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36415Xue J., Cai Y. & Zhang L. (2024): The phylogeny and taxonomy of Cryptothecia (Arthoniaceae, Ascomycota) and Myriostigma (Arthoniaceae, Ascomycota), including three new species and two new records from China. - Journal of Fungi, 10(4): 274 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof10040274.
Cryptothecia and Myriostigma are important elements of crustose lichen communities in tropical to subtropical forests, but little research has been done on these two genera in China. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic approaches to investigate species diversity of Cryptothecia and Myriostigma from Southern China were carried out in this study. We find five species of Cryptothecia and Myriostigma in our study, including three new species (M. flavescens, M. hainana and M. laxipunctata) and two new records (C. bartlettii and C. inexspectata). In addition, a phylogenetic tree based on mtSSU, RPB2 and nLSU illustrates the placement of the five species and supports the delimitation of the three new taxa. Detailed descriptions of morphological, ecological and chemical characteristics and illustrations are provided for every species. A key to all known Chinese Cryptothecia and Myriostigma species is also provided. Keywords: lichenized fungi; crustose thallus; diversity; identification key; phylogenetic analysis.
36414Fałowska P., Dziurowicz P., Waszkiewicz K., Wietrzyk-Pełka P. & Węgrzyn M.H. (2024): The impacts of sunlight on the lichen Scots pine forest community. - Forests, 15(4): 675 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f15040675.
The habitat of the lichen Scots pine forest is currently one of the communities that requires attention and active protection due to its rapid disappearance. In our study, we identified factors that can be modified to preserve this habitat. The primary focus of our research was on the significance of tree height and sunlight in fostering the development of a lichen-rich layer within the lichen Scots pine forest. Additionally, we investigated the environmental factors influencing the presence of specific species of lichens and bryophytes, including those that form communities and those that displace species characteristic of the lichen Scots pine forest community. Our study was conducted in Bory Tucholskie National Park (N-W Poland) using 20 experimental sites and 248 point-frame plots from spring 2021 to winter 2022. Fieldwork involved species surveys, measurements of photosynthetic activity in lichens and bryophytes, and collection of environmental data. Through parametric testing, modeling, and mapping, our main findings confirmed that light availability, influenced by tree height, is a critical factor in maintaining a well-preserved lichen-rich layer and facilitating habitat reintroduction. Keywords: Cladonio-Pinetum complex; tree height; environmental factors; Bory Tucholskie National Park; photosynthetic activity; habitat reintroduction; lichens; bryophyte.
36413Razzaq F., Usman M., Habib K. & Khalid A.N. (2023): Some Additions to the Lecanoraceae from Diamir Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan. - Biology Bulletin, 50(SUPPL 4): S617-S622. https://doi.org/10.1134/S106235902360280X.
As part of comprehensive study of lichen diversity of northern areas of Pakistan using molecular and morphological approaches, we found three species of family lecanoraceae belonging to genus Omphalodina and Rhizoplaca. The analyses revealed one new record in the lichen biota of Pakistan namely Rhizoplaca parilis while the other two Omphalodina chrysoleuca and Rhizoplacamelanophthalma are reported for the first time on basis of ITS data, represent new records for Gilgit, Baltistan. Brief descriptions and phylogenetic analyses of the taxa are given. lichenized fungi, taxonomy, phylogeny, Deong Basti, Diamir
36412Gupta V., Gupta N., Nayaka S. & Lavania S. (2024): Delineating biomonitoring potential of two crustose lichens Bacidia convexula and B. submedialis through elemental accumulation and microstructural parameters. - NUCLEUS-INDIA, 2024: 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13237-024-00468-4.
Lichens possess unique characteristics, relying on a protective cortex and a filtration mechanism for absorption in the absence of roots, enabling efficient mineral nutrition. However, this distinctive feature also renders them susceptible to accumulating airborne pollutants, particularly metal, beyond optimal levels. The current investigation focuses on elemental accumulation in two crustose lichen species, namely Bacidia convexula and B. submedialis, aiming to highlight their potential as biomonitoring tools and assess the impact of anthropogenic activities, disturbed environment surrounding brick-kilns as an illustrative example. Microstructural changes, surface sorption and fibrous deposition of elemental ions were scrutinized through the application of SEM-EDX microscopy and advanced analytical techniques such as ICP-MS and FTIR. The SEM images unveiled alterations in the lichen's microstructure, entrapment of gas bubbles as well as fibrous deposition and surface sorption of elemental ions. The highest mean concentration of Ag (0.36 +/- 0.01), Al (1194.87 +/- 67.6), As (0.6 +/- 0.02), Cd (0.29 +/- 0.01), Cr (107.79 +/- 0.39), Cu (17.12 +/- 0.07), Fe (1722.73 +/- 8.48), Mg (1995.13 +/- 31.28), Mn (235.06 +/- 0.67), Ni (9.09 +/- 0.05), and Zn (87.63 +/- 0.84 mg kg(-1)) were estimated in the thalli of B. submedialis, whereas B. convexula accumulated highest concentration of Co (1.34 +/- 0.02), Li (3.67 +/- 0.35), Pb (11.92 +/- 0.13), and Se (0.27 +/- 0.01 mg kg(-1)). In both the lichens, FTIR analysis identified the functional groups such as, alcohol (O-H), alkenes (C-H), alkyl halides (C-Br), aromatic (C = C), methoxy (O-CH3) and octahedral groups (AlO8). The analytical results of EDX showed a higher weight of O with 46.11%, Mg (0.43%), Al (0.9%), Fe (0.38%), Si (1.62%), Zr (1.67%) in B. submedialis. Whereas, B. convexula revealed higher weight of C with 62.36% and Ca (0.62%). As such differential response was observed to metal ion stress, showing B. submedialis to be more tolerant than B. convexula. The information generated could be used as biomonitoring indicator of air quality and pollution. Air pollution, Lichen biomonitoring, Ecosystem health, Heavy metal, Lichenized fungi, HEAVY-METAL ACCUMULATION, AIR-POLLUTION, PHYSIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES, PHAEOPHYSCIA-HISPIDULA, ATMOSPHERIC-POLLUTION, CALOPLACA-AURANTIA, EPIPHYTIC LICHENS, TRACE-ELEMENTS, DIVERSITY, URBAN
36411 Din A.U., Iqbal M.S., Khalid A.N. & Niazi A.R. (2024): Chlorangium ahmadii sp. nov. and Circinaria darelensis sp. nov. two new species of lichenized Ascomycetes from Pakistan. - Plant Systematics and Evolution, 310: 13 [8 p.] . https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-024-01893-3.
Chlorangium ahmadii sp. nov. and Circinaria darelensis sp. nov. are described as new species from Pakistan. A comparative morpho-anatomical, chemical study and ITS-based molecular analyses confrmed the positions of these species within the genera Chlorangium and Circinaria. Chlorangium ahmadii sp. nov. difers from its closely related species, C. alpicola in having light brown to whitish-brown thallus (vs. brownish-grey to greyish-green), fat to concave apothecial disc (vs. concave to convex when young, becoming more fat when old), smaller exciple 20–35 μm (vs. 65–85 μm) and larger ascospores 27–40×22–25 μm (vs. 19–24×19–23 μm). Circinaria darelensis sp. nov. is distinguished from its closely related species, C. maculata in having crustose-areolate light brown to greyish-brown thallus (vs. areolate, brown, olive brown to dark olive), absence of lobes (vs. presence), taller hymenium 120–190 μm (vs. 100–125 µm) and smaller ascospores 14–17×6–10 μm (vs. 22.5–27.5×15–20 µm). Keywords: Balochistan · Darel · Gilgit Baltistan · Killa Saifullah · Phylogenetic study.
36410Fałtynowicz W., Czarnota P., Krzewicka B., Wilk K., Jabłońska A., Oset M., Ossowska E.A., Śliwa L. & Kukwa M. (2024): Lichens of Poland. A fifth annotated checklist. - W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, 751 p. .
The current lichen checklist of Poland contains 1687 species and more than a dozen subspecies. At the same time, as a result of detailed analyses, as many as 130 species from the earlier lists of lichens of Poland (Fałtynowicz 2003, Fałtynowicz & Kossowska 2016) have been excluded; they were incorrectly reported from the country, or were found to have a negligible probability of occurrence, or the lack of herbarium specimens makes it impossible to verify the correctness of the designations. The present list includes lichen-forming fungi and does not include lichenicolous and lichen-allied fungi, the most comprehensive list of which is in a work by Czyżewska and Kukwa (2009); that publication is in urgent need of supplementation, as numerous new species have been found in the country in more recent years (cf. Czyżewska 2020). The present checklist is based primarily on literature data published up to and including the year 2022; the reference list contains about 1800 items. Unpublished data available in dozens of masters and doctoral theses, various reports, as well as several articles submitted for publication in 2023, were also used. With a few exceptions, the checklist authors did not verify herbarium collections; instead, references to voucher specimens are provided in monographic works on selected genera: Umbilicaria (Krzewicka 2004a), Micarea (Czarnota 2007), Ochrolechia (Kukwa 2011), Porpidia (Jabłońska 2012), Verrucaria (Krzewicka 2012), Stereocaulon (Oset 2014), Opegrapha (Wieczorek 2018) and Parmelia (Ossowska 2021). In addition to the Polish herbaria, the largest collection of lichens from the country, including duplicates of some published records, can be found in the following European herbaria: the Berlin Herbarium (B), Herbarium der Universität Greifswald (GFW), World Museum Liverpool Herbarium (LIV), Charles University in Prague Herbarium (PRC), Uppsala University Herbarium (UPS), Naturhistorisches Museum Wien Herbarium (W) and Universität Wien Herbarium (WU). We note, however, that most of these collections require critical revision.
36409Cannon P., Fryday A., Coppins B., Aptroot A., Sanderson A. & Simkin J. (2024): Umbilicariales, including Elixia (Elixiaceae), Fuscidea (Fuscideaceae), Hypocenomyce and Ophioparma (Ophioparmaceae), Ropalospora (Ropalosporaceae) and Lasallia, Umbilicaria and Xylopsora (Umbilicariaceae). - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 39: 1–24. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/Umbilicariales.pdf.
36408Cannon P., Coppins B., Aptroot A., Sanderson N. & Simkin J. (2024): Ostropales genera I, including Absconditella, Belonia, Clathroporinopsis, Corticifraga, Cryptodiscus, Cryptolechia, Francisrosea, Gomphillus, Gyalecta, Gyalidea, Gyalideopsis, Jamesiella, Karstenia, Nanostictis, Neopetractis, Pachyphiale, Petractis, Phialopsis, Phlyctis, Ramonia, Sagiolechia, Secoliga, Sphaeropezia, Spirographa, Stictis, Thelopsis, Thrombium and Xerotrema. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 38: 1–60. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/Ostropales%201.pdf.
36407Cannon P., Coppins B., Aptroot A., Sanderson A. & Simkin J. (2023): Perithecial genera I, including Acrocordia, Alloarthopyrenia, Anisomeridium, Antennulariella, Arthopyrenia, Celothelium, Cyrtidula, Dichoporis, Eopyrenula, Julella, Leptorhaphis, Leptosillia, Lithothelium, Mycomicrothelia, Mycoporum, Naetrocymbe, Pyrenula, Rhaphidicyrtis, Sarcopyrenia, Swinscowia and Tomasellia. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 37: 1–59. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/Perithecial%20genera%20I.pdf.
36406van Middelkoop R. & van der Kolk H.-J. (2021): Thelidium papulare (reuzenschotstippelkorst) nieuw in Nederland [Thelidium papulare new to the Netherlands]. - Buxbaumiella, 122: 30–31. .
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] Thelidium papulare is reported for the first time in the Netherlands. It was found on an old brick wall of a former sea dike near Amsterdam.
36405van Dort K. & Horsthuis M. (2021): Ongenerfd hunebedmos (Andreaea rupestris) in Gelderland [Andreaea rupestris is reported for the first time from the Province of Gelderland (The Netherlands)]. - Buxbaumiella, 122: 25–29. .
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] A fertile population of Andreaea rupestris was discovered on a shaded boulder within the Veluwezoom National Park in the Dutch province of Gelderland. Like most other ‘iconic hunebed species’ Andreaea rupestris showed a strong decline over the years in The Netherlands. Only about six moribund populations remain on slabs of ‘hunebedden’ (a type of dolmen), in the province of Drenthe. To facilitate the spread of Andreaea rupestris, two potentially suitable boulders were placed downwind in the vicinity of the newly discovered vital population. Will Andreaea rupestris colonise the stones? [lichens on photographs and included on a list from a phytosociological relevé]
36404Hellemans K. (2021): Reactie op ‘Update Nederlandse namen korstmossen’ [Comment on ‘Update of Dutch names of lichens’]. - Buxbaumiella, 122: 22–24. .
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] Recently an update of the official list of Dutch names for lichens was published (Kolk et al. 2021). In my opinion, the authors missed a good opportunity to improve the list more thoroughly by renaming, at long last, all lichens with misleading names. In Dutch, two words for ‘lichen’ are in use: ‘licheen’ and ‘korstmos’. Translated literally into English, the latter word would become ‘crust moss’. ‘Korstmos’ is confusing for beginners, as this word wrongly suggests that lichens and bryophytes (the Dutch ‘mos’ also refers to liverworts and hornworts) are closely related. Therefore, it would be much better to replace ‘korstmos’ or ‘-mos’ by ‘licheen’, not only when referring to this taxonomic group as a whole, but also in the Dutch names of individual species.
36403van Dort K. & Verboom L. (2021): Geelberijpt boomspijkertje (Calicium adspersum), grof schorssteeltje (Chaenotheca phaeocephala) en andere bijzondere epifyten bij Paterswolde (Drenthe) [Calicium adspersum, Chaenotheca phaeocephala and many more rare and interesting epiphytic lichens on veteran trees near the village of Paterswolde, Province of (Drenthe (The Netherlands)]. - Buxbaumiella, 122: 17–21. .
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] A day trip to Paterswolde, a village in the very north of the province of Drenthe, once again demonstrated the exceptional importance of veteran trees for epiphytic diversity. In total about 80 species were recorded from veteran trees. Especially oak (Quercus robur) is exceptionally rich in coniocarpous ‘rain shadow specialists’ (Caliciaceae), among which six members of the genus Chaenotheca and the four currently known Dutch Calicium species: C. adspersum, C. glaucellum, C. salicinum and C. viride. Calicium adspersum and Chaenotheca phaeocephala were found for the second time in The Netherlands. Former great rarities such as Arthonia didyma, A. ruana and especially Normandina pulchella are rather common these days. Also the newcomers Coniocarpon cinnabarinum and Porina byssophila appear to be rapidly spreading.
36402van der Kolk H.-J., van Dort K., van Herk K., Aptroot A., Van den Broeck D. & Sparrius L. (2021): Update Nederlandse namen korstmossen [Update Dutch lichen names]. - Buxbaumiella, 121: 31–33. .
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] A Dutch name is provided for lichen species that were found new in the Netherlands during the last two decades. For a few other species the Dutch name was changed. An overview of the new names and name changes is presented in a table.
36401Toetenel H. (2021): Korstmosdubbelgangers op vlier [Lichen doubles on elderberry]. - Buxbaumiella, 121: 25–30. .
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] On elderberry bushes in the dune area between The Hague and Hoek van Holland, many similar-looking lichens can be found. In the article the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of three kinds of doubles are compared.
36400Klasberg M. (2021): De opmars van rood dooiermos (Rusavskia elegans) in Maastricht onder de loep genomen. Lichenometrisch en ecologisch onderzoek naar een zuidelijke soort [Rusavskia elegans colonizes Maastricht – lichenometric and ecological investigation of a southern lichen species]. - Buxbaumiella, 121: 1–24. .
[in Dutch with English summary: ] In 2020, lichenometric research was performed on Elegant sunburst lichen (Rusavskia elegans) to reconstruct the colonization of Maastricht (Netherlands). Maastricht, in the southernmost tip of the Netherlands, lies in a hilly countryside and borders the Meuse (‘Maas’ in Dutch), a rain river. To be able to estimate the age of the populations, the first step was calibrating the growth rate. That was not an unnecessary action, as the growth rate of 1.9 mm per year turned out to be four times higher than the current standard. The moderate climate and nitrogen deposition may play a role in this. The lichenometric research shows that colonization started around the year 1980 from the Meuse valley. Only from the year 2000 onward a clear increase in the number of branches has been noticeable. An accurate trend has also been determined for each location by measuring and dating each thallus. There appears to be a positive relationship between growth peaks and warm years. 47 locations have now been discovered within an area of 6 by 10 kilometres. Not only the oldest but also the largest populations – with hundreds of specimens – are situated in the Meuse valley. The urban centre is avoided, the conditions here may be too dry. From an ecological point of view, Elegant sunburst lichen follows the books. In our regions, this kind of lichen also prefers acidic to basic, warm, and sunny rocks of both natural and anthropogenic origin. The number of sites is enormous and varies from boulders, tombstones, brick walls, concrete bridges and posts to roof tiles and even iron. It is unusual that no clear relationship has been found with natural fertilization. It is possible that nitrogen deposition provides the necessary nutrients.
36399Łuniewski S., Rogowska W., Łozowicka B. & Iwaniuk P. (2024): Plants, microorganisms and their metabolites in supporting asbestos detoxification—A biological perspective in asbestos treatment. - Materials, 17(7): 1644 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17071644.
Many countries banned asbestos due to its toxicity, but considering its colossal use, especially in the 1960s and 1970s, disposing of waste containing asbestos is the current problem. Today, many asbestos disposal technologies are known, but they usually involve colossal investment and operating expenses, and the end- and by-products of these methods negatively impact the environment. This paper identifies a unique modern direction in detoxifying asbestos minerals, which involves using microorganisms and plants and their metabolites. The work comprehensively focuses on the interactions between asbestos and plants, bacteria and fungi, including lichens and, for the first time, yeast. Biological treatment is a prospect for in situ land reclamation and under industrial conditions, which can be a viable alternative to landfilling and an environmentally friendly substitute or supplement to thermal, mechanical, and chemical methods, often characterized by high cost intensity. Plant and microbial metabolism products are part of the green chemistry trend, a central strategic pillar of global industrial and environmental development. Keywords: asbestos-containing wastes; naturally occurring asbestos; detoxification; biological treatment; siderophores.
36398Brenning M., Longstaffe F.J. & Fraser D. (2024): Variation in stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope compositions along antlers of Qamanirjuaq caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus). - Ecology and Evolution, 14: e11006 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.11006.
Annual antler growth begins in the spring and is completed by late summer for male caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) from the Qamanirjuaq herd (Nunavut, Canada), aligned with both the spring migration and a seasonal dietary shift. Antlers may provide a non-lethal means of studying short- and long-term changes in caribou ecology through incorporated isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N). We sampled the antlers of 12 male caribou from the Qamanirjuaq herd culled in September 1967. We predicted that serial sampling of antlers would reflect the known seasonal dietary change from lichen to grass-like and shrub diet based on rumen contents from individuals culled during the same period. The δ13C and δ15N were analyzed in food sources and every 3 cm along each antler's length. The carbon isotope compositions of collagen (δ13Ccol) varied by ~0.5‰ among individuals and within antlers, while the carbon isotope compositions of antler bioapatite (δ13CCO3) increased by 1–1.5‰ from pedicle to tip. Values of δ15Ncol increased within antlers by 1–3‰ from pedicle to tip and varied by 3‰ among the individuals sampled. Antler collagen was lower in δ15Ncol by ~1‰ relative to bone collagen. Bayesian mixing models were conducted to test for changes in dietary proportions from antler isotope compositions. Mixing models did not indicate significant dietary shifts for any individual during antler formation, showing consistently mixed diets of fungi, horsetail, lichen, and woody plants. Increases in δ15Ncol in antler tissue could, therefore, correspond to subtle seasonal dietary changes and/or the physiological stress of antler tissue development.
36397Wilk K. & Lücking R. (2024): Quantitative integrative taxonomy informs species delimitation in Teloschistaceae (lichenized Ascomycota): the genus Wetmoreana as a case study. - IMA Fungus, 15: 9 [42 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43008-024-00140-1.
The genus Wetmoreana was studied using quantitative integrative taxonomy methods to resolve the genus delimitation and explore its taxonomy diversity at the species level. As a result, the genus Fulgogasparrea is synonymized with Wetmoreana, and the latter includes 15 formally described species, one subspecies, and three further, thus far undescribed species: W. appressa, W. awasthii comb. nov., W. bahiensis sp. nov., W. brachyloba comb. nov., W. brouardii, W. chapadensis comb. nov., W. circumlobata sp. nov., W. decipioides, W. intensa comb. nov., W. ochraceofulva comb. nov., W. rubra sp. nov., W. sliwae sp. nov., W. sliwae ssp. subparviloba subsp. nov., W. subnitida comb. nov., W. texana, and W. variegata sp. nov. Eleven of 19 examined taxa are newly placed within this genus or confirmed to belong to it. Two species, W. awasthii and W. intensa, are transferred to Wetmoreana without additional analysis but based on previous studies. The W. brouardii and W. ochraceofulva species complexes are discussed in detail. Additionally, Caloplaca muelleri and C. rubina var. evolutior are transferred to Squamulea, and the latter is elevated to the species rank. Keywords: Phylogenetic binning, MRPP, PCA, South America, 6 New species, 8 New combinations.
36396Tälle M., Ranius T. & Öckinger E. (2023): The usefulness of surrogates in biodiversity conservation: A synthesis. - Biological Conservation, 288: 110384 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2023.110384.
Preserving biodiversity requires extensive information on species distributions and effectiveness of conservation actions. A surrogate approach, where a small number of species act as surrogates for broader groups of species, can simplify this task. Types of surrogates include indicator, umbrella, keystone and flagship species, and using diversity of higher taxonomic levels to represent species diversity. An overview of the empirical evidence of the usefulness of surrogates as a conservation tool is missing. We synthesised knowledge on if and when surrogate species are useful by systematically searching for meta-analyses and literature reviews assessing this. Results from 34 reviews revealed weak correlations between diversity of indicator species and other species and that umbrella species were not consistently useful for prioritising conservation actions. However, diversity of higher taxonomic levels can be representative of species diversity. No reviews have assessed the usefulness of keystone or flagship species. Thus, surrogate taxa often do not represent biodiversity or threatened species, and conservation actions aimed at surrogates might not necessarily benefit other species. However, surrogates are more likely to be useful when using a higher-taxon approach, when strong ecological similarities exists between a surrogate and other species, when surrogates are used at regional or landscape rather than local scales, and when using sets of multiple species as surrogates. As some use of surrogate species will always be necessary, surrogates should be carefully selected and their usefulness and cost-effectiveness should be assessed, including the risk that conservation actions aimed at that surrogate have unintended effects on other species.
36395Kidron G.J., Starinsky A. & Xiao B. (2024): The enigmatic enrichment of potassium and magnesium in runoff and floodwater in the Negev: Do biocrusts hold the key?. - Science of The Total Environment, 911: 168753 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.168753.
Hypothesizing that rock-dwelling (lithobionts) or soil (loess)-dwelling biocrusts may shed light on the phenomena, we conducted sprinkling experiments in the Negev Highlands. Sprinkling was conducted on 4 types of lithobionts: cyanobacteria which inhabit the south-facing bedrock (ENC), epilithic lichens, inhabiting the inclined (EPIi) and the flat (EPIf) north-facing bedrocks, and endolithic lichens (ENL) inhabiting south-facing boulders. Additional sprinkling took place on two types of soil biocrusts, a mixed crust composed of cyanobacteria, lichens and mosses at the north-facing footslope and a cyanobacterial crust at the more xeric south-facing footslope. The runoff water (of 5 and for 4 plots for each lithobiont and soil biocrust type, respectively) was analyzed for the ionic composition of Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+, Cl−, SO42−, and NO3−, whereas HCO3− was calculated. In comparison to rainwater, all habitats (except for K+ in ENL) showed high enrichment ratios (ERs) in K+ and Mg2+, which, unlike the high ERs of the other ions (such as SO42− that may stem from gypsum dissolution), could not have been explained by the rock lithology, clay or dust composition. It is suggested that following wetting, K+, serving for osmoregulation of cells, is released by the crust organisms, being thus responsible for K+ enrichment, while chlorophyll degradation is responsible for Mg2+ enrichment. It is suggested that rock- and soil-dwelling microorganisms may explain K+ and Mg2+ enrichment in runoff and floodwater and subsequently in groundwater of the Negev, and possibly in other arid zones worldwide, affecting in turn the quality of irrigation and drinking water.
36394Liang X., Chen W., Jiang B. & Xiao C.-J. (2024): Dibenzofurans from nature: Biosynthesis, structural diversity, sources, and bioactivities. - Bioorganic Chemistry, 144: 107107 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2024.107107.
Dibenzofurans are a small class of natural products with versatile biological activities that used to be thought to come mainly from lichens and ascomycetes. In fact, they are also distributed widely in higher plants, especially in the families Rosaceae and Myrtaceae. Dibenzofurans and derivatives from lichens and ascomycetes have been well reviewed, but dibenzofurans from all biological sources in nature have not been reviewed. In this review, dibenzofurans from all natural sources have been comprehensively reviewed, and a total of 211 dibenzofurans isolated and identified from organisms between 1843 and March 2023 are categorized and discussed, including their biosynthesis, structural diversity, sources, and bioactivities. Keywords: Lichen dibenzofurans; Non-lichen dibenzofurans; Biosynthesis; Structural diversity; Biological sources; Biological activities.
36393He L., Chen W., Fraser R.H., Schmelzer I., Arsenault A., Leblanc S.G., Lovitt J., White H.P., Plante S. & Brodeur A. (2024): Satellite-detected decreases in caribou lichen cover, Cladonia (Cladina) spp., over Eastern Canada during the last three decades. - Forest Ecology and Management, 556: 121753 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2024.121753.
Caribou lichens, Cladonia (Cladina) spp., are a slow-growing, vital winter forage for caribou that are likely to be influenced by global warming. However, the large-scale response of caribou lichens to changing global climate remains unclear. Here, we derived caribou lichen cover maps for two time periods ∼30 years apart (i.e., the late 1980 s, and 2020 s) using Landsat satellite imagery for a region (0.59 million km2) in Eastern Canada that includes all or portions of several boreal caribou population ranges. We restricted our assessment to regions with at least 10% lichen cover and evaluated differences between the two time periods. Results show that since the 1980 s satellite-derived lichen cover declined in 62% of the region evaluated, remained constant in 27%, and increased in 11%. Twenty-three percent of the lichen cover decrease occurred in areas that burned after 1980, while 77% of the decrease remains unexplained, with warming-induced shrub encroachment, and caribou presence and grazing both possible causes. Caribou lichen regeneration occurs within regions burned before the 1980 s. Given that shrubification and wildfire frequency are projected to continue increasing, further monitoring of the scale and scope of ongoing changes will help to clarify future patterns. However, our results strongly suggest that the amount of caribou lichens has declined overall. Keywords: Lichen cover decrease; Landsat; Caribou; Reindeer; Cladonia spp; Eastern Canada; Change detection; Shrubification; Fire.
36392Allain A., Alexis M.A., Bridoux M.C., Shirokova L.S., Payandi-Rolland D., Pokrovsky O.S. & Rouelle M. (2024): The specific molecular signature of dissolved organic matter extracted from different arctic plant species persists after biodegradation. - Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 193: 109393 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2024.109393.
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a small but very reactive pool of organic matter (OM) in the environment. Its role is related to its composition, which depends on its source. In soils, vegetation is the main source of DOM, and biodegradation is the main regulating mechanism. This study aims to characterise DOM produced by contrasted arctic vegetation species and their biodegradation products. The water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) was produced from C. stellaris (lichen), E. vaginatum (sedge), A. polifolia (dwarf evergreen shrub) and B. nana (deciduous dwarf shrub). The WEOM were inoculated with a common aerobic heterotrophic soil bacteria (P. aureofaciens) and incubated for 7 days. During the experiment, WEOM was characterised through a wide range of analytical methods (TOC, UV–Vis absorbance, high-performance ion chromatography and HRMS Orbitrap). The results showed bacteria consumed a significantly greater proportion of WEOM produced by C. stellaris than by A. polifolia and B. nana at the end of the experiment (p
36391Buril M.L.L., de Oliveira Silva A.K., Martins M.C.B., Silva H.P.B., Aptroot A., da Silva B.F. & Pereira E.C. (2024): Species of Peltula (lichenized Ascomycota) are shown to tolerate rock substrate rich in natural γ-radiation in NE Brazil. - Total Environment Advances, 10: 200099 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.teadva.2024.200099.
Pedra Municipality in Pernambuco State (Northeastern Brazil) is known for encompassing areas with high natural radiation from 238U sources, contaminating soil, atmosphere, water, vegetation, and animals, including rural activities. A lichen survey was performed in the area, and species belonging to 19 genera were identified. The diversity is considered very low when compared to nearby municipalities and other similar regions, which might indicate the effect of radiation on the environment. The lichen genus viz. Peltula seems uranium-resistant since its three species: Peltula obscurans (Nyl.) Gyeln., Peltula euploca (Ach.) Poelt and Peltula impressa (Vain.) Swinscow & Krog were the only ones found on rocks rich in this radionuclide. In this study, we show the first report of the occurrence of different Peltula species on anomalous rocks rich in natural radionuclides. In addition, it is the first official reference of P. obscurans and P. impressa to Pernambuco state. The confirmation of the preference of Peltula for substrata radionuclides-rich can indicate this genus as a radioactivity bioindicator. Keywords: Uranium; Pernambuco; Radionuclide; Bioaccumulation; Anomalous rocks.
36390Manninen O.H., Myrsky E., Tolvanen A. & Stark S. (2024): N-fertilization and disturbance exert long-lasting complex legacies on subarctic ecosystems. - Oecologia, 204: 689–704. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-024-05524-z.
Subarctic ecosystems are subjected to increasing nitrogen (N) enrichment and disturbances that induce particularly strong effects on plant communities when occurring in combination. There is little experimental evidence on the longevity of these effects. We applied N-fertilization (40 kg urea-N ha−1 year−1 for 4 years) and disturbance (removal of vegetation and organic soil layer on one occasion) in two plant communities in a subarctic forest-tundra ecotone in northern Finland. Within the first four years, N-fertilization and disturbance increased the share of deciduous dwarf shrubs and graminoids at the expense of evergreen dwarf shrubs. Individual treatments intensified the other’s effect resulting in the strongest increase in graminoids under combined N-fertilization and disturbance. The re-analysis of the plant communities 15 years after cessation of N-fertilization showed an even higher share of graminoids. 18 years after disturbance, the total vascular plant abundance was still substantially lower and the share of graminoids higher. At the same point, the plant community composition was the same under disturbance as under combined N-fertilization and disturbance, indicating that multiple perturbations no longer reinforced the other’s effect. Yet, complex interactions between N-fertilization and disturbance were still detected in the soil. We found higher organic N under disturbance and lower microbial N under combined N-fertilization and disturbance, which suggests a lower bioavailability of N sources for soil microorganisms. Our findings support that the effects of enhanced nutrients and disturbance on subarctic vegetation persist over decadal timescales. However, they also highlight the complexity of plant–soil interactions that drive subarctic ecosystem responses to multiple perturbations across varying timescales. Keywords: Treeline ecotone · Plant recovery · Functional types · Microbial nitrogen · Vegetation change.
36389Berner L.T., Orndahl K.M., Rose M., Tamstorf M., Arndal M.F., Alexander H.D., Humphreys E.R., Loranty M.M., Ludwig S.M., Nyman J., Juutinen S., Aurela M., Happonen K., Mikola J., Mack M.C., Vankoughnett M.R., Iversen C.M., Salmon V.G., Yang D., Kumar J., Grogan P., Danby R.K., Scott N.A., Olofsson J., Siewert M.B., Deschamps L., Lévesque E., Maire V., Morneault A., Gauthier G., Gignac C., Boudreau S., Gaspard A., Kholodov A., Bret-Harte M.S., Greaves H.E., Walker D., Gregory F.M., Michelsen A., Kumpula T., Villoslada M., Ylänne H., Luoto M., Virtanen T., Forbes B.C., Hölzel N., Epstein H., Heim R.J., Bunn A,, Holmes R.M., Hung J.K.Y., Natali S.M., Virkkala A.-M. & Goetz S.J. (2024): The Arctic Plant Aboveground Biomass Synthesis Dataset. - Scientific Data, 11: 305 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-024-03139-w.
Plant biomass is a fundamental ecosystem attribute that is sensitive to rapid climatic changes occurring in the Arctic. Nevertheless, measuring plant biomass in the Arctic is logistically challenging and resource intensive. Lack of accessible field data hinders efforts to understand the amount, composition, distribution, and changes in plant biomass in these northern ecosystems. Here, we present The Arctic plant aboveground biomass synthesis dataset, which includes field measurements of lichen, bryophyte, herb, shrub, and/or tree aboveground biomass (g m−2) on 2,327 sample plots from 636 field sites in seven countries. We created the synthesis dataset by assembling and harmonizing 32 individual datasets. Aboveground biomass was primarily quantified by harvesting sample plots during mid- to late-summer, though tree and often tall shrub biomass were quantified using surveys and allometric models. Each biomass measurement is associated with metadata including sample date, location, method, data source, and other information. This unique dataset can be leveraged to monitor, map, and model plant biomass across the rapidly warming Arctic.
36388Andersen R., Fernandez-Garcia P., Martin-Walker A., Klein D., Marshall C., Large D.J., Hughes R. & Hancock M.H. (2024): Blanket bog vegetation response to wildfire and drainage suggests resilience to low severity, infrequent burning. - Fire Ecology, 20: 26 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s42408-024-00256-0.
Background: In 2019, a wildfire impacted an area of blanket bog and wet heath > 60 km2 in the Flow Country peatlands of northern Scotland, a site of global significance. Unusually the footprint of the wildfire included discrete areas of degraded, restored, and near-natural blanket bogs. Following the wildfire, we surveyed vegetation in 387 quadrats in burnt and unburnt areas. The study aimed to determine whether and how proximity to human-made drains and microtopography affected fire-vegetation interactions and included older wildfire sites and unburnt control sites for context. Results: Overall, our study suggests that the 2019 Flow Country wildfire caused mostly superficial burning; except in the most degraded area, which burned more severely and where we recorded more profound impacts on the vegetation. We found higher cover of litter, which in turn led to increased localized fire damage in quadrats close to drains compared with quadrats away from the influence of drains. We also found greater fire impacts (e.g., proportions of moss burnt and Sphagnum discoloration) on hummocks, particularly where they were higher relative to the hollows. Overall, vegetation both near and away from drains largely resembled nearby unburnt sites within 20 years. Conclusions: Overall, our study suggests that the 2019 Flow Country wildfire caused mostly superficial burning, except in the most degraded areas. Vegetation communities of blanket bogs associated with conservation and restoration areas in the region appear to be largely resilient to occasional, low severity wildfires. This implies that management interventions that maintain wet conditions in peatlands have the potential to help reduce the risks of severe wildfires. Keywords: Peatland restoration, Sphagnum, Vegetation communities, Post-fire plant succession, Wildfire ecology.
36387Best I.N., Brown L., Elkin C., Finnegan L., McClelland C.J.R. & Johnson C.J. (2024): Cut vs. fire: a comparative study of the temporal effects of timber harvest and wildfire on ecological indicators of the boreal forest. - Landscape Ecology, 39: 81 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-024-01882-4.
Context: Large-scale natural disturbances are crucial drivers of ecosystem function and composition for many forested ecosystems. In the last century, the prevalence of anthropogenic disturbances has increased across Canada’s boreal forest. Habitat disturbance from timber harvest and wildfire is linked to declines of boreal species, including woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou). Objectives: We tested how disturbances influenced the recovery trajectory of ecological indicators of timber, biodiversity, and wildlife habitat through time following timber harvest and wildfire across the boreal forest of Alberta, Canada. Methods: During 2021 and 2022, we collected field data from 251 timber harvested and 264 burned stands (0–40 years since disturbance), as well as 256 older forest stands used by caribou (> 40 years since disturbance). Field data included metrics of stand attributes (e.g., basal area, stems per hectare), coarse woody debris (CWD), and abundance of forage for caribou, moose (Alces americanus), and bears (black bear: Ursus americanus, grizzly bear: Ursus arctos). Results: Basal area of trees and stems per hectare recovered more quickly in timber harvest sites when compared to wildfire sites, but as time since disturbance increased there were no differences in these attributes among timber harvest, wildfire, and caribou use sites. CWD was greatest in recently burned sites, but declined over time to be similar in quantity as in harvested stands and older forest stands. Terrestrial lichens, important forage for caribou, were most abundant in the older caribou use sites, whereas forage for moose and bears, including shrubs, was most abundant in younger timber harvest and wildfire sites. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that timber harvesting may result in a quicker development of timber volume when compared to wildfire. However, this anthropogenic disturbance is less advantageous for the development of caribou habitat.
36386Beck K., Glew K., Hardman A., Lavdovsky N., McCune B., Nelson N., Ponzetti J., Rhoades F., Rosentreter R., Stone D., Theden T., Tønsberg T. & Villella J. (2024): Lichens of Cypress Island, Washington – the seen and the unseen. - Evansia, 40(4): 136–155. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-40.4.136.
A group of Northwest Lichenologists explored the lichen biodiversity on Cypress Island in the San Juan Islands on the Pacific coast north of Seattle, hosted by the Washington Department of Natural Resources. We compiled our observations separately by habitat: (1) uplands with serpentine bedrock, (2) uplands with basalt bedrock, and (3) rocky saltwater shorelines. Combining our results with previous efforts, we report 243 lichen species from Cypress Island. Despite the respectable species list, we were struck by the absence of numerous species that are regionally common. We report those here, but were unable to be convinced by various hypotheses for their absence. They fall in several functional groups, including nitrophiles, cyanolichens, oceanic species, and widespread green algal foliose species. In addition to a traditional species list, we present two artistic expressions of the lichen biota. Key words: Lichenized fungi, Pacific Northwest, San Juan Islands, serpentine, species inventory.
36385Barbosa B.M.C., Santos L.A., Oliveira Junior I., Oliveira Lima D., Aptroot A. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2024): New records of Polymeridium (Müll.Arg.) R.C.Harris from Brazil with description of a new species from the Caatinga, and a checklist of the Brazilian species. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 45(4): 39–46. https://doi.org/10.5252/cryptogamiemycologie2024v45a4.
A new species is described, Polymeridium stromatocorticatum B.Barbosa, Aptroot, L.A.Santos & M.Cáceres, sp. nov. found in the Caatinga Biome, collected at Raso da Catarina Ecological Station (Bahia, Brazil). The new species is characterized by the combination of a corticated thallus and aggregated ascomata, while the ascospores exhibit the typical characteristics of a Polymeridium (Müll.Arg.) R.C.Harris. The genus has its greatest absolute world diversity in this region of NE Brazil, especially in areas of the Caatinga. Most of the species found in this region express peculiar characteristics related to the chemistry of the thallus, due to the presence of lichexanthone and the lack of inspersion of hamathecium. In addition, an updated checklist of Brazilian species is provided.
36384Cui C., Li Y., Xu J., Zhao X. & Jia Z. (2024): Diorygma tiantaiense sp. nov. and a checklist and key to Diorygma species from China. - Diversity, 16(4): 213 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d16040213.
A new species Diorygma tiantaiense Z.F. Jia, sp. nov. was found, which is characterized by a corticolous thallus with norstictic acid, oval or oblong apothecia, immersed to ± raised discs with white pruina, and large muriform ascospores (120–210 × 35–60 µm). Detailed morphological descriptions, photographs, and a comparison and discussion of similar species are provided. A checklist and key to the species of Diorygma known from China is presented. Keywords: lichenized fungi; lecanoromycetes; graphidales; graphidaceae; taxonomy.
36383Wijesinghe S.N., Zucconi L., Camporesi E., Wanasinghe D.N., Boonmee S., Samarakoon M.C., Chethana K.W.T., Puwakpitiya Gedara C., Maharachchikumbura S.S.N., Wang Y. & Hyde K.D. (2022): An updated account of Fagales-inhabiting Italian Ascomycota and mycogeography, with additions to Pezizomycotina. - Asian Journal of Mycology, 5(2): 79–186. Doi 10.5943/ajom/5/2/7.
Studies of plant-associated Ascomycota are topical, as they have varied life modes depending on their hosts in different ecosystems. In Italy, Fagales are economically and ecologically important plants, especially in the Alps and Apennine mountain ranges. Fagales species host numerous ascomycetous species, comprising endophytes, saprobes, or pathogens. We retrieved data from 308 publications from 1873 to 2021 and listed 776 Ascomycota on Fagales in Italy. Among these, 696 were identified at the species level and 80 at the genus level. Documented taxa belong to Pezizomycotina (746), Saccharomycotina (2), Taphrinomycotina (5), and Ascomycota genera incertae sedis (23). Sordariomycetes are dominant (34%), followed by Dothideomycetes (24%), Lecanoromycetes (16%), and Leotiomycetes (11%). Distribution maps were provided for the occurrence of Fagales trees and Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Leotiomycetes, Pezizomycetes, and Sordariomycetes taxa. Lichenized taxa were excluded from the mapping. We provided additions to Valsariaceae (Valsaria rudis) in Dothideomycetes, Coryneaceae (Coryneum modonium), Melanconiellaceae (Melanconiella flavovirens and M. meridionalis), and Woswasiaceae (Woswasia atropurpurea) in Sordariomycetes. These taxa represent a novel host record, a provincial record, and four regional records in Italy. Species boundaries were defined using polyphasic approaches. In addition, taxonomic notes were provided for each reported class, including incertae sedis genera. The study provides information on the taxonomy, hosts, and distribution of Ascomycota in Italy to encourage further research related to important plant species. Keywords: checklist – host-fungal distribution – morphology – phylogeny – taxonomy.
36382Tibell L. & Knutsson T. (2016): Calicium episcalaris (Caliciaceae), a new lichen species from Sweden. - Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses, 38: 49–52. .
A new species of lichen, Calicium episcalaris Tibell & Knutsson, is described from Sweden. It is one of few Calicium species being parasitic or ‘Jugendparasit’, occurring on Hypocenomyce scalaris (Ach.) M.Choisy growing on an old wooden building in South Sweden.
36381Lendemer J.C. (2023): Studies in Lichens and Lichenicolous Fungi – No. 23: Notes on Appalachian taxa including newly reported disjunctions and multiple species new to North America. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 22: 81–97. .
Arthonia ligniariella is reported for the first time from eastern North America based on a collection growing on lignum in North Carolina, U.S.A. Biatora appalachensis, an Appalachian endemic, is shown to be widespread throughout the Appalachian Mountains, primarily at high elevations. The only report of Fellhanera parvula from North America (Tennessee, U.S.A.) is considered to be F. bouteillei. Fellhanera subtilis, previously reported in North America from the Pacific Northwest, is reported for the first time from eastern North America (southern Appalachian Mountains). Gyalideopsis mexicana, previously reported in North America from the Yukon, Canada and New Mexico, U.S.A. is newly reported from eastern North America (southern Appalachian Mountains, North Carolina, U.S.A.). Lepra ouahensis, a sorediate species with lichexanthone and stictic acid, is reported from disjunct areas of the southern Appalachian Mountains and the Southeastern Coastal Plain. Its distribution is compared to the lichexanthone producing chemotypes of L. trachythallina and Varicellaria velata. Rockefellera crossophylla, a rare species considered extinct in Pennsylvania, U.S.A. is reported to be extant in that state. Psoronactis dilleniana is newly reported from North America from high elevations of the central and southern Appalachian Mountains (North Carolina and Virginia U.S.A.). Xenonectriella streimannii is newly reported for North America based on a collection found growing on Sticta beauvoisii in Georgia, U.S.A. Keywords: Biodiversity hotspot, biodiversity inventory, biogeography, floristics, natural history collections.
36380Wirth V. & Hertel E. (2009): Die Serpentinit-Flechte Porpidia nadvornikiana in Deutschland nachgewiesen. - Hoppea, 70: 283–285. .
36379Lorenz C., Bianchi E., Alberini A., Poggiali G., Benesperi R., Papini A. & Brucato J.R. (2024): UV photo-degradation of the secondary lichen substance parietin: A multi-spectroscopic analysis in astrobiology perspective. - Life Sciences in Space Research, 41: 191–201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lssr.2024.03.004.
The cortical anthraquinone yellow-orange pigment parietin is a secondary lichen substance providing UVshielding properties that is produced by several lichen species. In our work, the secondary metabolite has been extracted from air-dried thalli of Xanthoria parietina. The aims of this study were to characterize parietin absorbance through UV–VIS spectrophotometry and with IR spectroscopy and to evaluate its photodegradability under UV radiation through in situ reflectance IR spectroscopy to understand to what extent the substance may have a photoprotective role. This allows us to relate parietin photo-degradability to the lichen UV tolerance in its natural terrestrial habitat and in extreme environments relevant for astrobiology such as Mars. Extracted crystals were UV irradiated for 5.59 h under N2 flux. After the UV irradiation, we assessed relevant degradations in the 1614, 1227, 1202, 1160 and 755 cm− 1 bands. However, in light of Xanthoria parietina survivability in extreme conditions such as space- and Mars-simulated ones, we highlight parietin UV photo-resistance and its relevance for astrobiology as photo-protective substance and possible bio-hint. Keywords: Astrobiology ; Lichens ; Parietin ; UV radiation ; IR spectroscopy ; Biomarkers ; Life detection.
36378Hofmeister J., Pouska V., Palice Z., Šoun J., Gloor R., Brabec M. & Vondrák J. (2024): Hot-spots of epiphytic and epixylic lichens in fragmented temperate forests are underpinned by microhabitat heterogeneity and spatiotemporal habitat continuity. - Biological Conservation, 292: 110563 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2024.110563.
Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation are major causes of the ongoing decline of epiphytic and epixylic lichen species in temperate forests throughout Europe. We investigated how extant species richness and composition of epiphytic and epixylic lichen communities in ten hot-spots of lichen diversity in the Czech Republic reflected the occurrence and properties of potentially suitable microhabitats and habitats. At each hot-spot, we surveyed a pair of 1-ha square plots, one in (over-)mature managed and the second in unmanaged forest. In total, we recorded 513 epiphytic and epixylic lichen species which represent a substantial part of lichen biota in Central Europe. Species richness and composition of lichen communities were explained by microhabitat heterogeneity, and also by the area of near-natural forest habitats (habitat extent) at the landscape scale. In addition, lichen species richness and number of red-listed species were explained by a categorial variable distinguishing mature managed and unmanaged plots, used as a proxy of temporal continuity of natural succession. This finding illustrates that temporal continuity of natural succession in unmanaged forests likely had an extra stimulus for lichen communities that may not be reflected by observed aspects of forest habitats. Hence, we confirmed indispensable positive effects of (micro)habitat heterogeneity, and spatial and temporal continuity for preserved hot-spots of lichen diversity in Central Europe. Due to generally slow colonization-extinction dynamics of epiphytic and epixylic lichens we call for strengthening microhabitat heterogeneity, and the spatial and temporal continuity of European temperate forests at the landscape scale. Keywords: Biodiversity; Forest management; Microhabitat; Near-natural forest; Species richness; Species turnover.
36377Meng Q.-F., Thiyagaraja V., Ertz D., Worthy F.R., Saichana N. & Fu S.-B. (2024): Sclerococcum glaucomarioides: a new geographical record from China. - Phytotaxa, 642(1): 95–103. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.642.1.8.
The lichenicolous species Sclerococcum glaucomarioides growing on the lichen Ochrolechia akagiensis is newly reported from China. This study provides an illustration and morphological description for this species, complemented by phylogenetic analyses based on ITS, LSU and mtSSU sequence data. The taxon is characterized by adpressed to sessile apothecia that are round to angular with black disc, hymenium with brownish color, 25–40 μm high, broadly cylindrical to subclavate 8-spored asci, 20–30 × 10–15 μm, with euamyloid apical cap and brown ascospores with 2–3 transverse septa. Key words: Dactylosporaceae, multi-gene, new record, taxonomy.
36376Mironeasa S. & Ungureanu-Iuga M. (2024): Plants, lichens, fungi and algae ingredients for nutrition and health. - Applied Sciences, 14(7): 2800 [5 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/app14072800.
editorial
36375Hudon A.T. & Horton T.R. (2024): A survey of fungi and fungus-like organisms at the Albany Pine Bush Preserve, a globally rare inland pine barren system. - Northeastern Naturalist, 31(1): 72–91. https://doi.org/10.1656/045.031.0107.
The Albany Pine Bush Preserve (APBP) in east-central New York is a fire-managed, globally rare inland pine barrens ecosystem supporting numerous rare or declining species. The open landscape of the APBP is comprised of Pinus rigida (Pitch Pine) with an understory dominated by Quercus ilicifolia (Scrub Oak). Urban development and fire suppression have negatively impacted fire-adapted species. Prescribed fires were introduced in 1990 to restore the native plant community. Here we present the first thorough fungal survey at the APBP. We identified samples by morphology and DNA barcoding. We collected 117 species representing genera from 52 non-lichenized fungi, 10 lichens, and 2 Myxogastria (formerly Myxomycetes).
36374Moore G. (2024): A preliminary review of North American material in Rafinesque’s herbarium. - Rhodora, 124: 333–360. https://doi.org/10.3119/22-12.
North American material from the herbarium of Constantin Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (1783– 1840) is reviewed. From this effort 585 specimens were identified from 15 public herbaria, including 450 specimens recorded in online herbarium databases. Future research is planned that will expand this effort to: 1) include all material, not just North American, from Rafinesque’s herbarium; 2) determine the original material and type status of each specimen; and 3) develop a Rafinesque herbarium database allowing users to readily search for Rafinesque material. Key words: bryophytes, database, lichens, nomenclature, type, vascular plants, Robert Wilbur.
36373Quilhot W., Rubio C., Bernal M. & Wedin M. (2002): Estructura de comunidades liquénicas en Embothrium coccineum (Proteaceae) en Laguna San Rafael, Chile. - Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Chile, 51: 85–96. DOI: 10.54830/bmnhn.v51.2002.323.
The communities structure of lichens growing in Embothrium coccineum (Proteaceae) in Laguna San Rafael, Chile. Epiphytic lichen composition, richness, diversity and biomass on basal trunks of Embothrium coccineum were surveyed in a forestry site in Laguna San Rafael, southern Chile. Samples were taken from ten trees in three sites, in a microclimatic gradient, where lichens species were completely removed till 2 m height. 45 lichen species were recorded in November 1997. Significant diferences were observed in the selected sites; the species number and biomass increased with the increasing moisture availabily of the habitat. Sampled trees were identified with plastic labels and controlled three years and four months later. An important recovery of lichen diversity was observed, 16 species were recorded in February 2001, and biomass ranged between 35.27 % and 49,83 % in the selected sites. The highest biomass was recorded for Lepolichen coccophorus. Key words: Lichens, Communities, Biomass, Embothrium coccineum.
36372Yakovchenko L.S. & Davydov E.A. (2024): Arthonia phaeobaea (Arthoniaceae, Ascomycota) new to Asia and Russia from the Sakhalin Region. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 58(1): L55–L60. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2024.58.1.L55.
During the study of the lichen biota of Sakhalin Island, Arthonia phaeobaea was identified basing of morphological and anatomical data. This is the first record of this rare saxicolous coastal lichen in Asia and Russia; the species was previously recorded only in Central and Northern Europe (including Arctic) and North America. The species is characterized by its thin, smooth, brown-gray continuous thallus without lichen compounds, usually with numerous black pycnidia and small, black, rounded to elongated, weakly convex apothecia, dark brown epithecium K–, pale hypothecium, colorless, (2)3–4 cross-septate ascospores constricted centrally and usually with unequal cells, hyaline conidia, narrowly ellipsoid or oblong. The maritime distribution of the species has been noted. The differences from other coastal saxicolous Arthonia species in a global scale, as well as saxicolous Arthonia, known in Russia, are discussed. Keywords: biogeography, coastal lichens, new records, Russian Far East, Sakhalin Island.
36371Zueva A.S., Chesnokov S.V. & Konoreva L.A. (2024): Addition to the lichen biota of Paramushir Island (Northern Kuril Islands, Russian Far East). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 58(1): L35–L53. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2024.58.1.L35.
The paper provides data on 143 species, one subspecies, and one variety of lichens, 13 species of lichenicolous fungi and one species of non-lichenized saprobic fungus from Paramushir Island. One hundred thirty-eight taxa are reported for this territory for the first time. Of them, Lecanora confusa is reported for the first time for Russia, eight species are new to the Russian Far East, 36 species and one variety are new to the Sakhalin Region, 20 species are listed for the first time for the Kuril Islands, and 72 species for Paramushir Island. Substrates and coordinates of collection sites are given for all species. The nearest known localities are given for species first found in the Kuril Islands, the Sakhalin Region or the Russian Far East. Keywords: distribution, lichens, lichenicolous fungi, new records, rare species, Asia.
36370Rodionova A.A., Timofeeva E.A., Himelbrant D.E., Stepanchikova I.S., Zueva A.S., Tsurykau A.G., Frolov I.V. & Chesnokov S.V. (2024): The first survey of the lichen diversity of Seskar Island (Gulf of Finland, Leningrad Region). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 58(1): L1–L25. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2024.58.1.L1.
The revealed lichen diversity of Seskar Island has a total of 292 species, including 263 lichenized, 20 lichenicolous, and nine non-lichenized saprobic fungi. Stigmidium microcarpum is new to European Russia, Caloplaca alcarum, Cryptodiscus muriformis, C. pini, and C. tabularum are new to North-Western European Russia; Lecidella subviridis and Pyrenidium actinellum are new to the Le­ningrad Region. The most interesting result of the investigation is the discovery of the single modern population of the red-listed Flavocetraria nivalis in the Leningrad Region. The lichen biota of Seskar Island is moderately rich compared to other islands of the Gulf of Finland. Keywords: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, new records, protected species, North-West European Russia, State Nature Reserve “Vostok Finskogo Zaliva”.
36369Löffler J. & Pape R. (2020): Thermal niche predictors of alpine plant species. - Ecology, 101(1): e02891. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2891.
Within the context of species distribution models, scrutiny arises from the choice of meaningful environmental predictors. Thermal conditions are not the sole driver, but are the most widely acknowledged abiotic driver of plant life within alpine ecosystems. We linked long-term measurements of direct, plant-relevant, near-surface temperatures to plant species frequency. Across 47 sites located along environmental gradients within the Scandinavian mountain chain, the thermal preferences of 26 focal species of vascular plants, lichens, and bryophytes were explored. Based on partial least-squares regression, we applied a relative importance analysis to derive inductively the thermal variables that were best related to a spe- cies’ frequency. To discover potential seasonal variability of thermal controls, analyses were both differentiated according to meteorological season and integrated across the entire year. The pronounced interspecies and temporal variability of thermal constraints revealed the ther- mal niches were much more nuanced and variable than they have commonly been represented. This finding challenges us to present, interrogate, and interpret data representing these thermal niches, which seems to be required in order to move beyond purely probabilistic and correlative descriptions of species’ range limits. Thus, this information will help improve predictions of species distributions in complex arctic-alpine landscapes. arctic-alpine ecosystems; boundary-layer climatology; bryophytes; climate envelope modeling; lichens; near-ground temperatures; thermal threshold hours; vascular plants
36368Paquette H.A., McMullin R.T. & Wiersma Y.F. (2024): The importance of taxonomy for determining species distribution: a case study using the disjunct lichen Brodoa oroarctica. - Botany, 102(1): 10-18. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjb-2023-0096.
Species-focused conservation requires a thorough understanding of species’ distributions. Delineating a species’ distribution requires taxonomic knowledge and adequate occurrence data. For plants and fungi, herbaria represent a valuable source of large-scale occurrence data. Advances in digital technology mean that data from many herbarium collections worldwide are now easily accessible. However, species concepts can change over time requiring herbarium records to be re-examined and databases updated, which does not always occur synchronously across all collections. Therefore, non-critical use of these data can promote inaccuracies in understanding species distributions. Taxonomic revisions are common in understudied organisms, such as lichens. Here, we illustrate how changing taxonomy and non-critical acceptance of online data affects our understanding of disjunct distributions, using the lichen Brodoa oroarctica (Krog) Goward as an example. Defining the distribution of the arctic lichen B. oroarctica is confounded by changing taxonomy and uncertainty of herbarium records that pre-date taxonomic revisions. We review the distribution of this species in the literature and in aggregate occurrence databases, and verify herbarium specimens that represent disjunct occurrences in eastern North America to present an updated account of its distribution and frequency in eastern North America. We show that knowledge of changing species taxonomy is essential to depicting accurate species distributions. aggregated datasets, occurrence data, Arctic–alpine affinity, collections-based research, GBIF, CLH
36367Bjerke J.W., Gwynn-Jones D. & Callaghan T.V. (2005): Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation in the field on the concentration of phenolics and chlorophyll fluorescence in two boreal and arctic–alpine lichens. - Environmental and Experimental Botany, 53(2): 139-149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2004.03.009.
Lichens constitute a prominent part of the vegetation at high latitudes and altitudes, but the effects of UV-B radiation on these symbiotic organisms are not well known. In a northern boreal site (Abisko, northern Sweden), the usnic acid-producing lichens Flavocetraria nivalis and Nephroma arcticum were exposed to enhanced UV-B radiation, corresponding to 25% ozone depletion, for two and one growing seasons, respectively. They were compared with lichens grown under ambient UV-B and harvested fresh from the field. The treated thalli of F. nivalis had been transplanted from a site 24km from the treatment site. From this source locality, untreated thalli were also harvested. Enhanced UV-B did not affect concentrations of usnic acid and the two depsides phenarctin and nephroarctin. A gradual decline of usnic acid, probably coupled to unusually long periods of dry, sunny weather, was observed both under enhanced and ambient UV-B and in untreated thalli. Photosystem II efficiency in both species was slightly reduced by enhanced UV-B. However, differences between seasons were larger than differences between treatments, which indicate that UV-B effects are minor in comparison to other climatic variables. Concentrations of UV-B-absorbing phenolics in lichens do not show a simple relationship to UV-B dose and therefore cannot be used as bioindicators of UV-B levels. Ultraviolet-B; Lichen; UV-absorbing substances; Usnic acid; Depsides; Photosystem II efficiency; Seasonal trends
36366Pérez-Ortega S., Verdú M., Garrido-Benavent I., Rabasa S., Green T.G.A., Sancho L.G. & de los Ríos A. (2023): Invariant properties of mycobiont-photobiont networks in Antarctic lichens. - Global Ecology and Biogeography, 32: 2033–2046. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.13744.
Aim: Lichens are often regarded as paradigms of mutualistic relationships. However, it is still poorly known how lichen-forming fungi and their photosynthetic partners interact at a community scale. We explored the structure of fungus-alga networks of interactions in lichen communities along a latitudinal transect in continental Antarctica. We expect these interactions to be highly specialized and, consequently, networks with low nestedness degree and high modularity. Location: Transantarctic Mountains from 76° S to 85° S (continental Antarctica). Time Period: Present. Major Taxa Studied: Seventy-seven species of lichen-forming fungi and their photobionts. Methods: DNA barcoding of photobionts using nrITS data was conducted in 756 lichen specimens from five regions along the Transantarctic Mountains. We built interaction networks for each of the five studied regions and a metaweb for the whole area. We explored the specialization of both partners using the number of partners a species interacts with and the specialization parameter d'. Network architecture parameters such as nestedness, modularity and network specialization parameter H2' were studied in all networks and contrasted through null models. Finally, we measured interaction turnover along the latitudinal transect. Results: We recovered a total of 842 interactions. Differences in specialization between partners were not statistically significant. Fungus-alga interaction networks showed high specialization and modularity, as well as low connectance and nestedness. Despite the large turnover in interactions occurring among regions, network parameters were not correlated with latitude. Main Conclusions: The interaction networks established between fungi and algae in saxicolous lichen communities in continental Antarctica showed invariant properties along the latitudinal transect. Rewiring is an important driver of interaction turnover along the transect studied. Future work should answer whether the patterns observed in our study are prevalent in other regions with milder climates and in lichen communities on different substrates.
36365Berlinches de Gea A., Verdú M., Villar-dePablo M. & Pérez-Ortega S. (2024): The combined effects of habitat fragmentation and life history traits on specialisation in lichen symbioses. - Journal of Ecology, 112: 200–216. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.14229.
Interactions between organisms are determined by life-history traits. Ecological strategies regarding species specialisation range from generalist to highly specialised relationships. Although it is expected that habitat fragmentation's effect on species abundance and survival depends on their degree of specialisation and life-history traits, few studies have delved into the interplay between interaction specialisation, life-history traits and habitat fragmentation.Here, we investigate the combined effect of habitat fragmentation, forest structure and life-history traits (growth form and reproductive mode) on the specialisation of lichen-forming fungi (mycobionts) toward their photosynthetic partners (photobionts) in lichen symbioses.We studied mycobiont specialisation in epiphytic lichen communities present in 10 fragments of Quercus rotundifolia forest embedded in an agricultural matrix. Both mycobionts and photobionts were identified DNA barcoding and mycobiont specialisation was measured through interaction parameters calculating the relative number of interactions (normalised degree; ND) and the specialisation of each species based on its discrimination from a random selection of partners (d'). Phylogenetic generalised linear mixed models were used to analyse the effect of patch size as well as the life history traits growth form (crustose, foliose, fruticose) and reproduction mode (sexual vs. asexual) on mycobiont specialisation.Both mycobiont and photobiont richness along the patch size gradient followed a hump-back pattern, which was more pronounced in photobionts. Mycobionts forming crustose thalli established the largest number of interactions. Mycobiont specialisation (d') was larger for fruticose and foliose forms and species with vegetative reproduction. Along the gradient of fragment size, the relative number of interactions decreased and the specialisation of mycobionts with vegetative reproduction increased.Synthesis. The study of mycobiont specialisation towards their photobionts in epiphytic lichen communities in a fragmented Mediterranean forest revealed a complex interaction between species' life history traits and habitat fragmentation. In particular, this interplay had a significant impact on the specialisation of mycobionts. The results show the ability of some species to modulate their specialisation according to habitat conditions, suggesting that some species may be more resilient to abiotic changes than expected.
36364Nikolić N., Zotz G. & Bader M.Y. (2024): Modelling the carbon balance in bryophytes and lichens: Presentation of PoiCarb 1.0, a new model for explaining distribution patterns and predicting climate‐change effects. - American Journal of Botany, 111: e16266 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajb2.16266.
Premise: Bryophytes and lichens have important functional roles in many ecosystems. Insight into their CO2‐exchange responses to climatic conditions is essential for understanding current and predicting future productivity and biomass patterns, but responses are hard to quantify at time scales beyond instantaneous measurements. We present PoiCarb 1.0, a model to study how CO2‐exchange rates of these poikilohydric organisms change through time as a function of weather conditions. Methods: PoiCarb simulates diel fluctuations of CO2 exchange and estimates long‐term carbon balances, identifying optimal and limiting climatic patterns. Modelled processes were net photosynthesis, dark respiration, evaporation and water uptake. Measured CO2‐ exchange responses to light, temperature, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and thallus water content (calculated in a separate module) were used to parameterize the model's carbon module. We validated the model by comparing modelled diel courses of net CO2 exchange to such courses from field measurements on the tropical lichen Crocodia aurata. To demonstrate the model's usefulness, we simulated potential climate‐change effects. Results: Diel patterns were reproduced well, and the modelled and observed diel carbon balances were strongly positively correlated. Simulated warming effects via changes in metabolic rates were consistently negative, while effects via faster drying were variable, depending on the timing of hydration. Conclusions: Reproducing weather‐dependent variation in diel carbon balances is a clear improvement compared to simply extrapolating short‐term measurements or potential photosynthetic rates. Apart from predicting climate‐change effects, future uses of PoiCarb include testing hypotheses about distribution patterns of poikilohydric organisms and guiding conservation strategies for species. Keywords: bryophytes, carbon balance, climate change, CO2 exchange, Crocodia.
36363Fetzer J., Moiseev P., Frossard E., Kaiser K., Mayer M., Gavazov K. & Hagedorn F. (2024): Plant–soil interactions alter nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in an advancing subarctic treeline . - Global Change Biology, 30: e17200 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.17200.
Treelines advance due to climate warming. The impacts of this vegetation shift on plant–soil nutrient cycling are still uncertain, yet highly relevant as nutrient availability stimulates tree growth. Here, we investigated nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in plant and soil pools along two tundra–forest transects on Kola Peninsula, Russia, with a documented elevation shift of birch-dominated treeline by 70 m during the last 50 years. Results show that although total N and P stocks in the soil–plant system did not change with elevation, their distribution was significantly altered. With the transition from high-elevation tundra to low-elevation forest, P stocks in stones decreased, possibly reflecting enhanced weathering. In contrast, N and P stocks in plant biomass approximately tripled and available P and N in the soil increased fivefold toward the forest. This was paralleled by decreasing carbon (C)-to-nutrient ratios in foliage and litter, smaller C:N:P ratios in microbial biomass, and lower enzymatic activities related to N and P acquisition in forest soils. An incubation experiment further demonstrated manifold higher N and P net mineralization rates in litter and soil in forest compared to tundra, likely due to smaller C:N:P ratios in decomposing organic matter. Overall, our results show that forest expansion increases the mobilization of available nutrients through enhanced weathering and positive plant–soil feedback, with nutrient-rich forest litter releasing greater amounts of N and P upon decomposition. While the low N and P availability in tundra may retard treeline advances, its improvement toward the forest likely promotes tree growth and forest development. Keywords: biogeochemistry, climate change, elevation gradient, extracellular enzymatic activity, forest, microbial biomass, nutrient cycling, stoichiometry, tundra.
36362Rautiainen M., Kuusinen N. & Majasalmi T. (2024): Remote sensing and spectroscopy of lichens. - Ecology and Evolution, 14: e11110 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.11110.
Lichens are combinations of two symbiotic organisms, a green alga or cyanobacterium and a fungus. They grow in nearly all terrestrial ecosystems and survive in habitats, which are very dry or cold, or too poor in nutrients to maintain vegetation growth. Because lichens grow on visible surfaces and exhibit spectral properties, which are clearly different from, for example, vegetation, it is possible to distinguish them in remote sensing data. In this first systematic review article on remote sensing of lichens, we analyze and summarize which lichen species or genera, and in which habitats and geographical regions, have been remotely sensed, and which remote sensing or spectroscopic technologies have been used. We found that laboratory or in situ measured spectra of over 70 lichen species have been reported to date. We show that studies on remote sensing of lichens fall under seven broad themes: (1) collection of lichen spectra for quantification of lichen species or characteristics, (2) pollution monitoring with lichens as ecological indicators, (3) geological and lithological mapping, (4) desert and dryland monitoring, (5) animal habitat monitoring, (6) land cover or vegetation mapping, and (7) surface energy budget modeling. Keywords: airborne, biocrust, cryptogam, lichen, reflectance, satellite image, spectra, UAV.
36361Meysurova A.F., Notov A.A., Pungin A.V. & Skrypnik L.N. (2024): Application of optical spectroscopy for the analysis of physiological characteristics and elemental composition of lichens of the genus Hypogymnia with different degrees of anthropotolerance. - Journal of Applied Spectroscopy, 91(1): 64–75. DOI 10.1007/s10812-024-01691-2.
[Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi Spektroskopii, Vol. 91, No. 1, pp. 74–86] The main physiological and biochemical characteristics and elemental composition of three lichen species of the genus Hypogymnia (Nyl.) Nyl. in one habitat were studied using spectroscopic methods. The model species were placed in the following order of decreasing degree of anthropotolerance: H. physodes (L.) Nyl. → H. tubulosa (Schaer.) Hav. → H. vittata (Ach.) Parrique. The contents of chlorophylls a and b, phenolic compounds, pheophytinization quotient, and antiradical activity were determined by a spectrophotometric method. The antioxidant activity was determined by an amperometric method. The physiological and biochemical parameters for each of the three species corresponded to those for background ecotopes. These parameters and the integrity of the system of correlations between the parameters were lower in species with a low degree of anthropotolerance. Twenty-three elements were found in thalli of the model species using atomic emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma. They included macro- and microelements, heavy metals, and metalloids. The maximum concentrations of most elements were found in H. vittata; the minimum concentrations, in H. physodes. An analysis of the interaction between the physiological and biochemical characteristics and the contents of the elements indicated the presence of a complex system of correlations in each species. Differences in this system of correlations may have been due to the specific composition of secondary metabolites, which determine the features of adaptive reactions. The use of various optical spectroscopy methods enabled an evaluation of not only the functional specificity of the studied species but also its connection to their anthropotolerance level. Low resistance to anthropogenic influences was combined with lower coordination of physiological and biochemical characteristics and low integrity of the system of correlations. The most vulnerable species H. vittata had the minimal values of the main functional parameters, a poorer correlation of them with the elemental composition, and higher concentrations of some toxic elements. The use of a complex analysis of the physiological and biochemical characteristics and elemental compositions using various spectral methods was crucial for the bioindication and ecological physiology of lichens. Keywords: optical method, spectroscopic method, atomic emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma, biomonitoring, elemental analysis, heavy metal, metalloid, Hypogymnia physodes, Hypogymnia tubulosa, Hypogymnia vittata, epiphytic lichen, indicator species, chlorophyll, phenolic compound, pheophytinization quotient, antioxidant activity, antiradical activity.
36360 He Z., Naganuma T., Nakai R., Uetake J. & Hahn M.W. (2024): Microbiomic analysis of bacteria associated with rock tripe lichens from alpine areas in eastern Alps and equatorial Africa. - Current Microbiology, 81: 115 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-024-03626-8.
The diversity of bacteria associated with alpine lichens was profiled. Lichen samples belonging to the Umbilicariaceae family, commonly known as rock tripe lichens, were gathered from two distinct alpine fellfelds: one situated on Mt. Brennkogel located in the Eastern European Alps (Austria), and the other on Mt. Stanley located in the Rwenzori mountains of equatorial Africa (Uganda). The primary aim of this research was to undertake a comparative investigation into the bacterial compositions, and diversities, identifying potential indicators and exploring their potential metabolisms, of these lichen samples. Bulk genomic DNA was extracted from the lichen samples, which was used to amplify the 18S rRNA gene by Sanger sequencing and the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene by Illumina Miseq sequencing. Examination of the fungal partner was carried out through the analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences, belonging to the genus Umbilicaria (Ascomycota), and the algal partner affiliated with the lineage Trebouxia (Chlorophyta), constituted the symbiotic components. Analyzing the MiSeq datasets by using bioinformatics methods, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were established based on a predetermined similarity threshold for the V3-V4 sequences, which were assigned to a total of 26 bacterial phyla that were found in both areas. Eight of the 26 phyla, i.e. Acidobacteriota, Actinomycota, Armatimonadota, Bacteroidota, Chlorofexota, Deinococcota, Planctomycetota, and Pseudomonadota, were consistently present in all samples, each accounting for more than 1% of the total read count. Distinct differences in bacterial composition emerged between lichen samples from Austria and Uganda, with the OTU frequency-based regional indicator phyla, Pseudomonadota and Armatimonadota, respectively. Despite the considerable geographic separation of approximately 5430 km between the two regions, the prediction of potential metabolic pathways based on OTU analysis revealed similar relative abundances. This similarity is possibly influenced by comparable alpine climatic conditions prevailing in both areas.
36359 Motiejūnaitė J. (2024): Lithuanian lichens and lichenicolous fungi in the herbaria of the University of Tartu (Estonia) and the University of Latvia. - Botanica, 30(1): 23–30. https://doi.org/10.35513/Botlit.2024.1.3.
Herbarium collections are particularly significant in countries where systematic studies of specific taxonomic groups have not been carried out, such as in the case of lichens in Lithuania. Collections prior to the 1990s are scarce, so all historical material is of great value. This paper presents the results of a study of lichen collections in the herbaria of the University of Tartu (TU) and the University of Latvia (RIG). A total of 425 herbarium envelopes (84 RIG and 341 TU) were examined. A total of 170 species were identified, including 157 lichen species, 12 lichenicolous and one non-lichenized saprobic fungi species. Nine lichen species were identified from envelopes that did not indicate the exact location except for the country (Lithuania). Two lichenicolous fungi, Endococcus nanellus and Stigmidium lecidellae, are new records for the country. Keywords: historical collections, lichenized Ascomycota, lichenicolous Ascomycota, lichenicolous Basidiomycota.
36358Синичкин Е.А. & Димитриев А.В. [Sinichkin E.A. & Dimitriev A.V.] (2019): Эколого-субстратная характеристика лихенофлоры государственного природного заказника «Заволжский» (Чувашская Республика) [Ecological and substrate characteristics of lichenoflora of the State Nature Reserve «Zavolzhsky» (Chuvash Republic)]. - Самарский научный вестник [Samara Scientific Bulletin], 8(4): 82–89. DOI 10.24411/2309-4370-2019-14115.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The paper provides an ecological and substrate analysis of lichens of the State Nature Reserve «Zavolzhsky» (Chuvash Republic). In the specified reserve 134 species of lichens were found. The ecological and substrate analysis showed that lichens were found on 20 substrates: on the bark of Populus tremula, Tilia cordata, Quercus robur, Acer platanoides, Betula pubescens, Padus avium, Sorbus aucuparia, Frangula alnus, Salix cinerea, S. pentandra, Alnus glutinosa, on the bark and branches of Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Abies sibirica, Betula pendula, on soil, on a dead organic substrate, on an anthropogenic substrate (on slate, concrete, wheel rubber). 6 main and 4 intermediate ecological groups of lichens were revealed: 1) epiphytic, growing on the bark of trees and shrubs; 2) epixylic, living on decaying wood; 3) epigeidic (ground lichens); 4) epibriophytic, living on mosses; 5) epiphytic-epixylic, growing on the bark of trees and a dead organic substrate; 6) epixylic-epigeidic, living on a dead organic substrate and soil; 7) lichens growing on the bark of trees and anthropogenic substrate; 8) epiphytic-epigeidic, growing on tree bark and soil surface 9) multisubstrate lichens that live on different substrates; 10) lichens of anthropogenic substrate. The largest number of lichens (61,2%) belong to epiphytic, 16,5% – to epiphytic-epixylic, 5,2% – to epixylic-epigeidic, 4,5% – to epigeidic, 3,7% – to epixylic, 2,3% – to epibriophytic, 0,7% – to multisubstrate lichens, 0,7% – to epiphytic-epigeidic. 3 species of lichens were found (2,3%) on the anthropogenic substrate. Epiphytic lichens were found on 15 forophytes. The largest number of taxa (40 species) were found on Pinus sylvestris’s bark, 35 species – on Populus tremula’s bark, 33 species – on Betula pendula’s bark. 56 species of lichens were found on only one forophyte. The analysis of the confinement to phorophyte showed that the highest level of similarity in the species composition of lichens was found between Padus avium and Frangula alnus – 50%, Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies – 49%, Populus tremula and Sorbus aucuparia – 44%, Tilia cordata and Acer platanoides – 41%, Salix cinerea and S. pentandra – 37%. Keywords: lichen; state nature reserve «Zavolzhsky»; specially protected natural area; ecological and substrate analysis; ecological groups; substrate confinement; phorophytes; lichen similarity level; Chuvash Zavolzhye; Chuvash Republic.
36357Arcadia L., Ahti T., Benesperi R., de Paz G.A., Divakar P.K. & Hawksworth D. (2024): (3013) Proposal to conserve the name Lichen pullus Schreb. (Parmelia pulla, Xanthoparmelia pulla) against L. pullus Neck. (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) with a conserved type. - Taxon, 2004: 1-2. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.13153.
The well-established name Xanthoparmelia pulla (Schreb.) O. Blanco & al. (or sometimes Neofuscelia pulla (Schreb.) Essl.) has been used to refer to a common, brown, foliose saxicolous lichen. The basionym had, however, long been considered to be Parmelia pulla Ach. (Syn. Meth. Lich.: 206. 1814), and so the type had been assumed to be an Acharian collection. A specimen of Parmelia pulla in H-ACH 1420D (= H9502152) conforming to current usage was therefore designated as lectotype by Esslinger & Ahti (in Revista Fac. Ci. Univ. Lisboa, ser. 2, C, Ci. Nat. 17: 728 & fig. 1. [“1973”] 1975). However, one of us (L.A.) pointed out that this was incorrect, as Acharius’s species name was intended as a new combination based on Lichen pullus Schreb. (Spic. Fl. Lips.: 131. 1771) as that name was listed as a synonym. It is therefore necessary to address the status and typification of the intended basionym to fix the application of Acharius’s name.
36356Lackovičová A., Fačkovcová Z. & Paoli L. (2022): [Životné jubileá:] Mgr. Anna Bérešová (rod. Guttová), PhD. – 50 rokov činorodého života. - Bulletin Slovenskej botanickej spoločnosti, 44: 121–136. .
Anniversary; Biography; Bibliography.
36355Paulsen J., Allen J.L., Morris N., Dorey J., Walke J.B. & Alter S.E. (2024): Geography, climate, and habitat shape the microbiome of the endangered Rock Gnome Lichen (Cetradonia linearis). - Diversity, 16(3): 178 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d16030178.
Bacterial symbionts are essential components of healthy biological systems. They are increasingly recognized as important factors in the study and management of threatened species and ecosystems. Despite management shifts at the ecosystem level, microbial communities are often neglected in discussions of holobiont conservation in favor of the primary members of a symbiosis. In this study, we addressed the bacterial community knowledge gap for one of two federally endangered lichen species in the United States, Cetradonia linearis (Cladoniaceae). We collected 28 samples of the endangered rock gnome lichen (Cetradonia linearis) from 13 sites and characterized bacterial communities in thalli using 16S rRNA metabarcoding to investigate the factors influencing the microbiome composition and diversity within the thallus. We found that Proteobacteria (37.8% ± 10.3) and Acidobacteria (25.9% ± 6.0) were the most abundant phyla recovered. Cyanobacteria were a major component of the microbiome in some individuals, despite this species associating with a green algal symbiont. Habitat, climate, and geography were all found to have significant influences on bacterial community composition. An analysis of the core microbiome at a 90% threshold revealed shared amplicon sequence variants in the microbiomes of other lichens in the family Cladoniaceae. We concluded that the bacterial microbiome of Cetradonia linearis is influenced by environmental factors and that some bacterial taxa may be core to this group. Further exploration into the microbiomes of rare lichen species is needed to understand the importance of bacterial symbionts to lichen diversity and distributions. Keywords: Appalachian Mountains; conservation genetics; endemic species; rare species.
36354Svensson M., Ekman S., Arup U., Eide Ekman L., Hammarström O., Isaksson R., Jonsson F., Palice Z., Vicente R. & Westberg M. (2024): Further additions to the Swedish flora of lichenised fungi. - Graphis Scripta, 36(2): 15–49. .
We report 22 lichenised fungi as new to Sweden, of which nine are also new to Fennoscandia and one new to Europe. The newly reported species are Agonimia flabelliformis, Carneothele sphagnicola, Lecania madida, Lecanora horiza, L. subravida, L. subsaligna, Lecidea subhumida, L. toensbergii, Micarea coppinsii, M. isidioprasina, M. microsorediata, M. pseudotsugae, M. substipitata, Miriquidica majae, Protoblastenia calvella, P. szaferi, Ptychographa xylographoides, Ramboldia subcinnabarina, Verrucaria hydrophila, V. prominula, and V. rosula. We revised Swedish specimens of Normandina acroglypta and found that all but one belong to N. chlorococca, which is reported as new to Sweden. We also publish new records of the anamorphic, possibly lichenised fungus Sphaeronaema truncatum, a long-forgotten taxon originally described from Sweden 200 years ago.
36353Francesconi L., Conti M., Gheza G., Martellos S., Nimis P.L., Vallese C. & Nascimbene J. (2024): The Dolichens database: the lichen biota of the Dolomites. - MycoKeys, 103: 25–35. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.103.115462.
The Dolichens project provides the first dynamic inventory of the lichens of the Dolo- mites (Eastern Alps, Italy). Occurrence records were retrieved from published and grey literature, reviewed herbaria, unpublished records collected by the authors, and new sampling campaigns, covering a period from 1820 to 2022. Currently, the dataset con- tains 56,251 records, referring to 1,719 infrageneric taxa, reported from 1820 to 2022, from hilly to nival belts, and corresponding to about half of the species known for the whole Alpine chain. Amongst them, 98% are georeferenced, although most of them were georeferenced a posteriori. The dataset is available through the Global Biodiversity In- formation Facility (GBIF; https://www.gbif.org/es/dataset/cea3ee2c-1ff1-4f8e-bb37- a99600cb4134) and through the Dolichens website (https://italic.units.it/dolichens/). We expect that this open floristic inventory will contribute to tracking the lichen diversity of the Dolomites over the past 200 years, and providing the basis for future taxonomic, biogeographical, and ecological studies. Key words: Georeferencing, herbarium specimens, historical records, lichen diversity, occurrence, open inventory.
36352Conti M., Martellos S., Moro A., Nimis P.L. & Puntillo D. (2024): The dataset of the CLU lichen herbarium (Calabria, Italy). - Biodiversity Data Journal, 12: e116965 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.12.e116965.
Background: Calabria, the southernmost tip of the Italian Peninsula, is a biogeographically very interesting region for lichenologists, characterised by the abundance of oceanic and suboceanic species with subtropical affinities, but also by the presence of the southernmost outposts of several boreal species on the highest peaks. The lichen biota of Calabria, which began to be intensively studied only from the 1980s, hosts more than 1000 infrageneric taxa. The lichen herbarium of the Botanical Garden of the University of Calabria (CLU) is the most relevant lichen collection from this region. It was established in 1985 and it presently includes 16926 specimens, most of which were collected in Calabria, although there are also several specimens from other parts of Italy and from abroad. New information: This dataset contains 16926 records of lichens for a total of 1316 species. Of the 15219 georeferenced specimens, 10254 were collected in Calabria, while 4965 in other administrative regions of Italy. The dataset is available through GBIF, as well as in ITALIC, the Information System of Italian Lichens. Keywords: occurrence, Calabria, Italy, lichenised fungi, specimen.
36351Iacovelli R., He T., Allen J.L., Hackl T. & Haslinger K. (2024): Genome sequencing and molecular networking analysis of the wild fungus Anthostomella pinea reveal its ability to produce a diverse range of secondary metabolites. - Fungal Biology and Biotechnology, 11: 1 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40694-023-00170-1.
Background: Filamentous fungi are prolific producers of bioactive molecules and enzymes with important applications in industry. Yet, the vast majority of fungal species remain undiscovered or uncharacterized. Here we focus our attention to a wild fungal isolate that we identified as Anthostomella pinea. The fungus belongs to a complex polyphyletic genus in the family of Xylariaceae, which is known to comprise endophytic and pathogenic fungi that produce a plethora of interesting secondary metabolites. Despite that, Anthostomella is largely understudied and only two species have been fully sequenced and characterized at a genomic level. Results: In this work, we used long-read sequencing to obtain the complete 53.7 Mb genome sequence including the full mitochondrial DNA. We performed extensive structural and functional annotation of coding sequences, including genes encoding enzymes with potential applications in biotechnology. Among others, we found that the genome of A. pinea encodes 91 biosynthetic gene clusters, more than 600 CAZymes, and 164 P450s. Furthermore, untargeted metabolomics and molecular networking analysis of the cultivation extracts revealed a rich secondary metabolism, and in particular an abundance of sesquiterpenoids and sesquiterpene lactones. We also identified the polyketide antibiotic xanthoepocin, to which we attribute the anti–Gram-positive effect of the extracts that we observed in antibacterial plate assays. Conclusions: Taken together, our results provide a first glimpse into the potential of Anthostomella pinea to provide new bioactive molecules and biocatalysts and will facilitate future research into these valuable metabolites. Keywords: Fungal genomics, Natural products, Sesquiterpenes, Molecular networking, Antibiotics, Lichen.
36350Hernández J.M., de la Fournière E.M., Ramos C.P., Debray M.E., Plá R.R., Jasan R.C., Invernizzi R., Rodríguez Brizuela L.G. & Cañas M.S. (2024): Contribution of Mine‑Derived Airborne Particulate Matter to Ca, Fe, Mn and S Content and Distribution in the Lichen Punctelia hypoleucites Transplanted to Bajo de la Alumbrera Mine, Catamarca (Argentina). - Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 86: 140–151. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-024-01053-1.
The aim of this work was to relate the contribution of mine-derived airborne particulate matter to Ca, Fe, Mn and S content and distribution in Punctelia hypoleucites transplanted to Bajo de la Alumbrera, an important open-pit mine in Catamarca, Argentina. Lichen samples were transplanted to four monitoring sites: two sites inside the mine perimeter and two sites outside the mine. After three months, elemental distribution in samples was analyzed by microparticle-induced X-ray emission (microPIXE), and elemental concentration was determined by specifc techniques: Ca and Fe by instrumental neutron activation analysis, Mn by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and S by a turbidimetric method. A diferential distribution of S and Ca in thalli transplanted in-mine sites was detected compared to that of samples transplanted outside-mine sites. An overlap of Fe and S in the upper cortex of the apothecium section was observed, leading to infer a mineral association of both elements. Similar association was observed for Ca and S. In addition to these results, the signifcantly higher concentration detected for S and Mn in in-mine site samples suggests a contribution of Fe, S, Ca and Mn of mining origin to the content and distribution of these elements in P. hypoleucites. MicroPIXE complemented with Mössbauer spectroscopy analysis determined the presence of pyrite particles together with other iron-bearing minerals displaying diferent degrees of oxidation. These results point to a mining origin of the airborne particulate matter trapped by the lichen thalli transplanted to Bajo de la Alumbrera. These fndings indicate that P. Hypoleucites acts as an excellent air quality biomonitor in the Bajo de la Alumbrera mine area.
36349Asghar H.S., Nadeem M., Oryakhil N., Fayyaz I., Niazi A.R., Afshan N.-S., Naseer A. & Khalid A.N. (2024): Two new species of Lecaimmeria (lichenized Ascomycota, Lecideaceae) from Asia. - Mycological Progress, 23: 13 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-024-01954-4.
Two new species of the lichen genus Lecaimmeria are described and illustrated from Pakistan, namely, Lecaimmeria asiatica and L. crispula. The former taxon is characterized by pale brown to dark brown thallus, up to 2-mm large areoles, fat to strongly convex apothecial disc, taller hymenium 120–150 µm, apically branched, not anastomosing paraphyses, large conidia 5–7×1.1–1.4 µm, with respect to ecology, and the absence of secondary metabolites, whereas L. crispula can be characterized by having a light brown to chocolate brown thallus, apothecia having fat to slightly concave discs with wavy margins that curl inward, a tall hymenium150–180 μm, branched and anastomosing paraphyses, large ascospores 25–33×12–17 μm, and absence of secondary metabolites. A phylogenetic analysis is provided based on nrITS and nrLSU sequences that support the separation of both novel species. Comparative analyses with related species of Lecaimmeria are provided to confrm the status of these species. Keywords: Khyber Pakhtunkhwa · Phylogeny · Taxonomy · Lecideaceae · Lichens · Sharan.
36348Cho M., Lee S.J., Choi E., Kim J., Choi S., Lee J.H. & Park H. (2024): An Antarctic lichen isolate (Cladonia borealis) genome reveals potential adaptation to extreme environments. - Scientific Reports, 14: 1342 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-024-51895-x.
Cladonia borealis is a lichen that inhabits Antarctica’s harsh environment. We sequenced the whole genome of a C. borealis culture isolated from a specimen collected in Antarctica using long-read sequencing technology to identify specific genetic elements related to its potential environmental adaptation. The final genome assembly produced 48 scafolds, the longest being 2.2 Mbp, a 1.6 Mbp N50 contig length, and a 36 Mbp total length. A total of 10,749 protein-coding genes were annotated, containing 33 biosynthetic gene clusters and 102 carbohydrate-active enzymes. A comparative genomics analysis was conducted on six Cladonia species, and the genome of C. borealis exhibited 45 expanded and 50 contracted gene families. We identified that C. borealis has more Copia transposable elements and expanded transporters (ABC transporters and magnesium transporters) compared to other Cladonia species. Our results suggest that these differences contribute to C. borealis’ remarkable adaptability in the Antarctic environment. This study also provides a useful resource for the genomic analysis of lichens and genetic insights into the survival of species isolated from Antarctica.
36347Bakacsy L. & Szepesi Á. (2024): A case study on the early stage of Pinus nigra invasion and its impact on species composition and pattern in Pannonic sand grassland. - Scientific Reports, 14: 5125 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-024-55811-1.
Alien woody species are successful invaders, frequently used for aforestation in regions like semi-arid lands. Shrubs and trees create important microhabitats in arid areas. Understorey vegetation in these habitats has unique species composition and coexistence. However, the impact of solitary woody species on understorey vegetation is less understood. This study evaluated the effect of native (Juniperus communis) and invasive solitary conifers (Pinus nigra) on surrounding vegetation, where individuals were relatively isolated (referred to as solitary conifers). The field study conducted in Pannonic dry sand grassland in 2018 recorded plant and lichen species presence around six selected solitary conifers. Composition and pattern of understorey vegetation were assessed using 26 m belt transects with 520 units of 5 cm× 5 cm contiguous microquadrats. Compositional diversity (CD) and the number of realized species combinations (NRC) were calculated from the circular transects. Results showed native conifer J. communis created more complex, organized microhabitats compared to alien P. nigra. CD and NRC values were significantly higher under native conifers than invasive ones (p = 0.045 and p = 0.026, respectively). Native species also had more species with a homogeneous pattern than the alien species. Alien conifers negatively afected understorey vegetation composition and pattern: some species exhibited significant gaps and clusters of occurrences along the transects under P. nigra. Based on our study, the removal of invasive woody species is necessary to sustain habitat diversity.
36346Wierzcholska S., Łubek A., Dyderski M.K., Horodecki P., Rawlik M. & Jagodziński A.M. (2024): Light availability and phorophyte identity drive epiphyte species richness and composition in mountain temperate forests. - Ecological Informatics, 80: 102475 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2024.102475.
Bryophytes and lichens are the most species-rich groups of epiphytes in temperate forests. They colonise different tree species that create a wide variety of microhabitats, and conditions in these microhabitats are modulated by different factors. We assessed drivers that create and maintain epiphyte species richness and diversity of bryophytes and lichens along tree species composition gradients. We hypothesised that tree species composition influences the diversity of lichens and bryophytes. The study was conducted on 31 plots along the Kudowski Potok River (SW Poland). Each plot was a 500 m2 circle (r = 12.62 m), along the banks of the stream. These sites are among the best-preserved remnants of a mountain landscape with a high diversity of forest types, representing a transition from the planted Picea abies secondary communities to broadleaved forests (potential natural vegetation). We analysed the tree species composition gradient using PCA, and we measured diffuse light availability. We assessed differences in epiphyte species richness among tree species using generalized linear mixed-effects models and species composition gradients of epiphytes using redundancy analysis. We found that tree species composition and light availability affected the composition of both bryophyte and lichen species. Moreover, lichen and bryophyte species richness were positively correlated. Broadleaved trees such as Acer pseudoplatanus and Fraxinus excelsior clearly increase the number of epiphytic bryophytes and lichen species in spruce stands. Deciduous trees left in management forests serve as a reservoir for epiphytic bryophytes and lichens. Our results indicate the importance of refuges composed of diverse deciduous trees that increase the biodiversity in commercial forests.
36345Schmidt M., Kriebitzsch W.-U. & Ewald J. (2011): Waldartenlisten der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen, Moose und Flechten Deutschlands – Einführung und methodische Grundlagen. - In: Schmidt M., Kriebitzsch W.-U. & Ewald J. (eds), Waldartenlisten der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen, Moose und Flechten Deutschlands. BfN-Skripten, 299: 1–13. .
36344Schmidt M., Culmsee H., Boch S., Heinken T., Müller J. & Schmiedel I. (2011): Anwendungsmöglichkeiten von Waldartenlisten für Gefäßpflanzen, Moose und Flechten. - In: Schmidt M., Kriebitzsch W.-U. & Ewald J. (eds), Waldartenlisten der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen, Moose und Flechten Deutschlands. BfN-Skripten, 299: 25–45. .
36343Schmidt M., Kriebitzsch W.-U. & Ewald J. (2012): Anwendungsperspektiven für Waldartenlisten der Gefäßpflanzen, Moose und Flechten Deutschlands. - Forstarchiv, 83: 155–159. DOI 10.4432/0300-4112-83-155.
Key words: lists of forest plant species, assessment, conservation, forest affinity, vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens.
36342Bültmann H., Scholz P., Teuber D., Feuerer T., Fischer P., Boch S., Bradtka J.H., Cezanne R., Dolnik C., Drehwald U., Eichler M., Ewald J., Heinken T., Hobohm C., Jansen F., Kriebitzsch W.-U., Loos G.H., Otte V, Paul A., Printzen C., Schmidt M., Sparrius L. & Waesch G. (2011): Waldartenliste der Flechten Deutschlands. - In: Schmidt M., Kriebitzsch W.-U. & Ewald J. (eds), Waldartenlisten der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen, Moose und Flechten Deutschlands. BfN-Skripten, 299: 89–107. .
Die nachfolgende Waldartenliste der Flechten Deutschlands umfasst 1.002 Taxa und damit 51 % der bundesweit nach WIRTH et al. (2010) vorkommenden Flechtensippen. Die Benennung richtet sich grundsätzlich nach SCHOLZ (2000), mit Ausnahme folgender Taxa, bei denen die Nomenklatur WIRTH et al. (2010) folgt: Agonimia opuntiella (Buschardt & Poelt) Vĕzda, Arthopyrenia carneobrunneola Coppins, Bacidia carneoglauca (Nyl.) A. L. Smith, Bacidina brandii (Coppins & van den Boom) M. Hauck & V. Wirth, Biatora ligni-mollis T. Sprib. & Printzen, Bryoria furcellata (Fr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw., Bryoria simplicior (Vain.) Brodo & D. Hawksw., Fellhanera ochracea Sparrius & Aptroot, Gyalidea diaphana (Körber ex Nyl.) Vĕzda, Heterodermia japonica (M. Satô) Swinscow & Krog, Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta (Krog & Swinscow) Krog & Swinscow, Lecania croatica (Zahlbr.) Kotlov, Lecanora filamentosa (Stirt.) Elix & Palice, Lecanora ramulicola (H. Magn.) Printzen & P. F. May, Lecanora thysanophora R. C. Harris, Lecidea grisella Flörke, Lepraria bergensis Tønsberg, Lepraria crassissima (Hue) Lettau, Lepraria obtusata Tønsberg, Menegazzia subsimilis (H. Magn.) R. Sant., Micarea micrococca (Körb.) Gams ex Coppins, Micarea viridileprosa Coppins & van den Boom, Myochroidea porphyrospoda (Anzi) Printzen, T. Sprib. & Tønsberg, Parmelia ernstiae Feuerer & A. Thell, Parmelia serrana A. Crespo, M. C. Molina & D. Hawksw., Peltigera monticola Vitik., Ramonia interjecta Coppins, Thelenella pertusariella (Nyl.) Vain., Thelocarpon saxicola (Zahlbr.) H. Magn., Trapeliopsis glaucolepidea (Nyl.) Gotth. Schneid., Usnea silesiaca Motyka, Vezdaea stipitata Poelt & Döbbeler, Xanthoparmelia protomatrae (Gyeln.) Hale und Zahlbrucknerella calcarea (Herre) Herre. Taxonomischer Bezug für Bacidia adastra ist SPARRIUS & APTROOT (2003). Die methodischen Grundlagen sind ausführlich bei SCHMIDT et al. (2011) dargestellt.
36341Kubiak D. (2024): “Sosny Taborskie” nature reserve as a refuge for rare and threatened forest lichens. - Folia Forestalia Polonica, Series A – Forestry, 66(1): 8–21. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7266-0647.
The article presents the results of a lichenological inventory carried out in the “Tabórz Pine” nature reserve, which protects a unique old-growth forest dominated by Scots pine and European beech. The aim of the research was to document the taxonomic and ecological diversity of the lichen biota in the reserve and, on this basis, determine the role and importance of this site as a refuge for stenoecious forest lichens. In an area of 95.32 ha, 118 species of lichens were found, including 43 species included in the Polish national Red List along with 17 species having the status of lowland old-growth forests in Poland. These values allow the reserve to be included in the group of important forest lichen refuges in north-eastern Poland. The obtained results also prove that mixing tree species with complementary ecological features can modify the functioning of the forest not only in terms of its economic features, but also its ecological role in shaping and protecting the species diversity of forest lichens. Key words: lichenized fungi, old-growth forest, protected area, species list.
36340Maccarelli L., Schaeffer T.T., Smith G.D. & Chen V.J. (2024): Components of mid-nineteenth- and mid-twentieth-century cudbears. - Heritage, 7(3): 1357–1371. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7030065.
Analysis of purple dyestuff from a tin labeled “1 oz. Cudbear, No. 1 N. F. Powdered”, marketed by the American business S. B. Penick & Company, “Manufacturers of fine drugs and chemicals”, confirmed that the material was indeed a lichen dyestuff. It contains the same major orcein components identified in several other lichen dyes and dyed samples dating from the mid-19th century to today. These dyestuffs were analyzed using several analytical techniques. Fluorescence and fiber optic reflectance spectroscopic data for all the samples were similar. High performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to mass spectrometry confirmed that this commercial American cudbear was very similar to the samples from the United Kingdom but rather different from the archil-dyed reference yarns from Europe. The significance of the observations is discussed, and chemical structures are proposed for several of the unknown dye components detected in this study. Keywords: lichen dyes; HPLC–DAD–MS; UV/Vis spectroscopy; fluorescence spectroscopy; historic sample book.
36339Moya P., Chiva S., Pazos T., Barreno E., Carrasco P., Muggia L. & Garrido-Benavent I. (2024): Myco–phycobiont interactions within the “Ramalina farinacea group”: A geographical survey over Europe and Macaronesia. - Journal of Fungi, 10(3): 206 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof10030206.
Ramalina farinacea is a widely distributed epiphytic lichen from the Macaronesian archipelagos to Mediterranean and Boreal Europe. Previous studies have indicated a specific association between R. farinacea and Trebouxia microalgae species. Here, we examined the symbiotic interactions in this lichen and its closest allies (the so-called “R. farinacea group”) across ten biogeographic subregions, spanning diverse macroclimates, analyzing the climatic niche of the primary phycobionts, and discussing the specificity of these associations across the studied area. The most common phycobionts in the “R. farinacea group” were T. jamesii and T. lynnae, which showed a preference for continentality and insularity, respectively. The Canarian endemic R. alisiosae associated exclusively with T. lynnae, while the other Ramalina mycobionts interacted with both microalgae. The two phycobionts exhibited extensive niche overlap in an area encompassing Mediterranean, temperate Europe, and Macaronesian localities. However, T. jamesii occurred in more diverse climate types, whereas T. lynnae preferred warmer and more humid climates, often close to the sea, which could be related to its tolerance to salinity. With the geographical perspective gained in this study, it was possible to show how the association with different phycobionts may shape the ecological adaptation of lichen symbioses. Keywords: Ascomycota; climatic niche; haplotype; lichenized fungi; Macaronesia; microalgae; Trebouxia jamesii; Trebouxia lynnae.
36338Pląskowska E., Patejuk K., Lorenc M.W. & Grzeszczuk J. (2024): Lichens and Fungi on Sandstone Tombs at the Historical Jewish Cemetery in Wrocław (Poland). - Studies in Conservation, 69(1): 58–66. https://doi.org/10.1080/00393630.2023.2174396.
Microflora inhabiting rock surfaces, including bacteria, fungi, algae, and lichens, form a specific kind of an ecosystem. Unique and not well known forms of this environment are old cemetery tombs. To better understand such environments, lichenological and mycological studies were conducted in the old Jewish cemetery in Wrocław, Poland. The research covered 13 tombstones made of several varieties of sandstone. This research shows that some gravestones made of sandstone from Wartowice were strongly populated by fungi. Physical and chemical properties of the stone as well as the quality of the starting raw material were favourable for this deterioration process to occur. The most frequently recorded lichens were: Psilolechia lucida, Verrucaria nigricans, and Lepraria sp. The species of fungi most frequently found on the monuments were: Cladosporium herbarium, Aspergillus niger, and Alternaria alternata. The aim of the study was to detect the mycobiota living on tombstones in the historical Jewish cemetery in Wrocław, which contains stones originating from Lower Silesian quarries that now exhibit traces of biodegeneration. Keywords: Cemetery; biodeterioration; decay; fungi; lichens; sandstone; tombs.
36337Jung P., Baumann K., Emrich D., Schermer M., Eckhardt K.-U., Jandl G., Leinweber P., Harion F., Wruck A., Grube M., Büdel B. & Lakatos M. (2024): The dark side of orange: Multiorganismic continuum dynamics within a lichen of the Atacama Desert. - Mycologia, 116(1): 44–58. https://doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2023.2263148.
Over the decades our understanding of lichens has shifted to the fact that they are multiorganismic, symbiotic microecosystems, with their complex interactions coming to the fore due to recent advances in microbiomics. Here, we present a mutualistic-parasitic continuum dynamics scenario between an orange lichen and a lichenicolous fungus from the Atacama Desert leading to the decay of the lichen’s photobiont and leaving behind a black lichen thallus. Based on isolation, sequencing, and ecophysiological approaches including metabolic screenings of the symbionts, we depict consequences upon infection with the lichenicolous fungus. This spans from a loss of the lichen’s photosynthetic activity and an increased roughness of its surface to an inhibition of the parietin synthesis as a shared pathway between the photobiont and the mycobiont, including a shift of secondary metabolism products. This degree of relations has rarely been documented before, although lichenicolous fungi have been studied for over 200 years, adding an additional level to the view of interactions within lichens. Keywords: Caloplaca; Didymocyrtis; Dothideomycetes; Py-FIMS; Trebouxia; Wetmoreana; lichenicolous fungi.
36336Westberg M., Wedin M. & Svensson M. (2024): Myriospora molybdina comb. nov. and the identity of Acarospora hysgina. - Nordic Journal of Botany, 2024: e04269. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/njb.04269.
The nomenclature and taxonomy of Acarospora molybdina is revised using morphological and molecular data. The new combination Myriospora molybdina is proposed and Acarospora hysgina is recognized as a distinct species while A. brunneola is reduced to synonymy with A. hysgina. In its new circumscription M. molybdina is an arctic species, in Scandinavia only occurring in northernmost Norway. Further localities are reported from Greenland, Russia, Svalbard and the USA (Alaska). Acarospora hysgina is the correct name for a species distributed along the west coast of Sweden and Norway, formerly thought to belong to A. molybdina. Localities are also reported from Canada (New Brunswick), Greenland and the USA (Maine). The following names are lectotypified: Acarospora brunneola, A. molybdina var. confusa, Lecanora ereutica ? microcyclos, Parmelia ereutica, P. hysgina and P. molybdina. Acarosporaceae, beta-tubulin, ITS, Lecanoromycetes, lichens, mrSSU, phylogeny
36335Vagle G.L., Lendemer J.C., Manzitto-Tripp E.A. & McCain C.M. (2024): Patterns and predictors of lichen rarity in a biodiversity hotspot. - Biodiversity and Conservation, (2024): 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-024-02795-z.
Understanding the spatial distributions of rarity and diversity is crucial for both targeted conservation efforts and elucidating the mechanisms that underpin species richness patterns. Existing studies suggest local communities with greater species richness also hold higher numbers of low abundance species. Rarity hotspots at the global scale tend to be spatially divergent from species richness hotspots and differ among many taxonomic groups, but much less work has been done to understand rarity patterns at the regional scale. Here, we used a large-scale dataset of comprehensive lichen diversity from a global biodiversity hotspot in eastern North America to explore the relationships of rarity, species richness, and elevation, while also examining the key plot characteristics that support increased rarity within the system. We found a mid-elevation slump in lichen rarity, with increased rarity at low and high elevations, contrasting with the mid-elevation hump in species richness for lichens in the same system. Additionally, important plot-level predictors of rarity changed with elevation. Rocky, open habitats hosted increased levels of rarity at low elevations, and the highest, coldest plots at the high elevations also hosted increased levels of rarity. Our results illustrate a contrast between elevational patterns and important plot characteristics for lichen rarity and species richness, suggesting a need for separate, complementary conservation efforts to protect both areas with high species richness and areas with high numbers of rare species.
36334Gillespie L.J., Sokoloff P.C., Levin G.A., Doubt J. & McMullin R.T. (2024): Vascular plant, bryophyte, and lichen biodiversity of Agguttinni Territorial Park, Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada: an annotated species checklist of a new Arctic protected area. - Check List, 20(2): 279-443. https://doi.org/10.15560/20.2.279.
Agguttinni Territorial Park is a large, newly established park on the east-central coast of Baffin Island in Nunavut, Canada. Previous knowledge of the plant and lichen biodiversity was limited and based mostly on collections made during the 1950 Baffin Island Expedition. We conducted a floristic inventory of the park in 2021 and re-examined previous collections. We recorded 141 species of vascular plants belonging to 25 families, 69 species of bryophytes in 27 families, and 93 species of lichens in 23 families. Most of the vascular plant and bryophyte species are new records for the park area, and some vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens are newly reported for Baffin Island, Nunavut, or the Canadian Arctic or represent significant range extensions. Vascular plant species diversity varied greatly among localities, with inland valleys at the heads of fiords showing highest diversity and interior rocky barrens showing the lowest.
36333Боровичев Е.А., Кожин М.Н., Ахмерова Д.Р., Кириллова Н.Р., Копеина Е.И., Королева Н.Е., Кравченко А.В., Мелехин А.В., Разумовская А.В., Сандалова Е.В., Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Химич Ю.Р. [Borovichev E.A., Kozhin M.N., Akhmerova D.R., Kirillova N.R., Kopeina E.I., Koroleva N.E., Kravchenko A.V., Melekhin A.V., Razumovskaya A.V., Sandalova E.V., Urbanavichus G.P. & Khimich Yu.R] (2024): Значимые находки растений, лишайников и грибов на территории Мурманской области. VII [Noteworthy records of plants, lichens and fungi in Murmansk Region. VII]. - Труды Карельского научного центра РАН, Серия "Биология", Петрозаводск [Transactions of the Karelian Research Centre of Russian Academy of Science, ser. Biology, Petrozavodsk], 2024/1: 82–97. https://doi.org/10.17076/bg1871.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Ninety-seven important findings of 66 species of vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens and fungi acquired lately from the Murmansk Region are reported. The findings were defined as important if they were red-listed in Russia and/or Murmansk Region, new for the protected areas, represented other particularly rare species known from not more than five locations in Murmansk Region as well as northernmost localities in Europe or globally. Three fungal species (Artomyces pyxidatus, Cyanosporus alni, Hericium cirrhatum) and eight lichens (Aspicilia pergibbosa, Biatora ocelliformis, Catapyrenium daedaleum, Lathagrium undulatum, Lecania cyrtella, Lempholemma isidiodes, Pyrenopsis furfurea, P. haemaleella) were found in the region for the second time. The article confirms the information on four species occurrence in Murmansk Region (Gyalolechia bracteata, Lempholemma intricatum, Pyrenopsis haematina, Solorina bispora), previously documented in the collections of the 19th and the first half of the 20th centuries. Nine species of lichens and fungi were recorded in the Kutsa Nature Reserve (Sanctuary) for the first time; 17 species of lichens, fungi and plants turned out to be new for the Khibiny Mountains. New data are reported about regionally red-listed species (Sidera lenis, Catapyrenium daedaleum, Fuscopannaria confuse, Chaenotheca subroscida, Solorina bispora, Buxbaumia aphylla, Kurzia pauciflora, Prasanthus suecicus, Scapania umbrosa, Aconitum septentrionale, Arctanthemum hultenii, Arnica fennoscandica, Astragalus norvegicus, Beckwithia glacialis, Carex glacialis, Chrysosplenium tetrandrum, Comastoma tenellum, Cotoneaster antoninae, C. cinnabarinus, C. laxiflorus, Epilobium alsinifolium, Eutrema edwardsii, Gastrolychnis apetala, Hedysarum arcticum, Pilosella erratica, Pinguicula villosa, Pseudorchis albida, Ranunculus sulphureus, Saxifraga tenuis, Salix nummularia, Taraxacum nivale, Trisetum spicatum, Veronica fruticans) as well as rare species in Murmansk Region (Phellodon niger, Steccherinum fimbriatum, Peniophora erikssonii, Cystostereum murrayi, Ainoa mooreana, Biatora chrysantha, Chaenothecopsis nana, Microcalicium disseminatum, Porina chlorotica, Protoblastenia rupestris, Rhexophiale rhexoblephara, Schadonia alpine, Scytinium imbricatum, Sporodictyon terrestre, Verrucaria latebrosa, Alchemilla propinqua, A. sarmatica, Cirsium palustre, Lysimachia vulgaris). Keywords: vascular plants; bryophytes; lichens; fungi; new records; rare species; Red Data Book.
36332Raynor S.J., Kesler J., Allen J.R. & Manzitto-Tripp E.A. (2023): New and noteworthy reports on Colorado lichens and lichen allies, 2: Biatoropsis hirtae and B. minuta. - Western North American Naturalist, 83(4): 454–461. https://doi.org/10.3398/064.083.0403.
Biatoropsis hirtae and B. minuta are reported from Colorado, to our knowledge for the first time. These species were found growing on thalli of Usnea hirta and U. perplexans, respectively, during recent specimen collecting by the authors in the Front Range Mountains of north-central Colorado. The occurrences of these species throughout North America are likely more common and geographically broader than presently understood owing to frequent overlooking of populations. We provide discussion of their geographical ranges as presently understood and other notes of interest regarding species of Biatoropsis known from the United States.
36331Liu R., Paguirigan J.A., Hur J.S. & Kim W. (2024): Cercosporamide, a polyketide-derived fungal metabolite, serves as an antifungal agent against phytopathogenic fungi. - Mycoscience, 65(1): 19-27. https://doi.org/10.47371/mycosci.2023.11.002.
An endophytic fungus, Phoma sp. NG-25, produces a set of structurally related polyketides including cercosporamide, phomodione, and usnic acid, among which, cercosporamide has been reported to have strong antifungal and anticancer activities. In this study, Phoma sp. NG-25 was grown in seven growth media to determine the optimal culture condition conducive for cercosporamide production. Cercosporamide production peaked on the eighteenth day of incubation in beef peptone dextrose (BPD) broth media. The cercosporamide titer reached to an average of 77.5 mu g/mL in BPD. Paper disk diffusion assay revealed that culture filtrate containing cercosporamide as a major constituent inhibited the growth of taxonomically diverse plant pathogens, including ascomycetous, basidiomycetous, and oomycete fungi. Cercosporamide exhibited strong antifungal activities against two pepper anthracnose pathogens, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. scovillei with EC50 values of 3.8 and 7.0 mu g/mL, respectively. This study suggests the potential application of cercosporamide as an effective antifungal agent in controlling anthracnose in pepper. antifungal activity, cercosporamide, Didymella, pepper anthracnose, secondary metabolite, colletotrichum-scovillei, 1st report, anthracnose, pepper, identification, inhibition, resistance, Mycology
36330Jung P.T., Briegel-Williams L., Werner L., Jost E., Schultz M., Nuernberg D.J., Grube M. & Lakatos M. (2024): A direct PCR approach with low-biomass insert opens new horizons for molecular sciences on cryptogam communities. - Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2024: 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.00024-24.
Molecular sequence data have transformed research on cryptogams (e.g., lichens, microalgae, fungi, and symbionts thereof) but methods are still strongly hampered by the small size and intermingled growth of the target organisms, poor cultivability and detrimental effects of their secondary metabolites. Here, we aim to showcase examples on which a modified direct PCR approach for diverse aspects of molecular work on environmental samples concerning biocrusts, biofilms, and cryptogams gives new options for the research community. Unlike traditional approaches, this methodology only requires biomass equivalent to colonies and fragments of 0.2 mm in diameter, which can be picked directly from the environmental sample, and includes a quick DNA lysis followed by a standardized PCR cycle that allows co-cycling of various organisms/target regions in the same run. We demonstrate that this modified method can (i) amplify the most widely used taxonomic gene regions and those used for applied and environmental sciences from single colonies and filaments of free-living cyanobacteria, bryophytes, fungi, and lichens, including their mycobionts, chlorobionts, and cyanobionts from both isolates and in situ material during co-cycling; (ii) act as a tool to confirm that the dominant lichen photobiont was isolated from the original sample; and (iii) optionally remove inhibitory secondary lichen substances. Our results represent examples which highlight the method's potential for future applications covering mycology, phycology, biocrusts, and lichenology, in particular.IMPORTANCECyanobacteria, green algae, lichens, and other cryptogams play crucial roles in complex microbial systems such as biological soil crusts of arid biomes or biofilms in caves. Molecular investigations on environmental samples or isolates of these microorganisms are often hampered by their dense aggregation, small size, or metabolism products which complicate DNA extraction and subsequent PCRs. Our work presents various examples of how a direct DNA extraction and PCR method relying on low biomass inserts can overcome these common problems and discusses additional applications of the workflow including adaptations. Cyanobacteria, green algae, lichens, and other cryptogams play crucial roles in complex microbial systems such as biological soil crusts of arid biomes or biofilms in caves. Molecular investigations on environmental samples or isolates of these microorganisms are often hampered by their dense aggregation, small size, or metabolism products which complicate DNA extraction and subsequent PCRs. Our work presents various examples of how a direct DNA extraction and PCR method relying on low biomass inserts can overcome these common problems and discusses additional applications of the workflow including adaptations. cyanobacteria, toxins, lichen symbionts, green algae, biocrusts, DNA extraction, ribosomal-rna, lichen, cyanobacteria, nov., identification, thallus, primers, life, Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology, Microbiology
36329Budak B., Kalin S.N. & Yapça Ö. (2024): Antiproliferative, antimigratory, and apoptotic effects of diffractaic and vulpinic acids as thioredoxin reductase 1 inhibitors on cervical cancer. - Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Archives of Pharmacology, 397(3): 1525-1535. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00210-023-02698-w.
Cervical cancer is among the most frequently observed cancer types in females. New therapeutic targets are needed because of the side impacts of existing cancer drugs and the inadequacy of treatment methods. Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) is often overexpressed in many cancer cells, and targeting TrxR1 has become an attractive target for cancer therapy. This study investigated the anticancer impacts of diffractaic and vulpinic acids, lichen secondary metabolites, on the cervical cancer HeLa cell line. XTT findings demonstrated showed that diffractaic and vulpinic acids suppressed the proliferation of HeLa cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and IC50 values were 22.52 mu g/ml and 66.53 mu g/ml at 48 h, respectively. Each of these lichen metabolites significantly suppressed migration. Diffractaic acid showed an increase in both the BAX/BCL2 ratio by qPCR analysis and the apoptotic cell population via flow cytometry analysis on HeLa cells. Concerning vulpinic acid, although it decreased the BAX/BCL2 ratio in this cells, it increased apoptotic cells according to the flow cytometry analysis results. Diffractaic and vulpinic acids significantly suppressed TrxR1 enzyme activity rather than the gene and protein expression levels in HeLa cells. This research demonstrated for the first time, that targeting TrxR1 with diffractaic and vulpinic acids was an effective therapeutic strategy for treating cervical cancer. Diffractaic acid, Vulpinic acid, Thioredoxin reductase 1, Anticancer, potential, Cervical cancer, cell-death, redox regulation, gene-expression, system, mechanisms, homeostasis, activation, invasion, selenium, Pharmacology & Pharmacy
36328Arcadia L. in (2023): (2995) Proposal to conserve the name Diplotomma chlorophaeum (Hepp ex Leight.) K.P. Singh & S.R. Singh against D. chlorophaeum Szatala (lichenized Ascomycota). - Taxon, 72(6): 1365–1366. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.13088.
The lichen originally described as Lecidea chlorophaea Hepp ex Leight. (Lich. Fl. Gr. Brit.: 328. 1871) belongs in Diplotomma according to current generic concepts. Szatala (in Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 48: 280. 1956) intended to make the combination D. chlorophaeum, but did not cite the place of publication of Leighton’s name and consequently his combination, as such, is not validly published (Art. 41.5, Turland & al. in Regnum Veg. 159. 2018). However, Szatala did include a Latin description, and his name is validly published as the name of a new species. He did not explicitly designate a type (see below), but, at that time, indication of a type was not a requirement for valid publication. The name D. chlorophaeum Szatala has always been used to refer to Leighton’s species.
36327Davydov E.A., Himelbrant D.E., Kuznetsova E.S., Stepanchikova I.S. & Yakovchenko L.S. (2024): Multilocus molecular phylogeny of the Umbilicaria aprina group (Umbilicariaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) supports species level and neo-endemic status of Umbilicaria krascheninnikovii. - Plants, 13(5): 729 [23 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13050729.
The Northeast Asian endemic species of lichen-forming fungus Umbilicaria krascheninnikovii is herein discussed in the global context of biogeography and phylogeny of the U. aprina group. The name U. krascheninnikovii has been erroneously used by lichenologists for Umbilicaria spp. from high latitudes or altitudes worldwide, as there are omphalodisc apothecia and rough “crystals” of a necral layer on the upper surface. To test the monophyly and phylogenetic relationships within the U. aprina group, four independent DNA regions (nrITS/5.8S, RPB2, mtLSU, and mtSSU) were used for six rare species, including a dozen specimens of U. krascheninnikovii from its locus classicus in Kamchatka. The study is based on the phylograms obtained using maximum likelihood and a Bayesian phylogenetic inference framework. As a result of phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses, it was shown that U. krascheninnikovii is a neo-endemic of the areas of modern volcanism in Kamchatka, Japan, as well as in the Kurile Islands, where this species was recorded for the first time. The morphology of U. krascheninnikovii is herein described and illustrated. Increasing the role of the sexual process and reducing asexual thalloconidiogenesis are shown to be apomorphic traits in the U. aprina group. The combination of sexual and asexual reproduction provides adaptive advantages in changing environmental conditions. Keywords: molecular phylogeny; morphology; thalloconidia; Umbilicaria polaris.
36326 Usman M., Dyer P.S., Brock M., Wade C.M. & Khalid A.N. (2024): Two novel species of arctic-alpine lichen-forming fungi (Ascomycota, Megasporaceae) from the Deosai Plains, Pakistan. - MycoKeys, 102: 285–299. https://doi. org/10.3897/mycokeys.102.113310.
Members of the lichen-forming fungal genus Oxneriaria are known to occur in cold polar and high altitudinal environments. Two new species, Oxneriaria crittendenii and O. deosaiensis, are now described from the high altitude Deosai Plains, Pakistan, based on phenotypic, multigene phylogenetic and chemical evidence. Phenotypically, O. crittendenii is characterised by orbicular light-brown thalli 1.5–5 cm across, spot tests (K, C, KC) negative, apothecia pruinose, hymenium initially blue then dark orange in response to Lugol’s solution. Oxneriaria deosaiensis is characterised by irregular areolate grey thalli 1.5–2 cm across, K test (light brown), KC test (dark brown), apothecia epruinose, hymenium initially blue then dark blue in response to Lugol’s solution. Both species share the same characters of thalli with black margins and polarilocular ascospores. The closest previously reported species, O. pruinosa, differs from O. crittendenii and O. deosaiensis in having non-lobate margins, thin thalline exciple (45–80 μm thick), short asci (55–80 × 25–42 μm) and K positive (yellow) and KC negative tests and divergent DNA sequence in the ITS, LSU and mt SSU regions. The newly-described Oxneriaria species add to growing evidence of the Deosai Plains as a region of important arctic-alpine biodiversity. Key words: Aspicilia, Gilgit-Baltistan, Himalaya, Karakorum, Maximum Likelihood, Pertusariales, Skardu.
36325Tejada-Purizaca T.R., Garcia-Chevesich P.A., Ticona-Quea J., Martínez G., Martínez K., Morales-Paredes L., Romero-Mariscal G., Arenazas-Rodríguez A., Vanzin G., Sharp J.O. & McCray J.E. (2024): Heavy metal bioaccumulation in Peruvian food and medicinal products. - Foods, 13(5): 762 [35 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050762.
To better query regional sources of metal(loid) exposure in an under-communicated region, available scientific literature from 50 national universities (undergraduate and graduate theses and dissertations), peer-reviewed journals, and reports published in Spanish and English were synthesized with a focus on metal(loid) bioaccumulation in Peruvian food and medicinal products utilized locally. The study considered 16 metal(loid)s that are known to exert toxic impacts on humans (Hg, Al, Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Sn, Ni, Ag, Pb, Se, Tl, Ti, and U). A total of 1907 individual analyses contained within 231 scientific publications largely conducted by Peruvian universities were analyzed. These analyses encompassed 239 reported species classified into five main food/medicinal groups—plants, fish, macroinvertebrates and mollusks, mammals, and “others” category. Our benchmark for comparison was the World Health Organization (Codex Alimentarius) standards. The organisms most frequently investigated included plants such as asparagus, corn, cacao, and rice; fish varieties like trout, tuna, and catfish; macroinvertebrates and mollusks including crab and shrimp; mammals such as alpaca, cow, chicken eggs, and milk; and other categories represented by propolis, honey, lichen, and edible frog. Bioaccumulation-related research increased from 2 to more than 25 publications per year between 2006 and 2022. The results indicate that Peruvian food and natural medicinal products can have dangerous levels of metal(loid)s, which can cause health problems for consumers. Many common and uncommon food/medicinal products and harmful metals identified in this analysis are not regulated on the WHO’s advisory lists, suggesting the urgent need for stronger regulations to ensure public safety. In general, Cd and Pb are the metals that violated WHO standards the most, although commonly non-WHO regulated metals such as Hg, Al, As, Cr, and Ni are also a concern. Metal concentrations found in Peru are on many occasions much higher than what has been reported elsewhere. We conclude that determining the safety of food/medicinal products is challenging due to varying metal concentrations that are influenced not only by metal type but also geographical location. Given the scarcity of research findings in many regions of Peru, urgent attention is required to address this critical knowledge gap and implement effective regulatory measures to protect public health. Keywords: plants; fish; mollusks; macroinvertebrates; mammals; codex; regulations.
36324Kantvilas G. (2024): Additions to the genus Cliostomum (Ramalinaceae) from Australia. - The Lichenologist, 56(1): 27-37. https://doi.org/10.1017/S002428292400001X.
Seven species of Cliostomum Fr. recorded from Australia are treated. These include the widespread C. griffithii (Sm.) Coppins, the austral C. praepallidum (Müll. Arg.) Kantvilas & Fryday and the Tasmanian endemic C. vezdae Kantvilas, a reinstated name previously subsumed under C. flavidulum Hafellner & Kalb. Three species are described as new: C. latisporum Kantvilas, a corticolous species containing atranorin and gangaleoidin from coastal Tasmania and New South Wales, characterized by pale pink, soon immarginate apothecia, 0.3–0.9 mm wide, non-capitate, unpigmented paraphyses, and relatively wide, 1(–3)-septate ascospores, 9–15 × 4–6 μm; C. litorale Kantvilas, a saxicolous species containing atranorin and confluentic acid, recorded only from Tasmania, with relatively large, usually pale pinkish apothecia, 0.6–1.5 mm wide, non-capitate paraphyses, and 1(–2)-septate ascospores, 9–13 × 4−6 μm; and C. saxatile Kantvilas, a saxicolous species containing atranorin and lecanoric acid, also known only from Tasmania, with dark brown to black apothecia, 0.3–0.5 mm wide, pigmented with Laurocerasi-brown, capitate paraphyses, and 1-septate ascospores, 7–14 × 3–5 μm. The widespread, coastal Australasian species Tylothallia verrucosa (Müll. Arg.) Kantvilas is transferred to Cliostomum, with the additional synonym Catillaria brisbanensis Räsänen. Megalaria variegata (Müll. Arg.) D. J. Galloway, based on a New Zealand type, is a further synonym of Cliostomum griffithii. All species are illustrated and described on the basis of Australian and Tasmanian specimens. Catillaria, Megalaria, Tasmania, Tylothallia, lichens, new species, taxonomy
36323Goss A. & Werth S. (2024): New microsatellite loci to quantify genetic diversity of the photosymbiodeme-forming lichen Sticta canariensis. - The Lichenologist, 56(1): 39-45. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0024282923000622.
Sticta canariensis is a lichen which is rare in all parts of its range in Atlantic Europe and Macaronesia, where it occurs in laurisilva forests, a habitat highly threatened by global change. Thus, this species is of high priority for inclusion in conservation programmes where genetic diversity should be considered. We have established new microsatellite loci and generated a dataset that demonstrates the genetic diversity of the lichen-forming fungus S. canariensis from eight locations across its disjunct range, in Macaronesia, Norway and England. We genotyped 25 microsatellite loci for 65 specimens and detected five genetic clusters which resemble major geographical divisions, specifically among the Macaronesian archipelagos. The total number of observed alleles ranged from 2 to 22. These are the first microsatellite markers developed for S. canariensis and they will be useful for population genetic studies and for conservation assessments. England, Macaronesia, Norway, Peltigeraceae, genetic diversity, population structure
36322Boluda C.G. & Kitara N.N. (2024): Placopsis craterifera (Trapeliaceae, Lecanoromycetes), a new lichen species from alpine habitats on Mount Meru, Tanzania. - The Lichenologist, 56(1): 15-20. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0024282923000634.
During a field trip to the highlands of Mount Meru in Tanzania, two Placopsis specimens were collected. Morphological analyses showed a unique combination of characters not observed in any other published taxa within the genus. The specimens are characterized by their circular soralia, not confluent, crater-shaped, with a prominent white margin and coarse granular pinkish central soredia. Considering the morphological, geographical and genetic data, we propose the designation of a new species, Placopsis craterifera Boluda sp. nov. Africa, Afroalpine, conservation, lichens, new species
36321Aptroot A., Cáceres M.E.d.S. & Santos L.A.d. (2024): The taxonomy of sterile Arthoniaceae from Brazil: white crusts on overhanging tropical trees can be named. - The Lichenologist, 56(1): 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0024282924000021.
Twelve new lichen species are described in the family Arthoniaceae. All are sterile white crusts growing on overhanging trees (and one on living palm fronds) in ten different states in tropical Brazil. In the tropics, sterile crusts so far have been mostly disregarded. They are all characterized by their chemistry and morphology, often including pseudoisidia or soredia, but their phylogenetic relationships have been investigated with sequencing. The following species are described: Arthonia farinosorediata, with shallow soralia and without secondary metabolites; Crypthonia irregularis, with irregular isidia, confluentic acid and sometimes 2ʹ-O-methylperlatolic acid; Crypthonia pseudisidiata, with soft pseudoisidia and without secondary metabolites; Crypthonia stromatica, with sterile stromata and confluentic acid; Cryptophaea constrictopseudisidiata with pseudoisidia, lichexanthone and confluentic acid; Cryptophaea lichexanthopseudisidiata with pseudoisidia and lichexanthone; Cryptophaea lichexanthosorediata with soredia, lichexanthone and divaricatic acid; Cryptothecia lecanorosorediata with soredia and lecanoric acid; Glomerulophoron confluentisorediatum with soredia, confluentic and 2ʹ-O-methylperlatolic acids; Herpothallon psorpseudisidiatum on living palm fronds with a strongly attached thallus, long pseudoisidia and psoromic acid; Myriostigma minisorediatum with soredia and 2ʹ-O-methylperlatolic acid; Pachnolepia longipseudisidiata with long pseudoisidia, and a thallus containing lichexanthone, confluentic acid and 2ʹ-O-methylperlatolic acid. Arthonia, Crypthonia, Cryptophaea, Cryptothecia, Glomerulophoron, Herpothallon, Myriostigma, Pachnolepia, biodiversity, lichen, rainforest
36320McMullin R.T., Simon A.D.F., Brodo I.M., Wickham S.B., Bell-Doyon P., Kuzmina M. & Starzomski B.M. (2024): DNA barcoding aids in generating a preliminary checklist of the lichens and allied fungi of Calvert Island, British Columbia: Results from the 2018 Hakai Terrestrial BioBlitz. - Biodiversity Data Journal, 12: e120292 [77 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.12.e120292.
Background: Bioblitzes are a tool for the rapid appraisal of biodiversity and are particularly useful in remote and understudied regions and for understudied taxa. Lichens are an example of an often overlooked group, despite being widespread in virtually all terrestrial ecosystems and having many important ecological functions. New information: We report the lichens and allied fungi collected during the 2018 terrestrial bioblitz conducted on Calvert Island on the Central Coast of British Columbia, Canada. We identified 449 specimens belonging to 189 species in 85 genera, increasing the total number of species known from Calvert Island to 194, and generated Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequences for 215 specimens from 121 species. Bryoria furcellata, Chaenothecopsis lecanactidis and C. nigripunctata were collected for the first time in British Columbia. We also found Pseudocyphellaria rainierensis, which is listed as Special Concern on the federal Species at Risk Act, and other rarely reported species in British Columbia including Opegrapha sphaerophoricola, Protomicarea limosa, Raesaenenia huuskonenii and Sarea difformis. We demonstrate that DNA barcoding improves the scope and accuracy of expert-led bioblitzes by facilitating the detection of cryptic species and allowing for consistent identification of chemically and morphologically overlapping taxa. Despite the spatial and temporal limitations of our study, the results highlight the value of intact forest ecosystems on the Central Coast of British Columbia for lichen biodiversity, education and conservation. Keywords: biogeography, Calicioids, Central Coast Regional District, Great Bear Rainforest, ITS, Pacific Northwest.
36319Shivarov V.V. (2024): Diversity of epiphytic lichens and allied fungi on Pinus heldreichii and P. peuce in Bulgaria. - Lindbergia, 2024(1): e025278 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.25227/linbg.025278.
The study presents all available information for epiphytic lichens and allied fungi on Pinus heldreichii and P. peuce in Bulgaria. The trees are respectively, subendemic and endemic for the Balkan Peninsula. Comments on distribution and diversity of spe- cies are provided. A total of 78 species are reported. Two lichen species are reported for the first time from Bulgaria, Blastenia monticola and Hypogymnia laminisorediata. Lecanora cadubriae is confirmed from Bulgaria. The following species are reported for the first time for the Pirin Mountains: Cladonia glauca, Lepraria elobata, Melanelixia glabratula, Micarea prasina, Nephromopsis chlorophylla, Strangospora moriformis, while Lichenoconium erodens is new for the Vitosha region and L. lecanorae for the Rila Mountains. Keywords: Balkan endemic, Bulgarian lichen mycota, climate change, coniferous forests, new records.
36318Frezza C., Fraioli D.R., Conti F., Nicolosi R.M., Scipione L., Serafini I., Petrucci R., Di Matteo P., Rocco D., Di Giacomo S., Di Sotto A., Bonincontro G., Simonetti G., Garzoli S., De Vita D. & Fodda S. (2024): Evaluation of the antifungal and antiproliferative properties of the lichen Roccella tinctoria DC. Extracts and main components. - Pharmaceutics, 16(3): 331 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics16030331.
In this work, phytochemical analysis on different extracts of Roccella tinctoria DC. was reported using different techniques with respect to the past. Twenty volatile and three non-volatile compounds were identified, some of which were found in this species for the first time. The methanolic extracts and their non-volatile components were then evaluated for their antitumor effects in cancerous A549 and Mz-ChA-1 cells and for their tolerability in non-cancerous BEAS-2B and H69 cells, showing IC50 values from 94.6 µg/mL to 416.4 µg/mL, in general. The same extracts and compounds were also tested for their antifungal effects in Candida albicans, with only compound 2 being active, with an MIC50 value of 87 µg/mL. In addition, they were tested for their anti-Candida adhesion activity, anti-Candida biofilm formation, and anti-Candida mature biofilm inhibition, with efficacy percentages generally above 50% but not for all of them. Lastly, the DF3 extract and compounds 1–2 were tested in vivo according to the Galleria mellonella survival assay, showing positive mortality rates above 50% at different concentrations. All these biological assays were conducted on this species for the first time. Comparisons with other lichens and compounds were also presented and discussed. Keywords: Roccella tinctoria DC.; different extracts; phytochemical analysis; antifungal activity; antiproliferative activity; isolated compounds.
36317Chen V.J., Smith G.D., Holden A. & Arft S. (2024): Dye analysis of a 17th-century Mattens workshop tapestry based on Raphael’s drawing, The Miraculous Draught of Fishes. - Heritage, 7(3): 1221–1236. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7030059.
This paper describes the identification of dyes on fifty yarn samples from a tapestry created by the well-known 17th-century Flemish workshop of the Mattens family. The design of the tapestry is based on the first of ten drawings known as the Acts of the Apostles by the famed 16th-century Italian painter Raphael. The drawings were commissioned by Pope Leo X and translated into tapestries by Pieter van Aelst; these original tapestries are still in the collection of the Vatican Museums. The present work was reproduced over a century later from the original drawing and is one in a possible set of nearly fifty known copies of the original tapestry cycle. Most of the Mattens yarn samples were found to be dyed by weld, indigo, and madder, as well as a few using brazilwood and lichen, but no insect dyes were detected. A significant finding in the present study was the detection of the dye component pseudoindirubin 1, alongside indigotin and indirubin, as well as yarns that only yielded the latter two dyes. The implication of using this new marker as objective evidence of the use of both woad and most likely Asian indigo is explored. The historical and conservation significance of the dyestuffs identified is also discussed. Keywords: dyestuff; LC-DAD-MS; Acts of the Apostles; tapestry; pseudoindirubin
36316Liu S.-L., Wang X.-W., Li G.-J., Deng C.-Y., Rossi W., Leonardi M., Liimatainen K., Kekki T., Niskanen T., Smith M.E., Ammirati J., Bojantchev D., Abdel-Wahab M.A., Zhang M., Tian E., Lu Y.-Z., Zhang J.-Y., Ma J., Dutta A.K., Acharya K., Du T.-Y., Xu J., Kim J.S., Lim Y.W., Gerlach A., Zeng N.-K., Han Y.-X., Razaghi P., Raza M., Cai L., Calabon M.S., Jones E.B.G., Saha R., Kumar T.K.A., Krishnapriya K., Thomas A., Kaliyaperumal M., Kezo K., Gunaseelan S., Singh S.K., Singh P.N., Lagashetti A.C., Pawar K.S., Jiang S., Zhang C., Zhang H., Qing Y., Bau T., Peng X.-C., Wen T.-C., Ramirez N.A., Niveiro N., Li M.-X., Yang Z.L., Wu G., Tarafder E., Tennakoon D.S., Kuo C.-H., da Silva T.M., Souza-Motta C.M., Bezerra J.D.P., He G., Ji X.-H., Suwannarach N., Kumla J., Lumyong S., Wannathes N., Rana S., Hyde K.D. & Zhou L.-W. (2024): Fungal diversity notes 1717–1817: taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions on genera and species of fungal taxa. - Fungal Diversity, 124: 1–216. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-023-00529-0.
As the continuation of Fungal Diversity Notes series, the current paper is the 16th contribution to this series. A total of 103 taxa from seven classes in Ascomycota and Basidiomycota are included here. Of these 101 taxa, four new genera, 89 new species, one new combination, one new name and six new records are described in detail along with information of hosts and geographic distributions. The four genera newly introduced are Ascoglobospora, Atheliella, Rufoboletus and Tenuimyces. Newly described species are Akanthomyces xixiuensis, Agaricus agharkarii, A. albostipitatus, Amphisphaeria guttulata, Ascoglobospora marina, Astrothelium peudostraminicolor, Athelia naviculispora, Atheliella conifericola, Athelopsis sub- glaucina, Aureoboletus minimus, A. nanlingensis, Autophagomyces incertus, Beltrania liliiferae, Beltraniella jiangxiensis, Botryobasidium coniferarum, Calocybella sribuabanensis, Calonarius caesiofulvus, C. nobilis, C. pacificus, C. pulcher, C. subcorrosus, Cortinarius flaureifolius, C. floridaensis, C. subiodes, Crustomyces juniperi, C. scytinostromoides, Cystostereum subsirmaurense, Dimorphomyces seemanii, Fulvoderma microporum, Ginnsia laricicola, Gomphus zamorinorum, Halobys- sothecium sichuanense, Hemileccinum duriusculum, Henningsomyces hengduanensis, Hygronarius californicus, Kneiffiella pseudoabdita, K. pseudoalutacea, Laboulbenia bifida, L. tschirnhausii, L. tuberculata, Lambertella dipterocarpacearum, Laxitextum subrubrum, Lyomyces austro-occidentalis, L. crystallina, L. guttulatus, L. niveus, L. tasmanicus, Marasmius centrocinnamomeus, M. ferrugineodiscus, Megasporoporia tamilnaduensis, Meruliopsis crystallina, Metuloidea imbricata, Moniliophthora atlantica, Mystinarius ochrobrunneus, Neomycoleptodiscus alishanense, Nigrograna kunmingensis, Para- cremonium aquaticum, Parahelicomyces dictyosporus, Peniophorella sidera, P. subreticulata, Phlegmacium fennicum, P. pallidocaeruleum, Pholiota betulicola, P. subcaespitosa, Pleurotheciella hyalospora, Pleurothecium aseptatum, Resupinatus porrigens, Russula chlorina, R. chrysea, R. cruenta, R. haematina, R. luteocarpa, R. sanguinolenta, Synnemellisia pun- ensis, Tenuimyces bambusicola, Thaxterogaster americanoporphyropus, T. obscurovibratilis, Thermoascus endophyticus, Trechispora alba, T. perminispora, T. subfarinacea, T. tuberculata, Tremella sairandhriana, Tropicoporus natarajaniae, T. subramaniae, Usnea kriegeriana, Wolfiporiella macrospora and Xylodon muchuanensis. Rufoboletus hainanensis is newly transferred from Butyriboletus, while a new name Russula albocarpa is proposed for Russula leucocarpa G.J. Li & Chun Y. Deng an illegitimate later homonym of Russula leucocarpa (T. Lebel) T. Lebel. The new geographic distribution regions are recorded for Agaricus bambusetorum, Bipolaris heliconiae, Crinipellis trichialis, Leucocoprinus cretaceus, Halobyssothe- cium cangshanense and Parasola setulosa. Corresponding to morphological characters, phylogenetic evidence is also utilized to place the above-mentioned taxa in appropriate taxonomic positions. The current morphological and phylogenetic data is helpful for further clarification of species diversity and exploration of evolutionary relationships in the related fungal groups. Keywords: 95 new taxa · Six new records · Ascomycota · Basidiomycota.
36315Zielman H.R. (2021): Bescherming van IJslands mos (Cetraria islandica) in Overijssel [Protection of Cetraria islandica in Overijssel (the Netherlands)]. - Buxbaumiella, 120: 59–62. .
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] Cetraria islandica is known from three localities in the province of Overijssel. A survey initiated by the provincial government revealed that at two of them the population is at danger. The largest (Lemelerberg) population is managed by a nature conservation organization (Landschap Overijssel), the two smaller localities were not managed with a lichen conservation aim. In consultation with the landowner’s ecologist, at one site a simple fence was placed to protect the single thallus at that site from trampling. At the other site a group volunteers, removing birch etc., was joined to help with sod cutting, in order to protect and possibly enlarge that specific spot.
36314Boers J. (2021): Vier nieuwe korstmosparasieten voor Nederland [Four lichenicolous fungi new to the Netherlands]. - Buxbaumiella, 120: 54–58. .
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] Four lichenicolous fungi are reported for the first time in the Netherlands: Phacothecium varium, Arthonia epiphyscia, Zwackhiomyces physciicola and Didymocyrtis slaptoniensis. The article contains descriptions of the new species’ characteristics, distribution, and ecology.
36313Bekking M. & Goutbeek E. (2021): Eerde – BLWG-excursie 12 september 2020 [The bryological and lichenological excursion to Eerde in 2020]. - Buxbaumiella, 120: 24–29. .
[in Dutch with English summary: ] During a BLWG-excursion to the estate Eerde, near Ommen, and its surrounding woods, a great number of rare lichens were found. Lecanactis abietina, a speciality on old beech trees, is not a rare species here. Furthermore, we found several Micarea and Porina species, of which P. byssophila is only known in the Netherlands since 2001. Bacidia circumspecta was supposed to be extinct in the Netherlands, so we were delighted to discover here a second recent locality in our country. In the orchard we found several coniocarps; the rarest one is Calicium salicinum. Inspection of an old beech hedge that surrounds the orchard brought some pleasant surprises: inside this hedge we saw many populations of Pyrenula nitida, Arthonia didyma, Enterographa crassa, Pseudoschismatomma rufescens, Arthonia atra. To put it in a nutshell: the excursion to the Eerde estate and its surrounding old forest was highly successful.
36312Lakatos M. & Fischer-Pardow A. (2013): Nonvascular epiphytes: Functions and risks at the tree canopy. - In: Lowman M., Devy S. & Ganesh T. (eds), Treetops at risk: Challenges of global canopy ecology and conservation, p. 223–236, Springer: New York, Heidelberg, Dordrecht & London. DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-7161-5_23.
In the frame of current discussions on the value of forest canopies, a short introduction and recent advances of nonvascular epiphyte (NVE) research are presented here regarding a novel canopy access facility to study mechanisms and functions of carbon and water exchange as well as impacts of climate and land-use change on NVE. Keywords: Cryptogams • Poikilohydry • Microclimate • Desiccation tolerance • Canopy access • Research tower • Bryophytes.
36311Ibuka Y., Ota Y., Matsukura K. & Ohmura Y. (2024): Recolonization of Parmotrema tinctorum (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in the urban area of Kanagawa prefecture, Japan. - Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science. Series B, Botany [Tokyo], 50(1): 1–8. DOI: 10.50826/bnmnsbot.50.1_1.
The distribution of Parmotrema tinctorum, known as an excellent bioindicator of air pollution, was examined in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, by comparing data from 2005–2007 with that from 2022. Field investigations were conducted in cemeteries and parks at 140 sites in 2005–2007 and at 128 sites in 2022. In 2005–2007, a large gap in the distribution of this species was observed in urban areas with higher concentrations of NO, NO2 and SPM likely due to automobile exhaust emissions. In 2022, the recolonization of P. tinctorum was observed at six sites, and one new growth site was confirmed within the gap area of 2005–2007. The recolonization in the urban area is considered to be related to the significant improvement in air quality, due to the strict regulation of exhaust gas from diesel engines implemented since 2003 in and around Tokyo, including Kanagawa Prefecture. Similar phenomena of recolonization of P. tinctorum have also been reported within Tokyo, supporting this conclusion. Keywords : air pollution, bioindicator, lichen, nitrogen oxide, nitrogen dioxide, urban areas.
36310Nakai R., Munekawa S., Murai Y., Ohmura Y. & Tani K. (2024): Diversity profiling of microbiomes associated with selected alpine plants and lichens from Mt. Suisho, Japan. - Microbiology Resource Announcements, 0:e01270-23. https://doi.org/10.1128/mra.01270-23.
[preprint on line version, to be updated] We report 16S rRNA gene amplicon data for the microbiomes in selected alpine plants (genera Artemisia, Parnassia, and Phyllodoce) and lichens (genera Cladonia and a mixture of Miriquidica and Rhizocarpon) from Mt. Suisho, Japan. Most of these samples were dominated by Pseudomonadota, while some contained the rarely cultivated phylum Vulcanimicrobiota (Candidatus Eremiobacterota/WPS-2). Keywords: alpine, plant, lichen, microbiome.
36309Singh P., Joshi V., Rawal R., Bhandari M., Tripathi M., Kholia B.S. & Negi G.C.S. (2023): Lower plants of Tungnath-Chopta timberline zone, Garhwal Himalaya. - In: Singh S.P., Reshi Z.A. & Joshi R. (eds.), Ecology of Himalayan Treeline Ecotone, p. 361–376, Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-4476-5_14.
This study was carried out in Pothivasa-Tungnath-Chopta area of Garhwal Himalaya, India to enumerate the occurrence of lower plants (Pteridophytes, Bryophytes and Lichens) along an elevation belt of 2100–2850 masl, encompassing NW and SW aspects and habitat types ranging from dense forests to timberline and alpine meadow in peak growing season in September 2020. We recorded a total of 54 species of Pteridophytes (species richness varied from 9 to 25 among these sites), 27 Lichen species (species richness 5–14) and 51species of Bryophytes, including 17 liverworts, 2 hornworts and 32 mosses. Across these sites, beta diversity was the highest for Pteridophytes (3.2), followed by Lichens (1.85) and Bryophytes (1.43). Along the elevation gradient species richness was almost invariant for bryophytes, it tended to be lower in the upper part of the altitudinal transect than the lower one for lichens, and it was highest for Pteridophytes at the highest altitude across the altitudinal transect. The entire elevational segment is rich in lower plant taxa and needs to be protected and intensively explored. Keywords: Bryophytes · Lichens · Phytodiversity · Pteridophytes · Sub-timber line Garhwal Himalaya.
36308Bajpai R.,Singh C.P. & Upreti D.K. (2023): Community-level lichen diversity assessment in alpine zone of Indian Himalaya: Climate change implications. - In: Singh S.P., Reshi Z.A. & Joshi R. (eds.), Ecology of Himalayan Treeline Ecotone, p. 339–359, Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-4476-5_13.
Lichens have prolonged history as excellent biomonitors of air pollutants and their responses are documented in climate change assessment. Lichen species composition within a community and change in composition are powerful tools to retrieve information about changes in climate, air quality and biological processes in the area. In this study, the composition of lichen communities in sub-alpine (3000–3500 m), moist alpine scrub (3500–4000 m) and dry alpine scrub (4000–4500 m) of Indian alpine Himalayan regions has been documented. A total of 18 bioindicator lichen communities are recorded which comprised 732 species under 148 genera and 47 families. Among different indicator communities, Parmelioid dominates the areas followed by Lecanorioid, Dimorphic and Physcioid communities represented by 185, 87, 71 and 64 species, respectively. It is assumed that Cyanophyceans are the most sensitive communities distributed at the middle range of altitude between 3000 and 4000 m in the studied areas. Furthermore, substratum and growth form also played a significant role in the assessment of varied environmental conditions. This study provides a baseline data about potential taxa having higher sensitivity to change in climate and which may exhibit migration, adaptation, and acclimation, in the near future. Keywords: Altitudinal range · Biomonitoring · Habitats · Indicator community · Lichen.
36307Bisht K., Upadhyay S., Rawal R.S. & Joshi Y. (2023): Lichen diversity in high elevations of Western Himalaya with special reference to treeline ecotone: conservation and indicator value. - In: Singh S.P., Reshi Z.A. & Joshi R. (eds.), Ecology of Himalayan Treeline Ecotone, p. 307–338, Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-4476-5_12.
The tree line ecotone, which lies between subalpine forests and the alpine grasslands, offers special habitats and niches for several unique, representative, and sensitive biodiversity elements. Present study,with a focus on distribution patterns of macrolichens, attempts to describe such elements in high-altitude landscape associated with Tungnath, west Himalayan treeline ecotone. Two representative elevation transects [Kalsir–Chandrashila (KCT), 2080–3677 m asl and Pothibhasha–Chandrashila (PCT), 2120–3677m asl] were investigated. Together the setransects harbor 108 macrolichen species (41 genera, 15 families). PCT with 104 species (40 genera, 15 families) was species rich compared to KCT (73 species, 34 genera, 15 families). While family Parmeliaceae (46), Physciaceae (18), and Cladoniaceae (14) werne species rich, genera like Parmotrema (12), Heterodermia (11), and Cladonia (8 species) had maximum species. Among families Candelariaceae, Coccocarpaceae, Nephromataceae, and Teloschistaceae had one species only. The species richness peaked at 2500 and 2600 m altitude bands (62 spp.). The presence of two foliicolous and caliciale lichen communities was interesting in view of the indicator value. Existence of the foliicolous lichens is indicative of human disturbance and increasing subtropical elements in high-elevation forests. Occurrence of caliciale lichens is associated with old growth forests. The distribution of macrolichens has implications for management of high altitude forests including treelines. Keywords: Conservation · Diversity · Macrolichen · Timberline ecotone · West Himalaya.
36306Wang Y., Wei X., Hu Y. & Xu J.-R. (2024): Umbilicaria muhlenbergii: A model for studying molecular mechanisms regulating initial fungal symbiotic interactions with algal cells. - In: Hsueh Y.-P. & Blackwell M. (eds), Fungal Associations, The Mycota 9, p. 181–193, Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-41648-4_7.
Lichens are known for their importance in evolution and ecology but our knowledge of molecular mechanisms regulating symbiont interactions in lichen symbiosis is very lim-ited. Recent studies have shown that Umbilicaria muhlenbergii has a relative fast growth rate and is amenable to molecular genetic studies for efficiently generating transformants and targeted gene disruption mutants. It is the only known dimorphic lichen-forming fungus, and pseudohyphal growth is associated with symbiotic interactions with algal cells of Trebouxia jamesii, its photobiont. Pharmacological stud-ies and functional characterization of the Gα subunit UmGpa2 of the trimeric G-proteins have shown the involvement of the cAMP-PKA (cyclic AMP-protein kinase A) pathway in regulating yeast-to-pseudohypha transition and fungal–algal interactions. The importance of cAMP-PKA signaling in lichen symbiosis proved for the first time in U. muhlenbergii argues for further characterization of this and other well-conserved signal transduction pathways that are known to crosstalk and co-regulate fungal–plant interactions in plant pathogens. The Umbilicaria muhlenbergii genome contains key components of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways that may regulate fungal–algal interactions during lichen symbiosis. Although there are still challenges, U. muhlenbergii has the potential to be used as a model to study early stages of symbiotic interactions and sig-nal transduction pathways involved in the rec-ognition of compatible symbiont cells and development of highly differentiated masses of fungal–algal cells. Keywords: Lichen symbiosis · Signal transduction pathways · Fungal–algal interactions · Trebouxia jamesii · Early re-lichenization stages.
36305Grube M. (2024): [Chapter 6] Lichens. - In: Hsueh Y.-P. & Blackwell M. (eds), Fungal Associations, The Mycota 9, p. 145–178, Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-41648-4_6.
Lichenized fungi initiate their symbiotic structures from microscopic stages after recog-nition of compatible algae. The partnerships ultimately emerge as complex macroscopic phenotypes which are unrivaled in the fungal kingdom by their resilience and durability. This chapter presents an overview of lichen symbioses and covers the morphology and systematics of the fungal phenotypes, as well as their associations with diverse photobionts. This is followed by a coarse overview of eco-physiology and the secondary chemistry. A special focus is given to the diversity of and theinteractionswithadditional microorganisms. Finally, a few comments on the effects of pollution and environmental change point to the usefulness of lichens as bioindicators. Keywords: Symbioses · Morphology · Mycobiont · Photobiont · Microbiome.
36304Zhang T.‐T., Grube M. & Wei X.-L. (2023): Host selection tendency of key microbiota in arid desert lichen crusts. - iMeta, 2(6): e138 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/imt2.138.
commentary
36303Contardo T. & Loppi S. (2024): Assessing environmental justice at the urban scale: The contribution of lichen biomonitoring for overcoming the dichotomy between proximity-based and distribution-based approaches. - Atmosphere, 15(3): 275 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15030275.
In this study, we tested the use of lichen biomonitoring techniques for the assessment of air quality disparities at the urban scale. We based our evaluation on the results of a previous lichen biomonitoring study carried out in Milan (Northern Italy), which estimates the contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and its distribution over the area, also providing an evaluation of the main emission sources. Therefore, we used the traditional methodologies for environmental justice assessment: the proximity-based and the distribution-based approaches. The workflow we propose is a data-driven selection of emission sources that contributes to overcoming the dichotomy between the two approaches and is now widely debated in the scientific community. A socio-economic deprivation index was elaborated for each census unit of Milan city and then related to the proximity of the emission sources previously selected. The results suggested that in the surrounding of industries and railways, the deprivation is higher, while the proximity of main roads is inhabited by wealthier populations. The distribution-based approach was run through a quantile regression analysis, and the outcome indicated that among the wealthier groups, an increase in contamination is followed by an increase in socio-economic deprivation, whilst among the deprived groups, people with greater economic opportunities tend, however, to live in worse air quality conditions due to the proximity of communication routes. This study poses the potential to review the classical methods of EJ assessment, providing a reliable workflow applicable in urban areas—the most vulnerable in terms of air quality disparities in the present and in the future. Keywords: environmental justice; lichen biomonitoring; air quality; life quality; urban environment.
36302Crous P.W., Costa M.M., Kandemir H., Vermaas M., Vu D., Zhao L., Arumugam E., Flakus A., Jurjević Ž., Kaliyaperumal M., Mahadevakumar S., Murugadoss R., Shivas R.G., Tan Y.P., Wingfield M.J., Abell S.E., Marney T.S., Danteswari C., Darmostuk V., Denchev C.M., Denchev T.T., Etayo J., Gené J., Gunaseelan S., Hubka V., Illescas T., Jansen G.M., Kezo K., Kumar S., Larsson E., Mufeeda K.T., Piątek M., Rodriguez-Flakus P., Sarma P.V.S.R.N., Stryjak-Bogacka M., Torres-Garcia D., Vauras J., Acal D.A., Akulov A., Alhudaib K., Asif M., Balashov S., Baral H.-O., Baturo-Cieśniewska A., Begerow D., Beja-Pereira A., Bianchinotti M.V., Bilański P., Chandranayaka S., Chellappan N., Cowan D.A., Custódio F.A., Czachura P., Delgado G., De Silva N.I., Dijksterhuis J., Dueñas M., Eisvand P., Fachada V., Fournier J., Fritsche Y., Fuljer F., Ganga K.G.G., Guerra M.P., Hansen K., Hywel-Jones N., Ismail A.M., Jacobs C.R., Jankowiak R., Karich A., Kemler M., Kisło K., Klofac W., Krisai-Greilhuber I., Latha K.P.D., Lebeuf R., Lopes M.E., Lumyong S., Maciá-Vicente J.G., Maggs-Kölling G., Magistà D., Manimohan P., Martín M.P., Mazur E., Mehrabi-Koushki M., Miller A.N., Mombert A., Ossowska E.A., Patejuk K., Pereira O.L., Piskorski S., Plaza M., Podile A.R., Polhorský A., Pusz W., Raza M., Ruszkiewicz-Michalska M., Saba M., Sánchez R.M., Singh R., Śliwa L., Smith M.E., Stefenon V.M., Strašiftáková D., Suwannarach N., Szczepańska K., Telleria M.T., Tennakoon D.S., Thines M., Thorn R.G., Urbaniak J., van der Vegte M., Vasan V., Vila-Viçosa C., Voglmayr H., Wrzosek M., Zappelini J. & Groenewald J.Z. (2023): Fungal Planet description sheets: 1550–1613. - Persoonia, 51: 280–417. https://doi.org/10.3767/persoonia.2023.51.08.
Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Argen- tina, Neocamarosporium halophilum in leaf spots of Atriplex undulata. Australia, Aschersonia merianiae on scale insect (Coccoidea), Curvularia huamulaniae isolated from air, Hevansia mainiae on dead spider, Ophiocordyceps poecilometigena on Poecilometis sp. Bolivia, Lecanora menthoides on sandstone, in open semi-desert montane areas, Sticta monlueckiorum corticolous in a forest, Trichonectria epimegalosporae on apothecia of corticolous Mega- lospora sulphurata var. sulphurata, Trichonectria puncteliae on the thallus of Punctelia borreri. Brazil, Catenomargarita pseudocercosporicola (incl. Catenomargarita gen. nov.) hyperparasitic on Pseudocercospora fijiensis on leaves of Musa acuminata, Tulasnella restingae on protocorms and roots of Epidendrum fulgens. Bulgaria, Anthracoidea umbrosae on Carex spp. Croatia, Hymenoscyphus radicis from surface-sterilised, asymptomatic roots of Microthlaspi erraticum, Orbilia multiserpentina on wood of decorticated branches of Quercus pubescens. France, Calosporella punctatispora on dead corticated twigs of Acer opalus. French West Indies (Martinique), Eutypella lechatii on dead corticated palm stem. Germany, Arrhenia alcalinophila on loamy soil. Iceland, Cistella blauvikensis on dead grass (Poaceae). India, Fulvifomes maritimus on living Peltophorum pterocarpum, Fulvifomes natarajanii on dead wood of Prosopis juliflora, Fulvifomes subazonatus on trunk of Azadirachta indica, Macrolepiota bharadwajii on moist soil near the forest, Narcissea delicata on decaying elephant dung, Paramyrothecium indicum on living leaves of Hibiscus hispidissimus, Trichoglossum syamviswanathii on moist soil near the base of a bamboo plantation. Iran, Vacuiphoma astragalicola from stem canker of Astragalus sarcocolla. Malaysia, Neoeriomycopsis fissistigmae (incl. Neoeriomycopsidaceae fam. nov.) on leaf spots on flower Fissistigma sp. Namibia, Exophiala lichenicola lichenico- lous on Acarospora cf. luederitzensis. Netherlands, Entoloma occultatum on soil, Extremus caricis on dead leaves of Carex sp., Inocybe pseudomytiliodora on loamy soil. Norway, Inocybe guldeniae on calcareous soil, Inocybe rupestroides on gravelly soil. Pakistan, Hymenagaricus brunneodiscus on soil. Philippines, Ophiocordyceps philippinensis parasitic on Asilus sp. Poland, Hawksworthiomyces ciconiae isolated from Ciconia ciconia nest, Plectosphaerella vigrensis from leaf spots on Impatiens noli-tangere, Xenoramularia epitaxicola from sooty mould community on Taxus baccata. Portugal, Inocybe dagamae on clay soil. Saudi Arabia, Diaporthe jazanensis on branches of Coffea arabica. South Africa, Alternaria moraeae on dead leaves of Moraea sp., Bonitomyces buffels- kloofinus (incl. Bonitomyces gen. nov.) on dead twigs of unknown tree, Constrictochalara koukolii on living leaves of Itea rhamnoides colonised by a Meliola sp., Cylindromonium lichenophilum on Parmelina tiliacea, Gamszarella buffelskloofina (incl. Gamszarella gen. nov.) on dead insect, Isthmosporiella africana (incl. Isthmosporiella gen. nov.) on dead twigs of unknown tree, Nothoeucasphaeria buffelskloofina (incl. Nothoeucasphaeria gen. nov.), on dead twigs of unknown tree, Nothomicrothyrium beaucarneae (incl. Nothomicrothyrium gen. nov.) on dead leaves of Beaucarnea stricta, Paramycosphaerella proteae on living leaves of Protea caffra, Querciphoma foliicola on leaf litter, Rachicladosporium conostomii on dead twigs of Conostomium natalense var. glabrum, Rhamphoriopsis synnematosa on dead twig of unknown tree, Waltergamsia mpumalanga on dead leaves of unknown tree. Spain, Amanita fulvogrisea on limestone soil, in mixed forest, Amanita herculis in open Quercus forest, Vuilleminia beltra- niae on Cistus symphytifolius. Sweden, Pachyella pulchella on decaying wood on sand-silt riverbank. Thailand, Deniquelata cassiae on dead stem of Cassia fistula, Stomiopeltis thailandica on dead twigs of Magnolia champaca. Ukraine, Circinaria podoliana on natural limestone outcrops, Neonematogonum carpinicola (incl. Neonematogonum gen. nov.) on dead branches of Carpinus betulus. USA, Exophiala wilsonii water from cooling tower, Hygrophorus aesculeticola on soil in mixed forest, and Neocelosporium aereum from air in a house attic. Morphological and culture characteristics are supported by DNA barcodes. Key words: ITS nrDNA barcodes; LSU; new taxa; systematics.
36301Pinna D. (2024): Physical and mechanical methods for the removal of lithobionts—A review. - Coatings, 14(3): 272 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings14030272.
This paper describes and discusses the results of scientific experiences of the physical and mechanical methods used to control and inhibit the growth of lichens and biofilms that grow on indoor and outdoor historical stone artworks. It provides an extensive selection and examination of international papers published in the last two decades on the issue. The great advantage of physical and mechanical methods lies in the lack of potential risks associated with the irreversible application of microbicides. Indeed, they do not introduce any harmful chemicals to humans, to the environment, or to heritage objects. This review focuses on the application of (i) electromagnetic radiation, (ii) high temperatures, (iii) lasers, and (iv) mechanical tools, and includes the main achievements, limitations, and potential applications of the examined studies. Keywords: biofilms; lichens; stone artworks; electromagnetic radiation; high temperatures; lasers; mechanical tools.
36300Köhler L., Tobón C., Frumau K.F.A. & Bruijnzeel L.A.(S.) (2007): Biomass and water storage dynamics of epiphytes in old-growth and secondary montane cloud forest stands in Costa Rica. - Plant Ecology, 193: 171–184. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-006-9256-7.
Epiphytic biomass, canopy humus and associated canopy water storage capacity are known to vary greatly between old-growth tropical montane cloud forests but for regenerating forests such data are virtually absent. The present study was conducted in an old-growth cloud forest and in a 30-year-old secondary forest (SF) on wind-exposed slopes in the Cordillera de Tilarán (Monteverde area) in northern Costa Rica. Epiphytic vegetation in both forests was dominated by bryophytes. Epiphyte mat weight (epiphyte biomass and canopy humus) at the stand level was 1,035 kg ha−1 in the SF and 16,215 kg ha−1 in the old-growth forest (OGF). The water contents of epiphytic bryophytes in the OGF were determined gravimetrically in situ and showed maximum values of 418% ± 74 (SD)% of dry weight and minimum values of 36% ± 10 (SD)%. Maximum stand water storage of non-vascular epiphytes and canopy humus at Monteverde was estimated at 0.36 mm for the SF and 4.95 mm for the OGF. Epiphytic bryophytes exhibited more dynamic wetting and drying cycles compared to canopy humus. Maximum water loss through evaporation was 251% of dry weight (bryophytes) and 117% of dry weight (canopy humus) within 3 days of sunny weather without precipitation. Despite the high potential water storage capacity of epiphytic bryophytes and canopy humus the actually available storage is likely to be much smaller depending on antecedent rainfall and evaporative conditions. Keywords: Bryophytes ; Canopy ; Rain forest ; Rainfall interception ; Succession ; Water storage capacity.
36299Kubiak D. (2024): Notes on Candelariella reflexa s. str. (Ascomycota, Candelariaceae) in Poland. - Acta Mycologica, 58: 183018 [5 p.]. DOI: 10.5586/am/183018.
This paper presents new localities of the epiphytic lichen Candelariella reflexa (Nyl.) Lettau found in NE Poland. The species has been reported in Poland for over two decades, but the progress of research on the taxonomy of this genus requires confirmation of the data by the currently accepted taxonomic approach. The paper also discusses the diagnostic features of the species that help distinguish it from other similar taxa. Keywords: lichens; Candelinella; Opeltiella; new localities; NE Poland.
36298Pérez-Vargas I., Tuero-Septién J., Rancel-Rodríguez N.M., Pérez J.A. & Blázquez M. (2024): Patterns of endemism in lichens: another paradigm-shifting example in the lichen genus Xanthoparmelia from Macaronesia. - Journal of Fungi, 10(3): 166 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof10030166.
It has long been assumed that lichen-forming fungi have very large distribution ranges, and that endemic species are rare in this group of organisms. This is likely a consequence of the “everything small is everywhere” paradigm that has been traditionally applied to cryptogams. However, the description of numerous endemic species over the last decades, many of them in oceanic islands, is challenging this view. In this study, we provide another example, Xanthoparmelia ramosae, a species that is described here as new to science on the basis of morphological, chemical, and macroclimatic data, and three molecular markers (ITS rDNA, nuLSU rDNA, and mtSSU). The new species is endemic to the island of Gran Canaria but clusters into a clade composed exclusively of specimens collected in Eastern Africa, a disjunction that is here reported for the first time in lichen-forming fungi. Through the use of dating analysis, we have found that Xanthoparmelia ramosae diverged from its closely related African taxa in the Pliocene. This result, together with the reproductive strategy of the species, points to the Relict theory as a likely mechanism behind the disjunction, although the large gap in lichenological knowledge in Africa makes this possibility hard to explore any further. Keywords: lichens; Canary Islands; biogeography; disjunctions; new species.
36297Timdal E., Evankow A.M., Opedal V. & Fjelde M.O. (2024): Lecania lepidota, a new lichen species from pollarded Fraxinus excelsior in oceanic, old-growth deciduous forests in Norway. - Graphis Scripta, 36(1): 1–14. https://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/36_1/GS_36_1.pdf.
The new lichen species Lecania lepidota is described from two localities in oceanic, old-growth, deciduous forests (boreo-nemoral rainforest) in SW Norway, growing near the base of pollarded Fraxinus excelsior. The generic placement is uncertain, as the ITS marker differs significantly from all other available ITS sequences and the mtSSU marker indicates sister relationship with Lecania croatica, a species of uncertain position in the Ramalinaceae. The species is morphologically most similar to Phyllopsora rosei, but differs, e.g., in having a negative PD reaction due to the lack of lichen substances.
36296Gunnarsson B., Hake M. & Hultengren S. (2004): A functional relationship between species richness of spiders and lichens in spruce. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 13: 685–693. .
Modern forestry has created stands with even age distribution of trees and fragmentation of the habitat. In boreal forests, the effects on biodiversity within many taxa need to be examined. We tested the hypothesis that species richness of foliose and fruticose lichens and spiders is positively related in the lower canopy of spruce (Picea abies) in forests with, or without, management in central Sweden. High species richness of lichens may increase the structural complexity of the microhabitat on spruce branches, and bring a higher species richness also in the spider community. In six areas, spruce branches were sampled in old-growth and managed boreal forest stands, respectively. Forest management did not affect the species richness of spiders or lichens, but an effect due to sampling area was found in the latter taxon. There was a significant covariation between species richness of lichens and spiders, and the hypothesised positive correlation was confirmed by separate analyses for each area and combining the probabilities. Moreover, regression analysis on mean values from each site revealed a positive relationship. We conclude that species richness of lichens and spiders covary on spruce branches for functional reasons, i.e. more lichen species promotes a more diverse spider community by increasing the structural heterogeneity. Our results might provide a ‘shortcut’ for assessing biodiversity in boreal forests. Key words: Biodiversity, Boreal forest, Canopies, Epiphytes, Forestry, Indicators, Monitoring, Old-growth.
36295Hämäläinen A., Runnel K., Mikusiński G., Himelbrant D., Fenton N.J. & Lõhmus P. (2023): Living Trees and Biodiversity. - In: Girona M.M., Morin H., Gauthier S. & Bergeron Y. (eds), Boreal Forests in the Face of Climate Change, Advances in Global Change Research 74, p. 145–166, Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-15988-6_5.
chapter in book
36294Molenaar M., van der Kolk H.-J. & van den Boom P. (2023): Een overzicht van de boombewonende knoopjeskorsten van Nederland [Corticolous Bacidia and Bacidina species in The Netherlands]. - Buxbaumiella, 128: 8–23. .
[in Dutch with English abstract:] An identification key and overview of the corticolous Bacidia and Bacidina species occurring in The Netherlands is presented. Pictures of the thallus and apothecia are provided for most species, as well as detailed pictures of sections of apothecia and drawings of ascospores. Following the recent paper on Bacidina by Ekman (2023), the occurrence of Bacidina caerulea and Bacidina friesiana in The Netherlands is discussed. Bacidia circumspecta, Bacidia incompta and Bacidina phacodes were discovered on several new growth sites. Bacidia arceutina and Bacidia laurocerasi mainly inhabit young deciduous forests and are currently spreading rapidly.
36293Šoun J. (2023): Revize historických položek rodu Parmotrema z území ČR uložených v herbáři PRM [Revision of historical specimens of the genus Parmotrema from the Czech Republic stored in the PRM herbarium]. - Bryonora, 72: 23–33. .
Old specimens of the genus Parmotrema (Parmeliaceae) from the territory of the Czech Republic stored in the National Museum in Prague (PRM) were revised. They were collected mainly by J. Suza, and further by A. Hilitzer, A. Oborny, R. Picbauer, and V. Spitzner from the end of the 19th century to 1924. P. arnoldii (1 specimen), P. crinitum (3 specimens), P. perlatum (10 specimens) and P. stuppeum (1 specimen) were found in the herbarium. P. arnoldii is reported here as new to the Czech Republic. An identification key to the Czech species of the genus Parmotrema is included. Key words: Beskydy Mts, biodiversity, lichenized fungi, lichens, macrolichens.
36292Ghlimová H., Bouda F., Hauser T., Hlisnikovský D., Jerhot Š., Konečná E., Peksa O., Smolková A., Svoboda D. & Syrovátková L. (2023): Lišejníky zaznamenané během 28. jarního setkání bryologicko-lichenologické sekce ČBS u Mariánských Lázní [Lichens recorded during the 28th Spring Meeting of the Bryological and Lichenological Section of the Czech Botanical Society near Mariánské Lázně]. - Bryonora, 72: 11–22. .
We present a list of 189 lichenised and two non- or semi-lichenised fungi recorded in western Bohemia in April 2023 during the 28th Spring Meeting of the Bryological and Lichenological Section of the Czech Botanical Society. We focused on various habitats including a uranium mine heap, old limestone quarries, a quaternary volcano, a quarzite ridge as well as old trees in allees, and a chateau park. Several rare and remarkable species were found in the region, for example Acarospora versicolor, Calicium viride, Caloplaca limonia, Cetraria sepincola, Chaenotheca phaeocephala, Cladonia cariosa, Melanohalea exasperata, Micarea deminuta, M. nigella, Parmotrema perlatum, Ramalina fraxinea, Rhizocarpon eupetraeum, Sarcogyne hypophaeoides, Sclerophora peronella, and Stereocaulon condensatum. Keywords: biodiversity, rare species.
36291Malíček J. & Konečná E. (2023): Lišejníky PR Bažantník v Českém ráji [Lichens of Bažantník Nature Reserve, Bohemian Paradise (Český ráj) Region]. - Bryonora, 72: 1–10. .
The Bažantník Nature Reserve (14.06 ha; alt. 256–269 m) preserves a deciduous lowland forest with c. 240-year old oak trees. The locality is very rich in phorophytes (>20 species) but strongly affected by acid rain in the past. During a survey in 2022, 94 lichen species and 8 non-lichenised fungi were recorded in the reserve. This number includes 17 species of calicioid (= pin-head) lichens and fungi. Most of the rare lichens occur on old oaks and their snags. In the area of Český ráj (Bohemian Paradise) and its surroundings, the reserve belongs to the most valuable localities for epiphytic and epixylic lichens. Bacidia arceutina, Biatora veteranorum, Buellia schaereri, Calicium adspersum, Chaenotheca brachypoda, C. chlorella, Chaenothecopsis nigra, Lecidella subviridis, Leptorhaphis atomaria, Ochrolechia arborea, Rinodina freyi, and Sclerophora pallida represent the most valuable records. Identifications of three specimens are supported by molecular ITS or mtSSU data, including one potentially undescribed Psoroglaena species. Key words: biodiversity, calicioid lichens and fungi, natural lowland forests, oak trees.
36290Bérešová A. (2023): Jonáš Gruska 2021. Petržalské lišajníky. LOM. Typografia Plus. 194 pp. ISBN 978-80-974055-0-2. - Bryonora, 72: 51. .
Book review [in Slovak]
36289Bérešová A. (2023): Bačkor M., Goga M. & Marcinčinová M. 2020. Atlas lišajníkov Slovenska I. Epifytické druhy. Univerzita Pavla Jozefa Šafárika v Košiciach, Košice 2020. 144 pp. ISBN 978-80-8152-903-0. Účelová, nepredajná publikácia. - Bryonora, 72: 49–51. .
Book review [in Slovak]
36288Ptach-Styn Ł., Guzow-Krzemińska B., Lendemer J.C., Tønsberg T. & Kukwa M. (2024): Phylogeny of the genus Loxospora s.l. (Sarrameanales, Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota), with Chicitaea gen. nov. and five new combinations in Chicitaea and Loxospora. - MycoKeys, 102: 155–181. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.102.116196.
Loxospora is a genus of crustose lichens containing 13 accepted species that can be separated into two groups, based on differences in secondary chemistry that correlate with differences in characters of the sexual reproductive structures (asci and ascospores). Molecular phylogenetic analyses recovered these groups as monophyletic and support their recognition as distinct genera that differ in phenotypic characters. Species containing 2’-O-methylperlatolic acid are transferred to the new genus, Chicitaea Guzow-Krzem., Kukwa & Lendemer and four new combinations are proposed: C. assateaguensis (Lendemer) Guzow-Krzem., Kukwa & Lendemer, C. confusa (Lendemer) Guzow-Krzem., Kukwa & Lendemer, C. cristinae (Guzow-Krzem., Łubek, Kubiak & Kukwa) Guzow-Krzem., Kukwa & Lendemer and C. lecanoriformis (Lumbsch, A.W. Archer & Elix) Guzow-Krzem., Kukwa & Lendemer. The remaining species produce thamnolic acid and represent Loxospora s.str. Haplotype analyses recovered sequences of L. elatina in two distinct groups, one corresponding to L. elatina s.str. and one to Pertusaria chloropolia, the latter being resurrected from synonymy of L. elatina and, thus, requiring the combination, L. chloropolia (Erichsen) Ptach-Styn, Guzow-Krzem., Tønsberg & Kukwa. Sequences of L. ochrophaea were found to be intermixed within the otherwise monophyletic L. elatina s.str. These two taxa, which differ in contrasting reproductive mode and overall geographic distributions, are maintained as distinct, pending further studies with additional molecular loci. Lectotypes are selected for Lecanora elatina, Pertusaria chloropolia and P. chloropolia f. cana. The latter is a synonym of Loxospora chloropolia. New primers for the amplification of mtSSU are also presented. Key words: Lichenised fungi, mtSSU, nuITS, phylogeny, RPB1, Sarrameanaceae, secondary metabolites, sorediate lichens, sterile lichens, taxonomy.
36287Marcano V. & Castillo L. (2023): Displacement of the habitat of the macrolichens of the montane forest under a global warming scenario in the northeastern Venezuelan Andes. - Anales Del Jardín Botánico De Madrid, 80(2): e143. https://doi.org/10.3989/ajbm.597.
In order to quantify the risks of total and local habitats loss of the Andean lichens due to the global warming projected for the end of the century and the associated upward migration, we carried out lichenological collections in the undergrowth forest at the National Park Sierra Nevada de Merida, Venezuela. We focus on an elevation gradient from the montane forest (2100–3000 m). A total of 1200 individuals, 401 lichenological samples, 38 genera and 145 species were registered; 94 species from the low montane forest and 90 species from the high montane forest. For the purpose of demonstrating the representativeness of the sampling, performance of non-parametric estimators Chao 1 and 2, Jacknife 1 and 2 was evaluated. Assuming a projected temperature increase of 4°C by the end of the century, lichen taxa would require an upward displacement of near 725 m a.s.l for maintain its habitat. The results indicate a total of 56.86% species would be threatened of disappearing by habitat loss having an increase ≤ 0.5°C; 69.60% species will lose its habitat having thermal increase ≤ 1°C; 92.15% species will lose its habitat having thermal increase ≤ 4°C whereas 11% (endemic) species will lose its total habitat having thermal increase ≤ 1°C. Risk of massive disappearance in all the scenarios would be expected
36286Ingle K.K., Nayaka S. & Upreti D.K. (2024): The lichen genus Pseudopyrenula (Trypetheliaceae) in India. - The Lichenologist, 56(1): 21-26. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0024282923000580.
A survey of the lichen genus Pseudopyrenula in India is presented, with morphotaxonomic accounts of all six accepted species. Two species, P. himalayana and P. megaspora, are new to science. Both species resemble P. staphyleae but have a lichenized thallus and eccentric ostiole. Furthermore, P. himalayana differs from P. staphyleae in having immersed perithecia and narrower ascospores, while P. megaspora differs in the larger ascospores. Detailed descriptions of the new species are presented, together with notes on their chemistry, distribution, ecology and taxonomy. A key to all known species of Pseudopyrenula from India is also presented
36285Solhaug K.A., Eiterjord G., Løken M.H. & Gauslaa Y. (2024): Non-photochemical quenching may contribute to the dominance of the pale mat-forming lichen Cladonia stellaris over the sympatric melanic Cetraria islandica. - Oecologia, 204: 187–198. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-023-05498-4.
The mat-forming fruticose lichens Cladonia stellaris and Cetraria islandica frequently co-occur on soils in sun-exposed boreal, subarctic, and alpine ecosystems. While the dominant reindeer lichen Cladonia lacks a cortex but produces the light-reflecting pale pigment usnic acid on its surface, the common but patchier Cetraria has a firm cortex sealed by the light-absorbing pigment melanin. By measuring reflectance spectra, high-light tolerance, photosynthetic responses, and chlorophyll fluorescence in sympatric populations of these lichens differing in fungal pigments, we aimed to study how they cope with high light while hydrated. Specimens of the two species tolerated high light equally well but with different protective mechanisms. The mycobiont of the melanic species efficiently absorbed excess light, consistent with a lower need for its photobiont to protect itself by non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). By contrast, usnic acid screened light at 450–700 nm by reflectance and absorbed shorter wavelengths. The ecorticate usnic species with less efficient fungal light screening exhibited a consistently lower light compensation point and higher CO2 uptake rates than the melanic lichen. In both species, steady state NPQ rapidly increased at increasing light with no signs of light saturation. To compensate for less internal shading causing light fluctuations with a larger amplitude, the usnic lichen photobiont adjusted to changing light by faster induction and faster relaxation of NPQ rapidly transforming excess excitation energy to less damaging heat. The high and flexible NPQ tracking fluctuations in solar radiation probably contributes to the strong dominance of the usnic mat-forming Cladonia in open lichen-dominated heaths. Light stress, Melanin, Photosynthesis, Screening pigments, Usnic acid
36284Shamblin Z. & Puppo P. (2024): Developing a 3D digitization protocol at the Marshall University Herbarium using free, open-source 3D reconstruction software. - Castanea, 88(2): 191–204. https://doi.org/10.2179/0008-7475.88.2.191.
Herbarium specimen digitization and transcription initiatives have led to revitalized use of plant collections making them more accessible than ever. Most digitization is done by producing 2D images of herbarium sheets; however, herbaria also include 3D collections such as fungi, mosses, and dry fruits, among others. Here we present a 3D digitization protocol developed at the Marshall University Herbarium (MUHW) using free photogrammetry software. We tested four freely available software applications, Meshroom, 3DF Zephyr Free, ColMap, and Regard3D on five types of 3D specimens, fungi, a moss, a lichen, a pinecone, and a compound fruit. Using 40–50 images and equipment already available in our herbarium such as a camera and light box, we produced 3D images in less than one hour per specimen. From the four applications tested, 3DF Zephyr Free gave the best results across the different specimens. Specimens that are bilaterally symmetrical or asymmetrical, such as fungi and compound fruit yielded detailed 3D images. Radially symmetrical specimens or specimens with repetitive patterns, such as the pinecone, moss, and lichen, resulted in poor or incomplete 3D images, which indicates that this workflow may be best suited for objects with differentiation in surfaces. Our workflow provides an effective, low-cost method of producing 3D images of 3D herbarium specimens that can be easily implemented in other herbaria. Key words: digitization, herbarium, Photogrammetry, 3DF Zephyr Free, 3D specimens.
36283Herring B. (2024): Status survey of the federally endangered Perforate Reindeer Lichen (Cladonia perforata) throughout its known range in Florida. - Castanea, 88(2): 241–279. https://doi.org/10.2179/0008-7475.88.2.241.
A range wide status survey of the perforate reindeer lichen (Cladonia perforata) was performed by revisiting known extant and historical sites and searching for new populations. Size of each popula- tion was determined and the extent of invasive plant species in the vicinity of Cladonia perforata was also documented. The data was used to update the global and state NatureServe conservation status rank of this species and provide the current information to the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Department of Defense (DOD), state agencies, and land managers. Twenty-five existing element occurrence records were updated, and seven new element occurrences were doc- umented. Based on several rank factors such as area of occupancy, number of both viable and protected populations, and threats, the rank of Cladonia perforata was recalculated to G2G3/S2S3 from the previous rank of G1/S1 (NatureServe 2022). This change in rank indicates a reduction in conservation status from Critically Imperiled to Imperiled/Vulnerable. Key words: endangered species, Florida endemic, invasive species, scrub.
36282Dou M., Liu S., Li J., Aptroot A. & Jia Z. (2024): Three new Pyrenula species with 3-septate ascospores with red or orange oil when over-mature (Ascomycota, Pyrenulales, Pyrenulaceae) from China. - MycoKeys, 102: 107–125. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.102.113619.
The lichenised fungal genus Pyrenula is a very common crustose lichen element in tropical to subtropical forests, but little research has been done on this genus in China. During our study on Pyrenula in China, based on morphological characteristics, chemical traits and molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS and nuLSU), three new 3-septate species with red or orange oil in over-mature ascospores were found: Pyrenula inspersa sp. nov., P. thailandicoides sp. nov. and P. apiculata sp. nov. Compared to the known 3-septate species of Pyrenula with red or orange oil, P. inspersa is characterised by the inspersed hamathecium; P. thailandicoides is characterised by the IKI+ red hamathecium and the existence of an unknown lichen substance; and P. apiculata is characterised by the absence of endospore layers in the spore tips and the absence of pseudocyphellae. It is reported for the first time that the presence of a gelatinous halo around the ascospores of Pyrenula is common. A word key for the Pyrenula species with red or orange oil in over-mature ascospores is provided. Key words: morphology, new species, phylogeny, Pyrenulaceae, taxonomy.
36281Aptroot A., Lücking R. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2024): New species, records and combinations of Graphidaceae (lichenized fungi) from Brazil. - Bryologist , 127(1): 22–55. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-127.1.022.
We describe 43 new lichen species in the family Graphidaceae, mainly from the Amazon basin: Fissurina bispora, F. diamantica, F. endothallina, F. lirelloreagens, F. reticulolirellina, Graphis inspersonorstictica, G. polystriatosubmuriformis, G. viridithallina, Heiomasia hypostictica, Leucodecton aurantiacum, Mangoldia thallolomoides, Myriochapsa negativa, M. triseptata, Myriotrema inspersosticticum, M. reticulatum, M. roseum, M. xanthonicum, Ocellularia coronatoverrucosa, O. griseosorediata, O. inspersomuriformis, O. inspersulascens, O. microschizidiata, O. norsorediata, O. pallidocolumellata, O. pedicellata, O. pertusella, O. pseudocyphellata, O. psorinspersa, O. psorsorediata, O. roseoisidiata, O. sorediopseudochapsa, O. verruciinspersa, O. vulcanica, O. wirthiotremoides, Phaeographis aureopruinosa, P. coccinea, P. fuscobilabiata, P. macrocephalica, P. norscalpturata, P. pallidoxanthonica, Rhabdodiscus lineatus, Stegobolus negativus, and Thalloloma xanthohypoleptum (the last species also from Puerto Rico). Relatively many are fertile but also form vegetative propagules. A few of the species contain no mature ascospores, but are so deviating from any other described species that we decided to describe them nonetheless. Also, we propose the following 22 new combinations for species of Graphidaceae that were previously described from Brazil and currently are accepted species but were so far assigned to the other genera: Allographa basaltica (≡ Graphis basaltica Kremp.), A. brevissima (≡ Graphis brevissima Fée), A. byrsonimae (≡ Graphina byrsonimae Redinger), A. heteroplaca (≡ Graphina heteroplaca Müll.Arg.), A. platypoda (≡ Phaeographina platypoda Zahlbr.), A. pseudoserpens (≡ Graphis pseudoserpens Chaves & Lücking), A. subargentata (≡ Graphis subargentata S.C.Feuerst., Dal Forno & Eliasaro), A. tricolorata (≡ Graphina tricolorata Redinger), Diorygma album (≡ Graphina alba Müll.Arg.), Fissurina adscripturiens (≡ Graphis adscripturiens Nyl.), F. egenella (≡ Graphina egenella Müll.Arg.), Graphis fasciata (≡ Ustalia fasciata Eschw.), Mangoldia lecideicarpa (≡ Graphina lecideicarpa Zahlbr.), O. endocrocea (≡ O. cinchonarum var. endocrocea Müll.Arg.), O. minarum (≡ Thelotrema minarum Vain.), Phaeographis atrolabiata (≡ Phaeographina atrolabiata Redinger), Phaeographis cheilomegas (≡ Graphis cheilomegas Fée), P. coriaria (≡ Phaeographina coriaria M.Wirth & Hale), P. crassa (≡ Platygramme crassa Fée), P. oxalifera (≡ Phaeographina oxalifera Redinger), P. scriptitata (≡ Phaeographina scriptitata C.W.Dodge), and Stegobolus trachodes (≡ Thelotrema trachodes Nyl.). Finally, we report several species new to Brazil or to one of the states: Allographa pitmanii new to Amapá, Cryptoschizotrema minus new to Alagoas, Glaucotrema glaucophaenum new to Amapá, Graphis pyrrhocheiloides new to Amapá, Graphis subserpentina new to Pará, Melanotrema astrolucens new to Brazil in Amazonas and Pará, Myriotrema hartii new to Amazonas, O. bullata new to Brazil in Pará, O. inspersipallens new to Brazil in Rondônia, O. jutaratiae new to Amapá, O. parvidisca new to Brazil in Amapá, O. rondoniana new to Alagoas, and Thelotrema wilsoniorum new to Brazil in Amapá. Key words: Lichens, biodiversity, thelotremoid, graphoid, Fissurina, Glaucotrema, Graphis, Heiomasia, Leucodecton, Mangoldia, Myriochapsa, Myriotrema, Ocellularia, Phaeographis, Pseudotopeliopsis, Ramonia, Rhabdodiscus, Stegobolus, Thalloloma, Wirthiotrema.
36280Aptroot A., dos Santos L.A., Oliveira Junior I., Fraga Junior C.A.V., Spielmann A.A. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2024): New lichen species from south Brazil. - Bryologist , 127(1): 66–87. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-127.1.066.
Lichens were investigated in two upland areas in Brazil from which lichens were described in historical times. The main aim was to recollect topotypes, but 37 species turned out to be new records for Brazil. Also, 25 new lichen species are described, all from South Brazil: Acarospora aggregata, Allographa triangularis, Arthotheliopsis corticola, Astrothelium flavocrystallinum, Astrothelium flavoinspersum, Astrothelium macrostromaticum, Caloplaca fuscospora, Caloplaca marginireflectans, Cladonia sticticocrustosa, Cladonia xanthozebrina, Dichosporidium fibrosum, Dichosporidium lanosum, Fissurina aggregata, Fuscidea lobata, Gyalidea concava, Gyalideopsis crenata, Gyalideopsis hyalinocoronata, Hypotrachyna aurantiacoreagens, Hypotrachyna cauliflora, Jamesiella clavata, Jamesiella elongata, Porina lateralis, Pseudopyrenula muriformis, Rhizocarpon sorediosubmuriforme, and Thelidium mucosoides. The collection includes two further crustose Cladonia species in this mostly fruticose genus, and almost doubles the number of species in Jamesiella. Furthermore, 149 species are reported from São Paulo state for the first time, 74 from Rio de Janeiro, 10 from Minas Gerais, and four from Espírito Santo.
36279Silva I., Salvador C., Arantes S., Miller A.Z., Candeias A. & Caldeira A.T. (2024): The decorated garden Grotto of Condes de Basto Palace in Évora, Portugal: microbial community characterization and biocide tests for conservation. - Micro, 14: 117–131. https://doi.org/10.3390/micro4010008.
The Eugénio de Almeida Foundation’s Casa de Fresco is a historical monument of valuable historic–artistic significance, which currently reveals an assortment of biofilms due to the proliferation of microorganisms in the stone and rocaille elements. The biodeterioration in this area was studied as part of the Conservation and Restoration Project. We effectively characterized the local microbial community using modern high-throughput DNA analysis. Our results suggested the existence of a variety of lichens or lichenized fungi, including genera such as Variospora, Verrucaria, Circinaria, and Caloplaca. Furthermore, we detected several prokaryote microorganisms related to the identification of these lichens. To properly deal with this microbiological issue and avoid fungal recolonization, we evaluated available commercial antimicrobial treatments. Keywords: stone monuments; patrimony biodeterioration; metagenomic approach; lichenized fungi; antimicrobial activity; heritage conservation.
36278Makhnykina A.V., Vaganov E.A., Panov A.V., Koshurnikova N.N. & Prokushkin A.S. (2024): The pulses of soil CO2 emission in response to rainfall events in Central Siberia: revisiting the overall frost-free season CO2 flux. - Forests, 15(2): 355 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f15020355.
Boreal forests nowadays act as a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide; however, their sequestration capacity is highly sensitive to weather conditions and, specifically to ongoing climate warming. Extreme weather events such as heavy rainfalls or, conversely, heat waves during the growing season might perturb the ecosystem carbon balance and convert them to an additional CO2 source. Thus, there is an urgent need to revise ecosystem carbon fluxes in vast Siberian taiga ecosystems as influenced by extreme weather events. In this study, we focused on the soil CO2 pulses appearing after the rainfall events and quantification of their input to the seasonal cumulative CO2 efflux in the boreal forests in Central Siberia. Seasonal measurements of soil CO2 fluxes (both soil respiration and net soil exchange) were conducted during three consecutive frost-free seasons using the dynamic chamber method. Seasonal dynamics of net soil exchange fluxes demonstrated positive values, reflecting that soil respiration rates exceeded CO2 uptake in the forest floor vegetation layer. Moreover, the heavy rains caused a rapid pulse of soil emissions and, as a consequence, the release of additional amounts of CO2 from the soil into the atmosphere. A single rain event may cause a 5–11-fold increase of the NSE flux compared to the pre-rainfall values. The input of CO2 pulses to the seasonal cumulative efflux varied from near zero to 39% depending on precipitation patterns of a particular season. These findings emphasize the critical need for more frequent measurements of soil CO2 fluxes throughout the growing season which capture the CO2 pulses induced by rain events. This approach has inevitable importance for the accurate assessment of seasonal CO2 soil emissions and adequate predictions of response of boreal pine forests to climatic changes. Keywords: soil emissions; net soil exchange; boreal forest; precipitation; soil temperature; soil moisture; lichen; CO2 fluxes; Siberia.
36277Pradhan S., Dash S., Sahoo B., Parida S. & Rath B. (2024): Screening and characterization of bioactive compounds from two epiphytic microlichen and evaluation of their in vitro antioxidant activity. - Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 10: 10 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43094-024-00584-7.
Background: Lichens in symbiosis produce a wide range of primary and secondary fne compounds in extreme environmental conditions that have a broad range of biological properties as well as antioxidant potential and can be used in future pharmaceuticals as a natural source of antioxidant molecules. Results: The two microlichen species collected are identifed based on morphological and molecular techniques; further studies are carried out by analyzing phytochemicals (FTIR, GC MS), and antioxidant assays are evaluated. The nonenzymatic antioxidant activity is evaluated by DPPH and FRAP assays. The methanol extract of both lichens showed virtuous DPPH scavenge with IC50 of P. nitida (125.76±0.023 µg/ml) and G. scripta IC50 (176.90±0.058 µg/ml). FRAP activity was prominent in the methalonic extract. The enzymatic antioxidant activity is observed by SOD and catalase activity. The cytosolic (Cu–Zn-SOD and Fe-SOD) and mitochondrial SOD (Mn-SOD) are detected in lichens, though P. nitida shows mitochondrial Mn-SOD and cytosolic Cu–Zn-SOD and Fe-SOD, whereas G. scripta has a single cytosolic Cu–Zn-SOD; however, two isoforms of catalase were reported. GC–MS analysis screened bioactive metabolites such as phenols, Quinons, heterocyclic compounds, benzofurans, fatty acids, pyrans, carboxylic acid, aliphatic aldehydes, organic alcohol, fuorinated aliphatic substances, ketones, terpenes and fatty alcohols in P. nitida, whereas, in G. scripta screened fatty acids, alcohols, hydrocarbons, carbonyl compounds, polyols, terpenes, glycosides, phenols, and sugar alcohols detected in the chromatogram peak. FTIR analysis revealed functional groups like Alcohols, Amines, Amides, Alkanes, Aldehydes, Carboxylic acid, Alkynes, Esters, Ketones, Anhydrides, Acid chlorides, Alkenes, Aromatic compounds, Nitro compounds, Alkyl and Aryl Halides in both lichens. Conclusions: The results obtained in the present study proved that P. nitida and G. scripta have promising antioxidant activity owing to the presence of polyphenols and terpenes, as evidenced by DPPH and FRAP assay along with enzymatic analysis (SOD and CAT). Thus both the lichens may be used as natural sources of new bioactive molecules having pharmaceutical interest. Keywords: 28s rRNA, Antioxidant, FTIR, GC–MS, Lichen, Phytochemicals, SEM.
36276Aszalósné Balogh R., Buczkó K., Erzberger P., Freytag C., Homm T., Lőkös L., Matus G., Nagy Z., Papp B. & Farkas E. (2021): Taxonomical and chorological notes 15 (153–163). - Studia Botanica Hungarica, 52: 165–184. https://doi.org/10.17110/StudBot.2021.52.2.165.
The present part of the series provides new records of 11 taxa, among them one diatom, six lichen-forming fungi and four bryophytes. The diatom Stauroneis blazenciciae is new to Romania, and it is the second record worldwide. The six lichen species have already been reported from Hungary, however they are quite rare. Additional interesting records are presented, e.g. Calicium notarisii and Pseudothelomma ocellatum are new for the Great Hungarian Plain, Cetrelia chicitae is new for the Velence Mts and for the Transdanubian Mountain Range, Petractis clausa is new for the Gerecse Mts, and Umbilicaria polyphylla is new for the Börzsöny Mts. Parmotrema perlatum has several interesting new occurrences. Regarding the bryophyte species, Marchantia polymorpha L. subsp. montivagans is new to Hungary, Sciuro-hypnum curtum is new for the Nyírség, Brachythecium capillaceum is reported from the Great Hungarian Plain for the first time. Pseudocampylium radicale is new for the Kismohos bog, its appearance seems to be a recent event. Keywords: algae, lichens, liverworts, Romania, Hungary, new record, bryophytes, Ukraine.
36275Svanberg I. & Ståhlberg S. (2024): Peasant food provision strategies and scientific proposals for famine foods in eighteenth-century Sweden. - Gastronomy, 2(1): 18–37. https://doi.org/10.3390/gastronomy2010002.
The peasant diet during the Little Ice Age in Sweden was mainly grain-based (bread, gruel, and porridge), and the country was heavily dependent on grain imports to meet the population’s needs for food. During the eighteenth century in particular, when famines were frequent following failed harvests, Swedish peasants utilized a range of locally available resources to survive. Bark bread made of cambium (phloem) from Pinus sylvestris was, for example, commonly used as famine food. Scientists of the Enlightenment period and the state authorities tried to alleviate hunger and poverty through the introduction of new food resources and cooking techniques, including wild or agricultural plants such as lichens or potato, and the use of protein sources different from the traditional ones, such as horse meat. However, many of these proposals encountered strong resistance from the peasantry, and only at the end of the 1800s famines ceased to cause suffering in Sweden. Scientific studies have so far focused mainly on mortality, malnutrition, demography, and official responses to famines; yet the question of what the starving peasants gathered, prepared, and consumed is important for the understanding of the historical situation. Also, the difference between the scientific proposals and peasants’ decisions and choices must be clearly distinguished. This historical study using an ethnobiological approach discusses peasant subsistence strategies in Sweden in the eighteenth century using contemporary sources, which provide an opportunity to study how the population obtained foodstuffs, adapted their diet to available ingredients, and the interaction and conflicting views of peasants and scientists about new, science-based nutrition proposals. Keywords: emergency food; food security; gastronomic ethnobiology; hunger; subsistence crisis.
36274Raniga D., Amarasingam N., Sandino J., Doshi A., Barthelemy J., Randall K., Robinson S.A., Gonzalez F. & Bollard B. (2024): Monitoring of Antarctica’s fragile vegetation using drone-based remote sensing, multispectral imagery and AI. - Sensors, 24(4): 1063 [30 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041063.
Vegetation in East Antarctica, such as moss and lichen, vulnerable to the effects of climate change and ozone depletion, requires robust non-invasive methods to monitor its health condition. Despite the increasing use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to acquire high-resolution data for vegetation analysis in Antarctic regions through artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, the use of multispectral imagery and deep learning (DL) is quite limited. This study addresses this gap with two pivotal contributions: (1) it underscores the potential of deep learning (DL) in a field with notably limited implementations for these datasets; and (2) it introduces an innovative workflow that compares the performance between two supervised machine learning (ML) classifiers: Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) and U-Net. The proposed workflow is validated by detecting and mapping moss and lichen using data collected in the highly biodiverse Antarctic Specially Protected Area (ASPA) 135, situated near Casey Station, between January and February 2023. The implemented ML models were trained against five classes: Healthy Moss, Stressed Moss, Moribund Moss, Lichen, and Non-vegetated. In the development of the U-Net model, two methods were applied: Method (1) which utilised the original labelled data as those used for XGBoost; and Method (2) which incorporated XGBoost predictions as additional input to that version of U-Net. Results indicate that XGBoost demonstrated robust performance, exceeding 85% in key metrics such as precision, recall, and F1-score. The workflow suggested enhanced accuracy in the classification outputs for U-Net, as Method 2 demonstrated a substantial increase in precision, recall and F1-score compared to Method 1, with notable improvements such as precision for Healthy Moss (Method 2: 94% vs. Method 1: 74%) and recall for Stressed Moss (Method 2: 86% vs. Method 1: 69%). These findings contribute to advancing non-invasive monitoring techniques for the delicate Antarctic ecosystems, showcasing the potential of UAVs, high-resolution multispectral imagery, and ML models in remote sensing applications. Keywords: Antarctic specially protected area (ASPA); machine learning; gradient boosting; convolutional neural network; unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV); lichen; moss; Antarctic.
36273Czarnota P., Tuchowski M., Szymczyk R. & Piegdoń A. (2023): Lobaria pulmonaria as an umbrella species for the protection of epiphytic lichen diversity in Polish Carpathians. - Acta Mycologica, 58: 177130 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.5586/am/177130 .
Lobaria pulmonaria has been subject to strict and zonal protection in Poland for almost 20 years, assuming the function of an umbrella species for the protection of natural biodiversity. Knowledge about this function, however, is limited, mainly due to a lack of relevant research. The current protection zone with a radius (R) of up to 50 m was significantly reduced in 2014 compared to the previous one from 2004 (R=100 m), mainly due to the needs of forest management. This legislative change became why it was worth making a scientific balance of potential gains and losses. Corticolous lichens growing at circular sites with a radius of 150 m around lungwort host-trees, divided into three zones R=50 m, R=51-100 m, R=101-150 m, were selected as the biological group for verification. Beech (Fagus sylvatica) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) trees with DBH ≥40 cm, randomly located along the target azimuths of 0°, 120°, and 240°, were selected for the study at 15 sites located in the Polish Carpathians (Gorce and Bieszczady Mts). The research hypothesis was that the size of the L. pulmonaria protection zone in the Polish Carpathians is important for the conservation of a greater diversity of corticolous lichens. Based on the list of species, we assessed the statistical significance of differences in diversity indices between the zones and between the Gorce and Bieszczady sites, which was justified by the result of the DCA analysis. Both the total number of species and old-growth forest, legally protected and endangered species in Poland (categories EN, CR) were analyzed. Generally, the current protection zone with a radius of 50 m protects approx. 70% of all epiphytic lichen diversity and the same share of other investigated groups, while increasing the protection zone to R=100 m saves almost 90% of species representing these groups of lichens. Keywords: Lobaria pulmonaria; nature protection; umbrella species; zonal conservation; lichen diversity; diversity index.
36272Fries T.M. (1866): Christian Stenhammar, ett biographiskt utkast. - Botaniska Notiser, 1866: 1–6. .
[in Swedish] obituary, biography
36271Anonymus [Thedenius K.F.] (1854): Tvenne nya systemer for Lafvarne. - Botaniska Notiser, 1854: 81–88. .
systematics; review of lichen genera including those described recently by Norman; emended by informations from Nylander
36270Fries T. (1853): Lichenes Sueciæ exsiccati, Fascicul. XII. redegit Theodor Fries. Upsaliæ, C. A. Leffler, 1852. 4:0. - Botaniska Notiser, 1853: 56–59. .
Exsiccat
36269Hafellner J., Kockinger H. & Schriebl A. (1995): Erste Ergebnisse der Exkursion der Bryologisch-lichenologischen Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Mitteleuropa in Oberkärnten. - Carinthia II - Sonderhefte , 53: 43–45. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/CAR-SH_53_0043-0045.pdf.
Ausgewählte Funde von Flechten und Moosen, die während der Exkursion der Bryologisch-lichenologischen Arbeitsgem einschaft für Mitteleuropa in Oberkärnten gelangen, werden vorgestellt. Erstmals in Kärnten werden nachgewiesen: Absconditella annexa (Arnold) Vězda, Caloplaca nivalis (Koerber) Th. Fr. und Lecanora lecidella Poelt sowie 5 Laubmoose und 18 Lebermoose.
36268Mager E., Brockhage R., Piepenbring M., Segers F., Yorou N.S., Ebersberger I. & Mangelsdorff R.D. (2024): Soil horizons harbor differing fungal communities. - Diversity, 16(2): 97 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d16020097.
In the present study, the mycobiomes of two soils with different ecological conditions located in Benin (West Africa) were investigated by environmental sequencing (Illumina MiSeq) of the ITS2-region of ribosomal DNA to gain information about the influence of pedological stratification on fungal diversity. For each soil depth and horizon, fungal diversity and community composition were analyzed as well as the potential impact of site characteristics, like vegetation, on these traits. The retrieved sequences revealed in all their replicates high similarities between fungal communities of samples from the same site and soil horizon, but differed within one site in their horizons. It was possible to assign a saprotrophic, symbiotrophic, or parasitic lifestyle to 24% of the recorded fungal mOTUs. Plant parasites were found in all samples in similar proportions. The presence of ectomycorrhizal fungi in one site could be linked to the presence of ectomycorrhizal trees. Overall, it was observed that fungal diversity decreased with increasing depth if only one horizon was present, whereas a deeper horizon present at one site contained communities with a distinct composition regarding the taxonomical affiliations and lifestyles of the fungi found compared to the upper layer. Hence, soil horizonation seems to drive differences in the composition of fungal communities, and should be regarded with more attention when analyzing soil mycobiomes. Keywords: Benin; ectomycorrhiza; eDNA; fungi; fungal lifestyle; inselberg; lichens; soil fungi; soil horizons.
36267Heiselmayer P. & Türk R. (1979): Die Tagung der bryologisch-lichenologischen Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Mitteleuropa vom 24. - 27. August 1978 in Salzburg. - Floristische Mitteilungen aus Salzburg, 6: 3–23. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Floristische-Mitt-Salzburg_6_0003-0023.pdf.
Report on BLAM meeting in Austria
36266Döbbeler P. (1985): Ascomyceten auf Polytrichaceen. - Sydowia, 38: 41–64. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Sydowia_38_0041-0064.pdf.
[in German wit English summary: ] Colonization of Polytrichum, Dawsonia and allied genera (Polytrichales, Musci acrocarpi) by fungi is a very common, or in some host species, even universal phenomenon. Presently there are more than 40 ascomycetes known to be (obligately) associated with the gametophytic stage of polytrichaceous mosses. They represent a heterogenous assemblage regarding their biological nature (saprophytic, parasitic, and gall-inducing species) and systematic position (members of at least six orders). All known species are listed, their hosts (about 20 species in all), with the infected organs indicated. Several morphological adaptations to the unique substratum are discussed. It is noteworthy that the microhabitats of the plants are often occupied by different specific fungi. The spaces between the leaf lamellae provide the most favourable niche. 21 ascomycetes have been demonstrated to inhabit these interspaces apparently without causing any symptoms. They offer striking examples of convergent evolution, e. g. extremely minute and reduced ascocarps.
36265Cezanne R. & Eichler M. (1996): Neue und bemerkenswerte Flechtenfunde in Darmstadt. - Hessische Floristische Briefe, 45: 33–51. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Hessische-flor-Briefe_45_0033-0051.pdf.
Germany; urban lichens; antropogenic substrates
36264Keil P., Buch C., Fuchs R., Schmidt C., Kricke R. & Aptroot A. (2012): Schwermetalltolerante Pflanzenarten auf dem Gelände des ehemaligen Erzbergwerkes Neudiepenbrock III in Mühlheim an der Ruhr-Selbeck [Records of heavy metal tolerant plant species from the area of the former ore mine Neudiepenbrock III in Mülheim an der Ruhr-Selbeck]. - Decheniana, 165: 95–114. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Decheniana_165_0095-0114.pdf.
A remarkable number of plant species, tolerant against heavy metals, could be found in partly large populations on the area of Neudiepenbock III, a former ore mine in Mülheim an der Ruhr-Selbeck, that closed down about a hundred years ago. Amoung these plants, the bryophytes Scopelophila cataractae and Pohlia flexuosa as well as the lichens Acarospora rufescens, Stereocaulon vesuvianum var. nodulosum and Vezdaea rheocarpa were not known to be present in the westem part of the Ruhr area up to now. The occurrence of these species is relevant with concem to Northrhine-Westfalia (NRW) and Germany, e.g. Acarospora rufescens is possibly new for NRW and Vezdaea rheocarpa is only known from two other localities in the whole of Germany. In this text, the biogeographical importance, the relevance to the biodiversity of the agglomeration Ruhr area as well as the endangerment of the taxa is discussed. Keywords: ore mining, heavy metal tolerant plants, zinc flora, lichens, bryophytes, Ruhr area.
36263Zimmermann D.G. & Guderley E. (2017): Flechten auf Zollverein. - Abhandlungen aus dem Westfälischen Provinzial-Museum für Naturkunde, 87: 159–178. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Abh-Westf-Mus-Naturkde_87_2017_0159-0178.pdf.
[in German with English summary: ] In Zollverein Park in the last 20 years (1997 to 2017) in total 99 species were found, 98 lichens and one lichenicolous fungus. Especially regarding the occurence of ephemere ground lichens the big industrial waste land Zollverein with its open sparsely vegetated pioneer habitats is remarkable.
36262Dolnik C. & Neumann P. (2020): Die Flechten der Sorgwohlder Binnendünen (Kreis Rendsburg-Eckernförde). - Kieler Notizen zur Pflanzenkunde, 45: 176–187. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Kieler-Notizen-zur-Pflanzenkunde_45_0176-0187.pdf.
[in German with English abstract: ] Lichens oft the inland dunes of Sorgwohld (District Rendsburg-Eckernförde). The inland dunes of Sorgwohld are covered by heathland and small woodlands as part of a postglacial sand area in the north oft the city of Rendsburg. Inhabiting about 122 lichen species, the sandy dry grasslands and heathland with rare and endangered species such as Cladonia borealis, C. monomorpha, C. pulvinata, C. crispata var. cetrariiformis and C. zopfii make the area a lichen hotspot of Schleswig-Holstein. C. pulvinata was rediscovered in 2018 and in 2020 Bacidina mendax was reported for the first time in Schleswig-Holstein.
36261Kammann S., Leinweber P., Glaser K., Schiefelbein U., Dolnik C., Mikhailyuk T., Demchenko E., Heilmann E. & Karsten U. (2024): Successional development of the phototrophic community in biological soil crusts, along with soil formation on Holocene deposits at the Baltic Sea coast . - Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 11: 1266209 [23 p.]. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2023.1266209.
Harsh environmental conditions form habitats colonized by specialized primary microbial colonizers, e.g., biological soil crusts (biocrusts). These cryptogamic communities are well studied in drylands but much less in temperate coastal dunes, where they play a crucial role in ecological functions. Following two dune chronosequences, this study highlights the successional development of the biocrust’s community composition on the Baltic Sea coast. A vegetation survey, followed by morphological species determination, was conducted. Sediment/soil cores of the different dune types were analyzed to uncover the potential impacts of the biocrust community on initial soil formation processes, with special emphasis on biogeochemical phosphorous (P) transformations. Biocrust succession was characterized by a dune type-specific community composition, shifting from thinner algae-dominated biocrusts in dynamic dunes to more stable moss-dominated biocrusts in mature dunes. The change in the biocrust community structure was accompanied by an increase in Chl a, water, and organic matter content. In total, 25 algal and cyanobacterial species, 16 mosses, and 26 lichens across all sampling sites were determined. The pedological characterization of these cores elucidated initial processes of soil genesis, such as decalcification, acidification, and the accumulation of organic matter with dune and biocrust development. Furthermore, the chemistry of iron (Fe)-containing compounds such as the Fedithionite/Fetotal ratios confirmed mineral weathering and the beginning of soil profile development. The biocrusts accumulated P over time, while the P content in the underlying sediment did not change. That implies that biocrusts take up P from the geological parent material in the dunes, thereby accumulating available P in the ecosystem, which gets transferred into subsoil horizons through leaching or redeposition. The relative proportion of the bioavailable P pool (56% to 74% of Pt) increased with dune succession. That happened at the expense of more stable bound P, which was transformed into labile P. Thus, the level of plant available P along the dune chronosequences increased due to the microbial activity of the biocrust organisms. It can be concluded that biocrusts of temperate coastal dunes play a crucial role in maintaining their habitat by accumulating nutrients and organic matter, supporting soil development and subsequent vegetation. Keywords: biocrusts, chronosequence, dunes, phosphorus, phototrophic diversity, soil development.
36260Woodhouse J., Pérez-Ortega S., Roux C., Bertrand M. & Leavitt S.D. (2024): Diverse communities of endemic and cosmopolitan lineages at local sites in the Lecanora polytropa aggregate (Ascomycota). - Diversity, 16(2): 88 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d16020088.
Recent work has suggested exceptional species-level diversity in the lichen-forming Lecanora polytropa complex (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota). However, biogeographic patterns and the spatial structuring of this diversity remains poorly known. To investigate diversity across multiple spatial scales, we sampled members of this species complex from two distinct regions—the Pacific Coast Ranges in southern Alaska, USA, and montane habitats in Spain. We also included sequence data from several species within this complex that were recently described from populations in France. Using the standard DNA barcoding marker and a sequence-based species delimitation approach (ASAP), we inferred a total of 123 candidate species (SHs) within the Lecanora polytropa complex, 32 of which were sampled for the first time here. Of 123 SHs, 21 had documented intercontinental distributions, while the vast majority were found at much smaller spatial scales. From our samples collected from Alaska, USA, and Spain, representing 36 SHs, we found high genetic diversity occurring within each sampled site, but limited overlap among all sites. Mountain ranges in both regions had high proportions of endemic lineages, with the highest diversity and endemism occurring in mountain ranges in Spain. Our sequence data generally support the recent taxonomic proposals, and an integrative taxonomy may help partly resolve the taxonomic conundrums within this hyper-diverse lineage. Keywords: ASAP; glacial refugia; hyper-diverse; integrative taxonomy; Lecanoraceae; species delimitation.
36259He Z., Naganuma T. & Melville H.I.A.S. (2024): Bacteriomic profiles of rock-dwelling lichens from the Venezuelan Guiana Shield and the South African Highveld Plateau. - Microorganisms, 12(2): 290 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms12020290.
Lichens are not only fungal–algal symbiotic associations but also matrices for association with bacteria, and the bacterial diversity linked to lichens has been receiving more attention in studies. This study compares the diversity and possible metabolism of lichen-associated bacteria from saxicolous foliose and fruticose taxa Alectoria, Canoparmelia, Crocodia, Menegazzia, Usnea, and Xanthoparmelia from the Venezuelan Guiana Shield and the South African Highveld Plateau. We used DNA extractions from the lichen thalli to amplify the eukaryotic 18S rRNA gene (rDNA) and the V3–V4 region of the bacterial 16S rDNA, of which amplicons were then Sanger- and MiSeq-sequenced, respectively. The V3–V4 sequences of the associated bacteria were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) ascribed to twelve bacterial phyla previously found in the rock tripe Umbilicaria lichens. The bacterial OTUs emphasized the uniqueness of each region, while, at the species and higher ranks, the regional microbiomes were shown to be somewhat similar. Nevertheless, regional biomarker OTUs were screened to predict relevant metabolic pathways, which implicated different regional metabolic features. Keywords: V3–V4 region; 16S rDNA; MiSeq; OTUs; biogeography; metabolism; host-associated bacteria.
36258Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1889): B. Flechten. – In: Hydrographisches Amt des Reichs-Marine-Amts (ed.), Die Forschungsreise S.M.S. „Gazelle“ in den Jahren 1874 bis 1876 unter Kommando des Kapitän zur See Freiherrn von Schleinitz. IV. Theil Botanik, Pilze und Flechten. - Berlin: E. S. Mittler und Sohn, pp. 6–16. .
36257Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1889): Lichenes Sebastianopolitani lecti a cl. Dr. Glaziou. - Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano, 21: 353–364. .
36256Canêz L.S., Koch N.M., Barbosa T.D., Kitaura M.J., Spielmann A.A., Honda N.K., Jungbluth P., Gerlach A., Lücking R. & Aptroot A. (2021): Lichenized Ascomycota from the Pantanal in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. - In: Damasceno-Junior G.A. & Pott A. (eds.), Flora and Vegetation of the Pantanal Wetland, Plant and Vegetation 18, p. 315–363, Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-83375-6_6.
Chapter in book; Brazil; Fellhanera vulgata (Malme) Lücking comb. nov.; Porina cryptostomoides Lücking, Aptroot & Spielmann nom. nov. 119 taxa were previously reported in the literature as occurring in the Pantanal. These previous data combined with the species reported by us sum up to a total of 165 taxa including four infraspecifc taxa; thus, 46 new taxa were added to the list of lichen fungi known from the Pantanal. The previously reported taxa are not explicitly treated below, except the new combination Fellhanera vulgata and the new replacement name Porina cryptostomoides. Opegrapha rissoensis Redinger is a new record for Brazil, Agonimia Zahlbr., Crypthonia Frisch & G. Thor, Marcelaria Aptroot, M.P. Nelsen & Parnmen and Neoprotoparmelia Garima Singh, Lumbsch & I. Schmitt are genera newly reported for Mato Grosso do Sul state (●), and 12 species are reported to occur in Mato Grosso do Sul for the frst time (*). These include Parmotrema confusum Hale, reported before only from Mato Grosso state, P. soredioaliphaticum Estrabou & Adler, cited only for Rio Grande do Sul state, and Peltula auriculata, which was previously reported to Roraima state (Schultz and Aptroot 2008).
36255Потемкин А.Д., Ицык Т.В. & Макеева Е.К. [Potemkin A.D., Itsyk T.V. & Makeeva E.K.] (2023): Наследие и библиография А. А. Еленкина [The heritage and bibliography of A. A. Elenkin]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 57(2): D47–D70. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2023.57.2.D47.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] A. A. Elenkin’s contribution to the development of botany in Russia is multifaceted: as a scientist, organizer, editor, and popularizer of science. The most important aspect of Eleinkin’s heritage is the establishment of the foundations for the development of cryptogamic botany in Russia. The presented bibliography of 472 publications, including 201 critical reviews at the end of the list, is based on a generalization of previously published bibliographies, a detailed list of works by A. A. Elenkin until January 1, 1939, various publications and reprints. The titles and references to most publications have been verified from primary sources. Elenkin published 17 monographs with a volume of almost 5 000 pages, 87 works on algae and algology, 96 on lichens and lichenology, 55 publications on fungi and phytopathology, and 16 on mosses, 18 popular scientific publications, including six monographs, one article on microbiology, one on entomology. The article provides a complete bibliography of A. A. Elenkin and selected thematic lists in electronic supplements. Keywords: algae, articles, botany, bryophytes, cyanobacteria, fungi, lichens, publications, review, 20th century, Еlenkin, Russia, USSR.
36254Давыдов Д.А. [Davydov D.A.] (2023): Александр Александрович Еленкин — ключевая фигура российской ботаники начала XX века [Alexander Alexandrovich Elenkin as a key person in Russian botany at the beginning of XX century]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 57(2): D17–D46. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2023.57.2.D17.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] This year marks 150th anniversary of the birth of the outstanding Russian cryptogamist, Alexander Alexandrovich Elenkin. He is renowned as the pioneer of the Russian cyanobacterial science school and one of the founding figures in Russian lichenology. A. A. Elenkin has made a titanic work on describing the flora of blue-green algae of the USSR, and created the first domestic identification book of this group. In addition to fundamental scientific research, which has not lost its relevance to this day, Elenkin prepared a pleiad of brilliant students who continued the development of Russian cryptogamic botany. It was through the efforts of A. A. Elenkin that the process of development of individual branches of Russian botanical science — algology, lichenology, bryology, was launched, which spread to many scientific centers of Russia. Keywords: blue-green algae, cyanobacteria, cryptogamic organisms, history of study, Russia.
36253Андреев М.П. & Потемкин А.Д. [Andreev M.P. & Potemkin А.D.] (2023): Александр Еленкин — основоположник криптогамной ботаники в России [Alexander Elenkin — the founder of cryptogamic botany in Russia]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 57(2): D1–D16. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2023.57.2.D1.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Alexander Alexandrovich Elenkin is considered as the founder of the Russian lichenological school and one of the founders of other areas of cryptogamic botany in Russia — algology, mycology, phytopathology, and bryology. Elenkin was born 150 years ago in Warsaw, but almost all his life since 1898 he worked at the Botanical Institute in St. Petersburg. Elenkin has created the Cryptogamic Herbarium, in the walls of which brilliant scientists, specialists in various fields of cryptogamic botany grew up under his leadership. The life of the talented and enthusiastic scientist, teacher and organizer, who devoted himself entirely to science, was not easy, especially at the end, and tragically ended in 1942 in Kazan. Keywords: algology, bibliography, bryology, Cryptogamic Herbarium, Elenkin, history of science, Komarov Botanical Institute, lichenology, mycology, phytopathology, Russia.
36252Himelbrant D.E., Stepanchikova I.S., Neshataeva V.Yu., Kirichenko V.E., Skvortsov K.I. & Timofeeva E.A. (2023): Further knowledge on the lichen biota of Koryakia (Northern Kamchatka, Russia). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 57(2): L29–L37. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2023.57.2.L29.
Based on collections of Koryak geobotanical expeditions of the Komarov Botanical Institute, 23 species of lichens and four lichenicolous fungi are reported as new to Koryakia, nine of them are also new to Kamchatka. Ephebe hispidula, Lambiella impavida, Rhizocarpon simillimum, Rhizoplaca opiniconensis, and Vestergrenopsis isidiata are new to the Russian Far East. Altogether 529 species of lichens and allied fungi are currently known for Koryakia. Keywords: Koryak Nature Reserve, Beringia, North Pacific.
36251Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1890): Lichenes, quos elaboravit. – In: Die internationale Polarforschung 1882–1883. Die deutschen Expeditionen und ihre Ergebnisse, Band 2(12): 322–327. - Hamburg: G. Neumayer im Auftrage der Deutschen Polar-Kommission. Druck von H. S. Hermann Berlin, (Sep. 7 pp.). .
36250Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1890): Lichenes epiphylli novi. - Genevae: H. Georg., 22 pp.. .
36249Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1891): Lichenes. – In: T. Durand & H. Pittier, Primitiae florae costaricensis. - Bulletin de la Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique, 30(1): 49–97. .
36248Lõhmus A., Runnel K., Palo A., Leis M., Nellis R., Rannap R., Remm L., Rosenvald R. & Lõhmus P. (2021): Value of a broken umbrella: abandoned nest sites of the black stork (Ciconia nigra) host rich biodiversity. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 30: 3647–3664. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-021-02268-7.
Protecting habitats for charismatic vertebrates can provide an ‘umbrella’ for less conspicuous organisms, especially when these are threatened by the same processes. However, such a conservation scheme is vulnerable to the extirpation of the focal species. We studied wider biodiversity values in long protected black stork (Ciconia nigra) nest sites, which were abandoned by the bird and thus legally subject to de-listing. In 20 abandoned nest sites in Estonia, we (i) mapped breeding birds within 600 m from the stork nest, and (ii) carried out time-limited surveys of lichens, polypore fungi, vascular plants and bryophytes in 2-ha plots. The breeding bird assemblages (64 species recorded) included 19 red-listed species, and showed no clear aggregation to the immediate surroundings of the stork nest. We recorded 740 plant and fungal species, of which 134 (18%) were of conservation concern (nationally protected, red-listed or extremely rare). Across the 2-ha plots, the numbers of the species of conservation concern varied more than three-fold (maximum 42 species), being afected notably by dead wood accumulation over time and presence of nemoral broad-leaved trees. The results demonstrate that many abandoned nest sites of the black stork have broader biodiversity signifcance, both due to the bird’s habitat requirements and the natural development during the protection. Expanding the umbrella function to sites abandoned by a focal species, but intact from anthropogenic degradation, can thus be a cost-efective conservation approach due to its low additional administrative burden. In most jurisdictions, the assessment procedure for such situations should be formalized, however. Keywords: Biodiversity · Conservation dilemma · Cost-efectiveness · Forest protection · Passive restoration · Umbrella species.
36247Brackel W. v. (2023): Weitere Funde von flechtenbewohnenden Pilzen in Bayern – Beitrag zu einer Checkliste VIII. - Archive for Lichenology, 35: 1–22. https://www.fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2035_Brackel%20-%20Flechtenbewohnende%20Pilze%20Bayern%20VIII.pdf.
A list of 68 lichenicolous fungi recently found in Bavaria is presented. The new species Endococcus montanus Brackel, Muellerella rhizocarpicola Brackel and Sphaerellothecium umbilicariae Brackel & E. Zimm. are described. New to Germany are Biatoropsis minuta, B. usnearum s. str., Epibryon conductrix, Muellerella polyspora, Tremella parietinae and Zyzygomyces aipoliae, new to Bavaria are Endococcus macrosporus, E. stigma s. str., Llimoniella groenlandiae, Nectriopsis cariosae and Trimmatostroma vandenboomii. Moreover, eight species noted in the literature as new for Bavaria are listed.
36246John V. & Güvenç Ş. (2023): Additions to the checklist and bibliography of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Turkey II. - Archive for Lichenology, 34: 1–47. https://www.fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2034_John_Turkey%20II.pdf.
Increase and gaps in the knowledge about the biota of lichens and lichenicolous fungi in Turkey in the last 4 years are documented, including some supplements. Since the compilations by JOHN & TÜRK (2017) and JOHN et al. (2020) 32 species of lichens and 17 lichenicolous fungi were newly published for Turkey. A total of 689 additional species (59 lichenicolous and 636 lichenized) are new for one or more provinces. Lecanora albula, Placynthium flabellosum, Ramalina bourgaeana, R. elegans and R. tortuosa are specified here as new for Turkey and 134 species (2 lichenicolous and 132 lichenized) as new for provinces. 31 publications were evaluated. The knowledge has improved in 40 provinces.
36245Ernst G. & Hanstein U. (2001): Epiphytische Flechten im Forstamt Sellhorn – Naturschutzgebiet Lüneburger Heide. - NNA-Berichte, 14: 28–85. .
36244Dolnik C., Neumann P. & Wagner-Ahlfs C. (2019): Die Flechten des Satrupholmer Moores. - Kieler Notizen zur Pflanzenkunde, 44: 93–105. .
[in German with English abstrcat: ] The lichens of Satrupholm raised bog. The raised bog Satrupholmer Moor and fens of the former area of the lake Rüde belong to the landscape Anglia in northeastern Schleswig-Holstein. In the years 1934/35 the lichenologist C.F.E. Erichsen discovered 72 lichens and related fungi, which are restricted to 65 species today. During field excursions in 2018/19 about 108 species were found. This reflects a tremendous change in landscape and biotops of the area. Several terricolous lichens of open moor heathland vanished and with succession to bushland and planting of trees many epiphytic lichens occured. Remarkble lichens for Schleswig-Holstein are Sclerophora amabilis and Opegrapha viridipruinosa on Sambucus nigra.
36243Thüs H. (1993): Flechten der Kreuzwertheimer Umgebung. - Naturkundliche Beiträge des DJN, 27: 41–49. .
36242Eger W. (2004): Flechtenkartierung im Kreis Waldeck-Frankenberg. - Vogelkundliche Hefte Edertal, 30: 235–243. .
36241Frahm J.-P. & Brown G. (1996): Die Moos- und Flechtenflora des Tombergs 1975 und 1995. - Decheniana, 149: 70–77. .
In 1975, the local botanist H. Breuer published a list containing 67 species of bryophytes and 31 lichens from the Tomberg, a small hill near Rheinbach, district of Euskirchen, North-Rhine Westphalia. 20 years later, the area was re-investigated. 16 bryophyte species were discovered new, and 20 species listed by Breuer could not be confirmed. This points to strong dynamic processes operating in the bryophyte flora which can be attributed to changes in certain habitat conditions. Such marked changes in the flora can be interpreted as indicating unstable ecological conditions. The changes found at the Tomberg are much more pronounced than at comparable natural areas such as the Vosges, but much less pronounced than in areas which have undergone considerable ecological changes, like the North Sea island Juist. In the present study, a total of 49 lichen species were recorded for the Tomberg. A large proportion of those (23) found by Breuer were confirmed. 2 epiphytic species have most probably become extinct. The improvement in air quality, particularly the decrease in sulphur dioxide levels, appears to have enabled a number of epiphytic species to recolonize the area.
36240Ruprecht U., Pfefferkorn-Dellali V., Reiter R., Berger F. & Türk R. (2016): Arten- und Biotopschutz für besonders seltene und gefährdete Flechtenstandorte in Oberösterreich. - ÖKO.L: Zeitschrift für Ökologie, Natur- und Umweltschutz, 38/4: 13–18. .
popular paper; Upper Austria [in German]
36239Reich F. & Friedmann A. (2021): Immissionsbezogene Flechtenkartierung in Augsburg: Ein Vergleich der Jahre 1985, 2008 und 2017. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 91: 77–94. .
[in German with English summary: ] With the aim of assessing the air quality in the city of Augsburg, a mapping of the epiphytic lichen vegetation was carried out in 2017 according to the VDI guideline 3957 (bioindication) and presented in an air quality map. A “low” to “moderate” air quality was determined for the investigated area. Compared to the air quality mapping results of 1985 and 2008, there are no more lichen-free areas or areas with “very low” air quality recorded. In addition to a few improvements in some city districts, air quality has deteriorated in almost half of the study area compared to the last mapping. The reason for this is the high eutrophication of the urban area. This is most visible in the change in the species spectrum. Nitrophytes are increasing strongly, while acidophytes are on the retreat. Key Words: lichen monitoring, bioindication, urban air pollution, eutrophication.
36238Bresinsky A. (1972): In memoriam Dr. Hans Doppelbaur und Dr. Hanna Doppelbaur. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 43: 149–152. .
obituary; bibliography
36237Schoenau v. [von Schoenau K.] (1936): Josef Anders †. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 22: 140–141. .
obituary
36236Bergner W. (2018): Dimelaena oreina (Ach.) Norman (Lichenes, Physciaceae) – Erstnachweis für Bayern. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 88: 141–142. .
36235Breitfeld M., Lauerer M. & Aas G. (2021): Prof. Dr. Eduard Hertel. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 91: 302–307. .
obituary; bibliography
36234Jeschke M. & Kiehl K. (2006): Vergleich der Kryptogamenvegetation alter und junger magerrasen im Naturschutzgebiet „Garchinger Heide“. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 76: 221–234. .
[in German with English abstract: ] In 2003 and 2004, the cryptogam vegetation of young and old calcareous grasslands of the nature reserve „Garchinger Heide“ was studied. Pleurocarpous mosses of the Abietinellion Giac. ex Neumann 1971, which are characteristic for calcareous grasslands, occur in the ancient grassland. The cryptogam layer of ex-arable fields within the nature reserve mainly consists of Thiddium abietinum and Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus, often growing in monospecific stands. The „Rollfeld“ (topsoil removal 1945) is characterized by a high species density of acrocarpous mosses and lichens. Biyophyte mats of Hypnum cupressiforme var. lacunosum and acrocarpous mosses of the Tortelletum inclinatae Stod. 1937 form a distinctive pattem. On bare soil epigaeic lichens of the Toninio-Psoretum decipientis were able to establish in most parts of the „Rollfeld“. Results of a grid mapping showed that they were not able to colonize the whole available area. During succession species-poor Cladonia stands slowly replace the epigaeic lichens and are outcompeted later by vascular plant species.
36233Knoph J.-G. (2001): Die Flechte Porpidia albocaerulescens in Bayern, sowie ein weiterer Nachweis aus Frankreich und der Erstnachweis für Nepal. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 71: 17–19. .
36232Türk R. & Wunder H. (1994): Erde und Bodenmoose bewohnende Flechten im Biosphärenreservat Berchtesgaden. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 64: 135–146. .
Aus dem Biosphärenreservat Berchtesgaden wird eine Liste der erd- und moosbewohnenden Flechten mit Angaben über ihre Verbreitung (auf der Basis von Meßtischblättern) und über ihre bevorzugten Höhenstufen mitgeteilt.
36231Wittmann H. & Türk R. (1994): Flechten und Flechtenparasiten der Ostalpen II. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 64: 189–204. .
Es werden Funde von 51 seltenen oder bisher übersehenen Flechten und lichenicolen Pilzen aus dem Ostalpenraum - vornehmlich aus Österreich - mitgeteilt. Verrucaria geophila wird erstmals in Mitteleuropa nachgewiesen, der Fund von Stigmidium eudine ist Erstnachweis für Österreich. Die bisher bekannte österreichische Verbreitung von Bacidia naegelii, Caloplaca irrubescens, Collema fasciculare, Lecanora demissa, Lecanora subaurea, Parmelia submontana, Physcia dimidiata und Physcia wainioi wird im Rasternetz der floristischen Kartierung dargestellt.
36230Yavuz M. (2020): Lichens in al-Biruni’s Kitab al-Saydanah fi al-Tibb. - Early Science and Medicine, 25(2): 152–172. DOI: 10.1163/15733823-00252P03.
Lichens are understood to be symbiotic organisms consisting of mycobiont and photobiont partners. This mutual partnership results in the production of unique secondary metabolites, which are used in contemporary pharmacy and medicine. The purpose of this study is to explore the uses of lichens in a particular period of medieval pharmacology: it retraced the relevant Arabic terms for, and descriptions of, lichens in the Kitab al-Saydanah fi al-Tibb , the “Book of Pharmacy in Medicine” written by Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni (973-1048). It will be shown that al-Biruni used اشنة ( ushnah ) for naming epiphytic lichens and حزاز الصخر ( hazaz al-sakhr ) for saxicolous ones. The information about lichens transmitted in his text is in accordance with that of his contemporary Ibn Sina, the famous physician and philosopher. In that period, the study, transmission and updating of the legacy of Antiquity promoted and influenced the use of lichens in Arabic and Islamic pharmacology and medicine. Keywords: Islamic medicine – lichens –medieval pharmacy – medieval botany – al-Biruni – materia medica.
36229Hollinger J., Scott P.A. & Lendemer J.C. (2024): Two new species of lichenicolous Arthonia (Arthoniaceae) from southeastern North America highlight the need for comparative studies of lichen parasites and their hosts. - Bryologist , 127(1): 2–21. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-127.1.001.
Arthonia frostiicola and A. galligena are described as new to science based on collections from mountainous regions of southeastern North America. Arthonia frostiicola infects the saxicolous lichen Dirinaria frostii, producing emarginate black apothecia which erupt from within the host thallus. It is characterized by a dark hypothecium and 1-septate, obovoid ascospores which turn brownish and verruculose in age. It is known from five collections made in the southern Appalachian Mountains and Ozark Mountains in southeastern North America. Arthonia galligena produces galls in the thallus and apothecia of the corticolous lichens Lecanora masana and L. rugosella, and is apparently endemic to the high elevations of the southern Appalachian Mountains. It is characterized by a variably pigmented, pale to red-brown hypothecium and 2-septate, macrocephalic ascospores which turn brownish and verruculose in age. Keys to the species of Arthonia on Caliciales and Lecanoraceae are provided. Keywords: New taxa, biodiversity, endemism, host-parasite relationships, lichenicolous fungi, taxonomy.
36228Bacchus B.R. & Da Silva P.N.B. (2021): Host plant specificity of corticolous lichens in urban and suburban New Amsterdam, Berbice, Guyana . - GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 14(1): 101–108. https://doi.org/10.30574/gscbps.2021.14.1.0014.
In this study, host plant - lichen specificity was investigated. Data was collected from 1000m2 sampling plots at each of four locations with an established 50m x 20m plot at each site. Forty-one trees from across five species were examined using (10cm by 50cm) ladder quadrats on tree trunks (N, S, E, W) at 150cm height. A total of 14978 individual lichens were identified that yielded 10 families, 13 genera and 18 species. Swietenia mahagoni showed the highest average corticolous lichen species composition, followed by Terminalia catappa and Melicoccus bijugales respectively. Cocos nucifera had a higher average species recorded than Mangifera indica. Crustose lichens were the most prominent corticolous lichens observed (61%) with the most individuals in Graphidaceae and Arthoniaceae. Foliose lichens (28%) showed the most abundance in Parmeliaceae, Caliciaceae and Collemataceae. Of the taxa recorded, 22.2% were restricted to specific trees. C. parasitica, H. laevigata, U. cornuta were restricted to S. mahagoni. D. applanata was restricted to C. nucifera. 22.2% of recorded species were found on all of the tree hosts that were examined. Bacidia laurocerasi, Flavoparmelia caperata, Flavoparmelia soredians and Graphina anguina. S. mahagoni hosted 88.9% of all recorded species. Swietenia mahagoni showed the highest average of recorded corticolous lichen species of all host trees with 7.58. Mangifera indica showed the lowest average with 4. The maximum number of species (10) was recorded on one S. mahagoni tree. Keywords: Corticolous lichens; Host plant specificity; Urban, Suburban; New Amsterdam, Guyana
36227Bacchus B.R. & Da Silva P.N.B. (2021): A preliminary investigation of corticolous lichen diversity in urban and suburban sites in New Amsterdam, Berbice, Guyana. - International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 11(2): 277–286. DOI: 10.29322/IJSRP.11.02.2021.p11033.
The aim of this study was to document and compare the corticolous lichen species diversity present on barks of trees at four study sites in urban and suburban environments in New Amsterdam, Guyana. A 50m by 20m plot was demarcated within each of the four sites. Healthy mature trees within the each were sampled to determine species richness, evenness and diversity of corticolous lichens communities. Forty-one healthy individual trees from five species were sampled using (10cm by 50cm) ladder quadrats on the tree trunk (N, S, E, W) at 150cm height. A total of 14978 individual lichens were identified from 10 families, 13 genera and 18 species. Shannon Diversity Index and Simpson’s Diversity Index, Pielou’s Index, Menhinick’s Index and Whittaker’s diversity index were calculated and used to compare the lichen diversity. The results showed that species richness, species evenness and diversity was higher at the urban study sites than at the suburban sites. Index terms: Corticolous lichens, diversity, urban, suburban, Guyana.
36226Rashmi S. & Rajkumar H.G. (2019): Diversity of lichens along elevational gradients in forest ranges of Chamarajanagar district, Karnataka state. - International Journal of Scientific Research in Biological Sciences, 6(1): 97–104. https://doi.org/10.26438/ijsrbs/v6i1.97104.
The lichen species richness in Chamarajanagar district in Karnataka, India were assessed using altitudinal gradient, in order to compare distribution patterns of different growth forms, dominant families and diversity index. Four major forest ranges, Biligiriranga Hills, Himavad Gopalaswamy Hills, Malay Mahadeshwara Hills, and Shivanasamudra Falls were surveyed and a total of 97 lichens, belonging to 47 genera and 25 families were recorded. Physciaceae was found to be dominant family by 18 species under 8 genera, followed by Parmeliaceae with 16 species under 4 genera. Crustose type was dominated with 51%, followed by foliose type with 38%. Malay Mahadeshwara hills had highest lichen species richness and harboured 67 species, of which, 36 species were crustose type and 28 species were foliose type. Shannon-weiner index ranged from 3.85- 2.45 and Simpson index of diversity ranged from 0.02-0.09. Luxuriant growth of lichens was recorded at the altitude of mid elevation with degree of abundance, density, frequency and distribution of the lichen species compared to other elevation. The present study provided baseline data of lichen diversity, which helps in understanding the relationship between distribution of lichen species along different elevation bands and vegetation types. Keywords— Biodiversity, Deciduous forest, Physciaceae, Corticolous, MM Hills.
36225Bhagarathi L.K., Maharaj G., Da Silva P.N.B. & Subramanian G. (2022): A review of the diversity of lichens and what factors affect their distribution in the neotropics. - GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 20(3): 27–63. https://doi.org/10.30574/gscbps.2022.20.3.0348.
The purpose of this paper is to review published literature on the diversity of lichens and the factors that affect its distribution in the neotropics. The systematic method was used to research works of literature on “Diversity of lichens and what factors affect their distribution in the neotropics.” A total of forty-nine research papers published between the years 1996 to 2021 was selected and utilized for this review. The results obtained was presented in tables. A subjective approach was then used to select the subtopics: lichens and their impact- benefits and importance. In this paper, twelve (12) neotropical countries were evaluated and a grand total of four hundred twenty-seven (427) lichens species of lichens from fifty-eight (58) lichen families were presented. Lichen distribution and habitats, diversity of lichens and factors that affect the distribution of lichens in the neotropics were also discussed. The published papers established that lichens have a rich diversity globally, they have many benefits and importance, they are widely distributed across the landscape and are found in a wide range of habitats. Many abiotic factors such as temperature, pH, humidity, moisture, latitude, topography, light availability and anthropogenic activities by human beings e.g., pollution and deforestation play a heavy influence on lichens and their distribution in the neotropics as well as globally. More studies should be done in the neotropics since data is limited and in demand. Keywords: Neotropics; Foliicolous lichen; Lichenicolous fungus; Distribution; Diversity; Factors.
36224Bhagarathi L.K., Da Silva P.N.B., Subramanian G., Maharaj G., Kalika-Singh S., Pestano F., Phillips-Henry Z. & Cossiah C. (2023): An integrative review of the biology and chemistry of lichens and their ecological, ethnopharmacological, pharmaceutical and therapeutic potential. - GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 23(3): 92–119. https://doi.org/10.30574/gscbps.2023.23.3.0223.
This purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate published literature on the biology and chemistry of lichens and their ecological, ethnopharmacological, pharmaceutical and therapeutic potential. A systematic method was used to gather literature on “the biology and chemistry of lichens and their ecological, ethnopharmacological, pharmaceutical and therapeutic potential.” A total of fifty-five research papers published between the years 1963 to 2022 were selected and utilized for this review. Tables were used to present the results. The subtopics were then chosen using a subjective method: lichens and their benefits/ importance. In this paper, eight (8) ecological functions and fourteen (14) pharmaceutical properties and therapeutic potentials were evaluated and presented. Lichen biology and chemistry and their roles in ethnopharmacological are also discussed. Additionally, lichens as pioneer and keystone species and their role as bioindicators to assess ecosystem health, sustainability and productivity was also addressed in this research. The published papers established that lichens have many benefits and importance, they are capable of synthesizing a range of chemicals that are beneficial to us and they are used in both traditional and pharmaceutical preparation of different treatments to combat many different diseases that affect human beings. More studies to investigate the uses of lichens should be done, especially in neotropics as there is a paucity of data and in this biodiversity rich region. Keywords: Lichens; Biology; Chemistry; Ecological; Ethnopharmacological; Pharmaceutical; Therapeutic potential.
36223Bhagarathi L.K., Da Silva P.N.B. & Subramanian G. (2024): Lichen-host plant specificity on citrus plant species in coastal agroecosystems at No. 63 Benab, Berbice, Guyana. - World Journal of Advanced Research and Reviews, 21(1): 2342–2355. https://doi.org/10.30574/wjarr.2024.21.1.0309.
This was a preliminary study into host-plant lichen specificity at two coastal agroecosystems sites at No. 63 Benab, Berbice, Guyana. For each of the two sites, sampling plots of 2000 meter square (2000 m2) were demarcated and at 50 m × 40 m study plots were established. Healthy mature trees were identified in each plot to assess the lichen communities host-plant specificity. Twine was used to mark the trunks of 40 healthy individual trees in the North, South, East, and West quadrants (each measuring 50 by 100 cm). A total of 52,311 lichens were recorded and these were placed into fifteen (15) families, twenty-three (23) genera, and thirty (30) species. Crustose lichens were the most abundant in the study. Cocos nucifera had the highest average number of lichens recorded and accounted for forty-five percent (45 %) of the overall host trees that were sampled. Four (4) species of lichens (Flavoparmelia soredians, Dirinaria applanate, Lecanora muralis and Lecanora conizaeoide) showed specificity towards all host trees in the study. Twenty-six (26) species did not show specificity to all twelve (12) of the host tree species sampled. Twelve (12) species of lichens (Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia soredians, Flavoparmelia caperta, Dirinaria applanate, Chrysothrix candelaris, Lecanora muralis, Lecanora conizaeoide, Arthonia cinnabarina, Arthonia purinata, Candelaria concolor, Lepraria lobificans and Graphis elegans) showed host tree specificity for four (4) species of citrus trees sampled. 13.3 % species were found on all tree hosts: Flavoparmelia soredians, Dirinaria applanate, Lecanora muralis and Lecanora conizaeoide. Mangifera indica hosted 76.7 % (23 of 30 species) of all recorded species. Tamarindus indica hosted the least number of lichen species, 26.7 % of lichens (8 of 30 species). Given that a lot of development is considerably taking place in the coastal areas of Guyana which may increase the instances of pollution, studies of this type can be beneficial since prior research has established the importance of lichens as good indicators of air pollution. Keywords: Lichens; Host Plant Specificity; Citrus; Coastal ecosystems; Guyana.
36222Poelt J. (1989): Maximilian Steiner 1904-1988. Ein Nachruf. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 60: 219–223. .
obituary
36221Dethlefs M. & Kaiser T. (2000): Kehren die Bartflechten zurück? Beobachtungen aus der Südheide . - Beiträge zur Naturkunde Niedersachsens, 53: 22–29. .
36220Pudwill R. (2000): Die epiphytische Flechtenflora im Raum Gifhorn (Ost-Niedersachsen). - Beiträge zur Naturkunde Niedersachsens, 53: 61–67. .
Im Übergangsbereich zwischen dem Ballungsraum Braunschweig und der Lüneburger Heide wurde im überwiegend land- und forstwirtschaftlich geprägten Untersuchungsgebiet die epiphytische Flechtenflora kartiert. Insgesamt sind im Untersuchungsgebiet bis auf wenige Ausnahmen in Niedersachsen häufige Arten anzutreffen. Es wurden 21 Arten gefunden. Davon sind 5 Arten in Niedersachsen im Bestand gefährdet (Rote-Liste-Arten). Fast die Hälfte der Arten trat mit einer geringen Stetigkeit von bis zu 20 % auf. Dazu zählen insbesondere die gegenüber Luftverschmutzungen relativ empfindlichen Gattungen Usnea, Bryoria, Ramalina, von denen nur wenige Vorkommen junger Pflanzen gefunden wurden. Möglicherweise zeigt dies eine beginnende Ausbreitung der empfindlichen Arten.
36219Spielmann A.A. (2023): Líquen da vez: Crocodia aurata (Ach.) Link, 1833. - Boletim Micobiota, 3(4): 25–26. .
36218Spielmann A.A., Aptroot A., Cáceres M.E.S., Canêz L.S., Dias I.P.R.C., Dal Forno M., Honda N.K., Jungbluth P., Käffer M.I., Koch N.M., Micheletti A.C., Pereira E. & Fraga Junior C.A.V. (2023): Brasil: o país dos liquens!. - Boletim Micobiota, 3(4): 1–13. .
[in Portuguese] Popular paper on lichens and their research in Brazil
36217Эктова С.Н. & Соковнина С.Ю. [Ektova S.N. & Sokovnina S.U.] (2023): Раздел 5. Лишайники [Lichens]. - In: Красная книга Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа: животные, растения, грибы. 3-е издание [Red Data Book of Yamal-Nenetsk autonomous district - animals, plants, fungi. 3-rd edition], p. 287–296, Салехард: Департамент природных ресурсов и экологии Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа [. .
36216Zhang Y., Yin Y., Wang L., Printzen C., Wang L. & Wang X. (2024): Two new species of Rhizoplaca (Lecanoraceae) from Southwest China. - MycoKeys, 101: 233–248. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.101.115678.
In this study, two new species, Rhizoplaca adpressa Y. Y. Zhang & Li S. Wang and R. auriculata Y. Y. Zhang, Li S. Wang & Printzen, are described from Southwest China, based on their morphology, phylogeny and chemistry. In phylogeny, the two new species are monophyletic, and sister to each other within Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca-complex. Rhizoplaca adpressa is characterized by its placodioid and closely adnate thallus, pale green and heavily pruinose upper surface, narrow (ca. 1 mm) and white free margin on the lower surface of marginal squamules, the absence of a lower cortex, and its basally non-constricted apothecia with orange discs that turn reddish-brown at maturity. Rhizoplaca auriculata is characterized by its squamulose to placodioid thallus, yellowish green and marginally pruinose squamules, wide (1−3 mm) and bluish-black free margin on the lower surface of marginal squamules, the absence of a lower cortex, and its basally constricted apothecia with persistently orange discs. Rhizoplaca adpressa and R. auriculata share the same secondary metabolites of usnic and placodiolic acids. Key words: new taxa, Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca-complex, R. melanophthalma-complex, saxicolous lichen.
36215Zhang W., Ran Q., Li H. & Lou H. (2024): Endolichenic fungi: a promising medicinal microbial resource to discover bioactive natural molecules—an update. - Journal of Fungi, 10(2): 99 [49 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof10020099.
Lichens are some of the most unique fungi and are naturally encountered as symbiotic biological organisms that usually consist of fungal partners (mycobionts) and photosynthetic organisms (green algae and cyanobacteria). Due to their distinctive growth environments, including hot deserts, rocky coasts, Arctic tundra, toxic slag piles, etc., they produce a variety of biologically meaningful and structurally novel secondary metabolites to resist external environmental stresses. The endofungi that live in and coevolve with lichens can also generate abundant secondary metabolites with novel structures, diverse skeletons, and intriguing bioactivities due to their mutualistic symbiosis with hosts, and they have been considered as strategically significant medicinal microresources for the discovery of pharmaceutical lead compounds in the medicinal industry. They are also of great importance in the fundamental research field of natural product chemistry. In this work, we conducted a comprehensive review and systematic evaluation of the secondary metabolites of endolichenic fungi regarding their origin, distribution, structural characteristics, and biological activity, as well as recent advances in their medicinal applications, by summarizing research achievements since 2015. Moreover, the current research status and future research trends regarding their chemical components are discussed and predicted. A systematic review covering the fundamental chemical research advances and pharmaceutical potential of the secondary metabolites from endolichenic fungi is urgently required to facilitate our better understanding, and this review could also serve as a critical reference to provide valuable insights for the future research and promotion of natural products from endolichenic fungi. Keywords: lichens; endolichenic fungi; secondary metabolites; biological activity.
36214Šoun J. (2023): Katalog lišejníků Brd [A catalogue of lichens of the Brdy Mts]. - Erica, Plzeň, 30: 55–91. .
The catalogue summarizes the published information on lichens, lichenicolous fungi and small non-lichenized fungi often studied by lichenologists from the area of Brdy Mts in a narrow concept (Western and Central Bohemia, Czech Republic). 77 literature sources were excerpted. In total, the catalogue includes 469 taxa of lichens (including aggregates, etc.), 15 species of lichenicolous fungi and 10 species of non-lichenized fungi frequently studied by lichenologists. Cetraria commixta, Hypogymnia vittata, Nephroma laevigatum and Pleopsidium chlorophanum were erroneously reported from the area. 40 species are known only from the first half of the 20th century and recent data on them are missing. Keywords: biodiversity, lichen-forming fungi, montane.
36213Peksa O., Bouda F., Malíček J., Kocourková J., Palice Z. & Šoun J. (2023): Zajímavé nálezy lišejníků ze západních Čech II [Interesting records of lichens from Western Bohemia (Czech Republic) II]. - Erica, Plzeň, 30: 93–116. .
We present here interesting records of 86 lichen taxa from Western Bohemia (incl. Pilsen and the Karlovy Vary Region) with several additional localities from other Czech regions. In total, 57 taxa belong to C1 (critically endangered species – 9), C2 (strongly endangered species – 10) and C3 (endangered species – 38) categories of the Red list of lichens of the Czech Republic according to DaLiBor for 2023 (Malíček 2023). Buellia leptocline, B. uberior, Chaenotheca laevigata, Cladonia turgida, Gyalecta carneola, Miriquidica pycnocarpa, Nephroma bellum, N. parile, Parmeliella triptophylla, Psora decipiens, Rhizocarpon simillimum, Sphaerophorus globosus and Squamarina lentigera represent the most valuable records. Keywords: biodiversity, expanding species, lichen-forming fungi, rare species.
36212Osyczka P., Kościelniak R. & Stanek M. (2024): Old-growth forest versus generalist lichens: Sensitivity to prolonged desiccation stress and photosynthesis reactivation rate upon rehydration. - Mycologia, 116(1): 31–43. https://doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2023.2275460.
Most epiphytic lichens demonstrate high specificity to a habitat type, and sensitive hygrophilous species usually find shelter only in close-to-natural forest complexes. Some of them are considered as old-growth forest and/or long ecological continuity indicators. To evaluate general links between the narrow ecological range and physiological traits, two distinct sets of model lichens, i.e., old-growth forest (Cetrelia cetrarioides (Duby) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb., Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., Menegazzia terebrata (Hoffm.) A. Massal.), and generalist (Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale, Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata Taylor) ones, were examined in terms of sensitivity to long-term desiccation stress (1-, 2-, and 3-month) and photosynthesis activation rate upon rehydration. Desiccation tolerance and response rate to rehydration are specific to a given ecological set of lichens rather than to a particular species. Noticeable delayed and prompt recovery of high photosynthetic activity of photosystem II (PSII) characterize these sets, respectively. At the same time, although a decrease in the potential quantum yield of PSII in lichen thalli with a relative water content (RWC) at the level of 25% was observed, the efficiency remained at a very high level for all species, regardless of habitat preferences. Among the examined lichens, the fluorescence emission parameters for F. caperata were the fastest toward equilibrium upon rehydration, both after a shorter and a longer period of desiccation stress. In contrast to generalist lichens, retrieving of photosynthesis after 3-month desiccation failed in old-growth forest lichens. In the long term, prolonged rainless periods and unfavorable water balance in the environment predicted in the future may have a severely limiting effect on hygrophilous lichens during growing season (also in the sense of species associations) and, at the same time, promote the development of generalists. Keywords: Bioindicators; chlorophyll fluorescence; lichen ecophysiology; lichenized fungi; photobiont.
36211Chernenkova T.V., Belyaeva N.G., Suslova E.G., Aristarkhova E.A. & Kotlov I.P. (2023): Patterns of the red-listed epiphytic species distribution in coniferous-deciduous forests of the Moscow Region. - Geography, Environment, Sustainability, 16(1): 119–131. https://doi.org/10.24057/2071-9388-2022-101.
Epiphytes model the diversity of forest communities and indicate the integrity of natural ecosystems or the threat to their existence. The high sensitivity of epiphytic species to the environmental quality makes them good indicators in anthropogenic landscapes. The study deals with the distribution patterns of rare indicator epiphytic species at the border of their range in the broad- leaved–coniferous forest zone, in the central part of the East European Plain within the Moscow region. The distribution and abundance of eight lichen species Anaptychia ciliaris, Bryoria fuscescens, B. implexa, Usnea dasopoga, U. glabrescens, U. hirta, U. subfloridana and the epiphytic moss Neckera pennata were studied. The main environmental factors at the regional level were climate variables based on the Worldclim database, water indices based on Sentinel-2 multispectral remote sensing data, and the anthropogenic impact factor in terms of the Nighttime lights of the earth’s surface based on the Suomi NPP satellite system. It was revealed that the vast majority of records were in the western and northern sectors of the region, i.e. in the broad-leaved–coniferous forest zone, while the vast majority of 0-records were in the southern and eastern sectors, in the area of broad-leaved and pine forests and extensive reclaimed wetlands. The association with different types of communities and biotopes, as well as tree species, was assessed at the ecosystem level, using field data. It has been established that the distribution of the studied species is governed by natural-geographic features of the territory. The principal limiting factors are air pollution, ecological restrictions (high humidity requirement of sites), cutting of mature forests and formation of local anthropogenic infrastructure. In perspective the study of ecology and living conditions of the studied rare species will help determine the optimal conditions contributing to biodiversity conservation in forests near large metropolitan areas and optimization of habitat diversity. Keywords: the red-listed epiphytic, forests, bioindicators, climate, anthropogenic impact, community ecology, biotope, urbanized landscapes, Moscow region.
36210Химич Е.О., Ходосовцев О.Є. & Попова Л.П. [Khymych E.O., Khodosovtsev O.Ye. & Popova L.P.] (2023): Nephroma bellum (Sprengel) Tuck. та N. laevigatum Ach. (Nephromataceae, Peltigerales) в Україні та їх созологічний статус [Nephroma bellum (Sprengel) Tuck. and N. laevigatum Ach. (Nephromataceae, Peltigerales) and their protected status]. - Вісті Біосферного заповідника "Асканія-Нова" [Biosphere Reserve "Askania Nova" Reports], 25: 16–21. DOI: 10.53904/1682-2374/2023-25/2.
[in Ukrainian with English abstract: ] The authors carried out a critical study of the Nephroma laevigatum s.lat. (Nephromataceae, Peltigerales) complex on the basis of lichen specimens kept in the herbarium of the M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (KHER). In addition, the materials of lichenological studies in the National Nature Park "Zacharovanyi Krai" (Zakarpattia region, Khust district) were used in the paper. There are two species of the complex in Ukraine as N. bellum (Spreng.) Tuck. and N. laevigatum Ach. The lichens are similar, but differ in the colour of the medulla and its reaction to a 10% KOH solution. Nephroma bellum has a white medulla with a negative reaction to KOH, while N. laevigatum has a yellowish medulla that turns red from a 10% KOH solution. The existence of N. bellum in the Carpathians has been confirmed. It is likely that all 15 historical reports in the first half of the 20th century under the name N. laevigatum auct. refer to N. bellum. Nephroma bellum was last collected in Ukraine by M.F. Makarevych in 1948 (KW). In Ukraine, we recorded N. bellum for the first time in the last 75 years from the National Nature Park "Zacharovany Krai". The existence of N. laevigatum Ach. s. str. in Ukraine is confirmed by a single specimen from Crimea collected in 1950 (KW). Herbarium specimens have not yet confirmed the growth of this species in the Ukrainian Carpathians. According to the IUCN criteria, N. bellum and N. laevigatum in Ukraine are proposed to be "critically endangered" and "regionally extinct", respectively. According to the existing criteria of the Red Data Book of Ukraine, N. bellum and N. laevigatum can be classified as "critically endangered" and "regionally extinct" respectively and proposed for inclusion in its new edition.
36209Zhurbenko M.P. (2023): Contributions to the knowledge of lichenicolous fungi growing on Sphaerophoraceae, with a key to the species. - Herzogia, 36: 504–523. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.36.2.2023.504.
Four species of lichenicolous fungi are described as new to science: Abrothallus leifidii (on Leifidium), Micarea novae-zelandiae (on Bunodophoron), Spirographa bunodophoronis (on Bunodophoron), and Umushamyces wedinii (on Bunodophoron). Pyrenocarpous ascomycete 1 (on Bunodophoron), which resembles Polycoccum species, and pyrenocarpous ascomycete 2 (on Sphaerophorus), which resembles Endococcus oropogonicola are briefly characterised. Cercidospora punctillata is first reported from Sphaerophorus fragilis. Clypeococcum wedinii is newly reported for Australia (Tasmania), Bunodophoron australe and B. melanocarpum are its new host species. Lichenoconium erodens is new to Australia and New Zealand, L. usneae is new to Australia, both are first documented on a member of Sphaerophoraceae (Bunodophoron). A species of Pyrenidium is newly reported on a member of Sphaerophoraceae (Bunodophoron formosanum). A key to 18 species of lichenicolous fungi known to occur on Sphaerophoraceae is provided. Key words: Argentina, Australia, Chile, New Zealand, Russia, lichen-dwelling fungi, taxonomy.
36208Zhurbenko M.P., Diederich P. & Braun U. (2023): Randlanea usneicola gen. & sp. nov., a new lichenicolous coelomycete on Usnea from the Russian Caucasus. - Herzogia, 36: 497–503. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.36.2.2023.497.
Randlanea usneicola gen. & sp. nov., found on Usnea longissima, is described, illustrated, and compared with other morphologically similar genera of coelomycetes. The new genus is characterised by a lichenicolous habit, phialidic conidiogenesis, multilocal, occasionally annellidic conidiogenous cells, and conidia formed in chains, initially 1–2(–3)-septate, subsequently often disintegrating into aseptate fragments. Sporidesmium usneae (first reported for Russia) with relatively short and poorly septate conidia is briefly characterised and illustrated. Key words: Asexual morphs, lichen-inhabiting fungi, new genus.
36207Shi K.-J., Guo T.-L., Jia Z.-F. & Zhao X. (2023): Four new records of the lichen genus Fissurina from China. - Herzogia, 36: 488–496. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.36.2.2023.488.
Based on morphological, anatomical and chemical study of lichen material collected in Guizhou, Hainan, Fujian and Guangxi provinces of China, four species of Fissurina Graphidaceae), i.e. F. duplomarginata, F. lumbschiana, F. phuluangi, and F. subnitida, are reported as new records for China. Full descriptions and illustrations of each species are provided, followed by the comparison and discussion with the type specimens and similar species. A revised key to the known 24 Fissurina species from China is also provided. All specimens examined were deposited in the Fungarium of the College of Life Sciences, Liaocheng University (LCUF). Key words: lichenized fungi, Ostropales, taxonomy, tropical, subtropical.
36206Payzula T. & Mamut R. (2023): Myriolecis nigrodisca, a new saxicolous species from northwestern China . - Herzogia, 36: 479–487. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.36.2.2023.479.
Myriolecis nigrodisca is described as a new lichenized fungus. It is characterized by having a crustose and often conspicuous yellowish to beige thallus, black, often confluent apothecia with grey to whitish-grey pruinose and fissured discs. Morphological and anatomical analyses confirm the position of the new species within Myriolecis. It is strongly supported by the phylogenetic analyses using the maximum likelihood method based on nrITS and mtSSU sequences. Additionally, a detailed description of the morphology, illustrations, distribution, ecology and a brief discussion of this species are provided. Key words: Lecanoraceae, phylogenetics, taxonomy.
36205Afshan N., Fayyaz I., Iftikhar F., Niazi A.R., Habib K. & Khalid A.N. (2023): A new species of the genus Bacidina (Ramalinaceae, Ascomycota) from Pakistan . - Herzogia, 36: 470–478. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.36.2.2023.470.
Bacidina pakistanica from the Himalayan moist temperate forest in Pakistan is described as new to science. nrITS sequences confirm its position within the genus Bacidina and together with its morphology suggest that it is distinct from other species of this genus. The taxon is characterized by olive green to pale green thallus, purplish black to almost black apothecia, 0.7 – 0.9 – 1.3 – 1.75 mm wide, a hymenium 65 – 80 μm high, 3 – 4 septate and large ascospores 28 – 55 × 1.9 – 3 μm. Also an updated key to Bacidina in Pakistan is provided. Key words: Ganga Choti, Himalayan forest, sequencing, Ramalinaceae.
36204Knudsen K., Kocourková J., Hodková E., Dart J., Dolnik C., Malíček J. & Obermayer W. (2023): Exploring the Sarcogyne phylogeny: three new species and four new reports from Europe and North America (Austria, Czech Republic, Greece, Germany, Romania, U.S.A.). - Herzogia, 36: 445–469. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.36.2.2023.445.
A history of the study of Sarcogyne is explained. Acarospora and Sarcogyne are morphological genus concepts and neither are currently recovered as monophyletic clades. Neither genus has any synapomorphic character or suite of characters distinguishing all species as either Sarcogyne or Acarospora. Three new species are described from Europe and North America: Sarcogyne adscendens (California, U.S.A.), S. lecanorina (Czech Republic), and S. poeltii (Greece). Two sterile taxa with probably functionally infertile apothecia were recovered in the Acarospora badiofusca-A. cervina clade, S. kisonii nom. prov. (Germany), and S. schultzii nom. prov. (Austria). They could replicate by division and fragmentation and S. kisonii also produces conidia. We report Sarcogyne canadensis new for Romania and Europe and Sarcogyne oceanica new for Germany. Acarospora glaucocarpa var. cumulata is a synonym of S. praetermissa. Sequences of nine undescribed Sarcogyne taxa from North America and one from Czech Republic, all known from single collections, are made available for future research. Key words: Acarospora glaucocarpa, California, phylogeny, sterile lichens.
36203Christensen S.N. (2023): Contribution to the knowledge of the lichen biota of Pinus nigra stands in Greece. - Herzogia, 36: 428–444. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.36.2.2023.428.
One hundred and seven epiphytic taxa, 4 epigeic taxa and 8 epilithic taxa are recorded from 17 Pinus nigra stands across its distribution area in Greece. Generally, the lichen biota is referable to a Pseudevernion community with nitrophytic elements. Caloplaca xerothermica, Lecidella subviridis and Parmelia barrenoae are new to Greece. Six species are new to Epiros, 5 species are new to Makedonia and 5 species are new to Peloponnisos. Elixia cretica is reported for the first time outside its type locality. The new combination Caloplace xerothermica (Vondrák, Arup & I.V.Frolov) S.N.Christensen is made. Studies on epiphytic lichens on Pinus nigra in Greece and neighbouring countries are discussed. Key words: azonal forests, Epiros, Makedonia, Mediterranean-montane lichens, Peloponnisos, Pseudevernion.
36202Malíček J., Konečná E. & Steinová J. (2023): Contribution to the lichen biota of Romania . - Herzogia, 36: 409–427. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.36.2.2023.409.
We report floristic records on 371 lichen taxa and three non-lichenized lichen-similar fungi from Romania. Fiftythree species are new to Romania. Buellia arborea, Caloplaca turkuensis, Protoparmelia hypotremella, and Rinodina euskadiensis are reported for the first time from Southeastern Europe. Sarcogyne canadensis is new to Europe. Two species from the genera Peltula and Verrucaria, both supported by a nrITS sequence, probably represent undescribed taxa. Sequences from Gyalecta erythrozona and Peccania corallina are published for the first time. Anaptychia crinalis, Bagliettoa quarnerica, Caloplaca anularis, Diploschistes candidissimus, Gyalolechia klementii, Hymenelia heteromorpha, Thelidium fontigenum and Zahlbrucknerella calcarea represent other remarkable records. Key words: The Balkans, biodiversity, limestones, Peccania, Peltula, Southern and Eastern Carpathians, Verrucaria.
36201Rettig J., Knudsen K. & Breuss O. (2023): Flechten und flechtenbewohnende Pilze aus Ostthüringen, mit Hinweisen auf einige selten gemeldete Acarospora-Arten aus Europa. - Herzogia, 36: 387–408. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.36.2.2023.387.
Lichens and lichenicolous fungi from eastern Thuringia, with references to some rarely reported Acarospora species from Europe. Remarkable finds of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from eastern Thuringia, occasionally from other parts and the neighbouring federal states, are reported. In addition, Acarospora saxonica is discussed in more detail. This species is new to Italy, Austria and Switzerland. New for Germany are Acarospora irregularis, Verrucaria elevata, and V. inaspecta. New for Thuringia are Acarospora franconica, A. intermedia, A. saxonica and A. similis, new for Hesse Acarospora franconica and A. intermedia and new for Saxony-Anhalt are Rinodina teichophila and Verrucaria ochrostoma. After several decades, Lichenodiplis lecanorae was found again in Thuringia and Acarospora intermedia in Hesse and Thuringia. Findings of the lichens Hydropunctaria rheithrophila, Peltigera lepidophora, Physcia tribacia, Placidium michelii and Placidium pilosellum, which are rare in Thuringia, are also reported. Myriospora scabrida, Placidium lachneum, Verrucaria beltraminiana and Verrucaria botellispora are to be deleted from the list of lichens of Thuringia, the occurrence of Bacidina brandii in Thuringia is doubtful. Key words: Lichenized Ascomycota, lichenicolous Ascomycota, distribution, mycobiota, taxonomy.
36200Śliwa L., Mazur E. & Wirth V. (2023): A new and intriguing species of Myriolecis in a revised phylogenetic framework for the genus. - Herzogia, 36: 371–386. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.36.2.2023.371.
On the basis of morphological and chemical data, and a phylogenetic reconstruction using six DNA regions, a new crustose, lecanoroid lichen species from the region of Baden-Württemberg (SW Germany) is described. Myriolecis suevica is characterized by the presence of an unexpected secondary metabolic compound, namely isousnic acid. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this new species is closely related to M. sambuci, the nomenclatural type for the genus Myriolecis. ‘Lecanora’ casimceana and ‘L.’ elenkinii, which resemble representatives of the genus Myriolecis also contain isousnic acid and are therefore described in detail. The issue of replacing the generic name Myriolecis with the former name Polyozosia for the group traditionally circumscribed as Lecanora dispersa gr. is briefly discussed. Key words: Lichen-forming fungi, Polyozosia, Lecanora dispersa, limestone, Swabian Alb, SW Germany.
36199Gueidan C., Li L. & Robinson I. (2022): Challenges to developing a reference sequence database using mass parallel sequencing and lichen herbarium specimens: a case study for microlichens of the Australian Capital Territory. - Muelleria, 41: 3–11. .
Molecular species identification is a powerful tool in taxonomy, biodiversity research and ecology, in particular for groups of organisms with limited diagnostic features. This tool relies on the development of high-quality reference sequence databases, and such databases can be built using collection specimens and mass parallel sequencing. Here, lichen herbarium specimens and mass parallel sequencing were used to generate reference ITS sequences for microlichens from the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and to develop a reference sequence database. The preliminary database was then tested on un-identified specimens collected during the 2018 ACT BushBlitz expedition. Challenges met during both database development and molecular species identification suggest that these processes will not be straightforward for microlichens, due to the high number of sequences generated for non-target species (lichen-associated fungi, co-occurring lichenised species and sample cross-contaminants). Keywords: Australia, ITS barcode, PacBio amplicon sequencing, collection specimens.
36198Wirth V. (2022): Die Flechten des Biosphärengebietes Schwarzwald. - Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, Freiburg/Breisgau, 25: 5–32. DOI: 10.6094/BLNN/Mitt/25.01.
The lichens of the Black Forest Biosphere Reserve. Lichens contribute to the diversity of the Black Forest Biosphere Reserve to a considerable extent. The list of recorded lichens includes 830 species. In addition, around 110 species of lichenicolous fungi are reported. The most frequent and the most characteristic lichen communities of the study area are described. The area turns out as the region with the highest lichen diversity in Germany outside the Alps. Many species are very rare and endangered. Several species are restricted to the Black Forest Biosphere Reserve within Germany. Keywords: Lichen diversity, lichen communities, lichenicolous fungi, Germany, Black Forest.
36197Clerc P. (1991): Usnea madeirensis Mot. (ascomycète lichénisé): une espèce méconnue de l'Europe et de l'Amérique du Nord. - Candollea, 46: 427–438. .
Taking Usnea madeirensis Mot. as an example, unspecific and specific characters in the genus Usnea are discussed. The morphology, anatomy and chemistry of this badly known and in Europe threatened species is described and its distribution and ecology are given.
36196Clerc P. & Roh P.-D. (1979): Effets du fluor sur la vegetation lichenique corticole autour de la region de Martigny (VS). - Bulletin de la Murithienne, 96: 23–41. .
36195Roux C., Signoret J. & Masson D. (avec la collaboration de : Bellemere A., Boissiere J.-C., Clerc P., Coste C., Diederich P. & Houmeau J.-M.) (2003): Proposition d’une liste d’espèces de macrolichens à protéger en France. - Association française de lichénologie, 33 p . https://www.afl-lichenologie.fr/telecharger/Lexiq/AFL_Prot_lich.pdf.
Proposal of the Redlist of macrolichens of France; undated manuscript likely issued in 2003
36194Nimis P.L. (1987): I macrolicheni d'Italia chiavi analitiche per la determinazione [Keys for the identification of the macrolichens of Italy]. - Gortania, 8[1986]: 101–220. https://www.civicimuseiudine.it/images/MFSN/Gortania/Gortania%208/Nimis%201987.%20I%20macrolichenid%E2%80%99Italia%20chiavi%20analitiche%20per%20la%20determinazione.pdf.
This paper contains keys for the identification of all species of macrolichens hitherto reported from Italy, with the exception of those belonging to the genera Dermatocarpon and Usnea. Key words: Lichens, Macrolichens, Flora, Italy.
36193Nimis P.L. (1985): Lichenological studies in North East Italy. I: The computerization of the TSB lichen herbarium. - Gortania, 6[1984]: 139–146. .
The lichen herbarium of the Trieste University (TSB), that contains ca. 8500 samples (average yearly input: 2000-3000 samples) has been computerized. Structure and information content of the databank are briefly described, with particular regard to the samples collected in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region (60.3% of the total). Key words: Databanks, Herbarium, Lichens, Friuli-Venezia Giulia.
36192Tretiach M. & Molaro C. (2008): I macrolicheni dei Monti Musi (Parco Naturale Regionale delle Prealpi Giulie) [The macrolichens of the Musi Mts (Julian Pre-Alps Regional Park, Italy)]. - Gortania, 29[2007]: 79–108. https://www.civicimuseiudine.it/images/MFSN/Gortania/Gortania%2010/Tretiach,%20Nimis%201989.%20Lichenological%20Studies%20in%20ne-Italy.%20II.%20The%20distribution%20of%20Normandia%20Pulchella%20(Borr.)%20NYL..pdf.
[in Italian with English abstract: ] The macrolichens of the dolomitic-calcareous Musi Mts (Northern Italy) has been investigated visiting 72 sampling sites distributed between ca. 500-1900 m altitude, and encompassing the main vegetation belts typical of the South-eastern pre-Alps. The list consists of 105 infrageneric taxa. Cladonia ramulosa, Collema conglomeratum and Lempholemma polyanthes are new to the lichen Flora of Friuli. For each species brief critical notes on growth-form, morphology and substratum are given, together with a list of sampling sites. Causes that might explain the observed low biodiversity are shortly discussed. Key words: Alps, Biodiversity, Florislics, lichens.
36191Tretiach M. & Nimis P.L. (1989): Lichenological studies in NE-Italy. II. The distribution of Normandina pulchella (Borr.) Nyl.. - Gortania, 10[1988]: 133–144. .
This paper is a contribution to the knowledge of the distribution of Normandina pulchella (Lichenes). lt presents two distribution maps, one concerning Europe, mainly based on literature data, and one concerning the Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region (NE-ltaly), based on the samples preserved in the TSB lichen herbarium. The altitudinal range and the ecology of the species in Friuli-Venezia Giulia are briefly discussed. Key words: Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Normandina pulchella, Phytogeography.
36190Van Haluwyn C. (2010): La sociologie des lichens corticoles en Europe depuis Klement (1955) et Barkman (1958). Essai de synthèse. - Bulletin de Association Française de Lichénologie, 35(2): 1–128. .
Lichen sociology
36189Valcuvia Passadore M., Brusa G., Chiappetta D., Delucchi C., Garavani M. & Parco V. (2002): Licheni. – In: AA. VV.. - Atlante della biodiversità nel Parco Ticino. Edizione 2002. Volume 1. Elenchi sistematici, p. 107–127, Consorzio Parco Lombardo della Valle del Ticino. https://ente.parcoticino.it/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Atlante-della-biodiversit%C3%A0-2002-vol1.pdf.
36188Valcuvia Passadore M. (con la collaborazione di: Brusa G., Chiappetta D., Delucchi C., Garavani M. & Parco V.) (2002): Licheni. - In: AA. VV., Atlante della biodiversità nel Parco Ticino. Edizione 2002. Volume 2. Monografie, p. 9–44, Consorzio Parco Lombardo della Valle del Ticino. https://ente.parcoticino.it/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Atlante-della-biodiversit%C3%A0-2002-vol2.pdf.
36187Christensen S.N. (1988): Contribution to the lichen flora of Istria, Yugoslavia. - Acta Botanica Croatica, 47: 127–134. .
Sixty-nine taxa are reported from Istria, one of which is new to Jugoslavia, viz.: Collema furfureolum Müll. Arg. and four are new to Croatia, viz.: Cetrelia olivetorum. (Nyl.) Culb. et C. Culb., Lecanora chlarotera Nyl., Physconia perisidiosa (Erichs.) Moberg, and Xanthoria fallax (Hepp) Arn. Thirty- -one taxa are new to Istria. Epiphytic lichen communities are shortly discussed.
36186Pasquinelli P. & Puccini F. (2010): Biodiversità dei Licheni. Una lettura del territorio. La Mofeta dei Borboi a Orciatico nell’Alta Valdera. - Centro Stampa Giunta Reg. Toscana, Firenze, 84 p. https://www.regione.toscana.it/documents/10180/320308/Biodiversita+dei+licheni.
[in Italian with English abstract: ] This book aims to study the specific biodiversities of lichens of a Tuscany area named “Alta-Valdera”. In particular we would like to share interesting findings in this territory where the concentration of the CO2 increases over the normal limit because of the emission of natural gasses from the underground. The vent of this emission is positioned inside the forest of the “Mofeta of Borboi” at Orciatico/Lajatico Municipality. We researched and documented 34 lichen species in all that territory. The “core” of the book points to that species of the lichens resistant to the stressful conditions of life near the natural gas emission vent. We found five species of resistant lichens: Flavoparmelia caperata, Cladonia sp., Pertusaria amara, Parmelia perlata, Evernia prunastri. In addition to a photographic documentation we liked to put the analysis of fine lichen structures analyzed under optical microscope. At last but not the least we discovered an important niche of lichen colonies in the area of “Mulino Fonterossa” which we suggest to protect from the human intervention. In the final chapter we propose a “miscellanea” of environmental biodiversties and some landscape of the beautiful country Alta Valdera in Tuscany.
36185Piervittori R. & Isocrono D. (1997): Contribution aux connaissances lichénologiques de la Vallée d'Aoste: Valeille et Valnontey (Parc National du Grand Paradis, Italie). - Lagascalia, 19: 495–504. .
[in French with English abstract:] Data from a study performed on the lichenic flora in Valeille and Valnontey from Gran Paradiso National Park (Italy) are reported. Altogether 158 species have been assessed: 52 are new for the explored area and 26 for the Aosta valley. A new system for the Iife-forms of species which takes into account the substratum's patterns is proposed.
36184Gheza G. (2015): Terricolous lichens of the western Padanian Plain: new records of phytogeographical interest. - Acta Botanica Gallica, 162(4): 339–348. https://doi.org/10.1080/12538078.2015.1108867.
Very little is known of the earlier lichen flora of the Padanian Plain, the most heavily anthropized and industrialized part of Italy, which is currently extremely poor. Terricolous lichens in particular are the most sensitive to threats, and have almost totally disappeared from the western Padanian Plain. This paper reports new findings of 20 terricolous lichen species, several of which are rare or poorly known in Italy or are of some phytogeographical interest because they are found at lower altitudes than their usual distribution (i.e. Cladonia coccifera, Cladonia uncialis). In addition, Cladonia humilis is new for Lombardy and two other species, Cladonia portentosa and Stereocaulon condensatum, are reported for the second time in the same region. The significance of these species is discussed with regard to their historical records from the same area and their current altitudinal distribution; they were probably much more widespread in the past, but the decline and disappearance of their habitats in lowland areas have been followed by their own disappearance in many localities. A modification of the rarity status of some of these species in the considered phytoclimatic belts, based on the new records, is proposed. Keywords: dry grasslands; heathlands; historical records; lichens; inland sand dunes; Ticino Natural Park.
36183Martellos S. (2005): Five lichens new to Friuli (NE Italy). - Gortania, 26[2004]: 105–109. .
Five lichens (Cladonia sulphurina, Cladonia uncialis subsp. biuncialis, Peltigera monticola, Pertusaria ophthalmiza and Squamarina periculosa) are reported as new to the Region of Friuli (NE Italy). One of them (Cladonia uncialis subsp. biuncialis) is new to ltaly as well. A description of each species and some notes on ecology and distribution in Italy are provided. Key words: Flora, Lichenised fungi.
36182Ndhlovu N.T., Minibayeva F. & Beckett R.P. (2024): A role for secondary metabolites in desiccation tolerance in lichens. - Microbiology Research, 15(1): 225–235. https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres15010016.
In lichens, secondary metabolites have been shown to protect against biotic stresses such as pathogen attacks and grazing, and abiotic stresses such as ultraviolet (UV) and high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Lichen secondary metabolites are known to have strong antioxidant activity, and while theoretically they may have roles in tolerance to other abiotic stresses, these roles remain largely unclear. Here, we used the acetone rinsing method to harmlessly remove most of the secondary metabolites from the thalli of six lichen species. This enabled us to compare the effects of desiccation on thalli with and without the presence of secondary metabolites. Results showed that in general, the presence of lichen substances reduces the effects of desiccation stress. For all species, substances significantly improved the photosystem two (PSII) activity of the photobiont during either desiccation or rehydration. In the mycobiont, in four of the six species, the presence of substances reduced membrane damage, which was assessed by measuring ion leakage during rehydration following desiccation. However, in one species, secondary metabolites had no effect, while in another the presence of substances increased membrane damage. Nevertheless, it seems clear that in addition to their more established roles in protecting lichens against pathogen attacks and grazing, lichen substances can also play a role in aiding desiccation tolerance. Keywords: lichen substances; desiccation; membrane damage; chlorophyll fluorescence.
36181Berry T.-A., Wallis S., Doyle E., de Lange P., Steinhorn G., Vigliaturo R., Belluso E. & Blanchon D. (2024): A preliminary investigation into the degradation of asbestos fibres in soils, rocks and building materials associated with naturally occurring biofilms. - Minerals, 14(1): 106 [15 p.] . https://doi.org/10.3390/min14010106.
Bioremediation utilizes living organisms such as plants, microbes and their enzymatic products to reduce toxicity in xenobiotic compounds. Microbial-mediated bioremediation is cost effective and sustainable and in situ application is easily implemented. Either naturally occurring metabolic activity can be utilized during bioremediation for the degradation, transformation or accumulation of substances, or microbial augmentation with non-native species can be exploited. Despite the perceived low potential for the biological degradation of some recalcitrant compounds, successful steps towards bioremediation have been made, including with asbestos minerals, which are prevalent in building stock (created prior to the year 2000) in New Zealand. Evidence of the in situ biodegradation of asbestos fibres was investigated in samples taken from a retired asbestos mine, asbestos-contaminated soils and biofilm or lichen-covered asbestos-containing building materials. Microbial diversity within the biofilms to be associated with the asbestos-containing samples was investigated using internal transcribed spacer and 16S DNA amplicon sequencing, supplemented with isolation and culturing on agar plates. A range of fungal and bacterial species were found, including some known to produce siderophores. Changes to fibre structure and morphology were analysed using Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. Chrysotile fibrils from asbestos-containing material (ACMs), asbestos-containing soils, and asbestos incorporated into lichen material showed signs of amorphisation and dissolution across their length, which could be related to biological activity. Keywords: asbestos; bioremediation; chrysotile; fungi; bacteria; Transmission Electron Microscopy; Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy.
36180Fjelde M.O., Timdal E., Haugan R. & Bendiksby M. (2024): Paraphyly and cryptic diversity unveils unexpected challenges in the “naked lichens” (Calvitimela, Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota). - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 190: 107944 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2023.107944.
Molecular phylogenetics has revolutionized the taxonomy of crustose lichens and revealed an extensive amount of cryptic diversity. Resolving the relationships between genera in the crustose lichen family Tephromelataceae has proven difficult and the taxon limits within the genus Calvitimela are only partly understood. In this study, we tested the monophyly of Calvitimela and investigated phylogenetic relationships at different taxonomic levels using an integrative taxonomic approach. We performed a global sampling of all species currently assigned to Calvitimela and conducted additional sampling of C. melaleuca sensu lato across Norway. We included 108 specimens and produced more than 300 sequences from five different loci (ITS, LSU, MCM7, mtSSU, TEF1-α). We inferred phylogenetic relationships and estimated divergence times in Calvitimela. Moreover, we analyzed chemical and morphological characters to test their diagnostic values in the genus. Our molecular phylogenetic results show evolutionarily old and deeply divergent lineages in Calvitimela. The morphological characters are overlapping between divergent subgenera within this genus. Chemical characters, however, are largely informative at the level of subgenera, but are often homoplastic at the species level. The subgenus Calvitimela is found to include four distinct genetic lineages. Detailed morphological examinations of C. melaleuca s. lat. reveal differences between taxa previously assumed to be morphologically cryptic. Furthermore, young evolutionary ages and signs of gene tree discordance indicate a recent divergence and possibly incomplete lineage sorting in the subgenus Calvitimela. Phylogenetic analysis and morphological observations revealed that C. austrochilensis and C. uniseptata are extraneous to Calvitimela (Tephromelataceae). We also found molecular evidence supporting C. septentrionalis being sister to C. cuprea. In the subgenus Severidea, one new grouping is recovered as a highly supported sister to C. aglaea. Lastly, two fertile specimens were found to be phylogenetically nested within the sorediate species C. cuprea. We discuss the need for an updated classification of Calvitimela and the evolution of cryptic species. Through generic circumscription and species delimitation we propose a practical taxonomy of Calvitimela. Keywords: Cryptic species; Integrative taxonomy; Lichenized fungi; Phylogenetics; Substitutional saturation; Secondary chemistry.
36179Galloway D.J. (2000): The lichen genus Peltigera (Peltigerales: Ascomycota) in New Zealand. - Tuhinga, 11: 1–45. https://www.tepapa.govt.nz/sites/default/files/tuhinga.11.2000.pt1_.p1-45.galloway.pdf.
Sixteen species of the lichen genus Peltigera Willd., are recognised in the New Zealand mycobiota, viz. P. canina, P.degenii, P. didcatyla, P, dolichorhiza, P.hymenina, P. lepidophora, P. malacea, P. membranaecea, P, nana, P. neckeri, P. neopolydachtyla, P, polydactylon, P. praetextata, P. rufenscens, P, subhorizontalis, and P. ulcerata. A key to species, descriptions of all taxa, biogeographic affinities and distribution maps are presented. Peltigera degenii, P.hymenina, P. neckeri, and P. neopolydachtyla are recorded for the first time from New Zealand.
36178Valim H.F., Dal Grande F., Wong E.L.Y. & Schmitt I. (2023): Circadian clock- and temperature-associated genes contribute to overall genomic differentiation along elevation in lichenized fungi. - Molecular Ecology, 2023;00:e17252.. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.17252.
Circadian regulation is linked to local environmental adaptation, and many species with broad climatic niches display variation in circadian genes. Here, we hypothesize that lichenizing fungi occupying different climate zones tune their metabolism to local environmental conditions with the help of their circadian systems. We study two species of the genus Umbilicaria occupying similar climatic niches (Mediterranean and the cold temperate) in different continents. Using homology to Neurospora crassa genes, we identify gene sets associated with circadian rhythms (11 core, 39 peripheral genes) as well as temperature response (37 genes). Nucleotide diversity of these genes is significantly correlated with mean annual temperature, minimum temperature of the coldest month and mean temperature of the coldest quarter. Furthermore, we identify altitudinal clines in allele frequencies in several non-synonymous substitutions in core clock components, for example, white collar-like, frh-like and various ccg-like genes. A dN/dS approach revealed a few significant peripheral clock- and temperature-associated genes (e.g. ras-1-like, gna-1-like) that may play a role in fine-tuning the circadian clock and temperature-response machinery. An analysis of allele frequency changes demonstrated the strongest evidence for differentiation above the genomic background in the clock-associated genes in U. pustulata. These results highlight the likely relevance of the circadian clock in environmental adaptation, particularly frost tolerance, of lichens. Whether or not the fungal clock modulates the symbiotic interaction within the lichen consortium remains to be investigated. We corroborate the finding of genetic variation in clock components along altitude-not only latitude-as has been reported in other species. adaptation, elevation gradient, lichens, PoolSeq, population genomics, selection, symbiosis, NATURAL VARIATION, SPECIATION, UMBILICARIACEAE, REPRODUCTION, PHOTOBIONTS, DIVERGENCE, EXPRESSION, LANDSCAPE, FREQUENCY
36177Money N.P., Stolze-Rybczynski J., Smith B.E., Trninić D., Davis D.J. & Fischer M.W.F. (2023): Ascus function: From squirt guns to ooze tubes. - Fungal Biology, 127(12): 1491-1504. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2023.11.001.
Unlike the mechanism of ballistospore discharge, which was not solved until the 1980s, the operation of asci as pressurized squirt guns is relatively straightforward and was understood in the nineteenth century. Since then, mycologists have sought to understand how structural adaptations to asci have allowed the ascomycetes to expel spores of different shapes and sizes over distances ranging from a few millimeters to tens of centimeters. These modifications include the use of valves at the tips of asci that maintain ascus pressure and expel spores at the highest speeds, and gelatinous appendages that connect spores after release and create larger projectiles with greater momentum than single spores. Clever experiments in the twentieth century coupled with meticulous microscopic studies led investigators to understand how asci with complicated apical structures worked and mathematical models produced estimates of launch speeds. With the recent application of high-speed video microscopy, these inferences about ascus function have been tested by imaging the motion of spores on a microsecond timescale. These experiments have established that ascospore discharge is the fastest fungal movement and is among the fastest movements in biology. Beginning with the history of the study of asci, this review article explains how asci are pressurized, how spores are released, and how far spores travel after their release. We also consider the efficiency of ascospore discharge relative to the mechanism of ballistospore discharge and examine the way that the squirt gun mechanism has limited the morphological diversity of ascomycete fruit bodies. Ascomycetes, Biomechanics, Dispersal, Spores, Turgor pressure
36176Ghazanfar S. A. & Gallagher M. (1998): Remarkable lichens from the Sultanate of Oman. - Nova Hedwigia, 67(3-4): 519–528. .
Information of the lichen flora of Oman is as yet fragmentary and incomplete. Of the approximately 230 species so far recorded from the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra, only 36 species are fully identified from the Sultanate of Oman. The majority of the lichens are distributed in three ecogeographical regions. These are: (1) the higher altitudes of the northern mountains, (2) the fog-affected eastern region of central Oman and the eastern islands, and (3) the fog-affected escarpment woodlands of southern Oman. All three growth-forms viz. crustose, foliose and fruticose lichens are found in Oman and occur on tree-bark, soil, rocks and stones. In general, fruticose and foliose lichens are present on the exposed, sea-facing habitats, whilst crustose lichens occur in all lichen habitats. Lichens, Arabia, Oman, fog-desert, gazelle
36175Steiner J. (1903): Bearbeitung der von O. Simony 1898 und 1899 in Südarabien, auf Sokotra und den benachbarten Inseln gesammelten Flechten. - Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe, 71: 93–102. .
36174Castello M. (2003): Lichens of the Terra Nova bay area, Northern Victoria Land. - Studia Geobotanica, 22: 3–54. .
57 lichen species are reported from the Terra Nova Bay area (Northern Victoria Land, continental Antarctica), on the basis of collections from the Italian Antarctic Expeditions 1987-1996. 51 of them were identified to species level. A key for their identification is provided. Morpho-anatomical descriptions and nomenclatural, taxonomic and phytogeographical remarks are given for each taxon. Blastenia viridans Js. Murray is reduced to synonymy with Caloplaca athallina Darb.
36173Grube M., Lindblom L. & Mayrhofer H. (2001): Contributions to the lichen flora of Crete: a compilation of references and some new records. - Studia Geobotanica, 20: 41–59. .
An updated checklist of lichens of Crete is presented. A total of 440 taxa is reported. The checklist distinguishes 4 administrative subdivisions (prefectures) in Crete. Strong degradation of the vegetation throughout the island limits the abundance of corticolous lichens, only the woody patches in the Western part contain a number of otherwise rare oceanic species. Keywords: biodiversity, checklist, Crete, flora, lichenicolous fungi, lichenized fungi, lichens, Mediterranean.
36172Nimis P.L., Skert N. & Castello M. (1999): Biomonitoraggio di metalli in traccia tramite licheni in aree a rischio del Friuli-Venezia Giulia. - Studia Geobotanica, 18: 3–49. .
[in Italian with English abstract: ] BIOMONITORING OF TRACE METALS BY LICHENS IN HIGH-RISK AREAS OF FRIULI-VENEZIA GIULIA (NE ITALY). This study is based on the concentrations of 16 metals in peripheral parts of the thalli of the lichen Xanthoria parietina, collected on trees satisfying standard conditions in 155 stations located in the lowlands of Friuli-Venezia Giulia (NE ltaly), previously selected as potential high-risk areas by Regional Authorities. The interpretation of metal concentrations is based upon two maps, showing, for each metal, its distributional pattern and the degree of deviation from background (natural) conditions. The latter has been estimated through a seven-class scale based on the percentile distributions of several hundreds measurements of metal concentrations carried out in foliose lichens throughout Italy during the last ten years, using similar methods. The joint occurrences of all metals in the stations are synthetized by maps based on three indices, an index of naturality (indicating the number of metals with concentrations within normai conditions), an index of environmental alteration (indicating the number of metals strongly deviating from the norm), and an index of potential toxicity (derived from that of alteration, with each metal weighed according to its toxicity). The Central-Southern part of the Province of Udine is the most severely affected by metals in general, while in several other stations single metals strongly deviate from normal conditions. These sites are suggested to the Regional Authorities as focal points for instrumental monitoring of environmental pollution. The introduction includes some basic considerations about epistemological, methodological and terminological matters related to the use of biomonitoring techniques. Keywords: biomonitoring, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy, lichens, pollution, trace metals.
36171Loppi S., Pirintsos S.A., Olivieri N. & Pacioni G. (1999): Distribution of epiphytic lichens on Quercus pubescens along an altitudinal gradient on the Adriatic side of Central Italy. - Studia Geobotanica, 17: 85–90. .
The distribution of epiphytic lichens on Quercus pubescens on the Adriatic side of Central Italy (Abruzzo) was studied along an altitudinal gradient from O to 1000 m by multivariate techniques. The general response of epiphytic lichens to elevation was similar to that found on the Tyrrhenian side of Italy, with great differences in community structure and the altitude of 500 m as an ecotone. However, suboceanic species, which are widespread on the Tyrrhenian side, were rare and confined to higher elevations, or not present at all in the Adriatic gradient. The use of epiphytic lichens as phytoclimatic indicators is discussed. Key Words: Abruzzo, Agriculture, Bioindicators, Climate, Ecology, Ecotone.
36170Fos S. & Barreno E. (1998): Caracterización ecológica de los alcornocales Iberolevantinos (Este de España) basada en bioindicadores liquénicos. - Studia Geobotanica, 16: 71–83. .
[in Spanish with Enlish abstract: ] This study compares the epiphytic lichen floras of cork-oak forests from eastern Spain. The methodology was designed in such a way as to avoid subjectivity at all stages, from the sampling protocol to data analysis. Field work was carried out in 15 Catalonian localities, in mature stands of Carici-Querco suberis sigmetum, and in 9 localities of the Valencian Cornmunity, in mature stands of Asplenio-Querco suberis sigmetum. In each locality, ten trees were selected, and the lichens growing on virgin bark from 50 to 200 cm above the ground were identified. Ali together, 153 species were encountered, with 69 species present in both territories, and 33 found in at least three samplig plots. Multivariate methods of classification and ordination were used to analyze a matrix of stations and species based on presence/absence data. The classification clearly separated two main groups of stations, Catalonian and Valencian, with the exception of two Catalonian localities that were more related to the Valencian ones. This accords well with the climate of the two regions: the Catalonian cork-oak forests are subjected to a strong maritime influence, experiencing frequent fog episodes, whereas the Valencian ones are more continental and drier. The higher incidence of nitrophytic lichens in the Valencian cork-oak forests is probably due to dust accumulation on the trunks. Within the two groups of stations the lichen flora is diversified according to differences in temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity regimes. The results support the assumption that epiphytic lichens can provide impm1ant information on the phytoclimatical features of a territory. Keywords: Bioclimatology, Bioindicators, Cork-oak, Ecology, Epiphytes, Lichens, Quercus suber, Spain.
36169Litterski B. & Mayrhofer H. (1998): Catalogue of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi of Cyprus. - Studia Geobotanica, 16: 57–70. .
This annotated checklist of lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Cyprus is based mainly on literature records. The currently known lichen flora is composed of 365 taxa (352 species of lichenized fungi, 2 subspecies, 3 varieties and 8 lichenicolous fungi). The Troodos Region, with about 230 taxa, is the part of the island with the highest number of known species. For each lichen species references, regions, substratum and altitudinal range are reported. Keywords: altitudinal zones, biodiversity, checklist, Cyprus, flora, lichenicolous fungi, lichenized fungi, lichens.
36168Badin G. & Nimis P.L. (1996): Biodiversity of epiphytic lichens and air quality in the province of Gorizia. - Studia Geobotanica, 15: 73–89. .
In the last six years the North-East Italian plains were intensively studied for air pollution monitoring with lichen biodiversity measures. To date, more than 3,500 relevés of epiphytic lichen vegetation, based on a standard methodology, were carried out in this area. The present study fills a gap in the exploration of the area, presenting the results relative 10 the province of Gorizia. The study is based on 335 relevés in 104 stations. The relevés are frequency counts of all lichen species in a sampling grid subdivided into ten rectangles. The sum of the frequencies of all species is the Biodiversity index of each relevé. The average values of Biodiversity Indices of all relevés taken in the same station is the Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) of the station, following a slightly modified approach proposed by Swiss authors. The matrices of the 60 lichen species found in the survey area, and of the relevés/stations were submitted to multivariate analysis (classification and ordination): the results show a predominance of nitrophytic Xanthorion-species and a transition from Parmelion (prevalent in less anthropized areas) to Xanthorion vegetation (favoured by agriculture and more resistant to air pollution). Distribution maps showing presence and abundance of eight selected species (Candelaria concolor, Hyperphyscia adglutinata, Parmelia caperata, P. sulcata, P. subrudecta, Plzyscia adscendens, Phaeophyscia orbicularis, Xanthoria parietina) are presented and discussed. Automatic mapping programs were also used to map the distribution of the weighed averages of ecological indices associated to each species in each station of the survey area: a map of eutrophication and one of air humidity are presented and discussed. The IAP map of the province is discussed in terms of air quality levels: no extensive lichen desert does occur and IAP values are generally high, but a few restricted areas show some symptoms of air quality worsening, and would be worthy being monitored by instrumental recording. Keywords: Biodiversity, ltaly, lichens, Pollution.
36167Nimis P.L. (1994): New or interesting lichens from the Dolomites (Tre Cime di Lavaredo, NE Italy). - Studia Geobotanica, 14: 27–31. .
Seventy-five infrageneric taxa of lichens are reported from the Dolomites (NE Italy, Tre Cime di Lavaredo). The samples were collected in two stations, one in the Alpine belt (2300-2400 rn), the other in the subalpine belt (1800m). Seventeen taxa are new to the Region of Veneto; eight of these are also new lo the lichen flora of ltaly: these are: Caloplaca isidiigera Vezda, Candelariella unilocularis (Elenk.) comb. nov., Candelariella plumbea Poelt & Vezda. Eiglera homalomorpha (Nyl.) Clauz. & Roux, Farnoldia jurana ssp. bicincta (Hertel) Clauz. & Roux, Lecanora meolansii B. de Lesd., Verrucaria zamenhofiana Clauz. & Roux., Xanthoria elegans v. orbicularis (Schaerer) Clauz. & Roux. Keywords: Alps, Dolomites, Flora, Lichens.
36166Recchia F., Castello M. & Gasparo D. (1993): Biomonitoraggio dell'inquinamento atmosferico tramite licheni nella provincia di Pescara. - Studia Geobotanica, 13: 313–348. .
[in Italian with English abstract: ] This paper presents the results of a study on air quality in the Province of Pescara (Central Italy), carried out in 1991, and based on epiphytic lichens as bioindicators. SO2 pollution was evaluated by means of an Index of Atmospheric Purity (I.A.P.) computed on the frequency of epiphytic lichens within a sampling grid. Relevés were carried out in 77 stations, on Quercus and Tilia spp.: pollution maps for the Province are presented. Altogether, 57 species were recorded, with a prevalence of nitrophytic and neutro-basiphytic lichens, indicating a diffuse secondary eutrophication of the bark. The species can be subdivided in 6 main groups according to their locai distribution patterns: the distribution maps of 6 species are presented. Indicator species, whose distribution is best related to the pollution patterns, were selected. Eutrophication and acidification maps were obtained by calculating an index far each station, based on lichen sensitivity scales derived from existing literature. The results show that most of the Province of Pescara has high air quality standards; the most polluted areas are in the north-eastern part of the Province and along the Pescara valley, corresponding to the town of Pescara and the main industrial and urbanized zones. The main factors affecting lichen distribution are air pollution and eutrophication due to anthropic activities.
36165Tretiach M. & Carvalho P. (1993): Four lichens new to Italy. - Studia Geobotanica, 13: 349–356. .
Four species of lichens, Agonimia allobata, Anisomeridium Nyssaegenum, Bintorella monasteriensis and Diplotomma scheideggerianum, are reported for the first time from Italy. A detailed description of each species and critical notes on its ecology and geographic distribution are given.
36164Terron Alfonso A. (1992): Phytogeographical analysis of the lichen flora in El Teleno (NW Iberian Peninsula). - Studia Geobotanica, 12: 69–74. .
The saxicolous, acidophytic lichen flora of El Teleno Massif is analysed from the phytogeographical point of view, trying to characterize the different floristic contingents, floristic elements, affinities far the different bioclimatic belts and the different substrata. The synthesis is based on a list of 231 lichen taxa. Key words: Phytogeography, Lichens, lberian Peninsula, Saxicolous, Acidophytic.
36163Atienza V., Fos S., Sanz M.J., Calatayud V. & Barreno E (1992): Epiphytic lichens from Iberian Paramerae. I. Javalambre Mountains (Teruel, Spain). - Studia Geobotanica, 12: 61–67. .
A preliminary list of 61 epiphytic lichens from the Javalambre mountains (Teruel, Spain) is presented. The following phorophytes were sampled Pinus sylvestris, P. nigra, Juniperus sabina, J. phoenicea, J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica, and J. thurifera, in the Sabina-Pineto sylvestris and Junipereto hemisphaerico-thuriferae communities. 35 taxa are new to the Teruel country. Aspicilia mutabilis (Ach.) Körber, Banhegya setispora Zeller & Toth, Caloplaca stillicidiorum (Vahl) Lynge, Caloplaca ulcerosa Coppins & P. James, Catinaria montana (Nyl.) Vainio, Letharia vulpina (L.) Hue and Thelenella modesta (Nyl.) Nyl. are among the more significative species from the phytogeographical point of view. Keywords: Epiphytic lichens, Chorology, Temei, Spain, Iberian Pararnerae.
36162Nimis P.L., Lazzarin G. & Gasparo D. (1991): Lichens as bioindicators of air pollution by SO2 in the Veneto Region. - Studia Geobotanica, 11: 3–76. .
This paper presents the results of a study on air pollution by SO2 in the Veneto Region (North Eastern Italy), using the "Calibrated Lichen lndex of Air Quality" (I.A.P.) proposed by Liebendoerfer et al. (1988). This index, based on the frequency of epiphytic lichen species within a sampling grid of 10 units, has been tested by the authors in two preliminary studies carried out in two different areas of Northern ltaly (the town of La Spezia and the northern part of the province of Vicenza), revealing a high degree of correlation with pollution by SO2, measured by automatic recording gauges. The index has been computed for 662 stations scattered throughout the Region of Veneto, whose surface area is of 18,364 km2. The average number of relevés in each station is 3.7, with a total number of 2,425 relevés. The tree genus selected for sampling is Tilia. Altogether, 80 lichen species have been recorded during the survey, with a prevalence of nitrophytic and neutro-basiphytic lichens indicating a diffuse secondary eutrophication of the bark by agricultural activities. Pollution maps for the seven provinces and for the entire region are presented. The evaluation of pollution levels is based on the correlations between the index and SO2 levels found in the preliminary studies. All maps have been drawn by programs of automatic mapping. The results show that in 93.7% of the regional territory there is a very low probability of the occurrence of SO2 concentrations higher than the thresholds established by law; this part of the region has yearly means of the 98th percentiles lower than 84 μg/m3. 25% of the region has moderate pollution levels, 23.4% a low pollution, and 44.9% a very low air pollution. The most polluted areas are located in the Southwestern part of the region. The pollution pattern agrees very well with the location of the main sources of pollution, and with the directions of the prevailing winds. The study presents also the computerized distribution maps of eight selected species (Candelaria concolor, Candelariella xanthostigma, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia exasperatula, Parmelia sulcata, Physcia adscendens, Physcia orbicularis, Xanthoria parietina), that are discussed in relation with the main pollution patterns. The lichens species can be subdivided into three main groups, according to their distribution patterns. The main factors affecting the distribution of lichens in the survey area are air pollution and the eutrophication of bark by agricultural activities. A monitoring strategy where bioindicators and instrumental recording of air pollution are used jointly is proposed as a good solution to air pollution mapping aver vast areas. Keywords: Air pollution, Air quality, Bioindicators, Biomonitoring, Lichens, ltaly, Veneto.
36161Bargagli R. (1990): Assessment of metal air pollution by epiphytic lichens: the incidence of crustal materials and of the possible uptake from substrate barks. - Studia Geobotanica, 10: 97–103. .
The amounts of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the epiphytic lichen Parmelia sulcata Tayl. and in surface soils of Mt. Amiata (Central ltaly) were measured. Using Al as a reference element, the data were normalized and background concentrations were established. In a separate trial, concentrations of the above elements in outer and inner barks of supporting trees (oak, chestnut, and beech) were determined. The possibility of an uptake of some elements from the substrate, although not very likely, cannot be excluded completely. Keywords: Biomonitoring, Lichens, Heavy Metals, Pollution.
36160Gasparo D., Castello M. & Bagagli R. (1989): Biomonitoraggio dell'inquinamento atmosferico tramite licheni. - Studia Geobotanica, 9: 152–250. http://hdl.handle.net/10077/15158.
[in Italian with English abstract: ] This study presents the results of a research carried out around an incinerator at Macerata (Central Italy), aiming at monitoring air pollution with the use of epiphytic lichens as bioindicators and bioaccumulators. Two main approaches have been adopted: 1) lndirect approach, based on the relative frequencies of epiphytic species; 2) Direct approach, based on measurements of metal concentrations in the lichen thalli. The two approaches are complementary: the former mainly gives information on pollutants with a long-range deposition, such as SO2 and NOx, the latter indicates the pollution by metals. The frequency of species within a 10-mesh grid of 30 x 50 cm has been recorded in 34 sampling stations (average 3 trees per station). The metal concentrations in the thalli of Xanthoria parietina have been recorded in 19 stations. Pollution maps have been constructed by programs of authomatic mapping. Tue results indicate that the incinerator should be considered as the main emitting source for the following metals: Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni. The main source for Pb is the vehicular traffic. Al is mostly of terrigenous origin. Most of the gaseous pollutants are probably produced by domestic heating. Keywords: Air Pollution, Bioindicators, Lichens, Italy.
36159Egea J.M. (1989): Las comunidades liquenicas saxicolas, ombrofobas, litorales, del Suroeste de Europa y Norte de Africa. - Studia Geobotanica, 9: 73–152. .
This paper is a study of the ombrophobous saxicolous lichen vegetation along the coasts of southwestern Europe and northern Africa, with some comments on the bioclimatic features of this area. All taxa mentioned in the text are included in a commented list. The species considered as characteristic or transgressive of ombrophilous communities are provided with a comment on their distribution, ecology and syntaxonomy. Distribution maps are provided for some little known species. On the basis of the phytosociological approach 6 associations and 2 communities are recognized, according to the following syntaxonomic scheme: Roccelletea phycopsis Class. proy. Saxicolous, ombrophobous, thermophytic, aerohygrophytic, halotolerant, photophytic to skiophytic, scarcely to not nitrophytic. Littoral or sublittoral areas, in Europe and northern Africa. Dirinetalia massiliensis Ord. prov. On carbonatic rocks. Mediterranean and Eurosiberian regions. Roccellion phycopsis Egea et Llimona em. On carbonatic rocks. Optimum in the Mediterranean region. Dirinetum repandae Clauzade et Roux 1975. Littoral or sublittoral areas, in the infrathermo-mesomediterranean and thermocolline stage. ? Community of Opegrapha durieui On porous more or less soft rocks near the sea. Thermomediterranean. Roccelletalia fuciformis Ord. prov. Siliceous and volcanic rocks. Macaronesian, Mediterranean and Eurosiberian regions. Roccellion tinctoriae Klement 1965. On vertical and overhanging cliffs, very aerohygrophytic, photophytic. Optimum in the Macaronesian region. Present also in high air moisture areas of the Mediterranean and Eurosiberian regions. Roccelletum tinctoriae Klement 1965. Shaded volcanic rocks. Infra- thermo-Mediterranean-Canarian. From arid to humid ombroclimate. Lecanactidion monstrosae Ali. prov. Acidophitic, anombrophytic, from photophytic to very skiophytic, less aerohigrophytic than the former alliance. Littoral of the Mediterranean, Macaronesian and southern half of the Eurosiberian region. Dirinetum africanae Egea et Llimona 1984 corr. Siliceous and volcanic rocks. On cavities, small caves, overhanging and vertical cliffs thermo (meso ?)- Mediterranean and infrathermocanarian. From arid to dry ombroclimates. Lecanactino plocinae-Dirinetum sorediatae Egea et Rowe 1987 Sandstone and schists. Coast and sublittoral hills of Cadiz and Tanger. Thermomediterranean subhumid (humid ?). Sclerophytetum circumscriptae James, Hawksworth et Rose 1977 Southern part of the Eurosiberian region. Siliceous rocks. Lecanactino monstrosae-Dirinetum insulanae Ass. nova. Volcanic rocks. Infrathermomediterranean-canarian, (thermocolline?). Ombroclimate arid to subhumid. The ecology, distribution and floristic composition of all syntaxonomic units are discussed. Keywords: Coast, Lichens, N Africa, Ombrophobous, Saxicolous, SW Europa, Vegetation.
36158Lee Y., Jang H.-R., Lee D., Lee J., Jung H.-R., Cho S.-Y. & Lee H.-Y. (2024): Graphislactone A, a fungal antioxidant metabolite, reduces lipogenesis and protects against diet-induced hepatic steatosis in mice. - International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 25(2): 1096 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25021096.
Graphislactone A (GPA), a secondary metabolite derived from a mycobiont found in the lichens of the genus Graphis, exhibits antioxidant properties. However, the potential biological functions and therapeutic applications of GPA at the cellular and animal levels have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we explored the therapeutic potential of GPA in mitigating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its underlying mechanisms through a series of experiments using various cell lines and animal models. GPA demonstrated antioxidant capacity on a par with that of vitamin C in cultured hepatocytes and reduced the inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide in primary macrophages. However, in animal studies using an NAFLD mouse model, GPA had a milder impact on liver inflammation while markedly attenuating hepatic steatosis. This effect was confirmed in an animal model of early fatty liver disease without inflammation. Mechanistically, GPA inhibited lipogenesis rather than fat oxidation in cultured hepatocytes. Similarly, RNA sequencing data revealed intriguing associations between GPA and the adipogenic pathways during adipocyte differentiation. GPA effectively reduced lipid accumulation and suppressed lipogenic gene expression in AML12 hepatocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In summary, our study demonstrates the potential application of GPA to protect against hepatic steatosis in vivo and suggests a novel role for GPA as an underlying mechanism in lipogenesis, paving the way for future exploration of its therapeutic potential. Keywords: graphislactone A; natural antioxidant; mice; high-fat diet; lipogenesis.
36157Berger F. (2003): Die Flechtenflora des NSG „Halser Ilzschleifen" bei Passau (Bayern) - Ergebnisse einer „Bio-Blitz" Begehung am GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt 2002. - Hoppea, 64: 463–473. .
Im Rahmen eines "Geo-Tages der Artenvielfalt" wurde am 8. 6. 2002 die Flechtentlora im Naturschutzgebiet (= NSG) "Halser Ilzschleifen" bei Passau (Bayern, BRD) untersucht. Die dabei erstellte Artenliste umfaßt insgesamt 200 lichenisierte Ascomyceten und 4 lichenicole Pilze. Chaenothecopsis golubkovae wird erstmals für Europa nachgewiesen, Leptogium magnussonii ist neu für Bayern.
36156Clayden S., Driscoll K.E. & Harries H. (2024): The lichen genus Rinodina (Physciaceae) in New Brunswick, Canada. - The Canadian Field-Naturalist, 137[2013]: 32–63. https://doi.org/10.22621/cfn.v137i1.3193 .
Fifteen species of the crustose lichen genus Rinodina are confirmed in New Brunswick, Canada. We report four corticolous species, Rinodina pachysperma, Rinodina populicola, Rinodina septentrionalis, and Rinodina tenuis, and the saxicolous Rinodina tephraspis in the province for the first time. A previous report of Rinodina granuligera is based on a specimen that we have re-identified as Rinodina cinereovirens. We note distinguishing characteristics, habitats, substrata, relative abundance, and biogeographic relationships of each species and provide an identification key and distribution maps. The most frequently occupied phorophytes (tree substrata) are Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum), Yellow Birch (Betula alleghaniensis), and Eastern White Cedar (Thuja occidentalis). Some species are closely associated with particular habitats, phorophytes, or both. For example, we found R. pachysperma only in floodplain forests dominated by Silver Maple (Acer saccharinum), and R. tenuis only on Eastern White Cedar in wet cedar-dominated stands. In contrast, we recorded Rinodina freyi on numerous phorophyte species in a relatively wide range of habitats. Other than Eastern White Cedar and Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea), conifers are rarely colonized by Rinodina species in New Brunswick. Most Rinodina species are probably not currently of conservation concern in the province. However, R. cinereovirens is known from only two collections, one dating from 1902. The other, from 2007, was on Black Ash (Fraxinus nigra) in a swamp forest next to an active peat-mining operation. The expected devastation of ash species by the invasive Emerald Ash-borer (Agrilus planipennis) is a further threat to this occurrence and to any lichens for which ash may be an important phorophyte. Keywords: biogeography, Atlantic Canada, Wolastoq (Saint John River), Protected Natural Areas, phorophyte, conservation, seasonality of spore discharge, disjunct distribution.
36155Tuan T.Q., Son N.V., Hoang T.K.D., Luong N.H., Thuy B.T., Nguyen T.V.A., Hoa N.D. & Hai N.H. (2011): Preparation and properties of silver nanoparticles loaded in activated carbon for biological and environmental applications. - Journal of Hazardous Materials, 192(3): 1321-1329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.06.044.
Silver nanoparticles colloid has been prepared by a modified sonoelectrodeposition technique in which a silver plate was used as the source of silver ions. This technique allows producing Ag nanoparticles with the size of 4-30 nm dispersed in a non-toxic solution. The Ag nanoparticles were loaded in a high surface activated carbon produced from coconut husk, a popular agricultural waste in Vietnam by thermal activation. The surface area of the best activated carbon is 890 m(2)/g. The presence of Ag nanoparticles does not change significantly properties of the activated carbon in terms of morphology and methylene blue adsorption ability. The Ag nanoparticle-loaded activated carbon shows a good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with very low minimal inhibitory concentration of 16 mu g/ml and strong As(V) adsorption. The materials are potential for prevention and treatment of microbial infection and contamination for environmental applications. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Silver nanoparticles, Sonoelectrochemistry, Antibacterial materials, Activated carbon, Methylene blue, SURFACE-ENHANCED RAMAN, MALACHITE-GREEN, ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY, METHYLENE-BLUE, ADSORPTION, REMOVAL, SHAPE, SIZE, EQUILIBRIUM, MECHANISM
36154Makryi T.V. & Zheludeva E.V. (2023): Family Collemataceae in the lichen flora of the Magadan Region, Russia. - Botanica Pacifica, 13(1): 1-6. https://doi.org/10.17581/bp.2024.13103.
The localities of sixteen species of cyanolichens of the family Collemataceae Zenker discovered in the Magadan Region are provided. Collema glebulentum (Cromb.) Degel. is recorded for the first time in the Russian Far East. Fourteen species are new for the Magadan Region. Collema furfuraceum (Arn.) DR., C. subflac­cidum Degel., Leptogium saturninum (Dicks.) Nyl., Rostania occultata (Bagl.) Otálora, P.M. Jørg. et Wedin, Scytinium teretiusculum (Wallr.) Otálora, P.M. Jørg. et Wedin live as epiphytes in poplar-chosenia forests along the valleys of large rivers. Col­lema pulcellum Ach., C. flaccidum (Ach.) Ach., Leptogium cf. hirsutum Sierk occur in habitats unusual for them – in the subalpine mountain belt. Leptogium cyanescens (Ach.) Körb. was found only on the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk. All lichens are rare and occur in special habitats, manly refugia. Most species were found on the Olskoye Basalt Plateau and the Atargan Peninsula. The localities of Collema pulcel­ lum, Leptogium cyanesces, L. cf. hirsutum are outside their ranges; these lichens are relics of the Miocene-Pliocene mesophilous flora. cyanolichens, Collemataceae, new records, special habitats, refugia, mesophilous relics, Magadan Region, Russia
36153Gupta V.K., Darokar M.P., Saikia D., Pal A., Fatima A. & Khanuja S.P.S. (2007): Antimycobacterial Activity of Lichens. - Pharmaceutical Biology, 45(3): 200-204. https://doi.org/10.1080/13880200701213088.
Ethanol extracts of nine lichen species, namely Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr.) Hale ex Sipman (Parmeliaceae), Flavoparmelia caperata (L) Hale (Parmeliaceae), Heterodermia leucomela (L) Poelt (Physciaceae), Lecanora flavidorufa Hue (Lecanoraceae), Leptogium pedicellatum P.M. Jorg (Collemataceae), Lobaria isidiosa (Bory) Trevisan (Stictaceae), Rimelia reticulata (Taylor) Hale and Fletcher (Parmeliaceae), Phaeophyscia hispidula (Ach.) Essl (Physciaceae), and Stereocaulon foliolosum Nyl. (Stereocaulaceae), were evaluated for antimycobacteral properties against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and H37Ra strains using the radiometric BACTEC method. Among the tested lichens, the virulent strain of M. tuberculosis H37Rv was found more susceptible to ethanol extract of F. caperata and H. leucomela (MIC 250 mg=mL). E. cirrhatum, R. reticulata, and S. foliolosum were found active at the concentration of 500mg=mL. L. isidiosa, L. pedicellatum, P. hispidula, and L. flavidorufa did not exhibit activity at the maximum tested concentration of 1000 mg=mL. Antimycobacterial agents, BACTEC, lichens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, radiometric assay.
36152Božič D. & Horvat M. (2024): Insights into seasonal variations in mercury isotope composition of lichens. - Environmental Pollution, 340: 122740. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2023.122740.
Lichens are commonly used to assess mercury (Hg) concentrations in air because of their cost-effectiveness. However, recent research has revealed temporal variations in the isotopic composition of Hg. Previous work on this topic leaves open questions about the repeatability of data over multiple seasons, different types of sampling (transplantation or in-situ collection), and diverse locations. This study aims to address these issues by conducting a high-frequency sampling campaign of in-situ and transplanted lichens and atmospheric particulate matter (APM). Sampling sites included a range of areas, from pristine to Hg-contaminated sites. Isotopic analysis showed that the isotopic composition of Hg in lichens undergoes mass-dependent fractionation and changes with time. The heaviest isotopic composition was observed in summer and the lightest in winter. These trends were consistent across polluted and unpolluted environments, as well as in both in-situ and transplanted lichens and in APM. The results further indicated towards a correlation between changes in Hg concentrations and isotopic composition in lichens and environmental factors. All of these variables seem to be changing at the same frequency and may have not just correlation but also causation relationship. Environmental factors seem to be influencing the Hg concentrations and isotopic composition. The summer high temperatures might be influencing the heavier isotopic fingerprint observed in lichens during the same season. Similarities with APM-bound Hg suggest a common underlying mechanism. This study highlights the importance of considering temporal and seasonal trends, as well as the method of lichen sampling, when interpreting results. Researchers using lichens as proxies for atmospheric Hg concentrations or isotope ratios should consider these findings when designing their studies. Mercury, Isotopes, Lichens, Seasonal cycling, Atmospheric particulate matter
36151Silva T.E.F., da Silva M.S.R.C., dos Santos M.A.L., Cáceres M.E.S., Aptroot A. & Vitória N.S. (2024): Two new Arthoniales species (lichenized Ascomycota) from Brazil. - Revista de Gestão Social e Ambiental, 18(4): e04543 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.24857/rgsa.v18n4-022.
Objective: The present work aimed to describe, comment, and illustrate two new lichenized species of Ascomycota. Method: Morphological analyses of the samples were performed at the Laboratory in the State University of Bahia (UNEB), Campus VIII. The lichen thalli were observed using a stereomicroscope (Zeiss); chemical treatments were performed to observe the microscopic structures of the lichens after exposure to 10% KOH (potassium hydroxide), lactophenol (cotton blue), Melzer’s reagent, chlorine, and viewed under UV light. The chemical compositions of the lichen were examined using thin layer chromatography (TLC) at the Biochemical Laboratory of the Federal University of Pernambuco. Results and conclusion: Stirtonia juaensis and Cryptothecia paramacrocephala are two new lichenized species of Ascomycota found colonizing the plants Spondias tuberosa Arruda (Umbuzeiro) and Piptadenia moniliformis Benth. (Quipembe) in the Caatinga phytogeographical domain near the village of Juá in the municipality of Paulo Afonso, within the Raso da Catarina Ecoregion in northern Bahia State, Brazil. Originality/value: Research related to lichen taxonomy in Brazil is still scarce, especially in the Caatinga. The new species of Stirtonia and Cryptothecia described and illustrated in this work expand the knowledge about fungi in Brazil. Keywords: Caatinga, Lichen, Taxonomy, Stirtonia, Cryptothecia.
36150Nimis P.L., Monte M. & Tretiach M. (1987): Flora e vegetazione lichenica di aree archeologiche del Lazio. - Studia Geobotanica, 7: 3–161. .
This paper presents the results of a 7 year-long study on the lichen flora and vegetation of 16 archaeological sites located in the Provinces of Rome and Viterbo (Central Italy, Latium). The lichen flora on monuments consists of 284 taxa at infrageneric level (276 species and 8 infraspecific taxa). The temperate element constitutes 45% of the flora; the species with Southern distribution in Europe are 20.4%, suboceanic species 10% of the total. The Northern element (in respect with the survey area) constitutes 10% of the flora, but is composed by species which are very rare in the survey area. The vegetational study is based on 148 phytosociological releves. The matrix of species and releves has been submitted to numerical classification and ordination. The results permit to distinguish several lichen communities. The ecology of each community and the damage caused to the monuments are discussed on the basis of indirect ecological data (ecological indexes as proposed by Wirth, 1980). The paper includes a key for the identification of the lichen taxa recorded in the survey area.
36149Nimis P.L. (1985): Contributi alle conoscenze floristiche sui licheni d'Italia. III. Florula lichenica delle Isole Tremiti. - Studia Geobotanica, 5: 75–88. .
123 species of lichens are reported for the Tremiti lslands, in the Southern Adriatic Sea. 68 species are epilithic, 40 epiphytic and 15 epigaeic. The relative poorness of the lichen flora is due to two main facts: 1) strong accumulation of nitrates throughout the islands by maritime birds, 2) absence of extensive woody stands with a rich epiphytic vegetation. Of particular interest are the few remnants of a wood dominated by Quercus ilex in the isle of S. Domino, which acts as a refuge for a number of subatlantic or mediterranean - atlantic epiphytic species.
36148Nimis P.L. (1984): Phytosociology, ecology and phytogeography of epiphytic lichen vegetation in the Calamone Lake area (N-Apennines, Italy). - Studia Geobotanica, 4: 109–127. .
Six community types of epiphytic lichen vegetation are reported from the Calamone Lake area (N-Apennines). Data analysis is based on multivariate methods. The ecological interpretation of the compositional variation was based on indirect gradient analysis. Each of the communities is well characterized in floristical, ecological and phytogeographical terms. Keywords: Lichens, Epiphytes, Apennines, Vegetation.
36147Nimis P.L. (1984): Contributions to quantitative phytogeography of Sicily II: correlation between phytogeographical categories and elevation. - Studia Geobotanica, 4: 49–62. .
Data source: Centrai Databank of the ltalian flora and vegetation. Database: phanerogamic flora of Sicily; percents of species with similar distribution patterns, subdivided into 49 phytogeographical categories, in 23 elevation intervals of 100m each. Methods: Complete Linkage Clustering with Correlation Coefficient far the classification of categories and of elevation intervals; Concentration Analysis far the ordination. Results: species with similar distribution tend to be most frequent along given sections of the elevation gradient. The degree of correlation between phytogeographical categories and elevation has been quantified. Keywords: Phytogeography, Flora, Sicily.
36146Nimis P.L. (1982): The epiphytic lichen vegetation of the Trieste Province (North eastern Italy). - Studia Geobotanica, 2: 169–191. .
On the basis of a numerical classification of 85 phytosociological releves, 11 unions of epiphytic lichen vegetation are described for the Province of Trieste. Their ecology and dynamics are discussed. The results confirm the transitional character of the study area from the phytogeographical and phytosociological points of view. Keywords: Epiphytes, Lichens, Phytosociology, Trieste.
36145Poelt J. & Hafellner J. (1980): Zur Verbreitung und Biologie der Flechte Caloplaca anularis. - Studia Geobotanica, 1: 223–229. .
Caloplaca anularis, described from the Western Alps in 1972, is reported for the first time from the Eastern Alps and the Balkan peninsula. The species grows always on steep calcareous rocks. There garlandlike, centrifugal, rarely fruiting thalli are built. On small projections of the rocks it grows rosulate and many apothecia are developed. The form of growing is connected with a deposit of excrets in the medulla and the hypothallus increasing towards the older parts of the thallus. The excrets deposited in the medulla and the hypothallus differ with the optical activity. Keywords: Caloplaca anularis, chorology, ecology, lichens, morphology.
36144Nimis P.L. & Zappa L. (1988): I licheni endolitici calcicoli su monumenti. - Studia Geobotanica, 8: 125–133. .
This paper briefly illustrates the main features of endolithic lichens growing on limestone, with particular regard to some species which have been found growing on monuments. The action of endolithic lichens on stone is also discussed, with some remarks on the possible harmful effects of the application of biocides to remove endolithic lichens from monuments. Keywords: Endolithic, Lichens, Limestone, Monuments.
36143Pallecchi P. & Pinna D. (1988): Azione delle crescita dei licheni sulla pietra nell'area archeologica di Fiesole. - Studia Geobotanica, 8: 113–124. .
The archaeological area in Fiesole, where a local sandstone (Pietra Serena) was mainly used, was taken into consideration with the purpose of investigating the mechanical and chemical alteration possibly due to lichen growth. The taxonomic data allowed identification of almost 40 species. Distribution data allowed definition and localization of the most frequent species, therefore permitting a choice of those to be taken into consideration in relation to their effect on the stone. Observation of stone specimens under optical and scanning electron microscopes showed the morphology of mechanical alterations caused by the growth of some lichen species. The map of distribution of calcium determined by analysis carried out under SEM equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) showed that some species cause modification of the mineralogical stone composition. Moreover, analyses by X-ray diffractometry, in connection with the above results, allow the identification of the production of calcium oxalate due to tlhe growth of some species. Keywords: Archaeological area, Fiesole, ltaly, Lichens, Stone alteration.
36142Alessi P. & Visintin D. (1988): Protective agents as a possible substrate for biogenic cycles. - Studia Geobotanica, 8: 99–112. .
Protective agents are increasingly used for the preservation of stone monuments. Once applied to the rock, they constitute a veritable new substrate. Very little is known on the biological cycles which could develop on treated surfaces. This paper presents a synthesis on the main properties of protective agents, with particular regard to those of biological relevance; the results were obtained on the basis of multivariate analysis of solubility data. The aim of the paper is to provide biologists with an information basis for studies of biogenic cycles on treated surfaces. Keywords: Conservation, Monuments, Protective agents.
36141Roccardi A. & Bianchetti P. (1988): The distribution of lichens on some stoneworks in the surroundings of Rome. - Studia Geobotanica, 8: 89–97. .
34 floristic releves concerning epilithic lichens have been carried out in 6 archaeological sites in the surroundings of Rome, on different types of substrate. 52 lichen species have been recorded. The matrix of the releves and of the species has been submitted to programs of multivariate analysis (classification and ordination); the results allow to distinguish 5 main community-types and to order the species according to their degrees of acidophytism and nitrophytism. Keywords: Lichens, Stoneworks, Monuments, Ecology.
36140Nimis P.L. & Monte M. (1988): The lichen vegetation on the cathedral of Orvieto. - Studia Geobotanica, 8: 77–87. .
The lichen vegetation of the Cathedral of Orvieto (Centrai ltaly) has been studied on the basis of 29 phytosociological releves carried out on different parts of the church, and on different substrates. The species by releves matrix has been submitted to classification and ordination to detect different community-types and to study possible ecological gradients. The ecology of the community-types has been studied by means of the ecological indices derived from Wirth (1980). The main causes of lichen growth in different parts of the church, the main aesthetic damages, and the possible measures for eliminating and preventing lichen growth are discussed. LA VEGETAZIONE LICHENlCA DEL DUOMO DI ORVIETO. La vegetazione lichenica del duomo di Orvieto è stata studiata sulla base di 29 rilievi fitosociologici effettuati in diverse parti della chiesa, e su diversi substrati. La matrice delle specie e dei rilievi è stata sottoposta a classificazione ed ordinamento al fine di individuare diversi tipi di vegetazione e di evidenziare possibili gradienti ecologici. L'ecologia dei diversi tipi di vegetazione è stata studiata utilizzando le diagnosi ecologiche proposte da Wirth (1980) per le singole specie. Vengono discussi le principali cause che determinano la crescita dei licheni nelle diversi parti del Duomo, i principali danni estetici da essi creati, e possibili misure di intervento per eliminare e prevenire la crescita dei licheni nella parti maggiormente colpite. Keywords: Lichens, Monuments, Orvieto's Cathedral, Vegetation.
36139Piervittori R. & Sampò S. (1988): Lichen colonization on stoneworks: examples from Piedmont and Aosta Valley. - Studia Geobotanica, 8: 73–75. .
Data on lichen presence on some monuments from Piedmont and Aosta Valley are reported. Sampling techniques, chosen on the basis of lithological characteristics of the substrata are described, and the ecological significance of the identified species is discussed. Preliminary data indicate that the majority of the species are neutro-basiphytic and rather nitrophytic, xerophytic and photophytic. Finally, most species appear to belong to the Caloplacion decipientis alliance. Keywords: lichen, monuments, Piedmont, Aosta Valley.
36138Garcia-Rowe J. & Saiz-Jimenez C. (1988): Colonization of mosaics by lichens: the case study of Italica (Spain). - Studia Geobotanica, 8: 65–71. .
A black and white mosaic of the Neptune's house, located in the 2nd century Roman city Italica, was investigated in order study the lichen colonization of tesserae and mortars. Different strategies were observed. They lead to colonization of mosaic in such an extent that lichens clothe the represented figures, masking and affecting the esthetic value of this work of art. Keywords: Lichens, Mosaics, Spain.
36137Modenesi P. & Lajolo L. (1988): Microscopical investigation on a marble encrusting lichen. - Studia Geobotanica, 8: 47–64. .
The wheathering ability of Aspicilia contorta thalli with respect to their substrate, a marble tombstone, was studied by conventional, fluorescence, polarized and electron scanning microscopy. Our observations can help to visualize the mechanical fracturing and some product of the lichen metabolism which can affect the mechanical and chemical stability of the substrate. Keywords: Lichens, Monuments, Marble, Optical and Electron Scanning Microscopy.
36136Gehrmann C., Krumbein W.E. & Petersen K. (1988): Lichen weathering activities on mineral and rock surfaces. - Studia Geobotanica, 8: 33–45. .
The biocorrosion and biodeterioration of limestone and sandstone by epilithic and endolithic lichens was studied using the maceration and the casting-embedding techniques. The investigations revealed alterations on the rock surface, characterized by biocorrosive pitting, etching patterns, imprints of the fruiting bodies, boring channels and mucilaginous etching figures. Moreover, the inside of the rock is penetrated by extensive and compact networks of the lichenized fungal hyphae. These biodeteriorations are positively correlated to the physical and chemical actions of the lichen involved as well as to the nature of the rock. Keywords: biocorrosion, biodeterioration, biological pitting, endolithic, epilithic, lichens, limestone, sandstone.
36135Deruelle S. (1988): Effets de la pollution atmospherique sur la vegetation lichenique des monuments historiques. - Studia Geobotanica, 8: 23–31. .
Air pollution has a direct influence on stone decay but also and indirect one by favouring lichen development. This is specially perceptible for nitrophilous lichens which proliferate on rainexposed walls. Thus an historical monument, Notre-Dame de l'Epine's Basilica, was colonized by nitrophilous lichenic population between 1975 and 1980. These nitrophilous species with orange and yellow thallus are responsible for the disfigurement of the Basilica. The spread of nitrophilous lichenic populations is related to a recent increase in the use of fertilizers and, above ali, to the recent methods of spraying fertilizers. Keywords: air pollution, fertilizers, France, lichens, limestone, monument, nitrogenous, vegetation.
36134Garty J. (1988): Some observations on the establishment of the lichen Caloplaca aurantia on concrete tiles in Israel. - Studia Geobotanica, 8: 13–21. .
This paper investigates the colonization of concrete tiles by the lichen Caloplaca aurantia in a rural, non-polluted settlement in Israel. The percentage colonization by this crustose Iichen on roof tiles 30, 45, and 60 years old was found to be 2.464 ± 0.732%, 22.972 ± 7.311% and 48.515±6.781% respectively. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that spherical cells of a unicellular green alga, probably Trebouxia colonize pits on the weathered surface of the very same concrete tiles, as do also the ascopores of C. aurantia. In many of the pits, the ascospores arrange in clusters of 8 units. Fungal hyphae were observed close to ascopores and to the free algal cells. Keywords: Algae, Ascospores, Caloplaca aurantia, colonization, SEM, tiles, Trebouxia.
36133Seaward M.R.D. & Giacobini C. (1988): Lichen-induced biodeterioration of Italian monuments, frescoes and other archaeological materials. - Studia Geobotanica, 8: 3–11. .
An appraisal is made of the part played by lichens in the deterioration of stonework. Stone- and artwork in exposed and partially enclosed environments of Central Italy were examined in detail to identify those substrata most vulnerable to lichen attack. Assessment of relationships between particular species and the physical and chemical nature of their substrata was carried out in order to determine the relative importance of lichens in biodeterioration processes obtaining in specific circumstances, and to establish those species responsible for disfigurement and those causing actual destruction. Particular attention is paid to recent environmental changes conducive to increasing detrimental invasion of terracotta, mortar and painted plaster, and reference is made to examples of building materials, statuary and other ornamental carvings, terracotta pots and frescoes, both those in situ at Ostia Antica, Rome and Caprarola (Viterbo) and those relocated in open-air museums, etc. Keywords: Archaeology, Biodeterioration, Frescoes, Italy, Lichens, Monuments, Ostia, Rome, Terracotta.
36132Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1892): Lichenes yatabeani, in Japonia lecti a cl. prof. Yatabe missi, quos enumerat. - Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano, 24(3): 189–202. .
Synechoblastus nigrescens, Synechoblastus robillardi, Synechoblastus belenophorus, Baeomyces placophyllus, Baeomyces obsoletus, Icmadophila aeruginosa, Icmadophila coronata, Pilophorus acicularis, Pilophorus clavatus, Stereocaulon proximuji, Stereocaulon subramulosom, Cladonia rangiferina, Cladonia alpestris, Stereocaulon octospherellum, Cladonia amaurocraea, Cladonia forcata, Cladonia pityrea, Cladonia ochrochlora, Cladonia macilenta, Usnea barbata, Usnea plicata, Usnea articolata, Usnea triohodea, Alectoria divergens, Alectoria sulcata, Ramalina dendriscoides, Ramalina calicaris, Ramalina polymorpha, Ramalina scopulorum, Ramalina inflata, Cetraria islandica, Cetraria ornata, Cetraria collata, Gyrophora proboscidea, Peltigera canina, Peltigera pusilla, Peltigera polydactyla, Peltigera horizontalis, Nephromium tropicum, Nephromium levigatum, Stictina retigera, Sticta pulmonacea, Sticta aurata, Sticta miyoshiana, Sticta yatabeana, Sticta adscripta, Sticta (S . Ricasolia) flava, Anaptychia podocarpa, Physicia crispia, Parmelia prætervisa, Parmelia aurulenta, Parmelia tiliacea, Parmelia saxatilis, Parmelia olivacea, Parmelia pertusa, Coccocarpia aurantiaca
36131Nimis P.L. (1985): Urban lichen studies in Italy: 1st: The town of Trieste. - Studia Geobotanica, 5: 49–74. .
This paper reports on the distribution of lichens in the urban environment of Trieste (NE-Italy) and its surroundings. The study is based on 213 phytosociological releves, taken on trees with primarily acid bark, and on pollution data from a net of deposimetric stations located within the town center. Both data sets have been submitted to multivariate analysis (classification and ordination). The results of data analysis allowed to distinguish six main zones, three defined by a peculiar lichen vegetation, the remaining three delimited on the basis of pollution data. The ecology of the releve groups obtained by classification has been studied on the basis of the tolerance ranges associated to each species by Wirth (1980). From the perifery to the center of the town there is a decrease in species, and an increase in the relative frequency of xero-photo-nitro- and neutro-basiphytic species. The distribution of lichens within the survey area cannot be explained on the only basis of air pollution. Drought in the urban environment seems to be another important factor affecting the distribution of lichens in the town of Trieste. Keywords: Air pollution, Lichens, Trieste.
36130Tretiach M. (1992): Lichenological studies in NE Italy. V: New records from Friuli - Venezia Giulia. - Studia Geobotanica, 12: 3–60. .
This paper reports ca. 800 lichen records from Friuli - Venezia Giulia. 8 species (Cladonia diversa, Fellhanera subtilis, Lecanora cinereofusca, L. impudens, Poeltinula cacuminum, Polyblastia helvetica, Scoliciosporum pruinosum and Trapelia placodioides) are new to ltaly. 211 species are reported for the first time from Friuli, and 48 from the Karst. The samples are preserved in the TSB herbarium. Keywords: Alps, Flora, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy, Karst, Lichens.
36129Llop E., Barbero M., Hladun N.L., Navarro-Rosinés P. & Gómez-Bolea A. (2018): Diversity and ecology of lichens and lichenicolous fungi in «Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici» National Park (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Spain). - Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d’Història Natural, 82: 121–132. .
334 lichenized fungi and 13 lichenicolous fungi were reported from «Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici» National Park. The diversity of growth-forms was distributed as follows: 59.4 % crustose, 20.2 % foliose, 10.7 % fruticose, 3.7 % squamulose and 2.3 % leprose. Lichenicolous fungi count for 3.7 % of the catalogue. Alpine belt was the richest with the 48 % of found taxa, subalpine belt was the second richest with 37.9 % and the montane belt was the poorest with only 14.1 % of taxa. However, this belt had the highest proportion of crustose taxa, with a 63.5 %. In addition, subalpine belt contained more foliose taxa with a 29 % of the taxa present in that belt, and there was also found the higher proportion of fruticose lichens (12.4 %). Crustose lichens were the main growth form on all the substrates. Otherwise, growth forms are in a similar proportion on ground and plant debris. The patterns of diversity and ecological distribution were similar to the ones found in mid-latitude mountains from Europe (Alps, Apennines, Cantabrian Range) or North America (Rocky Mountains). European mountain localities were richer in crustose species, while North American sites had a higher proportion of foliose and fruticose taxa. Moreover, corticolous taxa showed to be more abundant in European areas, on the other hand terricolous taxa were more frequent in North American mountains. Key words: biodiversity, lichenized Ascomycota, mid-latitude mountains.
36128Castello M. (1996): Studi lichenologici in Italia nord-orientale. VII: Effetti dell'inquinamento atmosferico sulle comunità licheniche epifite nella Provincia di Trieste [Lichenological studies in NE Italy. VII: Effects of air pollution on epiphytic lichen communities in the Province of Trieste]. - Gortania, 17[1995]: 57–78. .
[in Italian with English abstract: ] This paper presents the results of a study of air quality in the Province of Trieste based on lichens as indicators of SO2 pollution. Air quality was evaluated by means of an lndex of Atmospheric Purity (I.A.P), based on the number and frequency of lichen species on Quercus and Tilia spp. in 80 sampling stations. Air quality map of the Province of Trieste is shown; most of the study area has very high air quality levels, the most polluted areas corresponding with the urban and industriai zone of Trieste and the South eastern part of the Province; in the North western part of the study area air quality values slightly decrease. Altogether, 62 epiphytic lichen species and two main communities have been recorded, the communities consisting of nitrophytic and toxitollerant species or acidophytic and sensitive to air pollution species; the effects of antropic activities on distribution patterns of lichen species and communities are discussed and the distribution maps of 6 species are presented. The main factors affecting lichen communities development are air pollution and eutrophication. Key words: Air pollution, Air quality, Bioindicators, Lichens, Communities, Trieste.
36127Carvalho P. (1997): Microclimate and diversity of cryptogamic epiphytes in a Karst doline (Trieste, NE Italy). - Gortania, 18[1996]: 41–68. .
212 relevés of epiphytic cryptogamic vegetation (lichens, mosses and liverworts) were carried out along eight transects in a typical Karst Doline near Trieste (NE ltaly) in order to study the compositional variation in relation to the pronounced microclimatic patterns which are characteristic of Karst dolines. The epiphytic cryptogamic flora consists of 48 lichens, 13 mosses and 8 liverworts. The matrix of species and relevés was submitted to multivariate analysis (classification and ordination) to detect groups of relevés with similar floristic composition, groups of species with similar ecology, and compositional gradients characterized by indicator species. The distribution of indicator species within the doline was mapped by programs of automatic mapping. Different groups of indicator species revealed different distributional patterns inside the doline. Ecological indicator values were used for an ecologica! interpretation of the compositional gradient revealed by the ordinations. The main factors affecting the variation of epiphytic cryptogamic vegetation are the pH of the bark, air humidity, light and temperature. Dolines are characterized by a high diversity and a high richness of ecological niches, chietly depending on the pronounced microclimatical variations; they host several aerohygrophytic species and some montane species which are otherwise absent from the Karst. Cryptogams have been used as indicators to draw an air humidity map of the doline, which essentially agrees with microclimatical measurements from other, similar biotopes. Key words: Biodiversity, Bioindicators, Bryophytes, Cryptogams, Karst, Lichens, Microclimate, Vegetation.
36126Tretiach M. & Carvalho P. (1995): Lichenological studies in north-eastern Italy. VI. Species new to Friuli or Venezia Giulia. - Gortania, 16[1994]: 89–97. .
Four lichens (Biatora mendax, Fuscidea kochiana, Leptogium massiliense and Pertusaria carneopallida) and the lichenicolous fungus Dactylospora athallina are reported for the first time from Friuli; five species (Catapyrenium psoromoides, Collema occultatum, Physconia perisidiosa, Strigula mediterranea and Thelopsis rubella) are new to Venezia Giulia (NE Italy). A detailed description of each species and criticai notes on its ecology and geographic distribution are provided. Key words: Flora, Friuli, Lichens, Venezia Giulia.
36125Chang R., Wang Y., Liu Y., Wang Y., Li S., Zhao G., Zhang S., Dai M., Zheng X., Bose T. & Si H. (2023): Nine new species of black lichenicolous fungi from the genus Cladophialophora (Chaetothyriales) from two different climatic zones of China. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 14: 1191818 [16 p.]. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2023.1191818.
Lichenicolous fungi are parasites of lichens. Many of these fungi are referred to as “black fungi”. A diversity of these black fungi include species that are pathogenic to humans and plants. A majority of black fungi reside in the phylum Ascomycota within the sub-classes Chaetothyriomycetidae and Dothideomycetidae. To explore the diversity of lichenicolous “black fungi” associated with lichens in China, we conducted several field surveys in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Yunnan Province between 2019 and 2020. We recovered 1,587 fungal isolates from the lichens collected during these surveys. During the preliminary identification of these isolates using the complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS), partial large subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (LSU), and small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (SSU), we identified 15 fungal isolates from the genus Cladophialophora. However, these isolates had low sequence similarities with all known species from the genus. Therefore, we amplified additional gene regions, such as, translation elongation factor (TEF) and partial β-tubulin gene (TUB), and constructed a multi-gene phylogeny using maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian inference. In our datasets, we included type sequences where available for all Cladophialophora species. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that none of the 15 isolates belonged to any of the previously described species in the genus. Therefore, using both morphological and molecular data, we classified these 15 isolates as nine new species within the genus Cladophialophora: C. flavoparmeliae, C. guttulate, C. heterodermiae, C. holosericea, C. lichenis, C. moniliformis, C. mongoliae, C. olivacea, and C. yunnanensis. The outcome from this study shows that lichens are an important refugia for black lichenicolous fungi, such as those from Chaetothyriales. Keywords: Ascomycota, biodiversity, Chaetothyriomycetidae, lichens, multi-gene phylogeny, Yunnan Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
36124Vannini A., Pagano L., Bartoli M., Fedeli R., Malcevschi A., Sidoli M., Magnani G., Pontiroli D., Riccò M., Marmiroli M., Petraglia A. & Loppis S., et al. (2024): Accumulation and release of cadmium ions in the lichen Evernia prunastri L. (Ach.) and wood-derived biochar: implication for the use of biochar for environmental biomonitoring. - Toxics, 12(1): 66 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12010066.
Biochar (BC) boasts diverse environmental applications. However, its potential for environmental biomonitoring has, surprisingly, remained largely unexplored. This study presents a preliminary analysis of BC’s potential as a biomonitor for the environmental availability of ionic Cd, utilizing the lichen Evernia prunastri L. (Ach.) as a reference organism. For this purpose, the lichen E. prunastri and two types of wood-derived biochar, biochar 1 (BC1) and biochar 2 (BC2), obtained from two anonymous producers, were investigated for their ability to accumulate, or sequester and subsequently release, Cd when exposed to Cd-depleted conditions. Samples of lichen and biochar (fractions between 2 and 4 mm) were soaked for 1 h in a solution containing deionized water (control), 10 µM, and 100 µM Cd2+ (accumulation phase). Then, 50% of the treated samples were soaked for 24 h in deionized water (depuration phase). The lichen showed a very good ability to adsorb ionic Cd, higher than the two biochar samples (more than 46.5%), and a weak ability to release the metal (ca. 6%). As compared to the lichen, BC2 showed a lower capacity for Cd accumulation (−48%) and release (ca. 3%). BC1, on the other hand, showed a slightly higher Cd accumulation capacity than BC2 (+3.6%), but a release capacity similar to that of the lichen (ca. 5%). The surface area and the cation exchange capacity of the organism and the tested materials seem to play a key role in their ability to accumulate and sequester Cd, respectively. This study suggests the potential use of BC as a (bio)monitor for the presence of PTEs in atmospheric depositions and, perhaps, water bodies. Keywords: biomonitoring; cadmium accumulation; cadmium release; cadmium removal; cation exchange capacity; surface area.
36123Etayo J. & López de Silanes M.E. (2024): Contribution to the study of lichenicolous fungi from northwest Iberian Peninsula (León and Lugo provinces). - Journal of Fungi, 10(1): 60 [27 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof10010060.
We have found 117 taxa of lichenicolous fungi in the studied area. In this paper, we describe five taxa: Arthonia boomiana on Nephromopsis chlorophylla, Lawalreea burgaziana on Platismatia glauca, Pronectria scrobiculatae on Lobarina scrobiculata, Trichonectria parmeliellae on Parmeliella testacea and Trichonectria rubefaciens ssp. cryptoramalinae on Ramalina. Furthermore, the next records are interesting chorologically from the Iberian Peninsula: Arthophacopsis parmeliarum, Catillaria lobariicola, Lichenopuccinia poeltii, Myxotrichum bicolor, Nanostictis christiansenii, Niesslia lobariae, Opegrapha sphaerophoricola, Pronectria fragmospora, Rhymbocarpus aggregatus, R. neglectus, and Tremella cetrariicola. Keywords: fungi on lichens; new species; diversity; biogeography; taxonomy; Galicia; Spain; Europa.
36122Paz-Bermúdez G., Fernández-Salegui A.B., Hespanhol H., López de Silanes M.E., Vieira C. & Calviño-Cancela M. (2024): Effects of the abandonment of traditional cultural practices on epiphytic bryolichenic communities in chestnut orchards in north-west Spain. - Forests, 15(1): 160 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f15010160.
This study delves into the impact of contrasting management practices on epiphytic bryolichenic communities, shedding light on their divergent responses to management regimes on Castanea sativa Mill. orchards. Lichens and bryophytes were sampled in managed and abandoned plots, in 95 trees, in north and south sides and at two heights in Galicia (NW Spain). The studied groups exhibited opposing reactions to these management practices; bryophytes suffered adverse effects in managed stands, experiencing reduced cover and species richness compared to abandoned orchards, while lichens displayed heightened cover and species diversity. The size of trees, included as a covariate in our analyses, displayed no significant impact on the overall species richness of lichens or bryophytes, although it did influence the cover of specific functional traits. These differing outcomes may be linked to alterations in environmental conditions brought by management interventions. Furthermore, the study uncovered divergent responses within the taxonomic and functional composition of epiphytic communities. Different species and functional groups exhibited varying reactions to changing environmental conditions, making predictions a complex endeavour. In conclusion, this research emphasizes the need for management strategies that account for the diverse ecological requirements of different species and functional groups since no single management regime will suit all species or functional groups. Keywords: lichens; bryophytes; biodiversity; Castanea sativa; managed; unmanaged; agroforestry system.
36121Ertz D. & Lebreton E. (2024): A new corticolous species of Mazosia A.Massal. (Roccellaceae, Arthoniales) from Guadeloupe, remarkable by its byssoid thallusv. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 45(1): 1–10. https://doi.org/10.5252/cryptogamiemycologie2024v45a1.
An unknown species of Roccellaceae Chevall. was collected in 2022 and 2023 on the bark of trunks in a rainforest in Basse-Terre island (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles). Phylogenetic analyses using mtSSU, nuLSU and RPB2 sequences reveal the placement of the species in the genus Mazosia A.Massal. (Roccellaceae). The lichen is unusual for the genus by being the first species of Mazosia developing a byssoid thallus. It is described as Mazosia byssoidea Lebreton & Ertz, sp. nov. Besides it byssoid thallus, the new species is characterized by 1-septate ascospores, stipitate pycnidia and a chemistry with roccellic acid. Together, all these features make the new species a distinctive and important addition to the Arthoniales Henssen ex D.Hawksw. & O.E.Erikss. So far, it is only known from two large trees in a dense humid forest at low elevation, a locality that needs to be included in a protected area. A key to the corticolous species of Mazosia is provided. Key words: Caribbean islands, Lesser Antilles, lichenized fungi, phylogeny, new species.
36120Ismailov A.B., Volobuev S.V. & Ivanushenko Yu.Yu. (2023): Alpha diversity of lichenized and aphyllophoroid fungi in two 1ha forest plots in the Samursky National Park (Republic of Dagestan, Russia). - South of Russia: ecology development , 18(4): 51–63. DOI: 10.18470/1992-1098-2023-4-51-63.
Aim: The results of the inventory of species composition of epiphytic lichens and aphyllophoroid fungi on two 1ha sample plots in lowland floodplain forests are presented. Such integrated studies of these groups of organisms are poorly known. Fungi, including lichenized fungi, are essential components of forest ecosystems. Data on their diversity and substrate distribution can provide important information on the condition and biological value of the forests studied. Material and Methods. The main method of the fieldwork was the "1-ha method". For the alpha-diversity study, two 1-ha sample plots were established in well-preserved forest areas: the first one in a site of mixed broad-leaved forest with lianas, and the second one in communities dominated by Carpinus betulus and Quercus robur. The specimens were collected from all variety of woody substrate within plots in spring and autumn 2023. Results. We have revealed 89 species of lichens and 60 species of aphyllophoroid fungi. The lichen families Arthoniaceae, Lecanoraceae, Physciaceae, Ramalinaceae and Roccellaceae contain 47.2 % of all species. High proportion of lichens with Trentepohlia photobiont (29.2 %), significant number of Arthoniomycetes (Arthoniaceae, Lecanographaceae, Roccellaceae) and crustose lichens (75.3 %) have been noted. Among the aphyllophoroid fungi identified in the sample plots, 11 species are new to Dagestan, including three species (Antrodia leucaena, Coronicium gemmiferum, Steccherinum litschaueri) recorded for the Caucasus for the first time. Fourteen species are new to the Samursky National Park. Conclusion. The study of alpha diversity and substrate preferences of xylobionts revealed the richest and most specific phorophytes, as well as some ecological features of the surveyed plots. Most of the species were found on the bark and wood of Carpinus betulus, Populus alba and Quercus robur. The majority of species reported for the first time for the region have been recorded on these tree species. We expand the number of known species on Populus alba, on which only few species were previously known. High proportion of lichens with the Trentepohlia photobiont and the predominance of crustose species were revealed. In terms of basidiomata morphology, corticioid fungi dominated over polypores and clavarioids in general. The leading ecological and trophic group of aphyllophoroid fungi are saprotrophs. Revealed features indicate a significant contribution of the wood of the main forest-forming tree species to the preservation of the species richness of mycoand lichen biota.
36119Kholod S., Konoreva L. & Chesnokov S. (2024): Influence of orographic factors on the distribution of lichens in the Franz Josef Land archipelago. - Plants, 13(2): 193 [23 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13020193.
During a geobotanical study of the Franz Josef Land archipelago, 111 lichen species were recorded on 130 sample plots. The significance of orographic factors in the distribution of lichens was assessed using principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple regression analysis. It was found that the absolute altitude and distance from the glacier are of the greatest importance for crustose lichens, while for fruticose lichens, the most critical factors were the slope exposure and steepness. Along the altitudinal gradient, the number of species decreased (from 88 to 25). The highest number of species (90) was recorded at distances of 0.1 to 1.0 km from the glacier edge, which is explained by the unstable species composition of areas recently released from under the glacier. The number of species in all groups generally decreased (from 81 to 52) with increasing slope steepness. With an increasing heat supply of slopes (on a gradient from northern to southern), the number of species steadily increased in all groups (from 39 to 75). The low sum of the explained variance values for the first two PCA components (21%) characterizes the specificity of the natural environment of polar deserts, where there is no leading environmental factor. Keywords: lichens; altitude; distance to glacier; slope steepness; exposure; number of species; cover; multiple regression analysis; PCA.
36118Matvienko A.I., Evgrafova S.Y., Kovaleva N.M., Sideleva E.V., Sitnikova M.V., Menyailo O.V. & Masyagina O.V. (2024): Greenhouse gas fluxes from the epiphytic lichens: incubation experiments. - Forests, 15(1): 107 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f15010107.
Because they are widespread and evolutionarily old, epiphytic lichens (ELs) play an important role in global forest ecosystems. ELs are abundant in Siberian forest ecosystems, which are highly vulnerable to climate change; thus, ELs can be important contributors to the carbon (C) cycle. This study aims to address the unknown role of tree-inhabiting ELs in the C cycle of forest ecosystems in Central Siberia, where the EL biomass ranges from 492 to 3200 kg per ha. The main finding of this study is that ELs in a hydrated state can generate CH4 for an extended period (at least two weeks), as determined by an incubation method. At the same EL moisture level, EL CO2 fluxes are species-specific. The pattern of the release or uptake of GHGs by ELs may also alter due to climate change, e.g., changes in precipitation regimes (such as more frequent extreme rainfalls and droughts). Therefore, the EL contribution to the C cycle in forest ecosystems should be assessed, e.g., via the modeling of C cycling. Furthermore, specific factors, such as the EL exposure on the phorophyte stem, the EL biodiversity, and the day/night GHG fluxes, should be considered for a more concise assessment of ELs’ contribution to the C cycle of forest ecosystems and their response to ongoing and projected climate change. Keywords: biocrusts; birch; boreal; carbon; carbon dioxide; climate change; cryptogamic communities; Cyanobacteria; methane; Siberia.
36117Morillas L. (2024): Lichens as bioindicators of global change drivers. . - Journal of Fungi, 10(1): 46 [3 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof10010046.
Editorial
36116Thiers B.M. (2024): Strengthening partnerships to safeguard the future of herbaria. - Diversity, 16(1): 36 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d16010036.
Herbaria remain the primary means of documenting plant life on earth, and the number of herbaria worldwide and the number of specimens they hold continues to grow. Digitization of herbarium specimens, though far from complete, has increased the discoverability of herbarium holdings and has increased the range of studies from which data from herbarium specimens can be used. The rather large number of herbaria about which no current information is available is a source of concern, as is herbarium consolidation and removal of herbaria to offsite storage facilities. Partnerships are key to the future health of herbaria. Benefits could accrue from the reimagining of the world’s herbaria as a global resource rather than a collection of independent, often competing institutions. Herbaria can extend the reach of their specimens by joining the nascent effort to link the species occurrence data they manage to other biological and environmental data sources to deepen our ability to understand the interrelationships of earth’s biota. To assure that data held by herbaria contribute to the range of conservation-related projects for which they are relevant, herbaria should embrace the tenets of Team Science and play a more proactive role in promoting their holdings for relevant research and conservation projects. Keywords: biological collections; herbaria; digitization; historical collections; museological importance; vascular plants; algae; bryophytes; fungi; lichens.