, aimed at monitoring the biodiversity of an area. The Maremma Natural History Museum, as part of its activities, regularly organizes BioBlitz on an annual basis, starting from 2013. During BioBlitz 2017 in the SPZ and SCZ “Monte Labbro and Alta Valle dellAlbegna” data were collected attesting the presence of 403 different taxonomic entities, of which 367 identified at the species level and 5 at the subspecies level. Six alien and 2 endemic species were identified. In terms of environmental legislation, 38 protected species and 7 endangered species were detected in the area. The most relevant aspect that emerges from the collected data is the consistent number of protected species. This confirms the environmental value of the area and the need for management and conservation plans for the entire site.
33395Sforzi A., Bastianini M., Canovai R., Cantini D., Castagnini P., Chelazzi L., Dragonetti M., Fačkovcová Z., Fanciulli P.P., Fastelli P., Ferretti F., Forbicioni L., Gabellini A., Lenzini L., Letardi A., Marcelli M., Martelli C., Montioni F., Nappini S., Paoli L., Perini C., Pezzi G., Pezzo F., Renzi M., Rizzo Pinna V., Spilinga C., Vannini A. & Vitillo C. (2019): BioBlitz 2018 Parco Regionale della Maremma. - Atti del Museo di Storia Naturale della Maremma, 24: 139–165. .
[in Italian with English abstract: ] In recent decades, many natural history museums in Europe have integrated their traditional functions with new ways of interacting with visitors and local communities. In particular, the need to adapt their mission according to the changes in modern society has led them to develop initiatives aiming at an active involvement of the public in scientific research. This is one of the inspiring principles of Citizen Science. BioBlitz are among the most popular activities dedicated to biodiversity in this field. In line with the inspiring principles of this cultural revolution, since 2012 the Maremma Natural History Museum organized public participation initiatives for the collection of biodiversity data. We hereby report the main results of the BioBlitz 2018 organized by the Maremma Natural History Museum in the Talamone area, located in the southern portion of the Uccellina Hills. Four hundred and ninety eight taxa were sampled and identified, 447 of which at the level of species and 10 at the level of subspecies; the remaining refer to higher taxonomic levels. 31 protected species and 10 endangered species were found in the area; moreover, 6 alien species and one endemic species were detected. The main feature that distinguished BioBlitz 2018 to others conducted in previous years was the large number of participants. The data collected increased the scientific knowledge of the southern portion of the Maremma Regional Park, less known than other areas of the same protected area.
33394Benitez G.N., Aguilar G.D. & Blanchon D. (2021): Spatial distribution of lichens in Metrosideros excelsa in northern New Zealand urban forests. - Diversity, 13(4): 170 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13040170.
The spatial distribution of corticolous lichens on the iconic New Zealand pōhutukawa (Metrosideros excelsa) tree was investigated from a survey of urban parks and forests across the city of Auckland in the North Island of New Zealand. Lichens were identified from ten randomly selected trees at 20 sampling sites, with 10 sites classified as coastal and another 10 as inland sites. Lichen data were correlated with distance from sea, distance from major roads, distance from native forests, mean tree DBH (diameter at breast height) and the seven-year average of measured NO2 over the area. A total of 33 lichen species were found with coastal sites harboring significantly higher average lichen species per tree as well as higher site species richness. We found mild hotspots in two sites for average lichen species per tree and another two separate sites for species richness, with all hotspots at the coast. A positive correlation between lichen species richness and DBH was found. Sites in coastal locations were more similar to each other in terms of lichen community composition than they were to adjacent inland sites and some species were only found at coastal sites. The average number of lichen species per tree was negatively correlated with distance from the coast, suggesting that the characteristic lichen flora found on pōhutukawa may be reliant on coastal microclimates. There were no correlations with distance from major roads, and a slight positive correlation between NO2 levels and average lichen species per tree. Keywords: Metrosideros excelsa; lichens; New Zealand; hotspots; indicators; Auckland.
33393Łubek A., Kukwa M., Jaroszewicz B. & Czortek P. (2021): Composition and specialization of the lichen functional traits in a primeval forest—does ecosystem organization level matter?. - Forests, 12(4): 485 [23 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12040485 .
Current trends emphasize the importance of the examination of the functional composition of lichens, which may provide information on the species realized niche diversity and community assembly processes, thus enabling one to understand the specific adaptations of lichens and their interaction with the environment. We analyzed the distribution and specialization of diverse morphological, anatomical and chemical (lichen secondary metabolites) traits in lichen communities in a close-to-natural forest of lowland Europe. We considered these traits in relation to three levels of forest ecosystem organization: forest communities, phorophyte species and substrates, in order to recognize the specialization of functional traits to different levels of the forest complexity. Traits related to the sexual reproduction of mycobionts (i.e., ascomata types: lecanoroid apothecia, lecideoid apothecia, arthonioid apothecia, lirellate apothecia, stalked apothecia and perithecia) and asexual reproduction of mycobionts (pycnidia, hyphophores and sporodochia) demonstrated the highest specialization to type of substrate, tree species and forest community. Thallus type (foliose, fruticose, crustose and leprose thalli), ascospore dark pigmentation and asexual reproduction by lichenized diaspores (soredia and isidia) revealed the lowest specialization to tree species and substrate, as well as to forest community. Results indicate that lichen functional trait assemblage distribution should not only be considered at the level of differences in the internal structure of the analyzed forest communities (e.g., higher number of diverse substrates or tree species) but also studied in relation to specific habitat conditions (insolation, moisture, temperature, eutrophication) that are characteristic of a particular forest community. Our work contributes to the understanding of the role of the forest structure in shaping lichen functional trait composition, as well as enhancing our knowledge on community assembly rules of lichen species. Keywords: functional traits composition; substrates; phorophytes; forest communities; Białowieża Forest.
33392Frye H.A., Muscavitch Z. & Goffinet B. (2021): Discovery of epiphytic lichens in Connecticut suggests novel introduction and reintroduction via horticultural practices. - Bryologist, 124(2): 191–197. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.2.191.
The discovery of Teloschistes chrysophthalmus in Connecticut more than one hundred years since its last known occurrence is argued to result from human introduction. The species only occurred on the horticultural tree, Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis, planted on the University of Connecticut campus. Gleditsia triacanthos is not indigenous to northeastern North America but is widespread in the central United States. Other epiphytic macrolichens also recorded on this phorophyte include Punctelia bolliana and Parmotrema austrosinense, both widespread in the central United States, and new to Connecticut and New England, respectively. This is likely the first reported case of combined introductions of lichenized fungi in North America through the import of ornamental trees. Keywords: Lichen distributions, human-mediated lichen dispersal, New England, Teloschistes chrysophthalmus, Punctelia bolliana, Parmotrema austrosinense, Parmotrema perforatum, Parmotrema hypotropum.
33391Boch S., Martins A., Sim-Sim M. & Bergamini A. (2021): Effects of elevation and disturbances on the associations between the diversities of bryophyte and macrolichen functional-taxonomic groups on Madeira Island. - Bryologist, 124(2): 178–190. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.2.178.
Biodiversity varies with elevation and is affected by disturbances. However, little is known about how the associations between the diversities of different bryophyte and macrolichen functionaltaxonomic groups are altered along elevational gradients and by disturbances. Knowledge on the associations between these functional-taxonomic groups might be of importance in practical conservation biology, as identifying indicator taxa which are easy to monitor could be useful in estimating a wider biodiversity. We sampled the species richness of bryophytes and macrolichens in 92 plots distributed in disturbed and undisturbed stands along elevational gradients in the laurel forest of Madeira. We then calculated a matrix of correlations for all pairwise combinations of 18 different functional-taxonomic bryophyte and macrolichen groups and tested for average differences in correlations with elevation and disturbance history and whether particular functional-taxonomic groups can be used to estimate the richness of other taxa. Associations between the diversities of functionaltaxonomic groups within the bryophyte group and within the macrolichen group were always positive and mainly strong. Although changes in elevation and disturbance history changed the associations between the different bryophyte and macrolichen functional-taxonomic groups, we found the species richness of mosses or liverworts to be suitable for predicting overall bryophyte species richness and the species richness of green-algae macrolichens to be reliable for estimating overall macrolichen species richness. Associations between diversities of bryophyte and macrolichen groups were generally weak, suggesting that the two groups have different ecological requirements and do not share the same environmental drivers. The fact that no single bryophyte taxon can be used to predict the richness of any macrolichen group, and vice versa, points to the need to study both bryophytes and lichens. However, we found indicator taxa that are relatively easy to monitor and therefore could be used to estimate the wider biodiversity. Keywords: Biodiversity indicators, bryophyte life strategy, elevation, endemic species, disturbance, functional-taxonomic group, lichen growth form, liverwort, moss, photobiont.
33390Brodo I M. & Bennett J.P. (2021): Remembering Clifford Major Wetmore (1934 – 2020). - Bryologist, 124(2): 172–177. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.2.172.
33389Barták M., Hájek J., Orekhova A., Villagra J., Marín C., Palfner G. & Casanova-Katny A. (2021): Inhibition of primary photosynthesis in desiccating Antarctic lichens differing in their photobionts, thallus morphology, and spectral properties. - Microorganisms, 9(4): 818 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040818.
Five macrolichens of different thallus morphology from Antarctica (King George Island) were used for this ecophysiological study. The effect of thallus desiccation on primary photosynthetic processes was examined. We investigated the lichens’ responses to the relative water content (RWC) in their thalli during the transition from a wet (RWC of 100%) to a dry state (RWC of 0%). The slow Kautsky kinetics of chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) that was recorded during controlled dehydration (RWC decreased from 100 to 0%) and supplemented with a quenching analysis revealed a polyphasic species-specific response of variable fluorescence. The changes in ChlF at a steady state (Fs), potential and effective quantum yields of photosystem II (FV/FM, ΦPSII), and nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) reflected a desiccation-induced inhibition of the photosynthetic processes. The dehydration-dependent fall in FV/FM and ΦPSII was species-specific, starting at an RWC range of 22–32%. The critical RWC for ΦPSII was below 5%. The changes indicated the involvement of protective mechanisms in the chloroplastic apparatus of lichen photobionts at RWCs of below 20%. In both the wet and dry states, the spectral reflectance curves (SRC) (wavelength 400–800 nm) and indices (NDVI, PRI) of the studied lichen species were measured. Black Himantormia lugubris showed no difference in the SRCs between wet and dry state. Other lichens showed a higher reflectance in the dry state compared to the wet state. The lichen morphology and anatomy data, together with the ChlF and spectral reflectance data, are discussed in relation to its potential for ecophysiological studies in Antarctic lichens. Keywords: maritime antarctica; King George Island; lichen dehydration; chlorophyll fluorescence; stress tolerance.
33388Vannini A., Canali G., Favero-Longo S.E. & Loppi S. (2021): Accumulation and phytotoxicity of two commercial biocides in the lichen Evernia prunastri and the moss Brachythecium sp.. - Stresses, 1(2): 69–77. https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses1020006.
This study investigated the accumulation and phytotoxicity of two commercial biocides widely used for the removal of biological colonization from monuments, namely Biotin T® (3%) and Preventol RI80® (2%), on lichen and moss model species, specifically, Evernia prunastri and Brachythecium sp. The active compounds, benzalkonium chloride (BAC) for Preventol RI80 and isothiazolinone (OIT) for Biotin T, were accumulated in similar amounts in both species without significant changes for up to 21 days. Both compounds caused a severe impairment of the photosynthetic apparatus of these species, without any recovery over time, although Biotin T showed a faster and stronger action, and the moss was more sensitive than the lichen. By shedding light on the accumulation of BAC and OIT in lichens and mosses and quantifying their effectiveness to photosynthetically devitalize these organisms, the obtained results are a useful comparison for the implementation of green alternative products for the control of biodeteriogens. Keywords: benzalkonium chloride; biocidal compounds; n-octyl-isothiazolinone; photosynthesis; uptake.
33387Hamida R.S., Ali M.A., Abdelmeguid N.E., Al-Zaban M.I., Baz L. & Bin-Meferij M.M. (2021): Lichens—a potential source for nanoparticles fabrication: A review on nanoparticles biosynthesis and their prospective applications. - Journal of Fungi, 7(4): 291 [44 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7040291.
Green synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) is a safe, eco-friendly, and relatively inexpensive alternative to conventional routes of NPs production. These methods require natural resources such as cyanobacteria, algae, plants, fungi, lichens, and naturally extracted biomolecules such as pigments, vitamins, polysaccharides, proteins, and enzymes to reduce bulk materials (the target metal salts) into a nanoscale product. Synthesis of nanomaterials (NMs) using lichen extracts is a promising eco-friendly, simple, low-cost biological synthesis process. Lichens are groups of organisms including multiple types of fungi and algae that live in symbiosis. Until now, the fabrication of NPs using lichens has remained largely unexplored, although the role of lichens as natural factories for synthesizing NPs has been reported. Lichens have a potential reducible activity to fabricate different types of NMs, including metal and metal oxide NPs and bimetallic alloys and nanocomposites. These NPs exhibit promising catalytic and antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. To the best of our knowledge, this review provides, for the first time, an overview of the main published studies concerning the use of lichen for nanofabrication and the applications of these NMs in different sectors. Moreover, the possible mechanisms of biosynthesis are discussed, together with the various optimization factors influencing the biological synthesis and toxicity of NPs.
33386Lendemer J.C. & Coyle J.R. (2021): Dissimilar biodiversity data sets yield congruent patterns and inference in lichens. - Botany, 99: 55–67. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjb-2020-0086.
Large-scale efforts to aggregate and promote the re-use of biodiversity data are leading to novel insights into biogeography and macroecology. However, secondary analyses must account for the tradeoffs and limitations of the original studies. Studies of speciose and taxonomically complex groups often utilize morphospecies or functional subsets as proxies, potentially complicating data re-use. We evaluated whether lichen biodiversity patterns are robust to differences in sampling methodology, utilizing parallel analyses to compare species richness, regional species pool variation, species probabilities of occurrence, and correlation of those three with environmental variables in data sets that cover the same geographic region. Our analyses revealed that, although individual species distributions sometimes differed in idiosyncratic ways, inference based on the aggregated response of multiple species was generally robust across the two datasets, despite differences in observer expertise and functional and taxonomic scope. This suggests that biodiversity data assembled from disparate sources could be used to evaluate biogeographical and macroecological hypotheses in understudied groups such as lichens, particularly at larger spatial scales. Key words: biodiversity data, biodiversity proxies, diversity–environment relationships, lichens, macrolichens, Pennsylvania, temperate forest.
33385Widhelm T.J., Grewe F., Huang J.‐P., Ramanauskas K., Mason‐Gamer R. & Lumbsch H.T. (2021): Using RADseq to understand the circum‐Antarctic distribution of a lichenized fungus, Pseudocyphellaria glabra. - Journal of Biogeography, 48(1): 78–90. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13983.
The Southern Ocean landmasses have intrigued biologists for centuries because they share many taxonomic groups. Such disjunct taxa can provide insight into evolutionary processes that connect populations or drive divergence. The lichenized fungus Pseudocyphellaria glabra, for example, has a disjunct distribution—separated by the Tasman Sea and the Pacific Ocean—yet whether these locations should be genetically distinct is unclear. The large distances between continents may be expected to prohibit gene flow, but strong and sustained winds in the Southern Hemisphere and the small size of P. glabra propagules may facilitate migration. We compared support for these two hypotheses. Keywords: biogeography; dispersal; evolution; lichen; lichenized fungi; population genetics; subantarctic; systematics.
33384Tansem K. & Storemyr P. (2021): Red‐coated rocks on the seashore: The esthetics and geology of prehistoric rock art in Alta, Arctic Norway. - Geoarchaeology, 36: 314–334. https://doi.org/10.1002/gea.21832.
Research suggests that the World Heritage rock engravings in Alta, Northern Norway, were made along the seashore over a period of 5000 years. The postglacial rebound and consequent land uplift have caused a continuous displacement of the shoreline, now situating the earliest rock art panels up to 26m above sea level. By examining the rock surfaces at Hjemmeluft and other sites, using field observations and geological analyses, we found that the pronounced red bedrock surfaces in the current seashore zone are composed of inorganic iron films related to a high content of magnetite in the native sandstone. Coupled with an interpretation of regional environmental history, we also found that it is highly likely that the rock art was originally carved on rocks with red iron films, rocks that are now generally gray. Due to the land uplift and subsequent covering of the rock art with lichen, moss, and turf, the red color has waned at the rock art sites. This knowledge may renew interpretation and understanding of the location of rock art in Alta and may have implications for conservation and management. Keywords: colors, esthetics, iron films, rock art, rock coatings.
33383Saiz H., Dainese M., Chiarucci A. & Nascimbene J. (2021): Networks of epiphytic lichens and host trees along elevation gradients: Climate change implications in mountain ranges. - Journal of Ecology, 109(3): 1122–1132. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.13538.
Several studies have evaluated lichen responses in terms of shifts in species climate suitability, species richness and community composition. In contrast, patterns of co‐occurrence among species that could be related to complex species interactions have received less consideration. Biotic interactions play a major role in shaping species niches, fitness and adaptation to new environments. Therefore, considering the specific relationships among co‐occurring species is essential to further deepen our knowledge of biodiversity response to climate change. In this perspective, the analysis of lichen ecological networks across elevational gradients may provide a powerful tool to understand how communities are structured and how biotic interactions are modulated by changing climatic conditions. We evaluated the contribution of environmental and species biological attributes to the structure of epiphytic lichen–host tree networks. Specifically, we studied lichen communities considering two different network levels: the whole lichen community, and groups of lichen species that presented similar biological traits. In this framework, we (a) characterized the structure of the epiphytic lichen–host tree networks; (b) assessed how network structure varied with climate, forest attributes and community trait diversity and (c) evaluated the role that biological traits played in the connections established between co‐occurring lichens. On the one hand, results indicate that epiphytic lichen communities are dominated by local segregation, suggesting habitat specialization among lichens within their host tree, and that climatic conditions and, to a lesser extent, lichen diversity are the main drivers of community assemblage. On the other hand, the role of lichen species in the networks depends on their particular biological traits, supporting the hypothesis that biological traits contribute to shape network structure by influencing the ability of the species to interact between each other. These findings warn about the potential impact of climate change on epiphytic lichen communities. Synthesis. This study builds towards a better understanding of lichen community assembly and on biodiversity response to climate change in forest alpine ecosystems. In particular, our results highlight the value of lichen–tree networks to inform about assemblage processes acting at different organizational levels and indicate that lichens might become one of the most threatened groups under global change scenarios. Keywords: alpine ecosystems; biological traits; climate change; determinants of community structure and diversity; elevation gradients; epiphyte networks.
33382Kujala V. (1936): Waldvegetationsstudien im östlichen Mitteleuropa. - Metsätieteellisen tutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja / Communicationes Instituti forestalis Fenniae, 22/6: 1–115. .
[in German with Finnish summary]; Estonia, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Germany, Poland; forest vegetation sociological study; boreal forests, old-growth forests, primeval forests, Bialowieza [Białowieża], Kubany [Boubín], Schöninger [Kleť], p. 52-53: list of lichens collected by the author in Bialowieza primeval forest (det. V. Räsänen); Marienbad [Mariánské lázně]; Karlsbad [Karlovy vary]; Blöckenstein [Pleckenstein, Plechý]; relic larch forest in Polish lowland, forests in surroundings of Berlin.
33381Kujala V. (1936): Tutkimuksia Keski-ja Pohjois-Suomen välisestä kasvillisuusrajasta [Über die vegetationsgrenze von Mittel- und Nordfinnland]. - Metsätieteellisen tutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja / Communicationes Instituti forestalis Fenniae, 22/4: 1–95. .
[in Finnish with German summary] Finland; forest vegetation sociological study; numerous terricolous lichens included.
33380Miquel S.E. & Bungartz F. (2017): Snails found among herbarium specimens of Galapagos lichens and bryophytes, with the description of Scolodonta rinae (Gastropoda: Scolodontidae), a new species of carnivorous micro-mollusk. - Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 146(1): 173–186. https://doi.org/10.1127/arch.moll/146/173-186.
For the first time we document several species of micro-mollusks in the Galapagos inhabiting lichens and bryophytes, possibly using them as part of their diet. Eight species of micro-mollusks were found as a by-catch among 10% of 400 herbarium specimens collected throughout the archipelago. Nine species of lichens and 6 of bryophytes were inhabited. The endemic Pupisoma galapagorum was the most common micro-mollusk, particularly frequent among Heterodermia, occasionally found on Cyphellostereum, Squamidium nigricans, and among hepatics (Frullania, Bryopteris). Other micromollusks were Tornatellides chathamensis, Pupisoma dioscoricola, Helicina sp., and Succinea sp. Examination of the digestive tract of P. galapagorum detected green algae, hyphae, spores, and fragments of bryophyte leaves (possibly S. nigricans). This endemic micro-mollusk apparently uses lichens and bryophytes not only for shelter but also as food. Another snail found repeatedly is a predator, described here as Scolodonta rinae n. sp. It is a member of Scolodontidae, a Neotropical family considered endemic to continental South America, and here for the first time documented from the Galapagos. Pupisoma galapagorum, previously known from Floreana, Isabela, San Cristóbal, and Santa Cruz, is reported also from Pinta and Santiago. Ambrosiella floreanae, previously considered endemic to Floreana, is reported from Santa Cruz. Key words: Ecological interactions, land snail, microhabitats, food-chain.
33379González-Montelongo C. & Pérez-Vargas I. (2019): Looking for a home: Exploring the potential of epiphytic lichens to colonize tree plantations in a Macaronesian laurel forest. - Forest Ecology and Management, 453: 117541 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2019.117541.
Mankind has been altering native forests in Macaronesia for at least five centuries. Forestry practices are known to reduce biodiversity due to habitat loss, fragmentation and alteration. To assess the potential of plantations to provide habitat for epiphytic lichens in comparison with native forests, we examined three types of forest in the Canary Islands: laurel forest (native forest) and two monospecific plantations of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus. Epiphytic lichen diversity was evaluated using a methodology of species richness and lichen diversity values (LDV). Our results demonstrate that the conversion of laurel forests to monoculture plantations of exotic tree species decreases lichen diversity and alters lichen community composition. Our findings hightlight how native epiphytic lichens from the cloud forest cannot survive under the same climatic conditions if the host plant community is changed. Keywords: Canary Islands; Exotic plantations; Laurel forest; Lichen diversity; Macaronesia.
33378Ravera S., Puglisi M., Vizzini A.. Aleffi M., Benesperi R., Decarli G.B., Berta G., Bianchi E., Boccardo F., Briozzo I., Clericuzio M., Cogoni A., Croce A., Dagnino D., De Agostini A., De Giuseppe A.B., Di Nuzzo L., Dovana F., Fačkovcová Z., Gheza G., Loppi S., Malíček J., Mariotti M., Nascimbene J., Nimis P.L., Paoli L., Passalacqua N.G., Plášek V., Poponessi S., Prosser F., Puntillo D., Puntillo M., Rovito S., Sguazzin F., Sicoli G., Tiburtini M., Tomaselli V., Turcato C. & Vallese C. (2021): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 11. - Italian Botanist, 11: 45–61. https://doi.org/10.3897/italianbotanist.11.64557.
In this contribution, new data concerning bryophytes, fungi, and lichens of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the bryophyte genera Aneura, Aulacomnium, Dumortiera, Fossombronia, Hennediella, Hygrohypnella, Pohlia, Porella, Riccardia, Tortella, and Tortula, the fungal genera Cortinarius, Mycena, Naucoria, Trichoglossum, and Tubaria and the lichen genera Agonimia, Blastenia, Chaenotheca, Cladonia, Endocarpon, Gyalecta, Lecanographa, Parmeliella, Porpidia, Stenhammarella, and Thelidium. Keywords: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Bryidae, Jungermanniopsida, Marchantiidae.
33377Zhurbenko M.P. (2021): Lichenicolous fungi from the Holarctic. Part IV: New reports and a key to species on Dermatocarpon. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 20: 44–53. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=20.
Endococcus peltigericola is reported for the first time from North America and Epigloea urosperma for the second time. The detection of interascal filaments in Endococcus peltigericola indicates that it may belong to the genus Polycoccum. Adelococcus immersus and Trematosphaeriopsis parmeliana are newly reported for Russia, the former is also first documented from the Arctic. The description of A. immersus, previously known only from a type specimen, is emended. Halecania alpivaga is reported new to the north-central Siberia growing on an unusual host genus (Dermatocarpon). A key to the species of lichenicolous fungi growing on Dermatocarpon is provided. Keywords. – Arctic, biodiversity discovery, biogeography, lichen-dwelling fungi, Russia, Sweden, United States of America.
33376Peterson E. (2021): Stenocybe procrastinata (Mycocaliciaceae), a new calicioid fungus on Cercocarpus in western North America. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 20: 37–43. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=20.
Stenocybe procrastinata (Mycocaliciaceae, Mycocaliciales) is described as new to science. The species occurs with remarkable reliability on Cercocarpus ledifolius in western North America. Keywords. – Biodiversity, Caliciales, endemism, Mycocaliciales, Phaeocalicium, substrate specificity, taxonomy.
33375Mitchell R.J., Hewison R.L., Beaton J. & Douglass J.R. (2021): Identifying substitute host tree species for epiphytes: The relative importance of tree size and species, bark and site characteristics. - Applied Vegetation Science, 24: e12569 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12569.
Questions: Can bark characteristics be used to determine the suitability of trees to host epiphytic bryophytes and lichens or are other tree and site characteristics more important? Identification of substitute hosts is required in the face of epidemic tree deaths due to diseases that are a threat to affiliated epiphytic communities. We assess the suitability of seven phorophytes to host the epiphytes associated with the UK native oak species, Quercus petraea and Quercus robur, which are currently threatened by a range of pests and pathogens. Location: Six botanic gardens and arboreta across the UK. Method: We recorded the site, habitat, tree (height, diameter at breast height [1.3 m; DBH], percentage canopy cover) and bark characteristics (pH, conductivity, density, water‐holding capacity, hardness, topography) and epiphytic community composition on Acer pseudoplatanus, Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Quercus petraea, Quercus robur, Quercus rubra and Tilia × europaea. In total 230 trees were surveyed across the six sites. Results: Comparisons between all trees showed significant correlations between similarities in community composition and bark characteristics. However, “tree characteristics” (species, height, DBH and canopy over) explained more of the variation in epiphytic community composition than bark and site characteristics. Phorophytes with similar epiphytic community richness or composition to native oaks did not necessarily have similar bark characteristics. Non‐native oaks and the non‐native hybrid Tilia × europaea supported similar epiphyte communities to the native oaks and are suggested as substitute phorophytes. Conclusion: Using bark traits is not a reliable method to assess the suitability of substitute phorophytes to conserve epiphytic communities. Instead, the epiphytes hosted by a wider range of phorophytes should be recorded to allow an assessment of their suitability as substitute hosts and hence aid management decisions on replacement phorophytes following tree loss. Key words: acute oak decline, bark pH, bryophytes, lichens, pathogens, pests, phorophytes, Quercus, substitute tree, tree disease, woodland resilience.
33374Ekman S., Tønsberg T. & van den Boom P.P.G. (2021): Three overlooked species of Bacidia from insular Laurimacaronesia. - Nordic Journal of Botany, 39(3): e03055 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/njb.03055.
We discuss the taxonomy of three species of Bacidia occurring in insular Laurimacaronesia. Two of them, B. amylothelia (Vain.) Vain. and B. endoleucoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr., which were previously described from Angola and Madeira, respectively, are found here to belong in Bacidia s. str. (Ramalinaceae). Modern descriptions and illustrations are provided for the first time. Bacidia amylothelia is similar to B. areolata Gerasimova & A. Beck, B. campalea (Tuck.) S. Ekman & Kalb, B. fusconigrescens (Nyl.) Zahlbr., B. heteroloma (Vain.) Zahlbr., B. millegrana (Taylor) Zahlbr. and B. suffusa (Fr.) A. Schneid. and is reported here from the Canary Islands. Bacidia endoleucoides is most likely to be confused with B. absistens (Nyl.) Arnold, B. friesiana (Hepp) Körb., B. salazarensis B. de Lesd. and B. caesiovirens S. Ekman & Holien and was found to be widely distributed in the Canary Islands and Azores in addition to Madeira. The third species, Bacidia deludens S. Ekman, Tønsberg & van den Boom, is described here as new to science. Bacidia deludens is characterised by a greyish, crustose thallus with whitish soralia, pale apothecia with crystals in the hymenium and proper exciple, acicular ascospores with 3–19 septa, and the production of fumarprotocetraric acid as the consistently present major substance. It is described here from the Canary Islands and Madeira. Although conservatively treated here in Bacidia, we argue that it is likely to belong in the Malmideaceae. An identification key to all known species of Bacidia s. str. in insular Macaronesia is provided. Keywords: Bacidia, determination key, Malmideaceae, new species, Ramalinaceae.
33373Grimm M., Grube M., Schiefelbein U., Zühlke D., Bernhardt J. & Riedel K. (2021): The lichens’ microbiota, still a mystery?. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 12: 623839 [25 p.]. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.623839.
Lichens represent self-supporting symbioses, which occur in a wide range of terrestrial habitats and which contribute significantly to mineral cycling and energy flow at a global scale. Lichens usually grow much slower than higher plants. Nevertheless, lichens can contribute substantially to biomass production. This review focuses on the lichen symbiosis in general and especially on the model species Lobaria pulmonaria L. Hoffm., which is a large foliose lichen that occurs worldwide on tree trunks in undisturbed forests with long ecological continuity. In comparison to many other lichens, L. pulmonaria is less tolerant to desiccation and highly sensitive to air pollution. The namegiving mycobiont (belonging to the Ascomycota), provides a protective layer covering a layer of the green-algal photobiont (Dictyochloropsis reticulata) and interspersed cyanobacterial cell clusters (Nostoc spec.). Recently performed metaproteome analyses confirm the partition of functions in lichen partnerships. The ample functional diversity of the mycobiont contrasts the predominant function of the photobiont in production (and secretion) of energy-rich carbohydrates, and the cyanobiont’s contribution by nitrogen fixation. In addition, high throughput and state-of-the-art metagenomics and community fingerprinting, metatranscriptomics, and MS-based metaproteomics identify the bacterial community present on L. pulmonaria as a surprisingly abundant and structurally integrated element of the lichen symbiosis. Comparative metaproteome analyses of lichens from different sampling sites suggest the presence of a relatively stable core microbiome and a sampling site-specific portion of the microbiome. Moreover, these studies indicate how the microbiota may contribute to the symbiotic system, to improve its health, growth and fitness. Keywords: lichens, symbiosis, microbiome, lichen-associated bacteria, Lobaria pulmonaria, omics.
33372Ellis C.J., Asplund J., Benesperi R., Branquinho C., Di Nuzzo L., Hurtado P., Martínez I., Matos P., Nascimbene J., Pinho P., Prieto M., Rocha R., Rodríguez-Arribas C., Thüs H. & Giordani P. (2021): Functional traits in lichen ecology: A review of challenge and opportunity. - Microorganisms, 9(4): 766 [27 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040766.
Community ecology has experienced a major transition, from a focus on patterns in taxonomic composition, to revealing the processes underlying community assembly through the analysis of species functional traits. The power of the functional trait approach is its generality, predictive capacity such as with respect to environmental change, and, through linkage of response and effect traits, the synthesis of community assembly with ecosystem function and services. Lichens are a potentially rich source of information about how traits govern community structure and function, thereby creating opportunity to better integrate lichens into ‘mainstream’ ecological studies, while lichen ecology and conservation can also benefit from using the trait approach as an investigative tool. This paper brings together a range of author perspectives to review the use of traits in lichenology, particularly with respect to European ecosystems from the Mediterranean to the Arctic-Alpine. It emphasizes the types of traits that lichenologists have used in their studies, both response and effect, the bundling of traits towards the evolution of life-history strategies, and the critical importance of scale (both spatial and temporal) in functional trait ecology. Keywords: ecosystem services; effect traits; functional ecology; lichenised-fungi; life-history strategy; response traits; scale; spatial; temporal.
33371Pérez F.L. (2021): Cryptogams build up a living microcosm: Geoecological effects of biocrusts on volcanic tephra (Haleakalā, Maui, Hawai’i). - Catena, 203: 105320 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2021.105320.
This study analyzes data of moss/lichen biocrusts on volcanic tephra at 2335 m in Haleakalā Crater (Maui, Hawai’i). Samples were compared among three adjacent positions: rolling crusts, pinnacled crusts, and bare tephra; two profiles contrasted substrate variation in crust and tephra areas. Field experiments assessed soil shear- and compressive-strength, infiltration rates, and diurnal soil temperatures; a lab experiment measured evaporation from crust specimens for 9 days. Biocrusts significantly affected physical, chemical, and structural soil properties. Fine particles, organic matter, and water storage were appreciably greater in biocrusts. Micro-sampling indicated upper-pinnacle sections accumulated more fine grains due to capture of volcanic ash, and also contained greater organic matter, than lower-pinnacle portions. Crust areas experienced infiltration rates ~2.8 times faster than tephra; mean diurnal temperatures were 12.1 ◦C (26.9 vs 39.0 ◦C) cooler in crusts than in tephra. Saturated crust specimens stored ~2.7 times more moisture than tephra soils; slower evaporation in biocrusts significantly lengthened the period over which poikilohydric cryptogams are able to maintain meta-bolic activity. Soil shear- and compressive-strength were higher on crusts than on tephra. Biocrust soils showed greater fertility, as available Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, P, NH4+-N, and cation-exchange capacity were higher than in tephra. NH4+-N was more concentrated under rolling crusts than in pinnacled ones; this is mainly ascribed to sampling methodology. Buried profile horizons suggest the site experienced additional tephra deposition during episodic volcanic eruptions. A developmental model assesses interactions among soil and environmental pro-cesses, and provides an integrated geoecological view of linkages that influenced biocrust genesis. Keywords: Biocrusts; Grimmia torquata; Peltigera rufescens; Soil properties; Volcanic tephra.
33370Lovegrove A.T., Newton A.C., Evans P.M., Diaz A., Newton A.C., Davy L. & Newbould P.J. (2020): Changes in vegetation structure and composition of a lowland mire over a sixty-five-year interval. - Ecology and Evolution, 10: 13913–13925. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.6984.
1. Mires are characterized by plant communities of high conservation and societal value, which have experienced a major decline in area in many parts of the world, particularly Europe. Evidence suggests that they may be particularly vulnerable to changes in climate and nutrient addition. Although they have been the focus of extensive paleoecological research, few attempts have been made to examine the dynamics of mire vegetation during the current era of anthropogenic environmental change. 2. To assess long-term change in the spatial structure and composition of a lowland mire community, in 2016 we resurveyed plots first surveyed in 1951. Measures of species richness and composition were compared between the two surveys, and changes in community composition were related to plant traits. 3. Overall, mean species richness declined by 26%. The area of occupancy declined in 37% of species, which were primarily oligotrophic species typical of nutrientpoor bog communities. Conversely, occupancy increased in 21% of species, especially those that were more tolerant of higher nutrient availability. These changes were associated with variation in plant functional traits, as indicated by an increase mean Ellenberg trait values for nitrogen and mean temperature, and a decline in values for precipitation. These results suggest that eutrophication and climate change have been key drivers of floristic change on this site. 4. Synthesis. This investigation provides a rare assessment of the dynamics of a mire community over a multi-decadal interval. Results indicate that substantial change has occurred in the composition of the community, and the distribution of species within it. The investigation provides evidence of the impact of environmental change on the composition and structure of a lowland mire community, and highlights challenges for its future conservation. Keywords: biodiversity, bog, conservation, determinants of plant community diversity and structure, environmental change, peatland, plant distribution. [p. 13921: ] "Conversely, the decline of Calluna vulgaris and a number of lichen species recorded within the vegetation plots suggests that some areas of relatively dry heath have become inundated over time." Four Cladonia species and Hypogymnia physodes listed within the species list in Table 2.
33369Huynh B.L.C., Bui V.M., Nguyen T.H.T. & Nguyen K.P.P. (2021): A new phenolic compound from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale. - Vietnam Journal of Chemistry, 59(1): 47–51. https://doi.org/10.1002/vjch.202060096.
Chemical investigation of the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale led to isolate six phenolic compounds including praesorediosic (1), orcinol (2), orselinic acid (3), lecanorin (4), isolecanoric acid (5) and virensic acid (6). Among them, compound 1 appeared to be found for the first time in the nature. The structure of these compounds was elucidated by spectroscopic analyses of HRESIMS and NMR as well as the comparison of their NMR data with those in the literature. These compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity using sulforhodamine‐B assay against HeLa (human epithelial carcinoma), NCI‐H460 (human lung cancer), HepG2 (liver hepatocellular carcinoma) and MCF‐7 (human breast cancer) cell lines. Keywords. Lichen, Parmotrema praesorediosum, phenolic, praesorediosic, cytotoxic activity.
33368Hill R., Leitch I.J. & Gaya E. (2021): Targeting Ascomycota genomes: what and how big?. - Fungal Biology Reviews, 36: 52–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbr.2021.03.003.
Gap analysis of the available genomic data (i.e. identifying taxonomic groups with no representative genome assemblies) is a fundamental first step to design effective sampling strategies for whole genome sequencing (WGS) initiatives. We identified the significant holes that remain in genomic resources of the Ascomycota e the largest fungal phylum including many species of medicinal, ecological and/or economic significance e in order to prioritise WGS efforts towards reconstructing the Ascomycota tree of life. In doing so, we additionally looked at the existing genome size data for ascomycetes, given the importance of knowing the size of the genome to ensure sufficient sequencing coverage and assess the completeness and quality of genome assemblies. We found that 50 % of the ascomycete orders have no representative genome assembly and over 75 % have no reliably measured genome size data. We propose that integrating routine cytometric genome size measurements into WGS and genome assembly pipelines will provide both a valuable assembly quality metric and contribute data for addressing fundamental evolutionary questions. Keywords: Ascomycota; Gap analysis; Genome size; Whole genome sequencing.
33367Darmostuk V. (2021): Pronectria gromakovae, a new lichenicolous fungus on Lecanora populicola and notes on other records from Kharkiv region (Ukraine). - Lindbergia, 44: linbg.01141 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.25227/linbg.01141.
Recent records of lichenicolous fungi from the Kharkiv region are provided. Twenty species were reported as new to the region. Pronectria gromakovae is described as a new species on Lecanora populicola. Didymocyrtis cladoniicola, D. epiphyscia, Epicladonia sandstedei, Katherinomyces cetrariae and Lichenoconium lichenicola are new to the forest-steppe zone of Ukraine. Physcia stellaris is reported as a new host species for Cladosporium licheniphilum. Notes on the currently known distribution of selected species in other Ukrainian regions are provided.
33366Ertz D., Driscoll K.E. & Clayden S.R. (2021): Two new lichenicolous species of Opegrapha (Arthoniales) from Canada. - Bryologist, 124(1): 39–51. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.1.039.
Two new species of lichenicolous Opegrapha are described from New Brunswick, Canada. Opegrapha inconspicua was found once on a rock bluff above a river on the thallus of Verrucaria aethiobola. It is characterized by punctiform, rounded, black ascomata 75–170 lm diam., an excipulum dark brown to black only in the upper part and (1–)2(–3)-septate ascospores of (12.5–)15.5–25 3 4–5 (–5.5) lm. Opegrapha parmeliiperda was found in four localities on epiphytic Parmelia squarrosa and P. sulcata. It is characterized by short lirelliform ascomata 70–220(–250)370–120 lm, in 6 loose groups of 5–15(–20) lirellae forming on black necrotic areas on the host thallus, 4-spored asci of 32–40 3 11–15 lm, and persistently hyaline and 3-septate ascospores of (11–)13–15.5(–17) 3 (3.5–)4–5(–5.5) lm. Opegrapha lamyi is reported for the first time in Canada, and O. anomea and O. sphaerophoricola for the first time in New Brunswick. One of only two previous reports of O. lamyi for the U.S.A. is based on a specimen from Colorado, revised here to Sclerococcum suburceolatum, the latter record representing a significant range extension for that species. Three of the five lichenicolous Opegrapha species reported here for New Brunswick are so far known in the province only in old mixedwood swamp-forests, highlighting the conservation significance of this forest community type. An identification key to the lichenicolous Opegrapha s.l. species known from Canada is provided. The worldwide diversity and host specificity of lichenicolous Opegrapha s.l. are discussed. Keywords: Diversity, New Brunswick, North America, Opegraphaceae, host specificity, taxonomy.
33365Lendemer J.C. (2021): Recent literature on lichens—260. - Bryologist, 124(1): 139–147. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.1.139.
33364Bowler D.E., Hof C., Haase P., Kröncke I., Schweiger O., Adrian R., Baert L., Bauer H.-G., Blick T., Brooker R.W., Dekoninck W., Domisch S., Eckmann R., Hendrickx F., Hickler T., Klotz S., Kraberg A., Kühn I., Matesanz S., Meschede A., Neumann H., O’Hara R.B., Russell D.J., Sell A.F., Sonnewald M., Stoll S., Sundermann A., Tackenberg O., Turkay M., Valladares F., van Herk K., van Klink R., Vermeulen R., Voigtlander K., Wagner R., Welk E., Wiemers M., Wiltshire K.H. & Böhning-Gaese K. (2017): Cross-realm assessment of climate change impacts on species’ abundance trends. - Nature Ecology and Evolution, 1: 0067 [7 p.]. DOI: 10.1038/s41559-016-0067.
Climate change, land-use change, pollution and exploitation are among the main drivers of species’ population trends; however, their relative importance is much debated. We used a unique collection of over 1,000 local population time series in 22 communities across terrestrial, freshwater and marine realms within central Europe to compare the impacts of long-term temperature change and other environmental drivers from 1980 onwards. To disentangle different drivers, we related species’ population trends to species- and driver-specific attributes, such as temperature and habitat preference or pollution tolerance. We found a consistent impact of temperature change on the local abundances of terrestrial species. Populations of warm-dwelling species increased more than those of cold-dwelling species. In contrast, impacts of temperature change on aquatic species’ abundances were variable. Effects of temperature preference were more consistent in terrestrial communities than effects of habitat preference, suggesting that the impacts of temperature change have become widespread for recent changes in abundance within many terrestrial communities of central Europe.
33363Rosa L.H., da Silva T.H., Ogaki M.B., Pinto O.H.B., Stech M., Convey P., Carvalho‑Silva M., Rosa C.A. & Câmara P.E.A.S. (2020): DNA metabarcoding uncovers fungal diversity in soils of protected and non‑protected areas on Deception Island, Antarctica. - Scientific Reports, 10: 21986 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78934-7.
We assessed soil fungal diversity at two sites on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica using DNA metabarcoding analysis. The first site was a relatively undisturbed area, and the second was much more heavily impacted by research and tourism. We detected 346 fungal amplicon sequence variants dominated by the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Mortierellomycota and Chytridiomycota. We also detected taxa belonging to the rare phyla Mucoromycota and Rozellomycota, which have been difficult to detect in Antarctica by traditional isolation methods. Cladosporium sp., Pseudogymnoascus roseus, Leotiomycetes sp. 2, Penicillium sp., Mortierella sp. 1, Mortierella sp. 2, Pseudogymnoascus appendiculatus and Pseudogymnoascus sp. were the most dominant fungi. In addition, 440,153 of the total of 1,214,875 reads detected could be classified only at the level of Fungi. In both sampling areas the DNA of opportunistic, phytopathogenic and symbiotic fungi were detected, which might have been introduced by human activities, transported by birds or wind, and/or represent resident fungi not previously reported from Antarctica. Further long-term studies are required to elucidate how biological colonization in the island may be affected by climatic changes and/or other anthropogenic influences. [p. 4: ] "We also detected the presence of DNA of 11 lichenized fungi, of which five (Lecidea cancriformis, Psoroma tenue, Trimmatothelopsis smaragdula, Verrucaria alpicola and V. margacea) occurred in both sites."
33362Werth S., Meidl P. & Scheidegger C. (2021): Deep divergence between island populations in lichenized fungi. - Scientific Reports, 11: 7428 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86448-z.
Macaronesia is characterized by a high degree of endemism and represents a noteworthy system to study the evolutionary history of populations and species. Here, we compare the population-genetic structure in three lichen-forming fungi, the widespread Lobaria pulmonaria and two Macaronesian endemics, L. immixta and L. macaronesica, based on microsatellites. We utilize population genetic approaches to explore population subdivision and evolutionary history of these taxa on the Canary Islands, Madeira, Azores, and the western Iberian Peninsula. A common feature in all species was the deep divergence between populations on the Azores, a pattern expected by the large geographic distance among islands. For both endemic species, there was a major split between archipelagos. In contrast, in the widespread L. pulmonaria, divergent individuals were distributed across multiple archipelagos, suggesting a complex evolutionary history involving repeated migration between islands and mainland.
33361Studzińska-Sroka E., Majchrzak-Celińska A., Zalewski P., Szwajgier D., Baranowska-Wójcik E., Zarowski M., Plech T. & Cielecka-Piontek J. (2021): Permeability of Hypogymnia physodes extract component—physodic acid through the blood–brain barrier as an important argument for its anticancer and neuroprotective activity within the central nervous system. - Cancers, 13: 1717 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13071717.
Central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including tumors such as glioblastomas and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, are some of the greatest challenges of modern medicine. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the anticancer and neuroprotective activity of the extract from a common European lichen Hypogymnia physodes and of its compound-physodic acid. The examined substances were cytotoxic against the glioblastoma cell lines A-172, T98G, and U-138 MG. Both substances strongly inhibited hyaluronidase, and diminished cyclooxygenase-2 activity (H. physodes extract), enzymes expressed in patients with malignant glioma. Furthermore, H. physodes extract inhibited tyrosinase activity, the enzyme linked to neurodegenerative diseases. The tested substances exhibited antioxidant activity, however, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity were not high. We proved that physodic acid can cross the blood–brain barrier. We conclude that physodic acid and H. physodes extract should be regarded as promising agents with anticancer, chemopreventive, and neuroprotective activities, especially concerning CNS. : Lichen secondary metabolites are characterized by huge pharmacological potential. Our research focused on assessing the anticancer and neuroprotective activity of Hypogymnia physodes acetone extract (HP extract) and physodic acid, its major component. The antitumor properties were evaluated by cytotoxicity analysis using A-172, T98G, and U-138 MG glioblastoma cell lines and by hyaluronidase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition. The neuroprotective potential was examined using COX-2, tyrosinase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity tests. Moreover, the antioxidant potential of the tested substances was examined, and the chemical composition of the extract was analyzed. For physodic acid, the permeability through the blood–brain barrier using Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay for the Blood–Brain Barrier assay (PAMPA-BBB) was assessed. Our study shows that the tested substances strongly inhibited glioblastoma cell proliferation and hyaluronidase activity. Besides, HP extract diminished COX-2 and tyrosinase activity. However, the AChE and BChE inhibitory activity of HP extract and physodic acid were mild. The examined substances exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Importantly, we proved that physodic acid crosses the blood–brain barrier. We conclude that physodic acid and H. physodes should be regarded as promising agents with anticancer, chemopreventive, and neuroprotective activities, especially regarding the central nervous system diseases. Keywords: Hypogymnia physodes; anticancer; chemopreventive and neuroprotective activity; blood–brain barrier permeability.
33360Zhang H.-B., Liu Y.-J., Guo S.-Y. & Han L.-F. (2021): Two new lichen species of the genus Ramalina (Ramalinaceae) from China. - Bryologist, 124(2): 162–171. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.1.162.
Two corticolous species of Ramalina are described as new to science from China. Ramalina ailaoshanensis is described from Mt. Ailaoshan in southwest China. It is characterized by dichotomous narrow branches with sparse raised or tuberculate pseudocyphellae, without warts, absence of chrondroid tissue in the cortex, the tips of branchlets becoming thin, terete and curled backwards, and lacking soredia and isidia. Ramalina qinlingensis is described from Mt. Qinling in northwest China. It is characterized by broad branches with distinct pseudocyphellae, many warts and branchlets, the discontinuous chrondroid tissue in the cortex, and lacking soredia and isidia. Both species were recovered as monophyletic and well-supported in a maximum-likelihood phylogeny inferred from ITS sequence data. Kezwords: Asia, ITS, Lecanorales, molecular phylogeny, taxonomy.
33359Etayo J. & Pino-Bodas R. (2021): Notes on lichenicolous Pleosporales, with two new species, Didymocyrtis azorica and Pseudopyrenidium epipertusariae (Phaeosphaeriaceae). - Phytotaxa, 494(1): 75–88. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.494.1.4.
The identity and phylogenetic placement of some lichenicolous Pleosporales were studied using morphological and molecular data. Two new species are described, Didymocyrtis azorica on Hypotrachyna rockii, from the Azores, and Pseudopyrenidium epipertusariae on Pertusaria pertusa, from Spain in oceanic montane woods, with a Phoma-like asexual state. This is the second species of Pseudopyrenidium, and the morphological similarities with P. tartaricola are discussed. In addition, Evernia prunastri is a new host for Didymocyrtis ramalinae, and Heterodea muelleri is a new host for D. cladoniicola, which is newly reported for Australia. Keywords: Ascomycota, fungi, new species, taxonomy.
33358Lagarde A., Mambu L., Mai P.-Y., Champavier Y., Stigliani J.-L., Beniddir M.A. & Millot M. (2021): Chlorinated bianthrones from the cyanolichen Nephroma laevigatum. - Fitoterapia, 149: 104811 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2020.104811.
While depsidones, depsides or dibenzofuran-like compounds dominate the chemical composition of lichens, the cyanolichen Nephroma laevigatum affords a diversity of quinoid pigments represented by chlorinated anthraquinones derived from emodin and new bianthrones resulting from the homo- or heterodimerization of monomers. Bianthrones were pointed out from the dichloromethane extract by MS/MS-based molecular networking, then isolated and characterized on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyzes and GIAO NMR shift calculation followed by CP3 analyzes. Keywords: Bianthrones; Dereplication; NMR calculations; Lichens; Nephroma.
33357Ежкин А.К. & Давыдов Е.А. [Ezhkin A.K. & Davydov E.A.] (2021): Новые данные о лишайниках рода Umbilicaria Hoffm. с островов Парамушир и Сахалин [New records of lichens of the genus Umbilicaria Hoffm. from Paramushir and Sakhalin islands]. - Вестник Северо-Восточного научного центра ДВО РАН [Bulletin of the North-East scientific center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Far East Branch], 2021/1: 75–80. DOI: 10.34078/1814-0998-2021-1-75-80.
[in Russian with English summary: ] The paper presents the new data on lichen of the genus umbilicaria Hoffm. from Paramushir and Sakhalin islands. Six species from Paramushir Island are presented; four (Umbilicaria cylindrica, U. deusta, U. hyperborea, and U. torrefacta) are recorded in Paramushir for the first time. One more species, U. muhlenbergii, collected from ancient inselbergs on the Tonin-Aniva Peninsula, Sakhalin, was registered in the island for the first time. Three of the species discussed (umbilicaria deusta, U. muhlenbergii, andU. hyperborea) are new for Sakhalin Oblast. Brief descriptions, localities and photos are presented for the reported species.Keywords: Northern Kurils, Russia’s Far East, volcanic activity, rock vegetation.
33356Knudsen K., Kocourková J., Cannon P., Coppins B., Fletcher A. & Simkin J. (2021): Acarosporales: Acarosporaceae, including the genera Acarospora, Caeruleum, Myriospora, Pleopsidium, Sarcogyne and Trimmatothelopsis. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 12: 1–25. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Acarosporaceae.pdf.
33355Kõljalg U., Nilsson H.R., Schigel D., Tedersoo L., Larsson K.-H., May T.W., Taylor A.F.S., Jeppesen T.S., Frøslev T.G., Lindahl B.D., Põldmaa K., Saar I., Suija A., Savchenko A., Yatsiuk I., Adojaan K., Ivanov F., Piirmann T., Pöhönen R., Zirk A. & Abarenkov K. (2020): The taxon hypothesis paradigm—on the unambiguous detection and communication of taxa. - Microorganisms, 8: 1910 [25 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121910.
Here, we describe the taxon hypothesis (TH) paradigm, which covers the construction, identification, and communication of taxa as datasets. Defining taxa as datasets of individuals and their traits will make taxon identification and most importantly communication of taxa precise and reproducible. This will allow datasets with standardized and atomized traits to be used digitally in identification pipelines and communicated through persistent identifiers. Such datasets are particularly useful in the context of formally undescribed or even physically undiscovered species if data such as sequences from samples of environmental DNA (eDNA) are available. Implementing the TH paradigm will to some extent remove the impediment to hastily discover and formally describe all extant species in that the TH paradigm allows discovery and communication of new species and other taxa also in the absence of formal descriptions. The TH datasets can be connected to a taxonomic backbone providing access to the vast information associated with the tree of life. In parallel to the description of the TH paradigm, we demonstrate how it is implemented in the UNITE digital taxon communication system. UNITE TH datasets include rich data on individuals and their rDNA ITS sequences. These datasets are equipped with digital object identifiers (DOI) that serve to fix their identity in our communication. All datasets are also connected to a GBIF taxonomic backbone. Researchers processing their eDNA samples using UNITE datasets will, thus, be able to publish their findings as taxon occurrences in the GBIF data portal. UNITE species hypothesis (species level THs) datasets are increasingly utilized in taxon identification pipelines and even formally undescribed species can be identified and communicated by using UNITE. The TH paradigm seeks to achieve unambiguous, unique, and traceable communication of taxa and their properties at any level of the tree of life. It offers a rapid way to discover and communicate undescribed species in identification pipelines and data portals before they are lost to the sixth mass extinction. View Full-Text Keywords: microbial species; taxonomy; DNA taxonomy; biodiversity informatics; discovery of species; taxon hypotheses; species hypotheses; metabarcoding.
33354Liu R., Kim W., Paguirigan J.A., Jeong M.-H. & Hur J.-S. (2021): Establishment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Cladonia macilenta, a model lichen-forming fungus. - Journal of Fungi, 7(4): 252 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7040252.
Despite the fascinating biology of lichens, such as the symbiotic association of lichenforming fungi (mycobiont) with their photosynthetic partners and their ability to grow in harsh habitats, lack of genetic tools manipulating mycobiont has hindered studies on genetic mechanisms underpinning lichen biology. Thus, we established an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) system for genetic transformation of a mycobiont isolated from Cladonia macilenta. A set of combinations of ATMT conditions, such as input biomass of mycobiont, co-cultivation period with Agrobacterium cells, and incubation temperature, were tested to identify an optimized ATMT condition for the C. macilenta mycobiont. As a result, more than 10 days of co-cultivation period and at least 2 mg of input biomass of the mycobiont were recommended for an efficient ATMT, owing to extremely slow growth rate of mycobionts in general. Moreover, we examined T-DNA copy number variation in a total of 180 transformants and found that 88% of the transformants had a single copy T-DNA insertion. To identify precise T-DNA insertion sites that interrupt gene function in C. macilenta, we performed TAIL-PCR analyses for selected transformants. A hypothetical gene encoding ankyrin repeats at its C-terminus was interrupted by T-DNA insertion in a transformant producing dark-brown colored pigment. Although the identification of the pigment awaits further investigation, this proof-of-concept study demonstrated the feasibility of use of ATMT in construction of a random T-DNA insertion mutant library in mycobionts for studying genetic mechanisms behind the lichen symbiosis, stress tolerance, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Keywords: Cladonia; lichen-forming fungi; Agrobacterium; ATMT; genetic transformation.
33353Gheza G., Di Nuzzo L., Vallese C., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Di Cecco V., Di Martino L., Giordani P., Hafellner J., Mayrhofer H., Nimis P.L., Tretiach M. & Nascimbene J. (2021): The lichens of the Majella National Park (Central Italy): an annotated checklist. - MycoKeys, 78: 119–168. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.78.62362.
The botanical exploration of the Majella National Park has a long tradition dating back to the eighteenth century. However, the lichen biota of this area is still poorly investigated. To provide a baseline for future investigations, in this annotated checklist, we summarised all available information on the occurrence of lichens in the Majella National Park, retrieved from previous literature, herbarium material and original data produced by recent research. The checklist includes 342 infrageneric taxa. However, seven taxa are considered as dubious, thus setting the number of accepted taxa at 335, i.e. 45.8% of those currently known to occur in the Abruzzo Region. This checklist provides a baseline of the lichens known to occur in the Majella National Park, highlighting the potential of this area as a hotspot of lichen biodiversity, especially from a biogeographical point of view as indicated by the occurrence of several arctic-alpine species that form disjunct populations in the summit area of the massif. Keywords: Abruzzo, arctic-alpine species, biodiversity hotspot, climate change, lichen biota, Mediterranean mountains, steppic species.
33352Grube M. (2021): Lichens – growing greenhouses en miniature. - Microbial Cell, 8(3): 65–66. doi: 10.15698/mic2021.03.743.
Keywords: fungi, microbiome, symbiosis, complexity, poikilohydry.
33351Cannon P., Ekman S., Kistenich S., LaGreca S., Printzen C., Timdal E., Aptroot A., Coppins B., Fletcher A., Sanderson N. & Simkin J. (2021): Lecanorales: Ramalinaceae, including the genera Bacidia, Bacidina, Bellicidia, Biatora, Bibbya, Bilimbia, Cliostomum, Kiliasia, Lecania, Megalaria, Mycobilimbia, Phyllopsora, Ramalina, Scutula, Thalloidima, Toninia, Toniniopsis and Tylothallia. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 11: 1–82. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Ramalinaceae.pdf.
33350Chambers S., Cannon P., Coppins B. & Simkin J. (2021): Vezdaeales: Vezdaeaceae, including the genus Vezdaea. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 10: 1–5. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Vezdaeaceae.pdf.
33349Cannon P., Aptroot A., Coppins B., Sanderson N. & Simkin J. (2021): Peltigerales: Pannariaceae, including the genera Fuscopannaria, Leptogidium, Nevesia, Pannaria, Parmeliella, Pectenia, Protopannaria and Psoroma. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 9: 1–16. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Pannariaceae.pdf.
33348Orange A. & Cannon P. (2021): Ostropales: Thelenellaceae, including the genus Thelenella. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 8: 1–4. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Thelenellaceae.pdf.
33347Cannon P. & Orange A. (2021): Ostropales: Protothelenellaceae, including the genus Protothelenella. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 7: 1–4. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Protothelenellaceae.pdf.
33346Cannon P., Chambers S., Coppins B., Sanderson N. & Simkin J. (2021): Pertusariales: Pertusariaceae, including the genus Pertusaria. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 6: 1–13. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Pertusariaceae.pdf.
33345Cannon P., Kukwa M., Coppins B., Fletcher A., Sanderson N. & Simkin J. (2021): Pertusariales: Ochrolechiaceae, including the genera Lepra, Ochrolechia and Varicellaria. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 5: 1–17. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Ochrolechiaceae.pdf.
33344Orange A., Cannon P., Malíček J., Sanderson N., Coppins B. & Simkin J. (2021): Ostropales: Porinaceae, including the genus Porina. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 4: 1–12. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Porinaceae_0.pdf.
33343Cannon P., Malíček J., Sanderson N., Benfield B., Coppins B. & Simkin J. (2021): Ostropales: Coenogoniaceae, including the genus Coenogonium. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 3: 1–4. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Coenogoniaceae_0.pdf.
33342Davydov E.A., Yakovchenko L.S., Galanina I.A., Paukov A.G., Frolov I.V. & Ahti T. (2021): New records of lichens from the Russian Far East. III. Lichens of coastal habitats. - Turczaninowia, 24(1): 25–36. DOI: 10.14258/turczaninowia.24.1.4. http://turczaninowia.asu.ru/article/download/9378/7698/.
Aspicilia subepiglypta, Buellia subdisciformis, Calogaya arnoldii, Flavoplaca flavocitrina, Lecanora swartzii, and Lecidella scabra are reported as new records for the Russian Far East. Rinodina gennarii and Lecidella asema are newly recorded for the mainland of the Russian Far East. Rare lichens Cladonia subconistea and Leptotrema litophila are newly found in coastal habitats; Caloplaca atroflava is new for Sakhalin Island, and Umbilicaria vellea is new for Kuril Islands. Keywords: biogeography, East Asia, Kuril Islands, Primorye Territory, Sakhalin Island.
33341Powell M. (2018): Notes for authors regarding terminology. Glossary v1.1. - British Lichen Society, 17 p. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Glossary%20June%202018.pdf.
More comprehensive and revised Glossary of terms for the British Lichen Flora and upcoming revisions.
33340Kukwa M., Szymczyk R., Zalewska A., Ossowska E., Hajek B., Jaskólska J., Kossowska M., Kubiak D., Rutkowski K., Czarnota P., Tanona M. & Smoczyk M. (2021): Materiały do rozmieszczenia porostów i grzybów naporostowych Polski, 1 [Materials for the Distribution of Lichens and Lichenicolous Fungi in Poland, 1]. - Wiadomości Botaniczne, 64[2020]: 645 [28 p.]. DOI: 10.5586/wb.645.
[in Polish with English abstract: ] The paper presents new localities of 44 lichen species and four lichenicolous fungi, which are considered to be rare or threatened in Poland. In addition to the list of localities, brief comments on their characteristic features and general distribution in Poland are provided. Keywords: lichenized fungi; lichenicolous fungi; species diversity; rare species; distribution in Poland.
33339Spielmann A.A., Scur M.C., Lorenz A.P. & Honda N.K. (2021): The rediscovery of Xanthoria (Teloschistaceae) in Brazil. - Archive for Lichenology, 24: 1–7. http://fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2024_Spielmann_Xanthoria.pdf.
After the first collection by Malme in 1892, a specimen of the genus Xanthoria was rediscovered growing on the public library wall in a coastal city from southern Brazil. The specimen is morphologically, chemically, and genetically similar to X. parietina.
33338Aptroot A., Spielmann A.A. & Gumboski E.L. (2021): New lichen species and records from Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil . - Archive for Lichenology, 23: 1–18. http://fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2023_Aptroot_%20Santa%20Catarina.pdf.
Six species of lichens are described as new from Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil): Astrothelium aureoirregulare Aptroot & Gumboski, Bogoriella xantholateralis Aptroot, Lecanora umbilicatimmersa Aptroot & Spielmann, Lepra lichexanthonorstictica Aptroot, Megalaria flavosorediata Aptroot and Vainionora sorediata Aptroot. Moreover, 28 further species are reported which are first records for Brazil; and a further 166 are first records for Santa Catarina and 104 for Rio Grande do Sul.
33337Kalb K. & Schumm F. (2021): New or otherwise interesting lichens. IX. Four new species in the family Graphidaceae, one new combination, new records and remarks. - Archive for Lichenology, 22: 1–22. http://fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2022_Kalb_New%20lichens%20IX.pdf.
Ten species of the lichen family Graphidaceae are treated in the ninth contribution to this series. Four species are new to science: Allographa cameroonensis Kalb & Schumm from Cameroon differs from A. grandis in having larger ascospores and in the lack of secondary lichen products. Allographa kuetchangiana Kalb & Schumm from Thailand differs from A. mexicana in having a permanent thalline cover of the ascomata and in having a whitish pruina on their top. Cruentotrema siamense Lücking & Kalb from Thailand differs from C. amazonum in having smaller ascomata and smaller ascospores. Ocellularia striata Kalb & Schumm from Thailand differs from O. jutaratiae in having smaller ascospores and in lacking the purplish, K+ greenish pigment which covers the remnants of the split proper exciple. Rhabdodiscus exutus (Hale) Kalb & Schumm is a new combination (Bas.: Ocellularia exuta Hale). Photographs of Allographa mexicana (Hale) Lücking & Kalb (including an isotype) show the variation of the ascomata and the differences to A. kuetchangiana. Allographa isidiata (Hale) Lücking & Kalb is reported from Ecuador, which is a new addition to the lichenobiota of this country and the second finding of this species after its description. Allographa plagiocarpa (Fée) Lücking & Kalb, before misidentified as A. mexicana, from Cartago Province is the second report of this species from Costa Rica. The chemistry of Ocellularia kohphanganensis Papong, Mangold & Lücking and the exact spelling of the specific epithet are corrected. Ocellularia macrocrocea Kalb is a new addition to the lichenobiota of Thailand where it is sometimes growing together with O. striata. The intraspecific variation of Ocellularia thelotremoides (Leight.) Hale ist discussed and the name is put on the correct place of the amended key to Thai Ocellularia species. Cochromatography of some Ocellularia species with a deep orange-yellow pigment together with a pure sample of skyrin in solvents A, B' and C showed identical Rf-values in all three solvent systems.
33336Aptroot A. & Spielmann A.A. (2020): Four new Astrothelium species and a Mazaediothecium from Várzea areas in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. - Archive for Lichenology, 21: 1–17. http://fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2021_Aptroot_Varzea.pdf.
Five species of lichens are described as new from Várzea areas in Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil): Astrothelium fernandae, A. pseudodermatodes, A. septoconicum, A. xanthopseudocyphellatum, and Mazaediothecium serendipiticum, the latter being deviating from all other species in its order by the at least morphologically chlorococcoid photobiont. Further, we found 226 identifiable species in the Várzea reserve near Jateí and 47 on a farm near Naviraí. Of these, 15 are new records for Brazil and a further 88 are first reports from the state.
33335Aptroot A., de Souza Silva M.F. & Spielmann A.A. (2020): New lichen species from the Pantanal in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. - Archive for Lichenology, 20: 1–7. http://www.fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2020_Aptroot_Pantanal.pdf.
Four species of lichens are described as new from the Pantanal area in Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil): Physcia microphylla, Physciella neotropica, Strigula pyrenuloides and Thelopsis spinulosa.
33334John V., Güvenç Ş. & Türk A. (2020): Additions to the checklist and bibliography of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Turkey. - Archive for Lichenology, 19: 1–32. http://www.fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2019_John_Checklist%20Turkey.pdf.
Since 2015, 90 taxa of lichens and 18 lichenicolous fungi have been recorded from Turkey for the first time. Further 707 taxa are new to one or more provinces. In this paper 2 species are new to Turkey. A list of 82 published papers is also provided as a supplement to the bibliography of the 2017 Checklist (JOHN & TÜRK (2017) of Turkish Lichens.
33333Kalb K. (2020): New or otherwise interesting lichens. VIII. Eight new species, mainly from the family Graphidaceae, and two new records. - Archive for Lichenology, 18: 1–14. http://www.fschumm.de/Archive/Vol18_Kalb_New%20lichens%20VIII.pdf.
Eight new lichen species are described from South America, Malaysia and Thailand, viz. Chapsa canaimae from Venezuela, which differs from C. alborosella in having distictly smaller ascospores with less septa, Dirinaria hypoleuca from Thailand, which differs from the isidiate D. papillulifera in having a whitish lower surface, Myriotrema robertianum from Brazil, which differs from M. viride in having an inspersed hymenium, Myriotrema subzollingeri from Brazil, which differs from M. glauculum in having brown ascospores, Ocellularia jutaratiae from Brazil, which differs from O. crocea in having ascomata with a fissured margin, Ocellularia subnatashae from Brazil, which differs from O. natashae in lacking hirtifructic and conhirtifructic acids and in having smaller and less sepatate ascospores, Redingeria uniseptata from Brazil, which differs from R. vulcani in having smaller and 1-septate ascospores, Thalloloma intermedium from Brazil, which differs from T. anguiniforme in having smaller ascospores. Chapsa pulchella from Malaysia is a new record for Borneo and the first finding after its description, and Redonographa parvispora from Brasil is a new addition to the lichen biota of this country. All species mentioned are described and illustrated with close-up photographs.
33332Aptroot A. & Spielmann A. (2020): New lichen species and records from the Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, the westernmost Atlantic rain forest. - Archive for Lichenology, 17: 1–26. http://www.fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2017_Aptroot_&_Spielmann_new_spec_Brazil.pdf.
Eleven species of lichens are described as new from the Serra do Bodoquena in Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil): Alyxoria cyanea, Astrothelium ochraceum, Chiodecton xanthonosorediatum, Gyalecta perithecioidea, Gyalecta uniseptata, Pyrenula rubroacutispora, Ramonia xylophila, Synarthonia xanthosarcographoides, Trypethelium aureornatum, Trypethelium endoflavum, and Trypethelium xanthostiolornatum. Around 400 further species are reported, of which 27 are first records for Brazil and 265 are first records for the state.
33331Kalb K. (2020): New or otherwise interesting lichens. VII, including a world key to the lichen genus Heiomasia. - Archive for Lichenology, 15: 1–18. http://www.fschumm.de/Archive/Vol15_Kalb_New_lichens_VII.pdf.
Eight species new to science are described, Allographa grandis from Cameroon which is distinguished by its very large ascomata, richly muriform, large ascospores and an inspersed hymenium (type B); Bapalmuia microspora from Malaysia which differs from B. consanguinea in having shorter and broader ascospores and a granular thallus; Diorygma cameroonense from Cameroon which differs from D. sticticum in having larger ascospores with more septa; Glyphis frischiana which is similar to G. atrofusca but differs in producing secondary lichen compounds, the first species in Glyphis in doing so. Two new species are added to the genus Heiomasia, viz. H. annamariae from Malaysia, which differs from H. sipmanii in producing the stictic acid aggr. and H. siamensis from Thailand, distinguished from H. sipmanii in containing hypoprotocetraric acid as a major metabolite. The published chemistry of several species of Heiomasia is revised and a new substance, heiomaseic acid, with relative Rf-values 5/19/8, is demonstrated for H. seaveyorum, H. siamensis and H. sipmanii. A world-wide key to the known species of Heiomasia is presented. Myriotrema squamiferum, a fertile species from Malaysia, is distinguished from M. frondosolucens by lacking lichexanthone. As there are conflicting literature data concerning Ocellularia crocea, the type specimen was investigated and the results are reported. Ocellularia macrocrocea, a related species from Malaysia, differs from O. rubropolydiscus in lacking the red pigment covering the disc of the ascomata and in having a broad stump-shaped columella. A revised chemistry for Ocellularia tanii, a new record for Sarawak, is also given. A table of Rfvalues and scans of relevant TLC runs facilitate the interpretation of the spots occurring on TLC plates of Graphidaceae.
33330Aptroot A. & Feuerstein S. (2020): New Graphidaceae from South and Central Brazil. - Archive for Lichenology, 16: 1–10. http://www.fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2016_Aptroot_&_Feuerstein_Graphidaceae_S_Brazil_corr.pdf.
Nine species of Graphidaceae are described as new to science from South and Central Brazil, in 7 different genera: Acanthothecis normuralis, A. psoromica, Acanthotrema minus, Aggregatorygma submuriforme, Allographa medioinspersa, Diorygma isidiolichexanthonicum, Fissurina excavatisorediosa, Graphis norsorediata, and Graphis tricolor.
33329Kitaura M.J., Scur M.C., Theodoro J.V.C., Piovezan-Borges A.C. & Lorenz A.P. (2020): Hondaria, a new genus of Collemataceae (Ascomycota lichenized) from South America. - Acta Botanica Brasilica, 34(4): 615–622. doi: 10.1590/0102-33062020abb0093.
Collema leptosporum was originally included in Collemataceae as part of the Collema fasciculare group, an informal group that also included C. fasciculare, C. papuanorum, and C. uviforme. However, molecular data from C. fasciculare showed that this species belongs to Arctomiaceae, and all species in this informal group were relocated to Arctomia, although no molecular data were generated and analyzed for C. leptosporum, C. papuanorum and C. uviforme. To investigate the phylogenetic relationships of Collema leptosporum, currently Arctomia leptospora, we analyzed three DNA loci and examined morphological and anatomical features of specimens collected near the type locality. Genetic data suggest that this species is not included in Arctomiaceae and should be treated as a new genus in Collemataceae. Hondaria gen. nov. is characterized by having the longest transversely-septate ascospores in the family ((100–)120–175(–200) × 2–4(–5) μm). This study also suggests that the structures characterizing the C. fasciculare group are a result of convergent evolution, since this group includes species from different distantly related species. Keywords: Arctomia leptospora, Collema leptosporum, C. fasciculare group, jelly lichens, South America biodiversity.
33328Lücking R., Högnabba F. & Sipman H.J.M. (2021): Lasioloma antillarum (Ascomycota: Pilocarpaceae), a new lichenized fungus from the Antilles, and the importance of posterior annotations of sequence data in public repositories. - Willdenowia, 51: 83–89. https://doi.org/10.3372/wi.51.51107.
We describe the new lichenized fungus Lasioloma antillarum Lücking, Högnabba & Sipman from the Netherlands Antilles. The new species is characterized by a corticolous growth habit, apothecia with shortly tomentose margins, and rather small (35 – 50 × 12 – 16 μm), muriform ascospores in numbers of 2(– 4) per ascus. The material had originally been identified as Calopadia phyllogena (Müll. Arg.) Vězda, with associated sequence data, but in phylogenetic analyses consistently fell outside the latter genus. Its revised identification as a species of Lasioloma is consistent with its phylogenetic position and underlines the necessity of posterior annotations in public sequence repositories, in order to correct previous identifications. Key words: Antilles, Ascomycota, inaccuracies in GenBank, integrative taxonomy, Lasioloma, Pilocarpaceae, sequence labelling.
33327Ghennam K., Attou F. & Abdoun F. (2021): Impact of atmospheric pollution on asthma and bronchitis based on lichen biomonitoring using IAP, IHI and GIS in Algiers Bay (Algeria). - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 193: 198 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-08965-8.
We investigated the association between air pollution and asthma and bronchitis hospital admissions in Algiers city (Algeria). In addition, we used geographic information systems (GIS) and statistical methods to evaluate their correlation with the atmospheric pollution estimated by the lichen biomonitoring method of the index of atmospheric purity (IAP), the index of human impact (IHI) and environmental parameters. Thus, we georeferenced 976 local patients (including 771 patients with asthma and 205 patients with bronchitis). Then, we compared the patients to the spatial distribution of IAP in thirty-five areas (communities). The results revealed a significant difference in the mean spatial variation in the diseases among those areas. In fact, maps and generalized linear models (GLMs) revealed a significant negative correlation between IAP and diseases. Therefore, redundancy analysis (RDA) and Monte Carlo tests described a significant effect of IAP, urbanization and the number of roads on the distribution of diseases. We hope our findings contribute to enriching the literature on health research with a low-cost method of monitoring outdoor air pollution. Keywords Index atmospheric purity (IAP) · Lichens · Asthma · Pollution.
33326Wieder R.K., Vile M.A., Scott K.D., Albright C.M., Quinn J.C. & Vitt D.H. (2021): Bog plant/lichen tissue nitrogen and sulfur concentrations as indicators of emissions from oil sands development in Alberta, Canada. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 193: 208 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-08929-y.
Increasing gaseous emissions of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) associated with oil sands development in northern Alberta (Canada) has led to changing regional wet and dry N and S deposition regimes. We assessed the potential for using bog plant/lichen tissue chemistry (N and S concentrations, C:N and C:S ratios, in 10 plant/lichen species) to monitor changing atmospheric N and S deposition through sampling at five bog sites, 3–6 times per growing season from 2009 to 2016. During this 8-year period, oil sands N emissions steadily increased, while S emissions steadily decreased. We examined the following: (1) whether each species showed changes in tissue chemistry with increasing distance from the Syncrude and Suncor upgrader stacks (the two largest point sources of N and S emissions); (2) whether tissue chemistry changed over the 8 year period in ways that were consistent with increasing N and decreasing S emissions from oil sands facilities; and (3) whether tissue chemistry was correlated with growing season wet deposition of NH4 +-N, NO3 −-N, or SO4 2−-S. Based on these criteria, the best biomonitors of a changing N deposition regime were Evernia mesomorpha, Sphagnum fuscum, and Vaccinium oxycoccos. The best biomonitors of a changing S deposition regime were Evernia mesomorpha, Cladonia mitis, Sphagnum fuscum, Sphagnum capillifolium, Vaccinium oxycoccos, and Picea mariana. Changing N and S deposition regimes in the oil sands region appear to be influencing N and S cycling in what once were pristine ombrotrophic bogs, to the extent that these bogs may effectively monitor future spatial and temporal patterns of deposition. Keywords: Bryophyte · Monitoring · Peatland · Sphagnum.
33325Rangel-Osornio V., Fernández-Salegui A.B., Gómez-Reyes V.M., Cuevas-Villanueva R.A. & Lopez-Toledo L. (2021): Effects of air pollution on chlorophyll content and morphology of lichens transplanted around a paper industry (Morelia, Mexico). - Bryologist, 48: 676–689. DOI: 10.1639/0007-2745-124.1.052.
We evaluated and compared the physiological and morphological response to pollution of two epiphytic lichen species, the foliose lichen Flavopunctelia praesignis and the fruticose lichen Usnea ceratina. Lichen samples were collected at remote areas and transplanted at different distances and directions from a paper industry in Morelia (Michoaca´n, Mexico). Lichen transplants were exposed for 4 months (1) around the industrial area and (2) in their native habitats (control sites). Changes of total chlorophyll content between samples before and after exposure, and morphological damage in the lichen thalli were investigated. Lichens showed species-specific responses. Flavopunctelia praesignis increased in total chlorophyll content after exposure around the industrial area and in control site. This suggests that total chlorophyll changes by a seasonal effect than pollution effect. On the other hand, chlorophyll content of U. ceratina did not change significantly after exposure. Bleaching, changes in color, deformations, and necrosis of lichen thalli were better visible in U. ceratina near the paper industry. We conclude that U. ceratina is a more pollution-sensitive species than F. praesignis. Morphological damage in the lichen thalli would be a suitable indicator for monitoring early biological effects of air pollution caused by the paper industry. Keywords: Air pollution, biomonitoring, photobiont, pollution damage, tropical region.
33324Lendemer J.C. (2021): Proposed best practices for taxonomic innovations in lichen and allied Fungi: A framework derived from analysis of more than 1,000 new taxa and new combinations. - Bryologist, 48: 676–689. DOI: 10.1639/0007-2745-124.1.090.
Analyses of data associated with 1376 taxonomic innovations (703 new taxa, 673 new combinations and replacement names) published from 2018–2020 are presented. Taxonomic contributions represented 14.2% of the published literature for the period. Most registration numbers for new names were obtained from MycoBank, suggesting the community has coalesced behind this resource. The overwhelming majority of new taxa (85.1%) and combinations (94.1%) involved crustose lichens and lichenicolous fungi. But lichenicolous fungi, regarded as a major source of undetected biodiversity, represented less than a fifth of innovations. More than half of new taxa were described from Asia and South America. Fewer than half (39%) of new taxa were published with molecular data, mostly from the ITS region but often in combination with data from additional loci. The majority of new taxa were based on small numbers of specimens (34.1% from one specimen, 69.2% from five or fewer) from few locations (44.4% from one location, 80.7% from five or fewer). Although a large number of identification keys were published, many new taxa were described with limited ecological data, distribution data or range maps, or discussion of similar species or phenotypic variation. Many innovations based on previously published names did not cite the nomenclatural type (67.7%) and less than a tenth of all such names were newly typified. Based on these results a best practices framework is presented. Keywords: Biodiversity hotspot, biogeography, conservation, data gaps, natural history collections, taxonomy, systematics.
33323Morse C.A. & Ladd D. (2021): A new species of Reichlingia (Arthoniaceae) from the grasslands of central North America. - Bryologist, 48: 676–689. DOI: 10.1639/0007-2745-124.1.033.
Reichlingia americana, a new saxicolous species, is described from Oklahoma, U.S.A., representing the first records of the genus in North America. The species is distinguished from other members of the genus by a combination of its epilithic, rimose thallus; submuriform ascospores; presence of 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid; and unique habitat on sheltered sandstone faces. Distinctions from related species are discussed and a key to members of the genus is provided. Keywords: Arthonia, Arthothelium, biogeography, Crosstimbers, Great Plains, lichen taxonomy, Oklahoma, 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid, sandstone.
33322Moncada B., Mercado-Díaz J.A., Magain N., Hodkinson B.P., Smith C.W., Bungartz F., Pérez-Pérez R.E., Gumboski E., Sérusiaux E., Lumbsch H.T. & Lücking R. (2021): Phylogenetic diversity of two geographically overlapping lichens: isolation by distance, environment, or fragmentation?. - Journal of Biogeography, 48: 676–689. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.14033.
Aim: Phylogenetic diversification is a precursor to speciation, but the underlying patterns and processes are not well-studied in lichens. Here we investigate what factors drive diversification in two tropical, morphologically similar macrolichens that occupy a similar range but differ in altitudinal and habitat preferences, testing for isolation by distance (IBD), environment (IBE), and fragmentation (IBF). Location: Neotropics, Hawaii, Macaronesia. Taxon: Sticta andina, S. scabrosa (Peltigeraceae). Methods: We analysed 395 specimens from 135 localities, using the fungal ITS barcoding marker to assess phylogenetic diversification, through maximum likelihood tree reconstruction, TCS haplotype networks, and Tajima's D. Mantel tests were employed to detect structure in genetic vs. geographic, environmental, and fragmentation distances. Habitat preferences were quantitatively assessed by statistical analysis of locality-based BIOclim variables. Results: Sticta andina exhibited high phenotypic variation and reticulate phylogenetic diversity across its range, whereas the phenotypically uniform S. scabrosa contained two main haplotypes, one unique to Hawaii. Sticta andina is restricted to well-preserved andine forests and paramos, naturally fragmented habitats due to disruptive topology, whereas S. scabrosa thrives in lowland to lower montane zones in exposed or disturbed microsites, representing a continuous habitat. Sticta scabrosa showed IBD only across its full range (separating the Hawaiian population) but not within continental Central and South America, there exhibiting a negative Tajima's D. Sticta andina did not exhibit IBD but IBE at continental level and IBF in the northern Andes. Main conclusions: Autecology, particularly preference for either low or high altitudes, indirectly drives phylogenetic diversification. Low diversification in the low altitude species, S. scabrosa, can be attributed to rapid expansion and effective gene flow across a more or less continuous niche due to disturbance tolerance. In contract, high diversification in the high altitude species, S. andina, can be explained by niche differentiation (IBE) and fragmentation (IBF) caused by the Andean uplift. Keywords: Brazil, drift, Galapagos, Mexico, Puerto Rico.
33321Ohmura Y. (2021): Lichenes Minus Cogniti Exsiccati, Fasc. XXVII (Nos. 651–675). - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, 4 p. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/cryptogamie_exsiccatae/lichens/pdf/List2021.pdf.
exsiccat; Japan, Russian Far East; discussion on the status of Cladonia kurokawae and its delimitation from C. subconistea
33320Ohmura Y. (2020): Lichenes Minus Cogniti Exsiccati, Fasc. XXVI (Nos. 626–650). - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, 4 p. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/cryptogamie_exsiccatae/lichens/pdf/List2020.pdf.
exsiccat; Japan, Russian Far East
33319Ohmura Y. (2019): Lichenes Minus Cogniti Exsiccati, Fasc. XXV (Nos. 601–625). - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, 4 p. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/cryptogamie_exsiccatae/lichens/pdf/List2019.pdf.
exsiccat; Japan, Russian Far East
33318Ohmura Y. (2018): Lichenes Minus Cogniti Exsiccati, Fasc. XXIV (Nos. 576–600). - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, 4 p. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/cryptogamie_exsiccatae/lichens/pdf/List2018.pdf.
exsiccat; Japan, Russian Far East, Antarctica
33317Ohmura Y. (2017): Lichenes Minus Cogniti Exsiccati, Fasc. XXIII (Nos. 551–575). - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, 4 p. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/cryptogamie_exsiccatae/lichens/pdf/List2017.pdf.
exsiccat; Japan, China
33316Ohmura Y. (2016): Lichenes Minus Cogniti Exsiccati, Fasc. XXII (Nos. 526–550). - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, 4 p. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/cryptogamie_exsiccatae/lichens/pdf/List2016.pdf.
exsiccat; Japan, Taiwan, Norway, Spitzbergen/Svalbard, Antarctica, Peru
33315Ohmura Y. (2015): Lichenes Minus Cogniti Exsiccati, Fasc. XXI (Nos. 501–525). - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, 4 p. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/cryptogamie_exsiccatae/lichens/pdf/List2015.pdf.
exsiccat; Japan, Peru, Taiwan
33314Ohmura Y. (2014): Lichenes Minus Cogniti Exsiccati, Fasc. XX (Nos. 476–500). - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, 4 p. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/cryptogamie_exsiccatae/lichens/pdf/List2014.pdf.
exsiccat; Japan, Taiwan, China, Chile, Namibia
33313Ohmura Y. (2013): Lichenes Minus Cogniti Exsiccati, Fasc. XIX (Nos. 451–475). - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, 4 p. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/cryptogamie_exsiccatae/lichens/pdf/List2013.pdf.
exsiccat; Japan, Russian Far East, Taiwan, Korea
33312Ohmura Y. (2012): Lichenes Minus Cogniti Exsiccati, Fasc. XVIII (Nos. 426–450). - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, 4 p. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/cryptogamie_exsiccatae/lichens/pdf/List2012.pdf.
exsiccat; Japan, Taiwan, Russian Far East (Sakhalin/Saghalin)
33311Ohmura Y. (2011): Lichenes Minus Cogniti Exsiccati, Fasc. XVII (Nos. 401–425). - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, 4 p. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/cryptogamie_exsiccatae/lichens/pdf/List2011.pdf.
exsiccat; Japan, Canada, Taiwan, China
33310Ohmura Y. (2010): Lichenes Minus Cogniti Exsiccati, Fasc. XVI (Nos. 376–400). - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, 4 p. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/cryptogamie_exsiccatae/lichens/pdf/List2010.pdf.
exsiccat; Japan, Taiwan
33309Smith R., Jovan S. & Will-Wolf S. (2021): Lack of congruence between terrestrial and epiphytic lichen strata in boreal forests. - Lichenologist, 53(1): 149-158. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000407.
Lichens occupy diverse substrates across tremendous ranges of environmental variation. In boreal forests, lichen communities co-occur in ‘strata’ defined by terrestrial or arboreal substrates, but these strata may or may not be interchangeable as bioindicators. Do co-occurring lichen strata have similar community structures and environmental responses? Could one stratum serve as a proxy for the other? We assessed variation in species richness and community compositions between ground-layer versus epiphyte-layer lichen strata in boreal forests and peatlands of interior Alaska. Species richness was lower and more spatially structured in the ground layer than the epiphyte layer. Richness of strata was not correlated. The most compositionally unique ground-layer communities were species-poor but contained regionally rare species not common in other plots. Variation in community compositions (ordination scores) were not congruent between strata (Procrustes congruence < 0.16 on 0–1 scale); the largest departures from congruence occurred where ground layers were species-poor. The best predictors of ground-layer community compositions were hydrological and topographic, whereas epiphytes were most associated with macroclimate and tree abundances. We conclude that lichens on different substrates ‘move in different circles’: compositional gradients did not agree and the environmental gradients most important to each lichen stratum were not the same. The conditions which strongly influence one vegetation stratum may have little bearing upon another. As global changes modify habitats, an incremental change in environment may lead community trajectories to diverge among lichen strata
33308Ellis C. & Eaton S. (2021): Climate change refugia: Landscape, stand and tree-scale microclimates in epiphyte community composition. - Lichenologist, 53(1): 135-148. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000523.
There is growing evidence that species and communities are responding to, and will continue to be affected by, climate change. For species at risk, vulnerability can be reduced by ensuring that their habitat is extensive, connected and provides opportunities for dispersal and/or gene flow, facilitating a biological response through migration or adaptation. For woodland epiphytes, vulnerability might also be reduced by ensuring sufficient habitat heterogeneity, so that microhabitats provide suitable local microclimates, even as the larger scale climate continues to change (i.e. microrefugia). This study used fuzzy set ordination to compare bryophyte and lichen epiphyte community composition to a large-scale gradient from an oceanic to a relatively more continental macroclimate. The residuals from this relationship identified microhabitats in which species composition reflected a climate that was more oceanic or more continental than would be expected given the prevailing macroclimate. Comparing these residuals to features that operate at different scales to create the microclimate (landscape, stand and tree-scale), it was possible to identify how one might engineer microrefugia into existing or new woodland, in order to reduce epiphyte vulnerability to climate change. Multimodel inference was used to identify the most important features for consideration, which included local effects such as height on the bole, angle of bole lean and bark water holding capacity, as well as tree species and tree age, and within the landscape, topographic wetness and physical exposure
33307Moncada B., Smith C. & Lücking R. (2021): A taxonomic reassessment of the genus Sticta (lichenized Ascomycota: Peltigeraceae) in the Hawaiian archipelago. - Lichenologist, 53(1): 117-133. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000353.
The taxonomy of the genus Sticta in Hawaii is reassessed, based on a separately published molecular phylogeny using the fungal barcoding marker ITS. Based on Magnusson and Zahlbruckner's treatment from 1943 and Magnusson's catalogue from 1955, seven species of Sticta and three infraspecific taxa had been reported from the archipelago, all widespread except the putative endemic S. plumbicolor. Here we provide a taxonomic treatment of 13 taxa, 12 species and one subspecies, distinguished in a previous phylogenetic analysis: S. acyphellata, S. andina, S. antoniana, S. emmanueliana, S. flynnii, S. fuliginosa, S. hawaiiensis, S. limbata, S. plumbicolor, S. scabrosa subsp. hawaiiensis, S. smithii, S. tomentosa and S. waikamoi. All taxa are described, discussed and illustrated and a dichotomous key is presented. The implications of revised species taxonomies for studies in other fields such as ecology, ecophysiology, biogeography, biochemistry, and applications such as environmental monitoring are discussed. We also propose a protocol to use Sticta lichens to monitor the environmental health of Hawaiian ecosystems
33306Millanes A., Diederich P., Westberg M. & Wedin M. (2021): Crittendenia gen. nov., a new lichenicolous lineage in the Agaricostilbomycetes (Pucciniomycotina), and a review of the biology, phylogeny and classification of lichenicolous heterobasidiomycetes. - Lichenologist, 53(1): 103-116. doi:10.1017/S002428292000033X.
The lichenicolous ‘heterobasidiomycetes’ belong in the Tremellomycetes (Agaricomycotina) and in the Pucciniomycotina. In this paper, we provide an introduction and review of these lichenicolous taxa, focusing on recent studies and novelties of their classification, phylogeny and evolution. Lichen-inhabiting fungi in the Pucciniomycotina are represented by only a small number of species included in the genera Chionosphaera, Cyphobasidium and Lichenozyma. The phylogenetic position of the lichenicolous representatives of Chionosphaera has, however, never been investigated by molecular methods. Phylogenetic analyses using the nuclear SSU, ITS, and LSU ribosomal DNA markers reveal that the lichenicolous members of Chionosphaera form a monophyletic group in the Pucciniomycotina, distinct from Chionosphaera and outside the Chionosphaeraceae. The new genus Crittendenia is described to accommodate these lichen-inhabiting species. Crittendenia is characterized by minute synnemata-like basidiomata, the presence of clamp connections and aseptate tubular basidia from which 4–7 spores discharge passively, often in groups. Crittendenia, Cyphobasidium and Lichenozyma are the only lichenicolous lineages known so far in the Pucciniomycotina, whereas Chionosphaera does not include any lichenicolous taxa
33305Kantvilas G. (2021): Lecanactis (Roccellaceae) in Tasmania, with the description of a new saxicolous species and a revised key for the genus in Australia. - Lichenologist, 53(1): 95-101. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000456.
The lichen genus Lecanactis Körb. in Tasmania comprises six species: L. abietina (Ach.) Körb., which is widespread and pan-temperate; L. latispora Egea & Torrente and L. neozelandica Egea & Torrente, both shared with New Zealand and with the former recorded here from the Auckland Islands for the first time; L. mollis (Stirt.) Frisch & Ertz, shared with Victoria and New Zealand; L. aff. dilleniana (Ach.) Körb., a European species recorded provisionally for Tasmania on the basis of several sterile collections; L. scopulicola Kantvilas, which is described here as new to science and apparently a Tasmanian endemic. This new taxon occurs in rocky underhangs and is characterized by a thick, leprose thallus containing schizopeltic acid, and 3-septate ascospores, 19–30 × 4.5–6 μm. Short descriptions and a discussion of distribution and ecology are given for all species. A key for all 11 Australian species of the genus is provided, including L. subfarinosa (C. Knight) Hellb. and L. tibelliana Egea & Torrente, which are recorded for Australia for the first time, and L. platygraphoides (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., a first record for New South Wales. Lecanactis spermatospora Egea & Torrente and L. sulphurea Egea & Torrente are also included
33304Kantelinen A., Hyvärinen M., Kirika P. & Myllys L. (2021): Four new Micarea species from the montane cloud forests of Taita Hills, Kenya. - Lichenologist, 53(1): 81-94. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000511.
The genus Micarea was studied for the first time in the Taita Hills, Kenya. Based on new collections and existing data, we reconstructed a phylogeny using ITS, mtSSU and Mcm7 regions, and generated a total of 27 new sequences. Data were analyzed using maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony methods. Based mainly on new collections, we discovered four undescribed well-supported lineages, characterized by molecular and phenotypic features. These lineages are described here as Micarea pumila, M. stellaris, M. taitensis and M. versicolor. Micarea pumila is characterized by a minutely granular thallus, small cream-white or pale brownish apothecia, small ascospores and the production of prasinic acid. Micarea stellaris has a warted-areolate thallus, cream-white apothecia usually darker at the centre, a hymenium of light grey or brownish pigment that dissolves in K, and intense crystalline granules that appear as a belt-like continuum across the lower hymenium when studied in polarized light. Micarea taitensis is characterized by a warted-areolate thallus and cream-white or yellowish apothecia that sometimes produce the Sedifolia-grey pigment. Micarea versicolor is characterized by a warted-areolate, sometimes partly granular thallus and apothecia varying from cream-white to light grey to blackish in colour. This considerable variation in the coloration of its apothecia is caused by an occasional mixture of the Sedifolia-grey pigment in the epihymenium and another purplish brown pigment in the hymenium. Micarea stellaris, M. taitensis and M. versicolor produce methoxymicareic acid. The main distinguishing characters are presented in a species synopsis. Three of the new species are nested in the M. prasina group, and the fourth one (M. taitensis) resolves as a basal taxon to the M. prasina group. The new species inhabit montane cloud forests, which have fragmented dramatically throughout the Eastern Arc Mountains in recent decades
33303Ivanovich C., Dolnik C., Otte V., Palice Z., Sohrabi M. & Printzen C. (2021): A preliminary phylogeny of the Lecanora saligna-group, with notes on species delimitation. - Lichenologist, 53(1): 63-79. doi:10.1017/S0024282921000074.
Lecanora s. lat. is a genus of crustose, rarely placodioid lichens comprising c. 1000 recognized species and subdivided into several morphology-based groups. Some of these groups have been supported in phylogenetic analyses and segregated as new genera. One of the remaining groups that has not been previously studied by molecular methods in much detail, the L. saligna-group, includes corticolous and lignicolous crustose lichens, usually containing isousnic or usnic acid (or both) as major secondary metabolites. As part of our ongoing project ‘Lecanomics’, a phylogenetic analysis based on two loci was conducted and found the L. saligna-group to be divided into two main clades and several well-supported minor clades. The L. varia clade, chosen as one of the outgroups, emerged within the L. saligna-group. The majority of the clades are characterized by phenotypic differences. However, several well-supported clades share similarities with their sister groups, suggesting that species circumscriptions based solely on phenotypic characters may be too conservative to characterize the true species diversity present within the group. Also, there is evidence for some geographical separation of lineages; for example, most North American individuals, previously known as Lecanora saligna and L. albellula, form two clades separate from their European namesakes and are here preliminarily called ‘Lecanora sp. B’, ‘Lecanora sp. C’ and ‘Lecanora sp. D’. However, L. saligna and L. albellula also appear to occur in North America, and some specimens from the Caucasus and Iran cluster within the North American clades. Lecanora anopta and L. subravida are reported for the first time from Iran
33302Ertz D., Sanderson N. & Lebouvier M. (2021): Thelopsis challenges the generic circumscription in the Gyalectaceae and brings new insights to the taxonomy of Ramonia. - Lichenologist, 53(1): 45-61. doi:10.1017/S002428292000050X.
The genus Thelopsis was classified in the family Stictidaceae but its systematic position has never been investigated by molecular methods. In order to determine its family placement and to test its monophyly, fungal DNA of recent collections of Thelopsis specimens was sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses using nuLSU, RPB2 and mtSSU sequences reveal that members of Thelopsis form a monophyletic group within the genus Gyalecta as currently accepted. The placement of Thelopsis, including the generic type T. rubella, within the genus Gyalecta challenges the generic circumscription of this group because Thelopsis is well recognized by the combination of morphological characters: perithecioid ascomata, well-developed periphysoids, polysporous asci and small, few-septate ellipsoid-oblong ascospores. The sterile sorediate Opegrapha corticola is also placed in the Gyalectaceae as sister species to Thelopsis byssoidea + T. rubella. Ascomata of O. corticola are illustrated for the first time and support its placement in the genus Thelopsis. The hypothesis that O. corticola might represent the sorediate fertile morph of T. rubella is not confirmed because the species is phylogenetically and morphologically distinct. Thelopsis is recovered as polyphyletic, with T. melathelia being placed as sister species to Ramonia. The new combinations Thelopsis corticola (Coppins & P. James) Sanderson & Ertz comb. nov. and Ramonia melathelia (Nyl.) Ertz comb. nov. are introduced and a new species of Gyalecta, G. amsterdamensis Ertz, is described from Amsterdam and Saint-Paul Islands, characterized by a sterile thallus with discrete soralia. Petractis luetkemuelleri and P. nodispora are accommodated in the new genus Neopetractis, differing from the generic type (P. clausa) by having a different phylogenetic position and a different photobiont. Francisrosea bicolor Ertz & Sanderson gen. & sp. nov. is described for a sterile sorediate lichen somewhat similar to Opegrapha corticola but having an isolated phylogenetic position as sister to a clade including Gyalidea praetermissa and the genera Neopetractis and Ramonia. Gyalecta farlowii, G. nidarosiensis and G. carneola are placed in a molecular phylogeny for the first time. The taxonomic significance of morphological characters in Gyalectaceae is discussed
33301Coppins B., Kashiwadani H., Moon K., Spribille T. & Thor G. (2021): The genera Brianaria (Psoraceae) and Micarea (Pilocarpaceae) in Japan, with reports on other interesting species in Asia. - Lichenologist, 53(1): 35-44. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000468.
An examination of collections from Japan has increased the number of Brianaria and Micarea species known from that country from eight to 19, including one new species, M. rubioides Coppins (also from Malaysia and the Philippines). Eleven species are reported as new to Japan (M. botryoides (Nyl.) Coppins, M. denigrata (Fr.) Hedl., M. erratica (Körb.) Hertel et al., M. hedlundii Coppins, M. lithinella (Nyl.) Hedl., M. micrococca (Körb.) Gams ex Coppins and M. misella (Nyl.) Hedl.) or new to Asia: M. byssacea (Th. Fr.) Czarnota et al., M. deminuta Coppins and M. xanthonica Coppins & Tønsberg (new to Asia; Japan); M. nitschkeana (J. Lahm ex Rabenh.) Harm. (new to Asia; South Korea). The presence of Micarea prasina s. str. from Japan needs to be confirmed; no collection was found in this study. Additional collections from South Korea and Sri Lanka are also reported, including the new species M. ceylanica Coppins from Sri Lanka. The identity of M. synotheoides (Nyl.) Coppins, originally described from Japan, has been resolved, resulting in the renaming of Western European material, previously under that name, as M. longispora Coppins. Micarea coreana Lőkös et al. is reported here as a synonym of M. erratica. The type of Lecidea inopinula Nyl. requires the new combination Micarea inopinula (Nyl.) Coppins & T. Sprib. to replace Micarea prasinella (Jatta) I. M. Lamb
33300Beckett R., Minibayeva F., Solhaug K. & Roach T. (2021): Photoprotection in lichens: Adaptations of photobionts to high light. - Lichenologist, 53(1): 21-33. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000535.
Lichens often grow in microhabitats where they are exposed to severe abiotic stresses such as desiccation and temperature extremes. They are also often exposed to levels of light that are greater than lichen photobionts can use in carbon fixation. Unless regulated, excess energy absorbed by the photobionts can convert ground state oxygen to reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS can attack the photosynthetic apparatus, causing photoinhibition and photo-oxidative stress, reducing the ability of the photobionts to fix carbon. Here, we outline our current understanding of the effects of high light on lichens and the mechanisms they use to mitigate or tolerate this stress in hydrated and desiccated states. Tolerance to high light can be achieved first by lowering ROS formation, via synthesizing light screening pigments or by thermally dissipating the excess light energy absorbed; second, by scavenging ROS once formed; or third, by repairing ROS-induced damage. While the primary focus of this review is tolerance to high light in lichen photobionts, our knowledge is rather fragmentary, and therefore we also include recent findings in free-living relatives to stimulate new lines of research in the study of high light tolerance in lichens
33299Lücking R. (2021): Peter D. Crittenden: Meta-analysis of an exceptional two-decade tenure as senior editor of The Lichenologist, the flagship journal of lichenology. - Lichenologist, 53(1): 3-19. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000560.
Peter D. Crittenden served as senior editor of The Lichenologist, the flagship journal in the field of lichenological research, for a period of two decades, between 2000 and 2019. A review of the development of the journal and the publication output during this period is provided. The number of papers published during this period (1197) matches that of all papers published under the three previous senior editors, Peter W. James, David L. Hawksworth and Dennis H. Brown, during a much longer period of 42 years from 1958 to 1999. Peter oversaw important editorial changes to the layout and content of the journal: an increased size with a modern cover design, leaving behind the classic mint-coloured cover of more than 40 years; the addition of ‘thematic issues’ and encouragement of large monographs; implementation of substantial changes to the Code, such as effective electronic publication and obligate registration of new fungal names; and more recently a new policy to reject so-called ‘single naked species descriptions’. Shortly before Peter took over as senior editor, The Lichenologist had received its first impact factor, and Peter managed to continuously increase this measure from around 0.9 to lately up to over 1.5, higher than most other competing journals. The 1197 papers between 2000 and 2019 were published by a total of 1138 different authors, more than half of whom appeared just once as author, whereas a small number participated in numerous (up to 93) papers. There was a continuous increase in the mean number of authors per paper per year, from below 2.5 to around 3.5, the highest numbers ranging between 11 and 30; still, c. 75% of all papers between 2000 and 2019 were single- authored or had up to three authors. Based on affiliations at the time of publication, two thirds of author contributions came from Europe (66%), 13% from North America, 9% from Asia and 7% from Latin America. Likewise, almost half of the study areas were located in Europe and around 10% each in North America, South America and Asia. The countries with the highest number of studies included, in descending order, the United States, Spain, the United Kingdom, Norway and Sweden. North America and Europe were over-represented in terms of author contribu- tions, whereas Africa, Latin America, Australia and Oceania were over-represented in terms of study areas. The 1197 papers analyzed encom- passed a broad diversity of topics, classified into 32 categories. Taxonomy of lichenized fungi was the most frequent component, representing the focal point in almost half of all studies, followed by phylogeny and evolution, ecology, and the taxonomy of lichenicolous fungi. Around two thirds of the currently accepted genera of lichenized fungi were treated, with a significant correlation between known species richness and the number of papers in which a genus was treated, underlining the taxonomic representativity of papers published in the journal during the past two decades. Examples of genera that were treated more frequently than expected included commonly studied model organisms, such as Lobaria, and those frequently featured in ecological or other non-taxonomic studies, such as Xanthoria. Species-rich tropical genera, particularly in the Graphidaceae, were generally under-represented. Mean number of authors per paper per volume and total number of country origins of authors per volume were the best predictors of impact factor, followed by diversity of study countries per volume, mean number of study countries per paper per volume, mean number of topics per paper per volume, and proportion of studies with phylogenetic components per volume. Individual papers that contributed to high impact factors included broad-scale revisionary treatments and worldwide keys to spe- cies-rich taxa, substantial phylogenetic reclassifications of known taxonomic groups, papers dealing with novel methodological approaches of broad interest, and broad-scale studies related to environmental change and lichen biomonitoring. Graphidaceae, Hypogymnia physodes, lichen microbiome, Lobaria pulmonaria, multi-authored papers, Trypetheliaceae, Xanthoria parietina
33298Kantvilas G., Coppins B., Ellis C. & Hyvärinen M. (2021): Peter Crittenden - A liber amicorum. - Lichenologist, 53(1): 1-1. doi:10.1017/S0024282921000049.
This first issue of The Lichenologist Volume 53 (2021) is dedicated to Peter Crittenden, in recognition of his long years of service to the journal, the British Lichen Society and lichenology worldwide. With Volume 52 (2020), Peter handed the responsibilities of Senior Editor to his successors, Leena Myllys and Christopher Ellis. On completing this transition there was universal assent among the associate editors who had served with Peter, and close friends, that the depth of gratitude felt for Peter’s work should be expressed in a Special Issue, bringing together a series of papers on a wide breadth of subjects.
33297Villarreal A.J., Renaudin M., Beaulieu-Laliberté A. & Bellenger J. (2021): Stigonema associated with boreal Stereocaulon possesses the alternative vanadium nitrogenase. - Lichenologist, 53(2): 215-220. .
Reindeer lichens from the genus Cladonia and snow lichens from the genus Stereocaulon are components of spruce lichen wood- land, which is one of the most extensive ecosystems in Eastern Canada (Payette & Delwaide 2018). Unlike reindeer lichens, Stereocaulon species have a mutualistic association with cyanobac- teria, mainly from the genus Stigonema, which are located in cephalodia (Huss-Danell 1977, 1979; Kershaw 1978; Kytöviita & Crittenden 2002; Lavoie et al. 2020). In Canada, acetylene reduc- tion assays on Stereocaulon cyanobacteria have demonstrated their critical contribution to the nitrogen (N) budget (Crittenden & Kershaw 1978; Kershaw 1978). Cyanobacteria use the nitrogenase enzymatic complex to reduce atmospheric N2 into bioavailable ammonium. Thus, understanding the biology and efficacy of the nitrogenase, which reduces atmospheric N2 into bioavailable ammonium, is crucial to obtaining a clearer pic- ture of nutrient flow in boreal forests
33296Weldon J. & Grandin U. (2021): Weak recovery of epiphytic lichen communities in Sweden over 20 years of rapid air pollution decline. - Lichenologist, 53(2): 203-213. .
Epiphytic lichens are sensitive to deteriorating air quality, but levels of nitrogen and especially sulphur deposition have been in decline over most of Europe in recent decades. We assessed the response of epiphytic lichens to this decline, using data from long-term monitoring sites in Sweden. We analyzed 20 years of data to investigate temporal trends in lichen communities’ sensitivity to sulphur, nitrogen preference, species richness and alpha and beta diversity. We found only limited and partial evidence of recovery in the area that previously had high levels of deposition, and a decline in mean sulphur sensitivity at a northern site with low deposition levels throughout the monitoring period. The slow recolonization of sensitive species, even where environmental conditions are now suitable, is probably a result of impoverished regional species pools and the inherent limited dispersal capacity of many lichen species. We suggest due consideration of these factors in the use of epiphytic lichens as environmental indicators in a period of improving air quality
33295Van den Boom P. & Alvarado P. (2021): Catillaria flexuosa (Catillariaceae), a new lichen species described from the Netherlands. - Lichenologist, 53(2): 193-202. .
A new lichen species is described from specimens growing on Fraxinus trees north of Eindhoven (the Netherlands). Morphological and genetic studies suggest that the new species belongs in the genus Catillaria, and the name Catillaria flexuosa is proposed because of its flexuose apothecia. The new species is characterized by the relatively large apothecia (up to 0.9 mm diam.) and relatively thick, knobby to ±subsquamulose, greenish, thallus. Due to their similar morphological features, C. flexuosa can be easily confused with Catillaria chalybeia, C. fungoides or C. nigroclavata, so it is therefore compared with these species. In addition, Arthonia epiphyscia is reported being a very rare species in the Netherlands
33294Stone D., McCune B., Pardo-De la Hoz C., Magain N. & Miadlikowska J. (2021): Sinuicella denisonii, a new genus and species in the Peltigeraceae from western North America. - Lichenologist, 53(2): 185-192. .
The new genus Sinuicella, an early successional lichen, was found on bare soil in Oregon, USA. The thallus is minute fruticose, grey to nearly black, branching isotomic dichotomous, branches round, 20–90 μm wide in water mount. The cortex is composed of interlocking cells shaped like jigsaw puzzle pieces. Spores are hyaline, 1-septate, 25–40(–50) × 6.5–9(–11) μm. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses on multilocus data sets, first spanning the entire order Peltigerales and then restricted to Peltigeraceae with extended sampling from Solorina and Peltigera, revealed the placement of Sinuicella outside of currently recognized genera, sister to Peltigera, with high support. Based on the phylogenetic, morphological and ecological distinctness of Sinuicella, we formally introduce a new genus represented by the single species S. denisonii. The cyanobiont of S. denisonii is Nostoc from phylogroup XL, Clade 2, Subclade 3 based on the rbcLX marker
33293Gerasimova J., Urbanavichene I., Urbanavichus G. & Beck A. (2021): Morphological and phylogenetic analyses of Toniniopsis subincompta s. lat. (Ramalinaceae, Lecanorales) in Eurasia. - Lichenologist, 53(2): 171-183. .
In recent years, several species that have long been considered to belong in Bacidia s. lat. have been transferred to other genera such as Bellicidia, Bibbya, Scutula, and also to Toniniopsis, accommodating species previously placed in Bacidia and Toninia. One of its widespread species, Toniniopsis subincompta, can be recognized by its thinly granular thallus, dark brown to black apothecia, green epithecium, red-brown hypothecium, and bacilliform ascospores. However, it shows considerable variation in thallus structure, and coloration of apothecia, hypothecium and exciple. We sequenced 20 specimens of T. subincompta to investigate whether there is phylogenetic support for the delimitation of species in accordance with the variability of the observed characters. For phylogenetic analyses, we used newly generated sequence data from the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (nrITS), mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) and DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit (RPB2). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses, as well as three species delimitation programs, provided consistent evidence that T. subincompta forms two separate lineages, to be recognized at the species level. The complex nomenclature of T. subincompta (basionym Lecidea subincompta) shows it to be a synonym of Bellicidia incompta. For the most common taxon previously called Bacidia (Toniniopsis) subincompta, the new combination T. separabilis is made, rather than proposing a conserved type for Lecidea subincompta. Toniniopsis dissimilis is newly described to accommodate the less common taxon. Toniniopsis dissimilis is characterized by a predominantly wrinkled to warted to subsquamulose thallus; generally grey-brown to dark brown apothecia, often with a lighter margin; a dark brown hypothecium, frequently gradually merging into the coloration of the exciple below and the lateral part of the exciple attached to the hymenium; a mostly colourless rim and lateral part of the exciple. The closely related T. separabilis is characterized by a thallus of mostly single or contiguous ±loose granules, often forming short, coralloid, isidium-like bulges; darker apothecia, with a margin mostly of the same colour or darker than the disc; a comparatively thinner hypothecium easily separated from the exciple below. The rim and lateral part of the exciple often contain either a blue, brown or mixed blue-brown colour in the upper part or along the whole margin. Lectotypes of Bacidia vegeta, Lecidea bacillifera f. melanotica and Secoliga atrosanguinea var. affinis (the synonyms of T. separabilis) are selected. Cyanotrophy and the occurrence of albino morphs in T. separabilis are discussed.
33292Coppins B., Kondratyuk S., Etayo J. & Cannon P. (2021): Notes on lichenicolous species of Opegrapha s. lat. (Arthoniales) on Arthoniaceae and Verrucariaceae, with a key to British and Irish lichenicolous Opegraphaceae. - Lichenologist, 53(2): 159-169. .
Three species of lichenicolous Opegrapha s. lat. are newly described, all apparently host-specific at genus level. Opegrapha arthoniicola Coppins & S. Y. Kondr. is described from western Britain and Ireland, where it grows on the thallus of Arthonia radiata on Corylus bark; it has small clustered ascomata, asci that are usually 6-spored and rather small ascospores (10.5–)12.5–14.5 μm in length. Opegrapha sawyeriana Coppins occurs on the thallus of Coniocarpon cinnabarinum, also on Corylus bark, from oceanic western parts of Scotland, Ireland and southern England; in comparison to O. arthoniicola it has smaller, often scattered ascomata with a pigmented basal layer, 8-spored asci and slightly larger ascospores 13–14.5(–16) μm in length. Opegrapha hochstetteri Coppins has been found on thalli of Verrucaria hochstetteri and V. muralis on calcareous rocks and stonework in southern England and Luxembourg; collections were formerly identified as Opegrapha rupestris Pers. but it differs from this species by narrower ascomata with a persistent narrow slit, normally 6- rather than 8-spored asci and ascospores with pigmentation in the spore wall rather than the perispore. Lifted from synonymy is Opegrapha opaca Nyl., which inhabits the thallus of Verrucaria nigrescens and V. viridula on calcareous rocks and stonework, and is so far recorded from southern England, Luxembourg, France, northern Spain and Israel. The hosts of the European species of lichenicolous Opegrapha on Verrucaria s. lat. on calcareous rocks (O. hochstetteri, O. opaca and O. rupestris) belong to different phylogenetic lineages within the Verrucariaceae. A key is also provided to the lichenicolous species of Opegraphaceae currently known from Great Britain and Ireland.
33291Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2020): Виды лишайников, предлагаемые к внесению в Красную книгу Республики Ингушетия [Lichen species, proposed for the Red data book of the Republic of Ingushetia]. - Ботанический вестник Северного Кавказа [Botanical Herald of the North Caucasus], 2020/2: 57–64. .
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Thirteen lichen species proposed for the Red Data Book of Republic of Ingushetia on based of the results of author's field works and analysis of literature information. Among them, three species are included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation (Leptogium burnetiae, Lobaria pulmonaria, Usnea florida). Ten lichen species are rare and vulnerable due to the state of populations in the Republic of Ingushetia at the current time (Hyperphyscia granulata, Melanelixia albertana, Neocatapyrenium rhizinosum, Parmotrema stuppeum, Peltula bolanderi, Phaeophyscia cernohorskyi, Phaeophyscia insignis, Punctelia borreri, Thalloidima toninianum, Usnea cavernosa). Information on distribution in the republic, ecology and proposed categories of the threatened are given. Most of the species (10) were proposed to be included with «Near Threatened» category, 1 species (Leptogium burnetiae) with «Critically Endargered», 1 species (Lobaria pulmonaria) with «Data Deficient » and 1 species (Usnea florida) with «Least Concern». Keywords: lichens, rare species, vulnerable species, protection.
33290Ohmura Y. & Clerc P. (2021): Usnea esperantiana (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) new to Asia. - Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Series B [Tokyo], 47(1): 13–20. .
Usnea esperantiana is reported as new to Asia. It was collected from Taiwan where it grew on coniferous and broad-leaf trees at elevations between 1716 and 2580 m. The ITS rDNA sequences of Taiwanese and European materials of U. esperantiana form a monophyletic clade within the already reported clade consisting of U. cornuta and the related taxa. Although two distinct clades were formed in the U. esperantiana clade, no morphological and chemical differences were found between them. All Taiwanese specimens contain usnic, salazinic and bourgeanic acids. The description is given based on the Taiwanese specimens. Keywords: chemistry, distribution, ITS rDNA, lichenized fungi, morphology, phylogeny, soralia, Taiwan, taxonomy.
33289Tadome K. & Ohmura Y. (2021): Two lichenicolous fungi, Illosporium carneum and Ovicuculispora parmeliae (Bionectriaceae, Ascomycota), new to Japan. - Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Series B [Tokyo], 47(1): 21–25. .
Two lichenicolous fungi, Illosporium carneum and Ovicuculispora parmeliae, are reported as new to Japan. Illosporium carneum was found on Peltigera didactyla growing on rock in Nagano Prefecture, central Honshu, at an elevation of 2,300 m. Ovicuculispora parmeliae was found on Heterodermia japonica growing on rock in Saitama Prefecture, central Honshu, at an elevation of 1330 m. Key words : anamorph, Asia, distribution, Heterodermia japonica, lichen, mycota, parasite, Peltigera didactyla, Pronectria robergei, taxonomy.
33288Clayden S.R. (2010): Lichens and allied fungi of the Atlantic Maritime Ecozone. - In: McAlpine D.F.and Smith I.M. (eds), Assessment of Species Diversity in the Atlantic Maritime Ecozone, p. 153–178, NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Canada. .
chapter in book; About 890 species of lichen-forming fungi and more than 30 species of calicioid fungi in the Mycocaliciales are known in the Atlantic Maritime Ecozone of eastern Canada. Based on comparisons with better-studied European lichen biotas, it is estimated that about 25% of the species occurring in the ecozone have yet to be documented. Lichenicolous fungi other than calicioid species remain poorly known, and there has been little focus on the algal and cyanobacterial components of lichen diversity. The historical and global contexts of the biota are reviewed, and patterns of disjunction noted. Climatic variation and associated vegetation gradients across the ecozone are described, and a preliminary categorization is provided of patterns of lichen distribution within this context. It is concluded that the ranges of lichens in the Atlantic Maritime Ecozone are more nearly in a state of equilibrium with prevailing climatic conditions than are those of vascular plants. The rarity of adventive species is inferred to be mainly a consequence of the efficient past and present dispersal of most lichens. While considerable scope remains for increasing knowledge of diversity and distributions, there is also a need for research on the community structure and composition, habitat and substrate ecology, life histories, and most urgently, the conservation of the lichen biota. The Atlantic Maritime Ecozone is an important refuge for many lichens that have undergone sharp declines in neighbouring regions, owing to habitat loss, air pollution, and other human impacts.
33287Clayden S.R., Ahti T., Pino-Bodas R., Pitcher M., Løfall B.P., McCarthy J.W. & McMullin R.T. (2021): First documented occurrences of Cladonia krogiana and C. rangiformis in North America. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 20: 25–36. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=20.
Cladonia krogiana, previously known only from Norway and the Czech Republic, is reported here for North America from two localities near the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada. It occurs there on open, rocky banks of clear, free-flowing rivers, habitats similar to those in which it has been found in Norway. We also document the occurrence of C. rangiformis in North America, based on collections from two localities on the southwest coast of Conception Bay, on the Avalon Peninsula of the island of Newfoundland, Canada. It is possibly an accidental, but naturalized, introduction in this area, where European settlement began in the early 1600s. A molecular phylogenetic analysis confirmed the identity of one of the Newfoundland specimens. The IGS rDNA haplotype to which it belongs is the same as the most widely distributed haplotype of C. rangiformis in Europe and Macaronesia. Previous reports of C. rangiformis for continental North America are based on misidentifications. A 19th century collection reportedly made on the island of Bermuda, while correctly identified, is of uncertain provenance. Keywords. – Atlantic Canada, biogeography, Challenger Expedition, Cladoniaceae, hemiboreal zone, introduced species.
33286Asplund J., van Zuijlen K., Roos R.E., Birkemoe T., Klanderud K., Lang S.I., Wardle D.A. & Nybakken L. (2021): Contrasting responses of plant and lichen carbon‐based secondary compounds across an elevational gradient. - Functional Ecology, 35: 330–341. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.13712.
Vascular plants and lichens often produce a diversity of carbon‐based secondary compounds (CBSCs) to protect them against biotic and abiotic stresses. These compounds play important but often compound‐specific roles in community and ecosystem processes by affecting herbivore and decomposer activity. However, our understanding of what drives community‐level CBSCs among ecosystems or across environmental gradients is limited. We measured concentrations and compositions of CBSCs for all dominant vascular plant and lichen species present across a 500‐m alpine elevational gradient. These measurements were combined with data on species composition and abundance to obtain whole‐community measures of plant and lichen CBSCs across the gradient. At the whole community level, plant CBSCs had the lowest concentrations while lichen CBSCs had the highest concentrations at the highest elevations. Further, plant CBCSs shifted from those associated with herbivore defence towards those protecting against light and oxidative stress as elevation increased, while lichen CBSCs showed the opposite pattern. Synthesis. Our findings that individual compounds show contrasting responses to the same environmental gradient highlight the importance of studying qualitative as well as quantitative changes in CBSCs. Further, the divergent responses between vascular plants and lichens reveal that in systems where both groups are abundant, they need to be considered simultaneously to better understand how future environmental changes may impact on ecosystem‐level processes.
33285Concostrina-Zubiri L., Valencia E., Ochoa V., Gozalo B., Mendoza B.J. & Maestre F.T. (2021): Species-specific effects of biocrust-forming lichens on soil properties under simulated climate change are driven by functional traits. - New Phytologist, 230: 101–115. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.17143.
 Biocrusts are key drivers of ecosystem functioning in drylands, yet our understanding of how climate change will affect the chemistry of biocrust-forming species and their impacts on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling is still very limited.  Using a manipulative experiment conducted with common biocrust-forming lichens with distinct morphology and chemistry (Buellia zoharyi, Diploschistes diacapsis, Psora decipiens and Squamarina lentigera), we evaluated changes in lichen total and isotopic C and N and several soil C and N variables after 50 months of simulated warming and rainfall reduction.  Climate change treatments reduced δ13C and the C : N ratio in B. zoharyi, and increased δ15N in S. lentigera. Lichens had species-specific effects on soil dissolved organic N (DON), NHþ 4 , β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase activity regardless of climate change treatments, while these treatments changed how lichens affected several soil properties regardless of biocrust species. Changes in thallus δ13C, N and C : N drove species-specific effects on dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), NHþ 4 , β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase activity.  Our findings indicate that warmer and drier conditions will alter the chemistry of biocrustforming lichens, affecting soil nutrient cycling, and emphasize their key role as modulators of climate change impacts in dryland soils. Key words: biological soil crusts, climate change, drylands, lichens, morphology, functional traits, soil fertility.
33284Mendili M., Bannour M., Araújo M.E.M., Seaward M.R.D. & Khadhri A. (2021): Lichenochemical screening and antioxidant capacity of four Tunisian lichen species. - Chemistry and Biodiversity, 18: e2000735 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202000735.
The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of four Tunisian lichen species, Cladonia rangiformis,Flavoparmelia caperata, Squamarina cartilaginea and Xanthoria parietina, were determined in order to provide abetter understanding of their lichenochemical composition. Powdered material of F. caperata was the richest intotal phenolic content (956.68 g GAE g 1DW) and S. cartilaginea in proanthocyanidin content (77.31 g CE g 1DW), while the acetone extract of X. parietina showed the highest flavonoid content (9.56 g CE g 1DW). Theantioxidant capacity of all lichen extracts and crude material was evaluated by DPPH*scavenging, iron-chelating,and iron-reducing powers. Results showed that methanol extracts of S. cartilaginea had the highest DPPH*antioxidant capacity (IC50=0.9 gmL 1) and the highest iron-reducing power was attributed to the acetoneextract of this species. All extracts of all species were further screened by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR) and nuclear resonance spectroscopy (NMR); results showed an abundance of phenols, aromaticcompounds, and fatty acids. Overall, our results showed that the investigated species are a rich source ofpotentially bioactive compounds with valuable properties.Keywords: DPPH*, FT-IR, NMR, QUENCHER, lichenized fungi.
33283Expósito Piñero J.R., Mejuto I. & Catalá M. (2021): Detection of active cell death markers in rehydrated lichen thalli and the involvement of nitrogen monoxide (NO). - Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 165, Suppl. 1: 57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2020.12.428.
Abstract; Lichen desiccation/rehydration cycles lead to an increased oxidative stress modulated by the multifaceted mediator nitrogen monoxide (NO). Active cell death, frequently triggered by oxidative damage with NO participation, has been confirmed even in unicellular organisms. This adaptive mechanism has not been studied in lichens and no specific experimental protocols exist. Hoechst 33342 enters viable cells and DNA binding increases its fluorescence, particularly intense in condensed apoptotic chromatin. YO-PRO-1 can only permeate the altered membrane of apoptotic P2X7-positive cells. Proteolytic caspases are activated upon different types of active cell death. Our objectives are to determine if these markers indicate active cell death in Ramalina farinacea after desiccation/rehydration and to study the effect of NO scavenging. YO-PRO-1, Hoechst 33342 and Caspase 3/7 Green DNA binding were assessed in thalli rehydrated with deionized water and with a cocktail of apoptosis inducers. A 24 h kinetics and a microscopical analysis were performed. YO-PRO-1 fluorescence was not detected, Hoechst 33342 staining abruptly decreases during the first hours, while caspase-like activity associated to phycobionts steadily increases. Whereas the apoptosis inducers cocktail 1x significantly increased caspase-like activity affecting both symbionts, Hoechst staining was only affected at 10x. NO scavenging diminishes caspase-like activation and seems to accelerate Hoechst abrupt decrease during thallus rehydration. In conclusion, the demonstration of caspase-like activity in R. farinacea and its Trebouxia phycobionts point to the presence of active cell death but other methods assessing cell effective death or DNA irreversible fragmentation (i.e. TUNEL assay) are necessary to confirm this feature. Keywords: Apoptosis, Caspases, Hoechst 33342, Oxidative stress, Programmed cell death and YO-PRO-1.
33282Cannone N., Guglielmin M., Malfasi F., Hubberten H.W. & Wagner D. (2021): Rapid soil and vegetation changes at regional scale in continental Antarctica. - Geoderma, 394: 115017 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2021.115017.
Highlights: • In Antarctica soil and vegetation development are considered very slow for the extreme conditions. • A monitoring network of terrestrial ecosystems is ongoing in continental Antarctica since 2002. • In only 10 years (2002–2013) soil chemistry changed indicating rapid pedogenetic processes. • Vegetation developed, active layer thickened and air temperature increased. • Antarctic ecosystems are highly dynamic in characteristics, composition and processes.
33281Li X., Hui R., Zhang P. & Song N. (2021): Divergent responses of moss- and lichen-dominated biocrusts to warming and increased drought in arid desert regions. - Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 303: 108387 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2021.108387.
Global warming coupled with increased drought is predicted to have a significant negative impact on desert ecosystems. In arid desert regions, a large proportion of the ground surface is covered by specialized organisms such as mosses and lichens that form biocrusts, which play a vital role in ecosystems. However, the long-term effects of warming and drought on these key biotic components of desert ecosystems remain poorly understood. Using a manipulative experiment conducted for 12 years in the Tengger Desert, northwestern China, we evaluated how both mosses and lichens in biocrust communities responded to 0.5°C and 1.5°C increases in temperature coupled with 5% and 8% reductions in total annual precipitation, respectively, using two groups of open-top chambers to approximate climate change conditions that are predicted to occur in this study region. Furthermore, surface soil carbon uptake by the biocrusts was also evaluated. Twelve years of warming coupled with increased drought resulted in a significant decrease in the cover and biomass of mosses but did not change the cover or biomass of lichens. These changes in the mosses were positively correlated with the duration and intensity of the treatments. Warming coupled with reduced precipitation significantly reduced the carbon uptake of the moss-dominated biocrusts by reducing the availability of moisture content. However, lichen carbon uptake was insensitive to the warming and reduced precipitation treatments. The reduction in cover and biomass of moss-dominated biocrusts might be attributed to large amounts of carbon loss, which further alters biocrust multifunctionality in desert ecosystems. In addition, our findings suggest that coupled warming and drought conditions could increase the dominance of lichens in biocrust communities to partly maintain the multifunctionality of biocrusts in this desert ecosystem. Keywords: Climate change; Biocrust;cNet photosynthesis; Carbon fixation; Desert ecosystem.
33280Xu L., Zhu B., Li C., Zhou Z., Yao M., Zhou X., Wang J., Zhang B. & Li X. (2021): Increasing relative abundance of non-cyanobacterial photosynthetic organisms drives ecosystem multifunctionality during the succession of biological soil crusts. - Geoderma, 395: 115052 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2021.115052.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are essential for ecosystem functioning, especially in drylands. However, we lack the knowledge of how ecosystem multifunctionality (EMF) responds to the development of biocrusts and the key factors mediating EMF during biocrust succession. In this study, we tested a series of essential ecosystem functions of the biocrust system and calculated a weighted EMF index, a processes-based EMFprocesses index, and a resource storage and availability based EMFpools index. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and ITS gene was used to test differences in the community compositions of 16S rRNA gene-based organisms and ITS gene-based fungi in different biocrust stages. Results showed that the changing patterns and driving factors of all the three multifunctionality indices were similar. Later developed biocrust stages exhibited higher values of all three EMF indices. The 16S rRNA gene-based diversity reduced with biocrust succession. Biodiversity-EMF relationships varied when considering different biocrust stages and organisms. Across all biocrust stages, significantly negative relationships existed between the EMF indices and 16S rRNA based α-diversity, whereas positive relationships occurred between the EMF indices and both 16S rRNA and ITS gene-based β-diversity. Further analyses indicated that the increasing relative abundance of non-cyanobacterial photosynthetic organisms (represented by chloroplast sequences and lichenized fungi) was the key predictor of all three EMF indices during biocrust succession. Specifically, these organisms were Streptophyta, Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta and lichenized fungi, e.g., Verrucaria, Caloplaca and Aspicilia. This study provided a mechanistic understanding of how biological compositions and diversity drive EMF with biocrust development. Keywords: Ecosystem multifunctionality; Biocrusts; Development stages; Lichenized fungi; Photosynthetic organisms.
33279Massimi L., Castellani F., Protano C., Conti M.E., Antonucci A., Frezzini M.A., Galletti M., Mele G., Pileri A., Ristorini M., Vitali M. & Canepari S. (2021): Lichen transplants for high spatial resolution biomonitoring of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in a multi-source polluted area of Central Italy. - Ecological Indicators, 120: 106921 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106921.
The ability of lichen transplant Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. to reflect air concentration and spatial distribution of 7 polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and 23 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was evaluated through the construction of a wide and dense biomonitoring network. For this purpose, 23 lichen transplants were placed in a highly polluted area in Central Italy, characterized by the presence of different local emission sources such as a power plant, a steel plant, vehicular traffic, and domestic heating. The high spatial resolution data obtained from lichens were used to map the spatial distribution of the studied compounds, useful to identify the location and strength of target compounds sources over the territory. The maps showed that the highest concentrations of the pollutants were detected, as expected, in the sites close to the power plant and to the steel plant, confirming their important role as persistent pollutants emission sources. The statistical analysis performed on the spatially resolved data allowed us to identify the steel plant as the main source of PCDD/Fs, while PCBs were emitted by both the steel plant and the power plant. Finally, the efficiency of lichen transplants to reflect PCDD/Fs and PCBs atmospheric concentrations was assessed by comparing lichen data with POPs deposition measured by bulk deposition samplers at sites impacted by intensive emission sources; good results were achieved from the comparison (R2 > 0.79). Lichen transplants have demonstrated to be suitable biomonitors of POPs, allowing to obtain a high spatial monitoring network. The low-cost biomonitoring and experimental approach described in this study can be applied to other monitoring campaigns for identifying localizing emission sources of POPs in areas contaminated by several disaggregated sources. Keywords: Biomonitor ; Evernia prunastri ; Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins ; Polychlorinated dibenzofurans ; Polychlorinated biphenyl.
33278Cazarin C.A., Dalmagro A.P., Gonçalves A.E., Boeing T., da Silva L.M., Corrêa R., Klein-Júnior L.C., Pinto B.C., Lorenzett T.S., Sobrinho T.U.C., de Fátima Â., Lage T.C.A., Fernandes S.A. & de Souza M.M. (2021): Usnic acid enantiomers restore cognitive deficits and neurochemical alterations induced by Aβ1–42 in mice. - Behavioural Brain Research, 397: 112945 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112945.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia with a complex pathophysiology not fully elucidated but with limited pharmacological treatment. The Usnic acid (UA) is a lichen secondary metabolite found in two enantiomeric forms: (R)-(+)-UA or (S)-(-)-UA, with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. Thus, given the role of neuroinflammation and oxidative injury in the AD, this study aimed to investigate experimentally the cognitive enhancing and anti-neuroinflammatory effects of UA enantiomers. First, the interactions of UA on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was assessed by molecular docking and its inhibitory capability on AChE was assessed in vitro. In vivo trials investigated the effects of UA enantiomers in mice exposed to Aβ1−42 peptide (400 pmol/mice) intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). For this, mice were treated orally during 24 days with (R)-(+)-UA or (S)-(-)-UA at 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg, vehicle, or donepezil (2 mg/kg). Animals were submitted to the novel object recognized, Morris water maze, and inhibitory-avoidance task to assess the cognitive deficits. Additionally, UA antioxidant capacity and neuroinflammatory biomarkers were measured at the cortex and hippocampus from mice. Our results indicated that UA enantiomers evoked complex-receptor interaction with AChE like galantamine in silico. Also, UA enantiomers improved the learning and memory of the animals and in parallel decreased the myeloperoxidase activity and the lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) on the cortex and hippocampus and reduced the IL-1β levels on the hippocampus. In summary, UA restored the cognitive deficits, as well as the signs of LOOH and neuroinflammation induced by Aβ1−42 administration in mice.
33277Heim R.J., Bucharova A., Brodt L., Kamp J., Rieker D., Soromotin A.V., Yurtaev A. & Hölzel N. (2021): Post-fire vegetation succession in the Siberian subarctic tundra over 45 years. - Science of The Total Environment , 760: 143425 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143425.
Highlights: • We used a space-for-time approach to study fire legacy over more than four decades. • Soil temperature and active layer depth recovered after >44 years. • Vegetation did not completely recover to a pre-fire state. • Burnt areas had lower lichen and higher bryophyte and shrub cover. • Betula nana showed increased vitality, indicating a strong fire legacy effect. Wildfires are relatively rare in subarctic tundra ecosystems, but they can strongly change ecosystem properties. Short-term fire effects on subarctic tundra vegetation are well documented, but long-term vegetation recovery has been studied less. The frequency of tundra fires will increase with climate warming. Understanding the long-term effects of fire is necessary to predict future ecosystem changes. We used a space-for-time approach to assess vegetation recovery after fire over more than four decades. We studied soil and vegetation patterns on three large fire scars (>44, 28 and 12 years old) in dry, lichen-dominated forest tundra in Western Siberia. On 60 plots, we determined soil temperature and permafrost thaw depth, sampled vegetation and measured plant functional traits. We assessed trends in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to support the field-based results on vegetation recovery. Soil temperature, permafrost thaw depth and total vegetation cover had recovered to pre-fire levels after >44 years, as well as total vegetation cover. In contrast, after >44 years, functional groups had not recovered to the pre-fire state. Burnt areas had lower lichen and higher bryophyte and shrub cover. The dominating shrub species, Betula nana, exhibited a higher vitality (higher specific leaf area and plant height) on burnt compared with control plots, suggesting a fire legacy effect in shrub growth. Our results confirm patterns of shrub encroachment after fire that were detected before in other parts of the Arctic and Subarctic. In the so far poorly studied Western Siberian forest tundra we demonstrate for the first time, long-term fire-legacies on the functional composition of relatively dry shrub- and lichen-dominated vegetation.
33276González-Montelongo C. & Pérez-Vargas I. (2021): Is an invasive alien tree able to sustain a similar lichen diversity as the native forest? The case of the sweet chestnut Castanea sativa Mill.) and the laurel forest in Macaronesia. - Forest Ecology and Management, 488: 119009 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2021.119009.
Invasive alien species are considered as one of the major threats to global biodiversity. Many widely used forestry trees are potentially invasive, spreading from planting sites into adjoining areas modifying community composition, and altering the native forest. In the Canary Islands, Castanea sativa was established half a millennium ago, in the distributional area of the laurel forest, an endemic forest of the Macaronesia. The impact of invasive species on ecosystem services and more specifically their impact on epiphytic lichens is totally unknown in these archipelagos. The main aim of this work has been to find out if the chestnut tree can host an analogous species composition, richness, and diversity of epiphytic lichens such as those present in the native forest from the Canary Islands. Whilst species richness in both habitats is high, the composition is significantly different. The characteristic species were also different. The chestnut tree hosted rare species linked to ancient and well-preserved forest environments. For this reason, we propose not to completely eradicate the chestnut tree in the Archipelago, but we consider the management and control of its expansion to be essential. Preserving ancient specimens can serve as a lichen biodiversity reservoir. Keywords: Canary Islands; Chestnut tree; Exotic invasion; Lichen; Monteverde.
33275Czerepko J., Gawryś R., Szymczyk R., Pisarek W., Janek M., Haidt A., Kowalewska A., Piegdoń A., Stebel A., Kukwa M. & Cacciatori C. (2021): How sensitive are epiphytic and epixylic cryptogams as indicators of forest naturalness? Testing bryophyte and lichen predictive power in stands under different management regimes in the Białowieża forest. - Ecological Indicators, 125: 107532 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.107532.
The aim of this study was to test the sensitivity of epiphytic and epixylic bryophytes and lichens as indicators of forest naturalness, by comparing their diversity patterns with forest structural, compositional and historical features associated with different management/protection regimes and protection time spans. The study was carried out in the Białowieża Forest (Poland). Out of 1370 pre-existing inventory plots established all across the Polish part of the Białowieża Forest, we randomly selected 10 plots for each of the 18 plot aggregation groups resulting from the combination of 3 management/protection regimes and 6 habitat types, for an overall number of 180 plots. At each of them, we carried out bryophyte and lichen sampling on four substrates (coarse woody debris – CWD, standing dead trees, stumps, living trees). The management/protection regimes exemplifying the gradient of forest naturalness were: the 100 years-old Białowieża National Park (BNP), a set of more recently established nature reserves and managed forests. We tested differences in mean species richness values among management/protection regimes, protection time spans, habitat types and stand age classes by analysis of variance and calculated coefficients of correlation with 45 selected structural and compositional features of forest stands. Differences in species composition of epiphytic and epixilic bryophytes and lichens among management/protection regimes were tested by ordination methods. Lastly, we compared frequency of red-listed species and primeval forest relics among management/protection regimes. Species richness of lichens was significantly correlated with the degree of forest naturalness assessed by structural and historical features along the naturalness gradient, with the highest number of species recorded in BNP and the lower in managed stands, while bryophyte number did not exhibit a clear dependence on the management regimes. Relic species of primeval forests and red-listed species occurred with significantly higher frequency in protected areas than in managed forests for both lichens and bryophytes, with the highest frequency observed in BNP for lichens and in nature reserves for bryophytes. Volume of deadwood, particularly of CWD in advanced decays stage, species richness of undergrowth vascular plants, tree layer diversity, shrub cover and herb layer cover exhibited the strongest correlation with cryptogam species richness and cover on the various substrates. Response to light availability strongly differenciated bryophyte and lichens optimal niches. The results of this study clearly show that cryptogams, and lichens in particular, are indeed reliable ecological indicators of forest status, since they sensibly intercepted the environmental changes observable along the tested naturalness gradient. Keywords: Ecological indicators; Forest naturalness gradient; Forest management regimes; Primeval forest relics; Red-listed species; Species richness.
33274Gómez R.Q., Chaparro M.A.E., Chaparro M.A.E., Castañeda-Miranda A.G., Marié S.C., Gargiulo J.D. & Böhnel H.N. (2021): Magnetic biomonitoring using native lichens: Spatial distribution of traffic-derived particles. - Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 232: 124 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-021-05047-w.
Air pollution has become a subject of extensive study of several disciplines and it is identified as one of the most damaging factors for the ecosystem and human health. In urban areas, particle emission can be found in suspension and therefore a portion of them is inhalable for humans, or deposited on streets and several surfaces, including lichen’s thallus. We studied particulate matter (PM) (by traffic emission) accumulated in native lichens Parmotrema pilosum in order to carry out a magnetic biomonitoring over 2016 and 2017. For this purpose, the environmental magnetism method was complemented with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and geostatistical methods. The accumulated iron oxides on lichen’s thallus include potential toxic elements, such as Ba, Cr, Ni, and V. Fe-rich particles related to vehicle emissions correspond to (ultra)fine magnetite of inhalable sizes (PM2.5). Our results indicate a relation between concentration of magnetic particles and areas with high traffic, as well as the influence of rainfall on magnetic PM records. Magnetic biomonitoring is validated as a low-cost and complementary methodology to determine levels of air magnetic PM pollution in cities. Keywords Biomonitor .Geostatistics.Magneticproxy . Particle pollution . Traffic emission.
33273Akpinar A., Cansev A. & Isleyen M. (2021): Effects of the lichen Peltigera canina on Cucurbita pepo spp. pepo grown in soil contaminated by DDTs. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28: 14576–14585. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11665-4.
Lichens consisting of a symbiotic association of green algae or cyanobacteria and fungi are found in a variety of environmental conditions worldwide. Terricolous lichens, located in soils, affect the living and lifeless environment of the soil due to their effective secondary metabolite and enzymatic content. Terricolous lichens can increase the biological, chemical, and physical usefulness of soil. However, their effects in ensuring the bioavailability of contaminated soil are not known, especially on soil pollution caused by DDTs (p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDD, p,p′-DDT). This research focuses on the effect of terricolous lichens on zucchini (Cucurbita pepo spp. pepo) grown in soil contaminated by DDTs, utilizing their secondary metabolite and enzymatic contents. Firstly, Peltigera canina, a terricolous lichen species, was added to soil contaminated by DDTs as powdered and intact thallus. After lichen addition to soil, zucchini was planted in. The oxidative stress and antioxidative enzyme activities of zucchini were measured. According to the results, P. canina treatments have a positive effect on the growth and development of zucchini, although oxidative stress was observed. Also, it was determined that powdered application had more effective results than intact thallus application. Keywords: Lichens . Peltigera canina . DDTs . Soil bioavailability . Oxidative stress . Antioxidative defense system.
33272da Silva A.V., de Oliveira A.J., Tanabe I.S.B., Silva J.V., da Silva Barros T.W., da Silva M.K., França P.H.B., Leite J., Putzke J., Montone R., de Oliveira V.M., Rosa L.H. & Duarte A.W.F. (2021): Antarctic lichens as a source of phosphate‑solubilizing bacteria. - Extremophiles, 25: 181–191. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00792-021-01220-5.
In association with lichens, bacteria can play key roles in solubilizing sources of inorganic phosphates that are available in the environment. In this study, the potential of bacteria isolated from 15 Antarctic lichen samples for phosphate solubilization was investigated. From 124 bacteria tested, 66 (53%) were positive for phosphate solubilization in solid NBRIP medium, with a higher prevalence of Pseudomonas, followed by Caballeronia and Chryseobacterium. Most of the phosphate-solubilizing bacteria were isolated from Usnea auratiacoatra, followed by Caloplaca regalis and Xanthoria candelaria. Two isolates showed outstanding performance, Pseudomonas sp. 11.LB15 and Pseudomonas sp. 1.LB34, since they presented solubilization in the temperature range from 15.0 to 30.0 °C, and maximum quantifcation of soluble phosphate at 25.0 °C was 511.21 and 532.07 mg/L for Pseudomonas sp. 11.LB15 and Pseudomonas sp. 1.LB34, respectively. At 30.0 °C soluble phosphate yield was 639.43 and 518.95 mg/L with pH of 3.74 and 3.87 for Pseudomonas sp. 11.LB15 and Pseudomonas sp. 1.LB34, respectively. Fumaric and tartaric acids were released during the solubilization process. Finally, bacteria isolated from Antarctic lichens were shown to have the potential for phosphate solubilization, opening perspectives for future application in the agricultural sector and contributing to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers. Keywords: Extremophile · Fumaric acid · Lichensphere · Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms · Pseudomonas.
33271Cecconi E., Fortuna L., Peplis M. & Tretiach M. (2021): Element accumulation performance of living and dead lichens in a large-scale transplant application. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28: 16214–16226. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11797-7.
In bioaccumulation studies, sample devitalization through acid washing or oven drying is commonly applied to enhance the element accumulation efficiency of moss sample. Such aspect, however, has never been considered in biomonitoring surveys using lichens. In this study, the trace element accumulation performance of living (L) and dead (D) samples of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea was compared by a side-by-side transplanting at 40 sites in a large, mixed land use area of NE Italy for 8 weeks. Devitalization was achieved without any physico-chemical treatments, by storing lichen samples in a dark cool room for 18 months. Health status of lichens was assessed before and after the sample exposure by chlorophyll fluorescence emission. Although elemental analysis of the two exposed sample sets revealed a similar trace element pollution scenario, the content of 13 out of the 24 selected elements was higher in D samples. By expressing results as exposed-to-unexposed (EU) ratio, D samples show a higher bioaccumulation signal in 80% of transplant sites for Al, Ca, Fe, Hg, Pb and Ti. Overall, the health status of lichen samples might lead to interpretational discrepancies when EU ratio is classified according to the recently proposed bioaccumulation scale.
33270Kärnefelt I., Kondratyuk S. & Thell A. (2021): Hansen, E.S. 2020. Bornholms laver [The lichens of Bornholm]. Edited by R. L. Vilsholm, published by NaturBornholm and printed by H. Holm Grafisk ApS, Rønne, ISBN 978-87-91122-30-9, 96 pages. - Graphis Scripta, 33(2): 29–30. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/33_2/GS_33_29.pdf.
book review
33269Kantelinen A., Westberg M., Owe-Larsson B. & Svensson M. (2021): New Micarea records from Norway and Sweden and an identification key to the M. prasina group in Europe. - Graphis Scripta, 33(2): 17–28. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/33_2/GS_33_17.pdf.
Micarea czarnotae and M. pseudomicrococca are reported as new to Sweden, and M. fallax is reported as new to Norway. Micarea laeta and M. melanobola are reported from Sweden for the first time since 1927 and 1892, respectively. Micarea fallax is reported from three new localities in Sweden. An updated identification key for the M. prasina group in Central and Northern Europe is provided.
33268Noh H.-J., Park Y., Hong S.G. & Lee Y.M. (2021): Diversity and physiological characteristics of Antarctic lichens-associated bacteria. - Microorganisms, 9: 607 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9030607.
The diversity of lichen-associated bacteria from lichen taxa Cetraria, Cladonia, Megaspora, Pseudephebe, Psoroma, and Sphaerophorus was investigated by sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Physiological characteristics of the cultured bacterial isolates were investigated to understand possible roles in the lichen ecosystem. Proteobacteria (with a relative abundance of 69.7–96.7%) were mostly represented by the order Rhodospirillales. The 117 retrieved isolates were grouped into 35 phylotypes of the phyla Actinobacteria (27), Bacteroidetes (6), Deinococcus-Thermus (1), and Proteobacteria (Alphaproteobacteria (53), Betaproteobacteria (18), and Gammaproteobacteria (12)). Hydrolysis of macromolecules such as skim milk, polymer, and (hypo)xanthine, solubilization of inorganic phosphate, production of phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid, and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen were observed in different taxa. The potential phototrophy of the strains of the genus Polymorphobacter which were cultivated from a lichen for the first time was revealed by the presence of genes involved in photosynthesis. Altogether, the physiological characteristics of diverse bacterial taxa from Antarctic lichens are considered to imply significant roles of lichen-associated bacteria to allow lichens to be tolerant or competitive in the harsh Antarctic environment. Keywords: Antarctic lichens; lichen-associated bacteria; macromolecule hydrolysis; indole-3-acetic acid; phosphate solubilization; nitrogen fixation.
33267Lohtander K. (1994): The genus Lepraria in Finland. - Annales Botanici Fennici, 31: 223–231. .
Eleven species of the lichen genus Lepraria are reported from Finland. These are Lepraria borealis Lohtander & Tønsberg (sp. nova; type from Norway), L caesioalba (de Lesd.) J.R.Laundon, L. ebumea J.R.Laundon, L. elobata Tønsberg, L frigida J.R.Laundon, L incana (L.) Ach., L. jackii Tønsberg, L. lesdainii (Hue) R.C.Harris, L lobificans Nyl., L. neglecta (Nyl.) Erichsen and L. rigidula (de Lesd.) Tønsberg. Only L incana, L. lobificans and L. neglecta have been reported from Finland before. Finnish distribution of all the species is mapped. L borealis, L caesioalba, L elobata, L frigida and L rigidula are also reported for the first time from Russia. Key words: chemistry, Finland, Lepraria, lichens, Russia, taxonomy.
33266Feige B., Gimmler H., Jeschke W.D. & Simonis W. (1969): Eine Methode zur Dünnschichtchromatographischen Auftrennung von 14C- und 32P-markierten Stoffwechselprodukten [A method for the thin-layer chromatoragraphic separation of 14C and 32P labelled metabolic products]. - Journal of Chromatography, 41: 80–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(64)80099-6.
In order to measure 14C and 32P labelled metabolic compounds obtained from incorporation experiments with various plant species a handy method was developed, which permits the separation of labelled intermediates of plant metabolism by thin-layer chromatography on cellulose layers. This method is especially suitable for experiments with large numbers of samples. A preceeding purification of the plant extracts from interfering compounds is not necessary.
33265Knudsen K., Kocourková J., Hodková E. & Wang Y. (2021): Lichenological Notes 8: Acarospora fusca. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 20: 19–24. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=20.
The monographer A.H. Magnusson considered Acarospora fusca to be a member of the morphologically defined A. smaragdula group, most of whose members are now recognized in the phylogenetically circumscribed genus Myriospora. Recently A. fusca has been considered a synonym of M. rufescens. This study presents newly generated ITS, mtSSU and LSU sequences from the neotype of A. fusca that show the species does not match M. rufescens or Myriospora. Instead, the data support that A. fusca belongs to Acarospora and Magnusson’s interpretation that A. fusca is distinct from M. rufescens. The newly generated sequences of A. fusca were identical to those generated from two specimens identified as A. anomala and collected on a wood fence in Sweden. Keywords. – Acarosporaceae, Acarospora sinopica, lignicolous lichens.
33264Aptroot A., Stapper N. J., Košuthová A. & van Herk K. (C.M.) (2021): Lichens as an indicator of climate and global change. - In: Letcher T. M. (ed.), Climate Change. Observed Impacts on Planet Earth. Third Edition, p. 483–497, Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-821575-3.00023-2.
chapter in book; Lichens are unequivocally responding to global change. Direct effects are so far apparent during the past three decades (since c. 1990) and in the temperate regions only. Interestingly, contrasting responses of lichens and other cryptogams to recent changes have been reported. Lichens have indirectly suffered from global change effects in arctic regions. In this chapter, predicted, observed, and uncertain effects related to lichen and climate change are discussed together with the habitats of vulnerable lichens, with special attention to mountain tops in the tropics—the most likely place for possible extinction of lichens as a result of global warming. The most severe effects of climate change, leading to probable extinctions, is expected (but has not been observed as yet) on high mountains in tropical regions.
33263Lavoie A. (2020): Arthrosporum, un genre de lichen nouveau pour le Québec. - Le Naturaliste Canadien, 138(2): 43–45. .
A specimen of crustose lichen collected on Mont Saint-Hilaire (regional county municipality of La Vallée-du-Richelieu, Québec) in 1996 and initially identified as Bacidia schweinitzii, was recently reidentified as being the poplar dot lichen (Arthrosporum populorum). This represents a new species and genus for the province. The population was rediscovered during fieldwork conducted in 2013. Keywords: Arthrosporum populorum, Mont Saint-Hilaire, poplar dot lichen, Populus tremuloides, Tilia americana
33262McMullin R.T., Dorval H.R., Gillespie L.J., Knight T.L., Lendemer J.C., Maloles J.R. & Sokoloff P.S. (2021): New and interesting Canadian lichens and allied fungi III: Reports from Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Ontario, and Quebec. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 20: 7–18. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=20.
New provincial and territorial records for Canadian lichens and allied fungi are presented, many of which represent major range extensions. Crespoa crozalsiana is reported for the first time from Canada. New reports are made for the first time from five provinces and one territory: Newfoundland and Labrador (Geltingia associata on Ochrolechia), Nova Scotia (Abrothallus santessonii on Platismatia glauca, Mycocalicium albonigrum, Pertusaria superiana, Physcia thomsoniana, Ramboldia elabens), Nunavut (Hypogymnia apinnata, Tuckermanopsis subalpina), Ontario (Cladonia asahinae, C. kanewskii, Crespoa crozalsiana), Prince Edward Island (Lepraria caesiella, P. superiana), and Quebec (Chaenothecopsis exilis). Geltingia associata is also reported for the first time from the Canadian Low Arctic and Lecidella scabra is reported for the first time from mainland Nova Scotia. Keywords. – Arctic, Arviat, Beverly Swamp, Canadian Museum of Nature Natural Heritage Campus, Biogeography, calicioids, Kejimkujik National Park and National Historic Site, limestone barrens, Ouimet Canyon Provincial Park, Silver Creek Conservation Area.
33261Petrova K., Kello M., Kuruc T., Backorova M., Petrovova E., Vilkova M., Goga M., Rucova D., Backor M. & Mojzis J. (2021): Potential effect of Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf extract and metabolite physodic acid on tumour microenvironment modulation in MCF-10A cells. - Biomolecules, 11: 420 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11030420.
Lichens comprise a number of unique secondary metabolites with remarkable biological activities and have become an interesting research topic for cancer therapy. However, only a few of these metabolites have been assessed for their effectiveness against various in vitro models. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of extract Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf (PSE) and its metabolite physodic acid (Phy) on tumour microenvironment (TME) modulation, focusing on epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) transformation and angiogenesis. Here, we demonstrate, by using flow cytometry,Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy, that tested compounds inhibited the EMT process in MCF-10A breast cells through decreasing the level of different mesenchymal markers in a time- and dose-dependent manner. By the same mechanisms, PSE and Phy suppressed the function of Transforming growth factor beta (TGF- )-stimulated fibroblasts. Moreover, PSE and Phy resulted in a decreasing level of the TGF- canonical pathway Smad2/3, which is essential for tumour growth. Furthermore, PSE and Phy inhibited angiogenesis ex ovo in a quail embryo chorioallantoic model, which indicates their potential anti-angiogenic activity. These results also provided the first evidence of the modulation of TME by these substances. Keywords: tumour microenvironment; EMT; MCF-10A; fibroblasts; HUVECs; angiogenesis; lichens; secondary metabolites.
33260Gorczak M., Siedlecki I., Błocka Z., Cullen M., Daniele I., Fox H., Harder C., Kinnunen J., Kochanowski M., Krisai-Greilhuber I., Majchrowska M., Meiere D., Oberhofer M., Schigel D., Senn-Irlet B., Wiktorowicz D., Wrzosek M. & Pawłowska J. (2020): 18th Congress of European Mycologists Bioblitz 2019 – Naturalists Contribute to the Knowledge of Mycobiota and Lichenobiota of Białowieża Primeval Forest. - Acta Mycologica, 55(2): 55211 [26 p.]. https://doi.org/10.5586/am.55211 .
A total of 561 records of 233 species of fungi are reported from the Polish part of Białowieża Forest as a result of a short-term inventory that was conducted during the 18th Congress of European Mycologists (September 18–29, 2019). Four species new to Poland (Bryocentria brongniartii, Tremella coppinsii, T. hypocenomycis, and Zevadia peroccidentalis), and eight species new to Białowieża Primeval Forest (Hypomyces chrysostomus, Hypomyces rosellus, Lachnellula resinaria, Peniophora lycii, Phellinus viticola, Phlebia subochracea, Pronectria anisospora, and Typhula quisquiliaris) were recorded. Keywords: fungal diversity; lichen diversity; new species; endangered species; short-term inventory; rapid inventory; Białowieża Forest.
33259Thüs H., Killmann D., Leh B. & Fischer E. (2018): Verrucaria hunsrueckensis (Verrucariaceae, lichenized Ascomycota), a new rare species with exceptionally slender ascospores from Germany. - Phytotaxa, 345(1): 26–34. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.345.1.3.
The lichenized fungus Verrucaria hunsrueckensis (Verrucariaceae, Ascomycota) is described and distinguished from similar lichens by ascospores with an exceptionally large length to width ratio, brown and small exciple, distinct involucrellum, goniocyst- like thallus structure, growth on acidic siliceous rocks and characteristic motives in sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region. The new species is known from only one site in the Hunsrück-Hochwald National Park (Rhineland Palatinate, Germany), where it grows on quartzitic rocks in half shaded situations at the margin of rock screes in an old growth forest. Its discovery supports the view that within the Verrucariaceae some well recognizable species may be naturally rare and their sites worthy of protection. Keywords: Hunsrück-Hochwald National Park, cryptic speciation, conservation, ascospore shape.
33258Orange A. (2020): The Verrucaria aethiobola group (lichenised Ascomycota, Verrucariaceae) in North-west Europe. - Phytotaxa, 459(1): 1–15. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.459.1.1.
Material which has been ascribed to the freshwater species Verrucaria aethiobola or V. latebrosa is shown to comprise three cryptic species, based on ITS and mtSSU sequences. The names V. aethiobola and V. latebrosa are applied to two of these, and epitypes are selected to fix the application of the names. The third cryptic species is described as V. tephromela. In addition, V. anziana is confirmed as a separate species, of which most specimens can be identified by the thick thallus and poorly developed involucrellum. A related non-aquatic species found on calcareous stones is described as V. pallidomurina.
33257Stapper N.J. (2021): Flechten. - In: Schmitz U., Stapper N.J., Stevens M., Wirooks L., Diestelhorst O. & Busch J., Klimafolgenmonitoring Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf 2020 - Untersuchungen der Auswirkungen des Klimawandels auf ausgewählte Gruppen der Tier- und Pflanzenwelt, p. 17–53, Umweltamt der Stadt Düsseldorf. http://www.ulfschmitz.de/Klimafolgenmonitoring_Duesseldorf_2020_Gesamtgutachten.pdf.
[in German]; technical report on monitoring of changing climate in city of Düsseldorf including voluminous treatment on a changing lichen biota
33256John V. & Stapper N. (2020): Epiphytische Flechten und Moose an Schwarznuss (Juglans nigra) in 3 Auwäldern am Rhein bei Hördt in der Pfalz. - In: Jotz S., Konold W., Segatz E., Mazomeit J., John V. & Stapper N., Untersuchungen über die Integration der Schwarznuss (Juglans nigra L.) in die Waldökosysteme der Pfälzer Rheinebene, p. 59–144, Zentralstelle der Forstverwaltung. Forschungsanstalt für Waldökologie und Forstwirtschaft. https://repository.publisso.de/resource/frl:6424717/data.
[in German]; chapter in book; Epiphytic lichens and bryophytes on Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) in three alluvial forests in the Rhine river basin near Hördt (Palatinate)
33255Shaw A.J. (1992): The evolutionary capacity of bryophytes and lichens. - In: Bates J.W. & Farmer A.M. (eds), Bryophytes and lichens in a changing environment, p. 362–380, Clarendon Press, Oxford. .
chapter in book; summary and conclusions: The question of what constitutes an individual is the most pressing issue in the evolutionary biology of lichens. Specifically, we need to understand better the genetic and evolutionary relationships between phycobionts and mycobionts of lichen species. In addition, we need more information about genetic diversity within the mycobiont and phycobiont components of individual thalli. What are the phylogenetic relationships between phycobionts of different lichens? Do one, few, or many mycobiont genotypes contribute to the structure of lichen thalli? Is there as much genetic heterogeneity within the fungal symbionts of individual thalli as appears on the basis of the limited data now available? Lichen thalli might be better viewed as populations than as organisms. Does selection operate within lichen thalli? Is selection among thalli more comparable to classical group selection than to individual selection? In apparent contradiction to the remarkable levels of variation that appear to characterize populations oflichen thalli, there is little evidence of ecotypic differentiation between populations with regard to important environmental characteristics. Instead, physiological acclimatization appears to be of great importance for survival of lichens in varying environments. This impression may well be attributable to a paucity of researchers and incomplete information. On the other hand, thorough studies of several species where genetic differentiation was expected have failed to yield such evidence. In spite of predictions that populations of haploid bryophytes might contain low levels of genetic variability, they, too, have been shown in general to contain moderate or even high levels of electrophoretically detectable protein variation. Variation in quantitative traits also appears to be common within species and sometimes within populations. This level of variation suggests either that sexual reproduction occurs more frequently in bryophytes than has been thought, or that frequent sex is not necessary for the generation and maintenance of variability. The presence of ample variation makes it all the more remarkable that genetically specialized ecotypes appear not to be the most common response to environmental heterogeneity in this group of organisms. To the contrary, broad tolerances and the ability to acclimatize to environmental change characterize those species of bryophytes that have been studied in detail. In this important regard, bryophytes and lichens appear to bear significant similarity.
33254Glime J.M. (1992): Effects of pollutants on aquatic species. - In: Bates J.W. & Farmer A.M. (eds), Bryophytes and lichens in a changing environment, p. 333–361, Clarendon Press, Oxford. .
chapter in book; summary: If the pH is high, bryophytes can successfully compete only in areas of high aeration (e.g. Fissidens grandifrons) or low nutrients or in shaded areas where light is insufficient for higher plants (Bain and Proctor 1980). Acidification can favour bryophytes by providing more C02 and reducing absorption of metals. Ability to sequester heavy metals and radionuclides in the cell wall, as electron-dense particles, and in vacuoles permits survival of bryophytes under conditions in which many vascular plants cannot survive. Increased temperatures, on the other hand, are likely to decimate both bryophytes and lichens in areas where cool temperatures once favoured their growth. Turbidity may favour bryophytes in shallow water by reducing the light intensity, but associated abrasives can damage buds and decrease reproduction.
33253Farmer A.M., Bates J.W. & Bell J.N.B. (1992): Ecophysiological effects of acid rain on bryophytes and lichens. - In: Bates J.W. & Farmer A.M. (eds), Bryophytes and lichens in a changing environment, p. 284–313, Clarendon Press, Oxford. .
chapter in book; concluding remarks: Bark and soil acidification is caused by the total H+ ion input to the system. For epiphytes, extreme events are evened out by the buffering capacity of bark, so that the best predictions of epiphyte response are probably made on annual averages of pollutant loading. For terricolous cryptogams a similar situation may hold, depending on the intimacy of contact with the substrate. This is in contrast to SO2 effects, where episodic pollutant peaks may be of overriding importance. As each tree (individual or species) has finite buffering capacity, it may be possible to estimate the additional loading of H+ ions that will lead to acidification, the so-called critical load for the system. Many terricolous species occur on soils whose critical load for H+ is exceeded and acidification is occurring. Although some species seem to be resistant to field experimental application of acid rain, the decline of others has been described and urgent action to reduce emissions is necessary for their conservation. The problem of defining critical loads for N has not been resolved. This is determined by the biological response of the system (whereas for H+ it is the measurable chemical property of buffering capacity), which is very difficult to quantify. Nevertheless, N inputs are causing changes to cryptogam populations and work is, therefore, necessary to discover the mechanism of change. Future studies of acid rain may need to encompass the effects of predicted climatic change and CO2 rise. For instance, global climate change may lead to an increase in rainfall for parts of north-west Europe. This may lead to an increase in the total deposition of pollutants onto cryptogam communities, although pollutant concentrations may fall. It is important, therefore, that emission reduction policies take account of possible further climatic scenarios and their relationship with air pollution.
33252Lucadamo L., Gallo L., Vespasiano G. & Corapi A. (2021): The contributions of an airport and related road network to Pseudevernia furfuracea bioaccumulation of trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. - Ecological Indicators, 125: 107474 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.107474.
The use of a high-density lichen transplant network together with quantitative wind relationships (WQRs) made it possible to evaluate the influence of an airport and surrounding road network on the spatial variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace elements at both the local and whole study area scale. WQRs clearly showed that the parking/idling/taxiing area (PIT), but not the landing/take-off zones (LTZs), as well as the north/north-east part of the road network were contributors at the whole study area scale to the spatial variation of elements like Ni, Mo and V, i.e. those associated with ultrafine particles due to their involvement in anti-wear materials, and of total PAHs. In the case of an airport, such a result can have strong management implications. Traffic also affected the concentration of the prevailing volatile organic compounds. In contrast, LTZs and high traffic density values were correlated with peaks of Zn, Mo, Cu, Co, Mn, Ni, V, Al and Sb when associated with coarse particulate matter generated by deterioration of the landing gear, fuselage, wings, runway asphalt and brakes. The remarkable percentage of high-speed winds strongly affected both the spatial distribution of anthropogenic emissions and their atmospheric dilution, resulting in a rather low level of contamination. Our results suggest that biomonitoring can be much improved when matched with WQRs and that, in the event of high wind speeds, PAHs associated with the gas phase and fine/ultrafine particles are effective contamination tracers mainly at the whole study area scale whereas trace elements reveal contamination patterns at both scales. Keywords: Airport; Road traffic; Trace elements; PAHs; Wind quantitative relationships; Particle diameter.
33251Caboň M., Galvánek D., Detheridge A.P., Griffith G.W., Maráková S. & Adamčík S. (2021): Mulching has negative impact on fungal and plant diversity in Slovak oligotrophic grasslands. - Basic and Applied Ecology, 52: 24–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2021.02.007.
Mulching (cutting of vegetation without removal of clippings) is used as a low-cost method for maintaining remote or abandoned grasslands in Slovakia. The likely consequence of mulching is seasonal nutrient enrichment resulting from decomposition of plant litter by saprotrophic organisms. The potential changes in biodiversity of the ecosystem caused by long-term application of mulching are to date only very poorly understood. In order to examine the impact of mulching on soil mycobiota, we compared six different grassland management regimes applied over nine years on a sub-montane oligotrophic Nardus pasture in the Central Slovakia. The diversity of soil fungi was assessed using DNA metabarcoding of the ITS2 regions of the nrRNA locus performed by Illumina MiSeq. We focused on a particular group of macrofungi which is characteristic of traditionally managed and undisturbed European grasslands, and which are often the dominant soil fungi in these habitats. These are collectively known as CHEGD fungi (the acronym of the constituent taxa: Clavariaceae, Hygrophoraceae, Entolomataceae, Geoglossaceae and Dermoloma). We compared the relative abundance and diversity of CHEGD fungi with the total fungal and plant diversity. CHEGD fungi were dominant across all management treatments. Although there were no statistical effects of treatments on total fungal richness and diversity, CHEGD fungi and vascular plants diversity and richness were lower on plots where mulching or no management were imposed, suggesting that such management regimes would have a negative impact on grassland fungi. However, no single treatment covered the total CHEGD diversity of the study, indicating that the localized use of mulching in addition to traditional managements can enhance overall diversity of grasslands in the area. Our results also suggest that the impact of mulching depends on the season when the grassland is mulched and it might be reduced by combination with other management treatments. The high relative abundance and sensitivity of CHEDG fungi in oligotrophic grasslands to management treatments makes them excellent indicators of grassland natural quality and is consistent with the ecological importance of this fungal group.
33250Carr E.C., Harris S.D., Herr J.R. & Riekhof W.R. (2021): Lichens and biofilms: Common collective growth imparts similar developmental strategies. - Algal Research, 54: 102217 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2021.102217.
Lichens are traditionally defined as a symbiotic relationship between fungi and algae and/or cyanobacteria. This union forms a unique structure called the thallus, which attaches to surfaces such as rocks and tree bark. Recent reports challenge the view that lichens are comprised of one fungus and one photobiont, and instead suggest that they are a consortium of microbes. Much of lichen biology remains unknown as most of our knowledge of lichens is limited to morphological characteristics with little to no functional analysis of lichen genes. However, lichens and biofilms share many similar physiological traits which when compared may assist in our understanding of lichens. Similarities between the two are rooted in their lifestyle, where these microbes and their extracellular products attach themselves to a surface and grow in a community structure. Biofilms and lichens alike have distinct features that allow for their lifestyle and identification, such as specific developmental patterns, formation of an extracellular matrix, and their ability to resist abiotic stressors. We argue here that one can gain insight into the cellular processes and evolutionary origins of lichens, which are currently undetermined, by applying knowledge gleaned from studies on microbial biofilms, with a particular focus on fungal biofilms. Keywords: Lichen; Biofilm; Extracellular matrix (ECM); Fungi; Fungal biofilm; Microbial development.
33249Käffer M.I., Port R.K., Brito J.B.G. & Schmitt J.L. (2021): Lichen functional traits and light influx in the analysis of environmental quality of subtropical riparian ecosystems. - Ecological Indicators, 125: 107510 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.107510.
Riparian forests are among the most threatened ecosystems and their conservation are essential for the preservation of biological communities. The main objective of this study was to analyze the environmental quality of riparian forest sites inserted in three environmental matrices (rural, urban, industrial) by using structural parameters and functional traits of the lichen community. Lichens were sampled in the seven forest areas, along the Hydrographic Basin of Sinos River (HBSR), using the acetate method. Structural parameters and functional traits were analyzed in all sites as well as secondary metabolites of lichen species and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and latitude. 164 species were recorded. The richness per phorophyte, coverage and diversity were higher in the sites of the rural matrix in relation to the urban/industrial matrix, as well as the richness and functional diversity. Species with Trentepohlia photobiont, crustose growth form and apothecia reproductive strategy obtained the greatest richness in the rural sites. The greatest richness of species with secondary metabolites was registered in the forest sites of the urban/industrial matrix. Functional characteristics such as luminosity and altitude significantly impacted the distribution of species in riparian forest sites. The structural parameters and functional traits alterations in the lichen community demonstrated the depreciation of the environmental quality of the forest sites of the spring towards the mouth of the main river that constitutes the Hydrographic Basin in the subtropical region. Keywords: Epiphyte communities; Functional groups; Hydrographic basin; Lichens; Riparian land use; Photosynthetically active radiation; secondary metabolites.
33248Corvalán Videla M.E., Aranibar J.N. & Greco S. (2021): Biological soil crusts from the Monte desert affect soil moisture and nutrients, and improve Leptochloa crinita grass development. - Acta Oecologica, 110: 103712 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actao.2021.103712.
Biological soil crusts (BSC) are widespread in the Monte desert. BSC, by fixing atmospheric N and retaining soil moisture, may enhance grass emergence, growth, and nutritional value. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of different functional types of BSC from the Monte desert on soil moisture and nutrients, N fixation, respiration, grass emergence, growth, and C/N. We sowed Leptochloa crinita seeds in pots with different BSC types (dominated by cyanobacteria, squamulose phycolichens, squamulose cyanolichens, gelatinous cyanolichens, and mosses) under two irrigation treatments: well watered and drought. We determined soil, BSC and grass properties related to nitrogen, phosphorus, and water cycles. In soils under BSC, we determined moisture, nitrate, and phosphate at two depths. In BSC, we determined total N, organic matter, ammonium, respiration, and δ15N. Finally, in grasses growing under BSC, we determined seedling emergence, grass biomass, C/N, and δ15N. All BSC types except cyanobacteria increased soil total N, ammonium, and respiration rates compared to bare soils under drought conditions. Cyanobacteria BSC increased soil moisture under drought conditions, while squamulose phycolichens and mosses increased it under well watered conditions. All BSC types increased underlying soil nitrate under well watered conditions, and decreased phosphate in at least one experimental condition. All BSC types improved at least one grass variable: cyanobacteria decreased C/N; squamulose cyanolichens increased emergence and decreased C/N; squamulose phycolichens increased emergence and biomass; gelatinous cyanolichens decreased C/N; and mosses increased emergence, biomass, and decreased C/N. The differential effects of each BSC type on soil and grass variables, under drought and well watered conditions, suggest the importance of BSC functional diversity on ecosystem functions of water regulation and nutrient cycling. Keywords: Lichens ; Mosses; Seedling emergence; Moisture; Nitrogen; Phosphorus.
33247Skuterud L. & Thørring H. (2021): Caesium-137 in mountain flora with emphasis on reindeer’s diet – Spatial and temporal trends. - Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 231: 106551 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2021.106551.
The present study summarizes three decades of studies on 137Cs transfer to various species of lichens, graminoids, herbs and woody plants across a ~3000 km2 area used as mountain pasture for reindeer and other ruminants. The investigation comprised of field studies covering the period 2011–2016, and a compilation of studies and data for the preceding period (1986–2010). Altogether, more than 700 individual vegetation samples were considered. For lichens, relatively fast decrease in contamination levels was observed during the first decade after the Chernobyl fallout (ecological half-time of about 3 years). For later years there seems to be a continuous re-contamination which results in a “steady state” where time-trends are mainly governed by physical decay of 137Cs. For green plants, decline in transfer factors (TF) (i.e. the ratio between activity concentration in vegetation and activity density in soil) during the period 1986–2012 was not as pronounced as for lichens: Some species showed significant decrease with time, while others did not. 25–30 years after the Chernobyl accident, 137Cs levels in lichens and green plants were significantly dependent on the levels in soil (R2 between 0.53 and 0.57), but there were also some significant differences in transfer between sampling sites. Moreover, marked variability in TFs was found between different plant species growing at the same site, whereas such differences were not found for reindeer lichens. Keywords: Chernobyl contamination; Lichens; Green plants; Transfer factors; Time series; Site variability.
33246Rawat M., Jägerbrand A.K., Molau U., Bai Y. & Alatalo J.M. (2021): Visitors off the trail: Impacts on the dominant plant, bryophyte and lichen species in alpine heath vegetation in sub-arctic Sweden. - Environmental Challenges, 3: 100050 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envc.2021.100050.
Alpine ecosystems are under increasing pressure due to tourism and recreational activities. When leaving desig- nated trails as is frequently observed, visitors can cause unintentional damage to vegetation. This study investi- gated the effect of human trampling on the dominant species of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens along an infrequently used hiking trail in an alpine ecosystem in sub-arctic Sweden. The hypothesis tested was that prox- imity to the trail (as an effect of more people leaving the trail for a short distance compared to a longer distance) causes a decrease in species with low resistance to trampling. With a greater decrease in taller forbs and shrubs than in graminoids and prostrate plants, a greater decrease in lichen than in bryophyte species, and a change in vegetation composition. The results showed that proximity to the trail did not cause a decrease in the majority of dominant species, with none of the eight most dominant vascular plants showing any significant effects of prox- imity to the trail. One bryophyte species ( Dicranum elongatum ) among the six most commonly found decreased with proximity to the trail. Three lichen species ( Cladonia arbuscula, Cladonia uncinalis, Ochrolechia frigida ) among the eight most common species decreased with proximity to the trail. There was no evidence that taller species decreased with proximity to the trail, although the deciduous shrub Betula nana showed a tendency for a decrease. Proximity to the trail caused a greater decrease in lichen species than in bryophyte species. Multivariate analyses showed that distance from trail and transect direction had significant effects on overall vegetation composition. The level of low-intensity trampling recorded indicates that current numbers of hikers at the site can be sustained for longer periods with minimum impact on vascular plant species, but to get a more general understanding of the impact of low-intensity trampling data from additional sites are needed. Keywords: Tundra disturbance; Hiking; Mountains; Tourism; Trampling.