34805Spribille T. (2002): Pilophorus clavatus and Pseudocyphellaria crocata new to the interior of western North America. - Evansia, 19(3): 81–82. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346547.
34804Tønsberg T. & McCune B. (2002): Additions to the lichen flora of North America X. Buellia arborea. - Evansia, 18(4): 128. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346527.
Buellia arborea is reported as new to North America from Montana, U.S.A.
34803Rosso A.L., McCune B., Tønsberg T. & Printzen C. (1999): Lichens of an old-growth forest in a little explored area of western Oregon, U.S.A.. - Evansia, 16(3): 137–142. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.346815.
34802Ellis C.J. & Coppins B.J. (2019): Five decades of decline for old-growth indicator lichens in Scotland. - Edinburgh Journal of Botany, 76(3): 319–331. doi: 10.1017/S0960428619000088.
Systematic data collection for direct statistical analysis of biodiversity trends tends to be focused on charismatic fauna and flora such as birds or vascular plants. When subsequently applied by conservation agencies in summary metrics tracking habitat and species protection, these patterns in biodiversity loss or gain can fail to capture outcomes for groups that have a prominent importance in habitat composition, diversity and ecological function, such as algae, bryophytes, lichens and other fungi. Such species are primarily recorded on an ad hoc basis by taxonomic specialists, yielding noisy data that present problems in robustly identifying trends. This study explored the use of ad hoc field-recorded data as a potential source of biodiversity information, by comparing the pattern of recording for carefully selected indicator species with those for benchmark or control species as a proxy for recording effort. Focusing on Scotland’s internationally important epiphytic lichens, and especially ‘old-growth’ indicator species, British Lichen Society data revealed a decline in the extent of these species in Scotland, relative to recording effort, over a period of five decades. A recent slowing in the rate of decline is observed but remains to be confirmed. The longterm decline is consistent with the effect of land use intensification, resulting in small and isolated populations that are vulnerable to extinction debt. We caution that remedial protection and monitoring for such populations remains vital as a complement to Scotland’s larger scale ambition for increased woodland extent and connectivity. Keywords: Epiphyte, extinction debt, field recording, lichen, trend analysis, woodland.
34801Schulz M., Schmitt I., Weber D. & Dal Grande F. (2022): Fungal host affects photosynthesis in a lichen holobiont. - Journal of Fungi, 8(12): 1267 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121267.
Corals and lichens are iconic examples of photosynthetic holobionts, i.e., ecological and evolutionary units resulting from the tightly integrated association of algae and prokaryotic microbiota with animal or fungal hosts, respectively. While the role of the coral host in modulating photosynthesis has been clarified to a large extent in coral holobionts, the role of the fungal host in this regard is far less understood. Here, we address this question by taking advantage of the recent discovery of highly specific fungal–algal pairings corresponding to climatically adapted ecotypes of the lichen-forming genus Umbilicaria. Specifically, we compared chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics among lichen thalli consisting of different fungal–algal combinations. We show that photosynthetic performance in these lichens is not only driven by algal genotype, but also by fungal host species identity and intra-host genotype. These findings shed new light on the closely intertwined physiological processes of fungal and algal partners in the lichen symbiosis. Indeed, the specific combinations of fungal and algal genotypes within a lichen individual—and the resulting combined functional phenotype—can be regarded as a response to the environment. Our findings suggest that characterizing the genetic composition of both eukaryotic partners is an important complimentary step to understand and predict the lichen holobiont’s responses to environmental change. Keywords: photosynthetic performance; lichen-forming fungi; hologenome; fungal–algal pairings; symbiotic mosaic.
34800Marcano V. (2022): Eight new species of lichenized Basidiomycota in the genera Acantholichen, Cyphellostereum and Dictyonema s.str. (Agaricales, Hygrophoraceae) from northern South America. - Phytotaxa, 574(3): 199–225. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.574.3.1.
A study of Acantholichen P.M. Jørgensen, Cyphellostereum D.A. Reid and Dictyonema s.str. C. Agardh ex Kunth from the Venezuelan Andes (Sierra Nevada de Mérida) and the Guayana Highlands (Alto Orinoco) revealed the presence of eight species new to science, viz., Acantholichen dendroideus V. Marcano, Cyphellostereum mucuyense V. Marcano, Dictyonema andinum V. Marcano, D. duidense V. Marcano, D. laurae V. Marcano, D. subinvolutum V. Marcano, D. subsericeum V. Marcano and D. umbricola V. Marcano. Acantholichen dendroideus grows on mosses in shady and humid disturbed forest and is characterized by densely and dichotomously branched microsquamules, with a pruinose surface and large acanthohyphidia. Cyphellostereum mucuyense grows on mosses and sandy soils, lacks a jigsaw-puzzle-shaped hyphal sheath and prothallus, the fibrils are not penetrated by tubular fungal hyphae and the basidiocarp surface is finely arachnoid. This is the first record of Cyphellostereum in Venezuela. Dictyonema andinum might be confused with D. irrigatum (Berkeley & M. A. Curtis) Lücking from the Andaman Islands, but differs in the broader and ascending fibrils, a thicker photobiont layer and hypothallus, as well as the formation of stereoid-corticioid hymenophores. Dictyonema duidense from the Guayana Highlands and D. subsericeum from the Venezuelan Andes belong in the group of shelf-like morphotypes, with a semicircular thallus resembling D. sericeum s.str. Dictyonema duidense grows on tree trunks and is characterized by thick, very broad lobes and an areolate, rugose surface and it lacks clamp connections whereas D. subsericeum grows on tree branches and is characterized by variability of color (white, greenish blue, brown), size and shape (semicircular to hemispherical), filamentous lobes, a hirsute surface, fibrillose margins, clamp connections on the hyphae, cyphelloid hymenophores resembling attachment hapters, and very small, globose to subglobose basidiospores. Dictyonema laurae resembles D. subsericeum but is characterized by a continuous greenish blue crust-like thallus with an irregular surface, with discontinuous, fibrillose, and narrow margins projecting and ascending from the substrate, a hapteriform hymenophore, and its lacks clamp connections on the hyphae. Dictyonema subinvolutum is characterized by a jigsaw-puzzle-shaped hyphal sheath, fibrils penetrated by tubular fungal hyphae, and a smooth, pruinose, resupinate hymenophore. Finally, D. umbricola grows on mosses in very shady habitats and produces a corticioid hymenophore raised from the thallus, resembling apothecial discs, jigsaw-puzzle-shaped cells around the filaments and a distinct, discontinuous, white prothallus. Of the eight species of Dictyonema s.lat. registered from Venezuela, seven are known only from the Venezuelan Andes (A. dendroideus, C. mucuyense, D. andinum, D. laurae, D. subsericeum, D. subinvolutum, D. umbricola) and one is known only from the Venezuelan Amazonas (D. duidense). The high concentration of Acantholichen, Cyphellostereum and Dictyonema species in tropical America and especially of the latter genus in the Venezuelan Andes indicates that this region constitutes an important centre for speciation and endemism of Dictyonema clade/subtribe Dictyonematinae. Key words: Basidiolichens, new species, Venezuela.
34799Fryday A.M., Beckett R.P. & Kirika P.M. (2022): Lichenology in Africa. - Lichenologist, 54(5): 227-230. 10.1017/S0024282922000329.
book review
34798Aptroot A. (2022): Foliicolous lichens and their lichenicolous fungi in Macaronesia and Atlantic Europe By Pieter PG van den Boom. 2021. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 111. Pp 197, 101 figures. Page size 14 × 21cm, weight 410 g. ISBN 978-3-443-58090-2. Paperback. Price: €89.00. - Lichenologist, 54(5): 343. 10.1017/S0024282922000287.
book review
34797Temu S., Clerc P., Nadel M., Tibell L., Tibuhwa D. & Tibell S. (2022): Molecular, morphological and chemical variation of the Usnea pectinata aggregate from Tanzania, São Tomé and Príncipe. - Lichenologist, 54(5): 291-298. 10.1017/S0024282922000251.
This study investigated the molecular, chemical and morphological variation in the Usnea pectinata aggregate using 42 specimens, 22 from Tanzania and 20 from São Tomé and Príncipe. A total of 31 sequences (13 ITS, 13 nuLSU and 5 RPB1) were generated. The results are presented in two phylogenies: first a three-markers ‘backbone’ phylogeny for the U. pectinata aggregate, where six distinct, strongly supported subclades indicate considerable genetic variation in the dataset; and second, an ITS phylogeny with 47 terminals along with a mapping of morphological and chemistry data. Several well-supported monophyletic clades were recovered in both phylogenies and these may well represent separate species in the complex referred to here as the U. pectinata aggregate. Three morphotypes characterized by axis pigmentation and four by branch shape were noted. Six chemotypes were observed. chemistry, lichen, molecular phylogeny, Parmeliaceae, taxonomy
34796Nadel M. & Clerc P. (2022): Notes on the genus Usnea Adans. (lichenized Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae) from the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe in tropical West Africa. - Lichenologist, 54(5): 271-289. 10.1017/S0024282922000238.
An investigation of the genus Usnea, in the biodiversity hotspot of the Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe in tropical West Africa, is presented here. Fifteen species, or species aggregates, were recorded for the islands: Usnea articulata aggr., Usnea baileyi (Stirt.) Zahlbr., Usnea beckeri P. Clerc & Nadel, Usnea bicolorata Motyka, Usnea erinacea aggr., Usnea exasperata (Müll. Arg.) Motyka, Usnea firmula (Stirt.) Motyka, Usnea krogiana P. Clerc, Usnea longiciliata P. Clerc & Nadel, Usnea nodulosa Swinscow & Krog, Usnea pectinata aggr., Usnea sorediosula Motyka, Usnea submollis J. Steiner, and two undetermined species. Two species of lichen are described as new to science: U. beckeri and U. longiciliata. Both species are characterized by a dense and brittle, dark green thallus, the presence of apothecia surrounded by long cilia-like fibrils, a lack of soredia, and the presence of two unknown substances; however, whereas U. beckeri has a pendant growth form and can reach 25 cm in length, U. longiciliata is differentiated by a shrubby growth form of less than 6 cm. These two species also have different ascospore dimensions. A molecular phylogenetic analysis is presented that lends support to their description as new species. Additionally, Usnea krogiana is noted as new to continental Africa and nine Usnea species or aggregates are noted as new to the Islands of São Tomé and Príncipe in the Gulf of Guinea. biodiversity, lichens, phylogeny, U. beckeri, U. longiciliata
34795Mkhize K., Minibayeva F. & Beckett R. (2022): Adaptions of photosynthesis in sun and shade in populations of some Afromontane lichens. - Lichenologist, 54(5): 319-329. 10.1017/S0024282922000214.
Photosynthetic organisms have evolved a great variety of mechanisms to optimize their use of sunlight. Some of the clearest examples of adaptations can be seen by comparing photosynthesis in different species and in different individuals of the same species that grow under high and low light levels. While the adaptations of sun and shade higher plants have been relatively well studied, much less information is available on the photobionts of lichenized Ascomycetes. An important adaptation that can protect photosynthetic organisms from the potentially harmful effects of excess light is non-photochemical quenching (NPQ); NPQ can dissipate unused light energy as heat. Here we used chlorophyll fluorescence to compare the induction and relaxation of NPQ and the induction of electron transport (rETR) in collections of the same lichen species from exposed and from more shaded locations. All species have trebouxioid photobionts and normally grow in more exposed microhabitats but can also be readily collected from more shaded locations. Shade forms display generally higher NPQ, presumably to protect lichens from occasional rapid increases in light that occur during sunflecks. Furthermore, the NPQ of shade forms relaxes quickly when light levels are reduced, presumably to ensure efficient photosynthesis after a sunfleck has passed. The maximal relative electron transport rate is lower in shade than sun collections, probably reflecting a downregulation of photosynthetic capacity to reduce energy costs. We also compared collections of pale and melanized thalli from three species of shade lichens with Symbiochloris as their photobiont. Interestingly, NPQ in melanized thalli from slightly more exposed microhabitats induced and relaxed in a way that resembled shade rather than sun forms of the trebouxioid lichens. This might suggest that in some locations melanization induced during a temporary period of high light may be excessive and could potentially reduce photosynthesis later in the growing season. Taken together, the results suggest that lichen photobionts can flexibly adjust the amount and type of NPQ, and their levels of rETR in response to light availability. chlorophyll fluorescence, photoprotection, photosynthesis, sunfleck, xanthophyll cycle
34794Medeiros I. & Lutzoni F. (2022): Contribution to a modern treatment of Graphidaceae biodiversity in South Africa: genera of tribe Graphideae with hyaline ascospores. - Lichenologist, 54(5): 253-270. 10.1017/S0024282922000263.
Additions and corrections are provided for the South African species of Graphidaceae tribe Graphideae with hyaline ascospores. Allographa oldayana I. Medeiros sp. nov. is described as new to science based on morphological, chemical and molecular data. The new species is characterized by lirellae with striate labia and a complete thalline margin, a completely carbonized excipulum, large, muriform ascospores, and the presence of hirtifructic acid. Allographa consanguinea (Müll. Arg.) Lücking, A. leptospora (Vain.) Lücking & Kalb, Diorygma aff. minisporum Kalb et al., Graphis crebra Vain., Gr. dupaxana Vain., Gr. furcata Fée, Gr. handelii Zahlbr., Gr. longula Kremp., Gr. pinicola Zahlbr., Gr. proserpens Vain, Gr. subhiascens (Müll. Arg.) Lücking and Platythecium sp. are reported as new records for South Africa. Allographa striatula (Ach.) Lücking & Kalb, Graphis analoga Nyl. and Gr. scripta (L.) Ach. are shown to be misapplied names that should be removed from the South African checklist. The new combination Mangoldia bylii (Vain.) I. Medeiros comb. nov. (bas. Graphis bylii Vain) is made; this represents an earlier name for M. atronitens (A. W. Archer) Lücking et al. Taxonomic notes are provided for Graphis bylii var. lividula Vain. and Gr. denudans Vain., species that are known only from their South African holotypes. Phylogenetic analyses that include new DNA sequence data from the nrLSU, mtSSU and RPB2 loci confirm the generic placements of several species for which molecular data were lacking: Allographa consanguinea, Glyphis atrofusca (Müll. Arg.) Lücking, Graphis crebra and Gr. subhiascens. biodiversity, Graphis pergracilis complex, Northern Mistbelt Forest, savannah, Southern Afrotemperate Forest, taxonomy, tropical lichens
34793Kitara N., Munishi P. & Scheidegger C. (2022): Distribution of Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. in Mt Kilimanjaro and Mt Meru forests: altitudinal range and specificity to substratum tree species. - Lichenologist, 54(5): 331-341. 10.1017/S0024282922000305.
In this study, we sampled L. pulmonaria thalli from Mt Kilimanjaro and Mt Meru, Tanzania. Across all sampled tree species, a range of 1–35 thalli of L. pulmonaria were counted per trunk (up to 5 m above ground level), with sampling distributed across 13 (c. 1 ha) plots located in the sub-alpine to montane forest altitudinal gradients of Mt Kilimanjaro and Mt Meru. Descriptive analyses were performed to determine the association of L. pulmonaria with particular host trees among the study sites and regions, and linear mixed effects models (LMM) were used to explore relationships with tree-level variables. The analyses showed that most thalli of L. pulmonaria were unevenly distributed among the tree species in the montane and sub-alpine forests of Mt Kilimanjaro and Mt Meru. Host tree characteristics such as trunk circumference, height on trunk, bark texture and trunk shape appeared to have an effect on the local population size of L. pulmonaria and the frequency of occurrence. Also, the results indicated an effect of trunk circumference and tree bark on the development of L. pulmonaria thallus size among the study sites. Furthermore, host tree species, for example, Hypericum revolutum and Rapenea melanophloeos were important habitats for L. pulmonaria on both mountains, whereas Ilex mitis, Bersama abyssinica and Hagenia abyssinica were important only on one mountain. The wider literature on L. pulmonaria ecology is also reviewed and it is therefore recommended that for successful conservation of the threatened L. pulmonaria in tropical montane forests, strategies should consider the type of the forests, together with the host tree species and their size. Africa, conservation, lichen, phorophyte species, tropical tree species
34792Kirika P., Lumbsch H., Huéscar E., Quedensley T. & Divakar P. (2022): Canoparmelia texana (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) consists of two independent lineages. - Lichenologist, 54(5): 245-251. 10.1017/S0024282922000135.
Recent studies have demonstrated that species boundaries among the lichen-forming fungi are in need of revision with the discovery of cryptic species in numerous clades, especially in parmelioid lichens. Here we focus on addressing the species boundaries in Canoparmelia texana, a sorediate species with a pantropical distribution that extends into temperate regions. We extracted DNA sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), large subunit (nuLSU) and mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) from samples mostly collected in Kenya, and analyzed them in a phylogenetic framework. We illustrate that our samples of the species as currently circumscribed do not form a monophyletic group but fall into two distinct clades, with the apotheciate C. nairobiensis nested within. Both of the discovered lineages have a wide distributional range and are common in Kenya, and Parmelia albaniensis C. W. Dodge is resurrected to accommodate one of the clades; consequently a new combination, Canoparmelia albaniensis (C. W. Dodge) Divakar & Kirika comb. nov., is proposed. Africa, biodiversity, cryptic species, lichen, molecular systematics, parmelioid lichens, taxonomy
34791Kaasalainen U., Biermann L., Mollel N., Schmidt A. & Hemp A. (2022): Peltigera (Lecanoromycetes) on Mt Kilimanjaro, East Africa. - Lichenologist, 54(5): 231-243. 10.1017/S0024282922000184.
Tropical mountain forests are hotspots of biodiversity that are widely threatened by human population pressure and climate change. However, the cryptogamic species richness of many tropical mountain regions is insufficiently known, the poorly understood biodiversity of tropical African lichens being a prime example. To study the diversity of the genus Peltigera (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes) in East Africa, we studied lichens in a wide range of habitats on the slopes of Mt Kilimanjaro in Tanzania. Ranging from savannah to alpine heath vegetation and from natural forests to agricultural environments, 13 habitat types were sampled for lichens, which were then identified based on the nuITS genetic marker and morphology. We found eight Peltigera species on the slopes of Mt Kilimanjaro, including P. alkalicola sp. nov., P. dolichorhiza, P. polydactyloides, P. praetextata, P. rufescentiformis, P. seneca, P. sorediifera and P. ulcerata. Peltigera is most common and species-rich in the subalpine Erica forest zone, and four of the eight detected species were present only in the subalpine and alpine vegetation zones. Peltigera alkalicola was identified as a previously undescribed species, growing on trachybasaltic lava in the subalpine and alpine zones of Mt Kilimanjaro. The species resembles P. lepidophora but differs by possessing smaller thalli and peltate isidia that are distinctly dark on the lighter, tomentose lamina. Based on data from the NCBI GenBank, P. alkalicola probably also occurs in Alaska (USA) and Ningxia (China). This suggests that even though the species might generally be rare, it may have a global distribution in extreme mountain environments. For the first time, we report P. sorediifera from Tanzania and P. seneca from Africa. cyanolichens, Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot, lichenized fungi, montane ecosystems, Peltigerales, Tanzania, tropical lichen diversity
34790Farkas E. & Muhoro A. (2022): Identification key to the lichen species of the parmelioid clade in Kenya. - Lichenologist, 54(5): 299-318. 10.1017/S0024282922000299.
Of the c. 900 lichen species known from Kenya, 178 belong to the parmelioid clade. Several of these parmelioid taxa require further revisionary studies. An identification key to the species of the parmelioid clade, based on updated nomenclature, is produced to support the practical work in collecting and selecting certain parmelioid lichens for further research. A new combination Parmotrema nyasense (C. W. Dodge) R. S. Egan comb. nov. in Egan et al., Bibliotheca Lichenologica110, 383 (2016) is published here by R. S. Egan. East Africa, lichenized fungi, nomenclature, Parmeliaceae, species determination, taxonomy
34789Jüriado I., Marmor-Ohtla L., Martin L., Randlane T. & Suija A. (2022): Updates to the list of Estonian lichenized, lichenicolous and allied fungi. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 59: 83–91. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2022.59.12.
Herewith, we continue to upgrade Estonian checklist of lichenized, lichenicolous and allied fungi and report twelve fungal species as new for Estonia, of them eleven are lichenized and one is lichenicolous fungus.
34788Darmostuk V. & Sira O. (2022): New and remarkable records of lichenicolous fungi from Ternopil Oblast (Ukraine). II. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 59: 43–51. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2022.59.08.
Records of 25 species of lichenicolous fungi from Ternopil oblast (Ukraine) are provided. Among them, Dacampia cyrtellae, Didymocyrtis slaptonensis, Epithamnolia xanthoriae, Lichenotubeufia heterodermiae, Phoma peltigerae, Tremella caloplacae, Trichoconis physciicola, Unguiculariopsis lucaniae, Xenonectriella physciacearum, and X. zimmermanni are reported for the first time for Ukraine. Lichenotubeufia is a new genus to Ukraine. Descriptions, localities, ecology and distribution of the recorded species are given. Keywords: biodiversity, Lichenotubeufia, Trichoconis, Xenonectriella.
34787Kossowska M. (2022): Hornfels rocks as a habitat for saxicolous lichen biota. A case study from the Sudety Mountains (SW Poland). - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 59: 35–41. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2022.59.07.
The results of lichenological studies on hornfels outcrops in the Izerskie Mountains (Sudetes, SW Poland) are presented. This substrate is connected with the igneous intrusion into the country rocks and is characterized by a richer chemical and mineral composition than the surrounding rock bodies. In the six analyzed sites, a total of 48 saxicolous lichen species were found. Hornfels as a substrate for lichen vegetation is distinguished by the presence of lichens typical for rocks rich in metal compounds, in the study area represented by Rhizocarpon oederi, Lecidea silacea and Porpidia melinodes, and lichens that prefer mineral-enriched rocks, like Lecanora campestris, L. rupicola, Lecidea fuscoatra, Porpidia cinereoatra and Rimularia gibbosa. The three mentioned metallophilous species are some of the rarest components of the lichen biota in Poland, known from single localities. Other rare and locally endangered lichens recorded on hornfels include Lambiella furvella, Stereocaulon dactylophyllum and Umbilicaria pustulata. Keywords: saxicolous lichens, biodiversity, Hercynian mountains, Central Europe, metallophytes.
34786Jüriado I., Degtjarenko P., Oja E. & Randlane T. (2022): A recent update in red-listing of Estonian lichens: threat status of 168 species was assessed for the first time. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 59: 69–81. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2022.59.11.
The threat status of 168 lichenized species growing mostly on rocks or ground were assessed in 2022 for the first time in Estonia. The IUCN Red List system (categories and criteria) were used for that purpose. Most of the assessed taxa were microlichens (163), while five macrolichen species were also evaluated. Among the assessed species, 91 were assigned to the threat categories (Critically Endangered – CR, Endangered – EN and Vulnerable – VU), 17 species were assigned to the category Near Threatened (NT), and 41 species were assigned to the category Least Concerned (LC). Category Data Deficient (DD) was assigned for 17 species and the category Regionally Extinct (RE) for two species. Among the threat categories, 35 species were assigned to the category EN, 34 species to VU, and 22 species to CR. In general, most of the evaluated species (81%, 137 species) were growing on different types of rock, 16% (28 species) of species were growing on soil, mosses or plant debris, and three taxa were growing on other substrata. Most of the threatened epigeic and epilithic microlichens were recorded on alvar grasslands growing on ground, limestone pebbles and flatrock or erratic boulders. Er- ratic boulders in various forest types and calcareous cliffs in clint forest were also important habitats for threatened species. Moreover, different rock substrates of anthropogenic origin (walls, buildings and abandoned limestone quarries) performed as significant habitat type for epilithic species. Bush encroachment of open habitats, especially in semi-natural grasslands, serves as the main threat for epigeic and epilithic lichens. Keywords: alvars, crustose lichens, epilithic lichens, epigeic lichens, microlichens, IUCN, lichen habitats, threat status.
34785Jannah M., A`yun Q., Afifah N., Prasetya E. & Hariri M.R. (2022): Usnea in West Java: a potential source of bioactive secondary metabolites. - Berkala Penelitian Hayati, 28: 26–31. https://doi.org/10.23869/bphjbr.28.1.20224.
Lichen is a symbiotic organism consisting of algae (photobionts) and fungi (mycobiont). In Indonesia, Usnea is the only genus of lichen that has been widely recognized and used by the local community for traditional medicine. It is locally known as kayu angin, rusuk angin, or janggot Kai. Furthermore, it produces lichen acid and other compounds as secondary metabolites that need investigation. Therefore, this study aimed to identify species and determine the secondary metabolites of Usnea in West Java. There were 13 species of Usnea identified, with U. rubrotincta, U. mutabilis, and U. barbata being new to West Java. The extraction of U. esperantiana has the highest number of lichen acids, with 20 different types identified. This study showed that Usnea contains lichen acid, flavonoid, and saponin compounds. The secondary metabolites are a potential source of natural products for bioprospecting. Keywords: West Java / secondary metabolites / lichen / Usnea / angin / compounds.
34784Acharius E. (1809): Förteckning pa de i Sverige växande arter af Lafvarnes familj (Fortsaettning). - Kongl. Vetenskaps Akademiens Nya Handlingar Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [2. ser.], 30[3]: 145–169. .
34783Acharius E. (1809): Förteckning pa de i Sverige växande arter af Lafvarnes familj. - Kongl. Vetenskaps Akademiens Nya Handlingar Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [2. ser.], 30[2]: 97–102. .
34782Acharius E. (1808): Förteckning pa de i Sverige växande arter af Lafvarnes familj (Fortsaettning). - Kongl. Vetenskaps Akademiens Nya Handlingar Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [2. ser.], 29[4]: 259–283. .
34781Popovici V., Musuc A.M., Matei E., Karampelas O., Ozon E.A., Cozaru G.C., Schröder V., Bucur L., Aricov L., Anastasescu M., Așchie M., Badea V., Lupuliasa D. & Gîrd C.E. (2022): ROS-induced DNA-damage and autophagy in oral squamous cell carcinoma by Usnea barbata oil extract—An in vitro study. - International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23(23): 14836 [33 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232314836.
Oxidative stress is associated with aging, cancers, and numerous metabolic and chronic disorders, and phenolic compounds are well known for their health-promoting role due to their free-radical scavenging activity. These phytochemicals could also exhibit pro-oxidant effects. Due to its bioactive phenolic secondary metabolites, Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex. F.H. Wigg (U. barbata) displays anticancer and antioxidant activities and has been used as a phytomedicine for thousands of years. The present work aims to analyze the properties of U. barbata extract in canola oil (UBO). The UBO cytotoxicity on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) CLS-354 cell line and blood cell cultures was explored through complex flow cytometry analyses regarding apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, the enzymatic activity of caspase 3/7, cell cycle, nuclear shrinkage (NS), autophagy (A), and synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). All these studies were concomitantly performed on canola oil (CNO) to evidence the interaction of lichen metabolites with the constituents of this green solvent used for extraction. The obtained data evidenced that UBO inhibited CLS-354 oral cancer cell proliferation through ROS generation (316.67 × 104), determining higher levels of nuclear shrinkage (40.12%), cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 (92.51%; G0 is the differentiation phase, while during G1 phase occurs preparation for cell division), DNA fragmentation (2.97%), and autophagy (62.98%) than in blood cells. At a substantially higher ROS level in blood cells (5250.00 × 104), the processes that lead to cell death—NS (30.05%), cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 (86.30%), DNA fragmentation (0.72%), and autophagy (39.37%)—are considerably lower than in CLS-354 oral cancer cells. Our work reveals the ROS-mediated anticancer potential of UBO through DNA damage and autophagy. Moreover, the present study suggests that UBO pharmacological potential could result from the synergism between lichen secondary metabolites and canola oil phytoconstituents. Keywords: Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg; canola oil; phenolic secondary metabolites; reactive oxygen species; cytotoxicity; CLS-354 OSCC cell line; blood cell cultures.
34780León C.A. & Benítez-Mora A. (2022): Key abiotic parameters for the management of the richness of bryolichenic communities in bogs of North Patagonia (Chile). - Acta Botanica Brasilica, 36: e2021abb0190 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-33062021abb0190.
Peatlands are ecosystems that play a special role in conserving biodiversity because they are refugia for unusual wetland-dependent species. Nevertheless, these ecosystems are threatened in southern South America by the overharvesting of Sphagnum moss, used in horticulture as substrate. Moreover, the biodiversity measurement as species richness has not been considered in management practices. Thus, our purpose was to study the bryophyte and lichen diversity and abiotic factors of Chiloé peatlands to distinguish habitat preferences and key abiotic factors to improve peatland management. The study was conducted in eight peatlands of Chiloé Island in Chile (42-43° S and 75-73° W). We found good predictors to overall species richness and each organism group. The observed patterns of cryptogamic species richness are well explained by microtopographic variables and moisture, increasing in tree base, and decreasing in saturated substrate and carpet. We highly recommend conserving “tree base” microtopographic areas as reservoirs of species richness in intervened areas by harvesting. Furthermore, we also suggest monitoring water chemistry variables such as pH or ionic ratio (IR), to provide information to predict impacts on the biodiversity of peatlands under Sphagnum harvesting. These recommendations give rise to sustainable management and to transforming moss into a renewable resource for farmers. Keywords: Chiloé; peatlands; bryo-lichen flora; richness; diversity.
34779Kitaura M.J., Torres J.-M., Scur M.C., Lorenz A.P. & Faria R.R. (2022): New species and new records of Peltula (Lichinales, Ascomycota lichenized) from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. - Rodriguésia, 73: e02202020 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1590/2175-7860202273034.
Peltula species occur in arid and semi-arid environments, with new species being regularly described worldwide. Lichen diversity is being studied in the diverse but poorly known Midwest region of Brazil, and new species and records are being proposed. In this paper, Peltula anthracina is proposed as new to science, and P. leptophylla and P. lingulata are reported as new records from Mato Grosso do Sul state. As it is a region highly threatened by the expansion of agricultural activities, the authors highlight the importance of the conservation of native flora to preserve lichens’ hidden diversity. Key words: arid habitat; cyanolichen; diversity; fire forest; new species.
34778Kitaura M.J., Scur M.C., Spielmann A.A. & Lorenz A.P. (2022): An integrative study of Pannaria hookeri (Ascomycota lichenized) from Argentina and the update of the taxon circumscription based on specimens from the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. - Acta Botanica Brasilica, 36: e2021abb0357 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-33062021abb0357.
Pannaria hookeri (Borrer ex Sm.) Nyl. is reported as a bipolar cyanolichen that occurs in more than twenty countries in both Hemispheres. In the Northern Hemisphere, a minor variation is attributed to the species, whereas larger morphological and chemical variations have been reported in specimens from the Southern Hemisphere. Six P. hookeri DNA sequences are available in GenBank, and only one (from Australia) is associated with a published morphological description. In this study, we performed a preliminary phylogenetic analysis including seven nuITS and mtSSU sequences from eight specimens collected in south Argentina. In addition, we provide an update of the taxon circumscription based on 50 specimens from 13 countries. Here, the molecular analyses revealed a well-supported monophyletic group formed by the P. hookeri sequences from Argentina, Australia, Norway and USA (Alaska). Regarding the morphological and anatomical characteristics, the Southern Hemisphere specimens did not present the historical reported variations, resulting in the proposition of a concise species description that accomplishes most of P. hookeri known geographical distribution. Keywords: species circumscription; cyanolichen; lichenized fungi; nuITS; taxonomy; Tierra del Fuego.
34777Acharius E. (1808): Förteckning pa de i Sverige växande arter af Lafvarnes familj (Fortsättning). - Kongl. Vetenskaps Akademiens Nya Handlingar Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [2. ser.], 29[3]: 228–237. .
34776Kondratyuk S.Y., Lőkös L., Kärnefelt I., Kondratiuk T.O., Parnikoza I.Yu., Yamamoto Y., Hur J.-S. & Thell A. (2022): New and noteworthy lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi, 12. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 64: 337–368. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.64.2022.3-4.8.
Seven species new to science are described, illustrated and compared with closely related taxa. Of them, one species, i.e.: Coppinsidea vernadskiensis S. Y. Kondr., T. O. Kondratiuk et I. Yu. Parnikoza is from the Argentine Islands, Western Maritime Antarctic Peninsula, Jacke lixia hosseussii S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, from South America (Argentina and Uruguay), Loekoeslaszloa reducta Yoshik. Yamam. et S. Y. Kondr. from Eastern Asia (Japan), Orientophila viticola S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur from Eastern Asia (South Korea), Ovealmbornia ovei S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös, I. Kärnefelt et A. Thell, and Xanthokarrooa elsiae S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös, I. Kärnefelt et A. Thell from Africa, as well as Oxneria imshaugii S. Y. Kondr. from North America. The new combination Jackelixia australis (for Xanthoria parietina var. australis Zahlbr.) is proposed. Jackelixia hosseussii is for the first time recorded as host for the lichenicolous fungus Arthonia anjutii S. Y. Kondr. et Alstrup. The latter species is for the first time recorded from South America. Intralichen christiansenii (D. Hawksw.) D. Hawksw. et Cole is for the first time recorded from South Korea. Keywords: Antarctica; Arthonia anjutii; Coppinsidea; Dufourea clade; Jackelixia; Japan; Intralichen; Langeottia; Loekoeslaszloa; Orientophila; Ovealmbornia; South America; Xanthokarrooa.
34775Kondratyuk S.Y., Persson P.-E., Hansson M., Lőkös L., Kondratiuk A.S., Fayyaz I, Kouser R., Afshan N.S., Niazi A.R., R. Zulfiqar, Khalid A.N., Kärnefelt I., Farkas E., Hur J.-S. & Thell A. (2022): Contributions to molecular phylogeny of lichens 4. New names in the Teloschistaceae. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 64: 313–336. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.64.2022.3-4.7.
The new genus Kudratoviella for the former Caloplaca zeorina group having the highest level of bootstrap support in the phylogenetic tree of the Teloschistaceae, based on combined dataset of nrITS, 28S nrLSU DNA and 12S SSU mtDNA sequences, which does not belong to any other earlier proposed genera of the subfamily Xanthorioideae, is described. The genus Oceanoplaca Arup, Søchting et Bungartz found to be a new synonym of the genus Loekoeslaszloa S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt, A. Thell et Hur, and Villophora onas Søchting, Søgaard et Arup appeared to be new synonym of Raesaeneniana maulensis (S. Y. Kondr. et Hur) S. Y. Kondr., Elix, Kärnefelt et A. Thell. Sixteen new combinations are proposed, i.e. Honeggeria leoncita (for Xanthomendoza leoncita Bungartz et Søchting), Honeggeria wetmorei (for Xanthoria wetmorei S. Y. Kondr. et Kärnefelt), Kudratoviella anularis (for Caloplaca anularis Clauzade et Poelt), Kudratoviella bohlinii (for Caloplaca bohlinii H. Magn.), Kudratoviella rajasthanica (for Caloplaca rajasthanica S. Y. Kondr., Upreti et G. P. Sinha), Kudratoviella scrobiculata (for Caloplaca scrobiculata H. Magn.), and Kudratoviella zeorina (for Caloplaca zeorina B. G. Lee et Hur), Loekoeslaszloa caesioisidiata (for Caloplaca caesioisidiata Arup et van den Boom), Loekoeslaszloa caesiosorediata (for Caloplaca caesiosorediata Arup et van den Boom), Loekoeslaszloa chemoisidiosa (for Oceanoplaca chemoisidiosa Søchting et Bungartz), Loekoeslaszloa isidiosa (for Placodium isidiosum Vain.), Loekoeslaszloa sideritoides (for Oceanoplaca sideritoides Søchting et Bungartz), Raesaeneniana darwiniana (for Villophora darwiniana Søchting, Søgaard et Arup), Raesaeneniana patagonica (for Villophora patagonica Søchting et Søgaard), Raesaeneniana rimicola (for Villophora rimicola Søchting), and Raesaeneniana wallaceana (for Villophora wallaceana Søchting et Søgaard). Iqbalia kashmirensis is for the first time confirmed from South Korea and India on the basis of ‘extraneous mycobiont DNA’ (sensu Kondratyuk et al. 2019 b). Keywords: Honeggeria; Iqbalia; lichenised fungi; Loekoeslaszloa; Oceanoplaca; Raesaeneniana; Telo schistaceae; Villophora.
34774Joshi Y. (2022): A new species of Labrocarpon (Asterinales), a lichenicolous Ascomycota with submuriform ascospores from India. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 64: 285–291. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.64.2022.3-4.5.
During lichenicolous fungal studies in India, lichen genus Ochrolechia was found infected with a black lirellate fungus. Critical microscopical examination of the fungus revealed that it is a new species of Labrocarpon, which differs from L. canariense in having narrow exciple (15.0–20.0 µm vs 20.0–50.0 µm thick), 4-spored asci, 1-septate to submuriform, constricted ascospores with larger l/w value [(2.5–)2.9–3.4–3.9(–4.5) vs (1.9–)2.1–2.5(–2.8)], habitat preference (corticolous vs saxicolous) and host selection (Ochrolechia vs Pertusaria). The new species Labrocarpon submuriforme is described in detail. Keywords: Himalaya; Melaspilea; Pertusaria; submuriform.
34773van den Boom P., Divakar P., Ertz D., Etayo J., Moberg R. & Sipman H. (2022): New or otherwise interesting records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from mainland Ecuador and surroundings with descriptions of five new species. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 64: 417–450. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.64.2022.3-4.13.
Altogether 322 taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are reported from Ecuador of which many are probably new records for the country. These include five species which are described as new to science: Bacidia andina, Bacidina pulverula, Distopyrenis epidiorygma, Pertusaria lucidotetra and P. pseudoparnassia. From the separately treated genera Lepra and Pertusaria, 12 species are recorded for Ecuador and/or other Neotropical countries. Notes on morphology, chemistry and ecology are given. Keywords: biodiversity; chemistry; ecology; lichenised Ascomycetes; S. America; taxonomy.
34772Coassini-Lokar L., Nimis P.L. & Ciconi G. (1986): Chemistry and chorology of the Cladonia chlorophaea-pyxidata complex (Lichenes, Cladoniaceae) in Italy. - Webbia, 39(2): 259–273. .
252 samples of lichens of the Cladonia chlorophaea - pyxidata complex collected in Italy were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. Six chemospecies occur in Italy; they are: Cladonia chlorophaea s.str. (80.9% of the samples), throughout the Peninsula, Cladonia grayi (4.0%) restricted to mountain areas on acid substrate in the North, Cladonia merochlorophaea (5.5%) and Cladonia cryptochlorophaea (2.4%), most frequent in Central Italy, at the western side of the peninsula, Cladonia conoidea (5.5%) most frequent in Central and Southern Italy, in lowlands and within mediterranean vegetation, Cladonia perlomera (1.6%), very rare throughout the country. Five of the six chemospecies are new to Italy; one (C. perlomera) is new to Europe. The higher freguency of C. chlorophaea s.str. is probably due to the fact that this is the only chemospecies within the complex that grows on limestone soils. Key words: Chemotaxonomy, Cladonia chlorophaea-pyxidata (Lichenes), chorology, Italy.
34771Coassini-Lokar L., Nimis P.L. & Geatti M. (1987): Chemistry and chorology of the genus Parmotrema Massal. (Lichenes, Parmeliaceae) in Italy. - Webbia, 41(1): 125–142. .
The status of 183 samples of lichens belonging to the genus Parmotrema, collected in Italy, has been revised on the basis of morphological and chemical characters. Chemical analyses were carried out by microchemical crystal tests, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seven species of Parmotrema occur in Italy: P. arnoldii, P. crinitum, P. hypoleucinum, P. perlatum, P. reticulatum, P. robustum and P. stuppeum. Their distribution patterns within Italy differ, but have in common a clear frequency maximum in regions with a suboceanic climate. The results of the quantitative chemical analyses show the presence of traces of several substances that were never reported before from some of the species. Key words: Italy, Lichens, Parmotrema.
34770Torres-Benítez A., Ortega-Valencia J.E., Sanchez M., Divakar P.K., Simirgiotis M.J. & Gómez-Serranillos M.P. (2022): Metabolomic profiling, antioxidant and enzyme inhibition properties and molecular docking analysis of Antarctic lichens. - Molecules, 27(22): 8086 [22 p.] . https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27228086.
The lichen species Lecania brialmontii, Pseudephebe pubescens, and Sphaerophorus globosus are part of the prominent lichenoflora of the Antarctic territory. In this work, we report the metabolomic identification of ethanolic extracts of these species, their antioxidant and cholinesterase enzyme inhibitory activity, and conduct a molecular docking analysis with typical compounds. Eighteen compounds were identified by UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS in L. brialmontii, 18 compounds in P. pubescens, and 14 compounds in S. globosus. The content of phenolic compounds was variable among the species, ranging from 0.279 to 2.821 mg AG/g, and all three species showed high inhibition potential on the cholinesterase enzymes. Molecular docking showed important interactions between AChE and BChE with the selected compounds. This study evidences the chemical fingerprint of three species of the order Lecanorales that support the continuation of the study of other biological activities and their potential for medical research. Keywords: Lecania; Pseudephebe; Sphaerophorus; bioactive compounds; antioxidant; enzyme inhibition; Antarctica; neuroprotective potential.
34769Ladd D. (2022): Lichen survey of Bryant Creek State Park Douglas County, Missouri. - NatureCITE report to Missouri Department of Natural Resources. NatureCITE, Springfield, MO, 48 pp. .
A comprehensive survey of lichens and lichen-associated fungi was conducted at Bryant Creek State Park during 18 field days from October 2020 through May 2022, documenting a total of 331 taxa. Despite areas of previous intensive logging and other impacts, the site contains an impressive level of lichen biodiversity, ranking among the highest lichen diversity recorded for a single site in the Interior Highlands and lower Midwest. Of the 331 taxa documented, there were 297 lichens (274 chlorolichens and 23 cyanolichens), 16 lichenicolous fungi (including one lichenized lichen parasite), and 18 non-lichenized, non-lichenicolous fungi often associated with lichens. Several of these taxa are new records for Missouri and/or the Ozark Ecroregion, and some are significant extensions of the known North American ranges for the species. Bryant Creek State Park constitutes a unique complex of extensive mesic sandstone ravine systems in a landscape context of contiguous intact or recoverable woodlands. In addition to the stunning scenic aspects of the extensive, seasonally flowing mesic ravines with diverse bedrock expressions, this system supports an unusual diversity of cryptogams, including lichens and associated fungi, with some uncommon and conservative species in abundances not known elsewhere in the Ozarks. Several small patch natural communities, such as seeps, glades, and bluffs of both sandstone and dolomite, occur at the park, further enhancing microhabitat diversity and supporting a diverse biota of lichens and associated fungi. With continuing, ecologically based management and restoration of degraded sites, as well as careful, sustainable development of visitor facilities and trails, this site will exemplify a distinct component of the Ozark landscape created by the characteristics of the region’s Roubidoux bedrock system, which is typified here more completely than perhaps any other area in the Ozarks.
34768Afshan N.S., Fayyaz I., Iftikhar F., Habib K., Razzaq F., Niazi A.R. & Khalid A.N. (2022): A taxonomic and phylogenetic study of some Cladonia species from Pakistan. - Nova Hedwigia, 115: 535–548. DOI: 10.1127/nova_hedwigia/2022/0711.
For this study, a number of species of the genus Cladonia were collected from different areas of Pakistan and characterized using morpho-anatomical and molecular techniques. The present work revealed that the collected specimens belong to four species. Among these, C. rei, C. ochrochlora and C. cariosa are new records for Pakistan, while the reports of C. pocillum represent range extensions within Pakistan. Complete morpho-anatomical descriptions and notes on ecology and distribution are provided, along with ITS-based molecular analysis. Keywords: Cladoniaceae; lichen-forming fungi; macrolichens; Muzaffarbad; phenotypic; Swat.
34767Haughian S.R., Gray L. & Harper K.A. (2022): Factors influencing the distributions of two endangered lichens in Nova Scotia, Canada. - Écoscience, 29(4): 345–361. https://doi.org/10.1080/11956860.2022.2129527.
The lichens Erioderma pedicellatum (Hue) P.M. Jørg. and Erioderma mollissimum (G. Sampaio) Du Rietz are endangered species in Canada. Both species are obligate epiphytes found in forested wetlands near the Atlantic Coast. They are thought to be primarily threatened by logging and acid pollution, but the influence of these factors has not been examined at large-extents or relative to other habitat features. Critical habitat for protection has remained difficult to define beyond observed occurrences, because of the low accuracy of existing habitat models. To facilitate improved recovery planning and understanding of their ecology in the province of Nova Scotia, we created high-resolution distribution models for both species, incorporating elements of climate, forest composition, hydrology, acid pollution, and anthropogenic influence using the MaxEnt algorithm and a backwards stepwise selection process. The most important predictors were related to rainfall or an oceanic moderation of thermal optima. Depth to water table and the presence of suitable forest composition were also included, as was distance from roads for E. pedicellatum. The putative threats, acid pollution and silvicultural treatment, were not important and therefore excluded from models. Although both species have highly specific habitat requirements, E. pedicellatum appears to be more sensitive to human activities.
34766Lendemer J.C. (2022): Herpothallon rubrogranulosum, a new species with granular pseudoisidia from the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of southeastern North America. - Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 149(4): 280–285. .
Herpothallon rubrogranulosum is described from forested wetlands in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of southeastern North America. It appears to be infrequent throughout its range, but locally abundant on bald cypress trees in areas of Francis Marion National Forest, South Carolina, USA. The species is characterized by a cream colored, ecorticate thallus with small, coarse granular pseudoisidia that are covered with variable amounts of orangered pigment that reacts Kþred-pink, and the production of abundant psoromic acid. It was previously confused with H. rubroechinatum, which is a rarer tropical species that differs markedly in having large, conspicuous pseudoisidia. Key words: Asexual reproduction, biodiversity, Cryptothecia, subtropical lichens, taxonomy, Trentepholia.
34765Choi B.Y., Lee S., Kim J., Park H., Kim J.-H., Kim M., Park S.-J., Kim K.-T., Ryu H. & Shim D. (2022): Comparison of endophytic and epiphytic microbial communities in surviving and dead Korean Fir (Abies koreana) using metagenomic sequencing. - Forests, 13(11): 1932 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f13111932.
Plant endophyte and epiphyte communities cooperatively interact with their host plants and play crucial roles in sustaining plant fitness. In Korea, a variety of studies have been conducted to elucidate the reasons for the declining population of the endangered Korean fir (Abies koreana), but the relationship between microbiota and the healthy condition of trees remains unclear. Here, we conducted bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS sequence analyses to dissect the composition of endophytic and epiphytic microbiota in both live and dead trees located in the same Mt. Jiri habitat. In the live trees, the bacterial class Armatimonadia and the lichenized fungi groups were significantly dominant, whereas many bacterial and fungal taxa mainly found in rotten wood were enriched in the dead trees. Functional prediction of the microbial communities in live trees suggested the possibility that bacterial endophytes and epiphytes play a role in inorganic nutrient metabolism and fungal endophytes and epiphytes produce biologically active secondary metabolites, thereby contributing to the healthy condition of Korean fir trees. The ecological function of endophytes and epiphytes in dead trees was predicted to be involved in the decomposition of wood for nutrient recycling. Our analyses revealed a distinct difference in microbial communities depending on the health condition of Korean fir trees. The results from this study would be useful for understanding the ecological function of endophytic and epiphytic microorganisms to conserve and manage this endangered species from ecologically vulnerable environments. Keywords: community diversity; Abies koreana; plant endophyte; plant epiphyte; metagenome; endangered species.
34764Ravera S., Puglisi M., Vizzini A., Totti C., Aleffi M., Bacilliere G., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Boccardo F., Bolpagni R., von Brackel W., Canali G., Celli G., Cogoni A., De Giuseppe A.B., Di Natale S., Di Nuzzo L., Dovana F., Gheza G., Giordani P., Giorgi C.M., Giugia D., Iberite M., Isocrono D., Malíček J., Mayrhofer H., Muscioni M., Nascimbene J., Nimis P.L., Ongaro S., Passalacqua N.G., Piccardo P., Poponessi S., Prieto Álvaro M., Prosser F., Puntillo D., Santi F., Scassellati E., Schultz M., Sciandrello S., Sicoli G., Soldano A., Tiburtini M. & Vallese C. (2022): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 14. - Italian Botanist, 14: 61–80. https://doi.org/10.3897/italianbotanist.14.95956.
In this contribution, new data concerning bryophytes, fungi and lichens of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the algal genus Chara, for the bryophyte genera Bryum, Grimmia, Cephaloziella, Hypnum, Nogopterium, Physcomitrium, Polytrichastrum, Rhynchostegiella, Saelania, and Schistostega, the fungal genera Cortinarius, Lentinellus, Omphalina, and Xerophorus, and the lichen genera Acarospora, Agonimia, Candelariella, Cladonia, Graphis, Gyalolechia, Hypogymnia, Lichinella, Megalaria, Nephroma, Ochrolechia, Opegrapha, Peltigera, Placidium, Ramalina, Rhizoplaca, Ropalospora, Strangospora, Toniniopsis, Usnea, and Zahlbrucknerella. Keywords: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Bryidae, Charophyceae.
34763Abas A., Asnawi N.H., Aiyub K., Awang A. & Abdullah S.R. (2022): Lichen Biodiversity Index (LBI) for the assessment of air quality in an industrial city in Pahang, Malaysia. - Atmosphere, 13(11): 1905 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13111905.
Lichen is a well-documented useful biological indicator for monitoring air pollution using various methods such as the biodiversity of lichens. However, the use of lichen biodiversity to estimate air pollution levels in industrial areas, particularly in Malaysia, is still weak, and the determinants of its diversity are unknown. As a result, the purpose of this research is to analyse air pollution in Malaysia’s industrial urban area using the lichen biodiversity index and its determining factor. This research was carried out at Gebeng, Pahang, Malaysia. A total of 14 sample locations were chosen, each with three replication stations. The Lichen Biodiversity Index (LBI) approach was employed in this study to estimate the degree of air pollution in Gebeng. This study also investigated three potential determinants of lichen biodiversity: carbon monoxide (CO) concentration, relative humidity (%), and vehicle motor frequency (per hour). The LBI was plotted and analysed using the Geographical Information System (GIS) programme ArcGIS 10.8.1, and the determining variables were identified using Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient software PAST 4.03. This study discovered a total of 11 lichen species known as metropolitan lichen. The average LBI across Gebeng is 19.5 (moderate alteration). In the industrial region, CO has an inversely significant relation with lichen biodiversity (r = −0.7433), relative humidity has a significant relation with lichen biodiversity (r = 0.8249), and vehicle motors are not significant as a determining factor for lichen biodiversity (r = 0.2068). This study demonstrates that lichen, with its diversity of species in one place, can be utilised to measure and quantify the degree of air pollution in industrial areas. In addition to that, in the context of an industrial city, vehicle motors do not have a significant impact on lichen biodiversity due to the existence of other pollutants sources from industrial activities. Relative humidity is a sign of clean air and humid surroundings, which is good for lichen growth; meanwhile, higher CO concentration will restrict the growth of sensitive-type lichen and will only allow the resistant type of lichen to grow. Keywords: biological indicators; environmental monitoring; environmental management; lichens; urban ecosystem.
34762Christensen S.N. (2022): Epiphytic lichens from towns and villages in Greece. - Parnassiana Archives, 10: 31–37. .
Thirty-nine epiphytic lichens from towns and villages across Greece are recorded. Ten species are new for one or more Greek provinces. Species composition reflects the nutrient enrichment of such human environments. An alternative interpretation of the results of Diamantopoulos et al. (1992) and Pirintsos et al. (1993) on the distribution of epiphytic lichens in the Thessaloniki area is provided. The list of species growing on Platanus in Greece (Christensen 2014) is supplemented with six species.
34761Arcadia L. in (2021): Lichens of the area around Vonitsa, NW Aitoloakarnania, Greece. - Parnassiana Archives, 9: 93–107. .
Study of six sites in the north west of Aitoloakarnania, in the autumn of 2019, yielded records of 120 species of lichens, lichenicolous and allied fungi. They include Petractis crozalsii, new to Greece. A summary of all previous reports for Aitoloakarnania is also included, and the total for the Nomos now stands at 187 taxa.
34760Arcadia L. in (2020): New lichen records for the Peloponnese, Greece, with an updated checklist for Peloponnese. - Parnassiana Archives, 8: 57–101. .
357 previously unpublished reports of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from a variety of localities in the Peloponnese are presented. An updated checklist for the Peloponnese is given. It contains 623 accepted taxa at species rank and below. Sixty taxa (Arthonia punctiformis, Aspicilia subfarinosa, Bagliettoa cazzae, Buellia aethalea, B. chloroleuca, B. maritima, Caloplaca coralliza, C. flavocitrina, C. geleverjae, C. oasis, C. oleicola, C. rubelliana, C. xerica, Candelariella lutella, Diplotomma pulverulentum, Endococcus verrucosus, Haematomma nemetzii, Lecanora lividocinerea, L. meridionalis, L. praepostera, L. strobilina, L. subcarnea, Lecidea grisella, L. promiscua, Lepra amara, Leptochidium albociliatum, Lobothallia chadefaudiana, Micarea misella, Ocellomma picconianum, Opegrapha parasitica, Parmelia serrana, Pertusaria parotica, Physcia biziana var. phyllidiata, Placynthium tremniacum, Polychidium muscicola, Porina chloritica, Porpidia albocaerulescens, P. macrocarpa, Protoblastenia cyclospora, P. lilacina, Protoparmeliopsis laatokkaensis, Ramalina fraxinea var. calicariformis, Rinodina archaea, R. septentrionalis, R. trachytica, Sarcogyne hypophaea, Scytinium pulvinatum, Seirophora contortuplicata, Sonenopsora holophaea, Stigmidium lecidellae, Thelidium papulare, Toninia cinereovirens, T. rosulata, T. toepfferi, T. tristis subsp. pseudotabacina, Toniniopsis bagliettoana, T. verrucarioides, Verrucaria fuscoatroides, Xanthoria aphrodites and X. monofoliosa) are new to Peloponnese. Three species (Cladonia squamosa, Dermatocarpon intestiniforme and Xanthoparmelia protomatrae) are confirmed for Peloponnese and eighteen taxa (Buellia stellulata, Caloplaca chlorina, C. herbidella, C. sarcopidioides, Chrysothrix chrysophthalma, Endococcus rugulosus, Lecidella asema, Lobothallia cheresina var. cheresina, Micarea denigrata, Pertusaria flavida, Porpidia crustulata, Rhizocarpon obscuratum, Sarcogyne privigna, Schismatomma dirinellum, Solenopsora cesatii, Usnea filipendula, Verrucaria aethiobola and V. cinereorufa) are deleted from Peloponnese list. Five species (Caloplaca fuscoblastidiata, Lecanora conizella, L. hypopta, Myriolecis oyensis and Pertusaria huneckiana) are here reported as new to Greece. Some corrections are made to previously published reports.
34759Arcadia L. in (2020): The lichens of Alonisos, Sporades Islands, Greece. - Parnassiana Archives, 8: 3–10. .
Only two reports of lichen species have been published previously for Alonisos. Following a visit by the author in October 2018, a total of 120 species plus 2 infra-specific taxa are now known from the island. No lichenicolous fungi are known.
34758Gavalas I. & Sipman H.J.M. (2019): A lichen inventory on the island of Iraklia (Cyclades Islands, Greece). - Parnassiana Archives, 7: 31–49. .
A total of 161 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi and 4 varieties are recorded on the island of Iraklia (Central Cyclades, Greece) in 2018 and early 2019. This figure is surprisingly high in comparison with surrounding islands. Four lichen species are recorded as new for Greece, Agonimia allobata (Stizenb.) P. James, Buellia caloplacivora Llimona & Egea, Gloeoheppia erosa (J. Steiner) Marton and Pertusaria lactescens Mudd. Discussions of these are provided, as well as for a squamulose form of Dirina massiliensis Durieu & Mont. and an unusual form of Physcia adscendens H. Olivier, which is compared with P. ucrainica S.Y. Kondr. et al. A list of all recorded species with vouchers and habitat information is included. Keywords: lichenized fungi, distribution, systematics, Mediterranean, diversity, lichenicolous fungi, Aegean Sea.
34757Porada P. & Giordani P. (2022): Do lichens and mosses drink from tree bark?. - Frontiers for Young Minds, 10: 704022 [8 p.]. doi: 10.3389/frym.2022.704022.
Lichens and mosses often live on tree branches in the forest canopy. They store large amounts of rain, fog, or dew, because they cannot reach water in the soil. However, we do not know what their most important source of water actually is. For example, is water uptake from wet bark important? This is hard to answer, because these lichens and mosses live high above us, so it is difficult to make direct measurements. Computer mathematical simulations can be useful to answer this question. We used a computer model of lichens and mosses to calculate how much water these organisms may take up from bark. We found that water from bark supports about 20% of the growth of lichens and mosses per year, so it is important for their survival. We also found that lichens and mosses are well adapted to taking up water from bark.
34756Urbanska N., Simko P., Leskanicova A., Karasova M., Jendzelovska Z., Jendzelovsky R., Rucova D., Kolesarova M., Goga M., Backor M. & Kiskova T. (2022): Atranorin, a secondary metabolite of lichens, exhibited anxiolytic/antidepressant activity in Wistar rats. - Life, 12(11): 1850 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/life12111850.
Atranorin (ATR) is one of lichens’ many known secondary metabolites. Most current studies have investigated the various effects of ATR in vitro and only sporadically in vivo. The latest data indicate that ATR may have anxiolytic/antidepressive effects. This study aimed to analyze the potential of ATR in a depression-like state in male Wistar rats. Pregnant females were stressed by restricting their mobility in the final week of pregnancy three times a day for 45 min each, for three following days. After birth, progeny aged 60 days was stressed repeatedly. The male progeny was divided into three groups as follows: CTR group as a healthy control (n = 10), DEP group as a progeny of restricted mothers (n = 10), and ATR group as a progeny of restricted mothers, treated daily for one month with ATR (n = 10; 10 mg/kg of body weight, p.o.). Our results show that ATR acts as an antioxidant and markedly changes animal behavior. Concomitantly, hippocampal neurogenesis increases in the hilus and subgranular zone, together with the number of NeuN mature neurons in the hilus and CA1 regions. Our results indicate a potential antidepressant/anxiolytic effect of ATR. However, further studies in this area are needed. Keywords: atranorin; depression; anxiety; Wistar rats; hippocampus; neurogenesis; stress; reactive oxygen species
34755Fávaro A., Demetrio G.R. & Coelho F.F. (2022): Size-dependent reproductive investment in a tropical cyanolichen. - Bryologist, 125(4): 507–512. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.4.507.
Reproductive strategies in lichens are a rarely studied field, and little is known about which variables affecting the production of reproductive structures are most important. Here, we investigated how lichen size and cardinal direction affected the density of apothecia in the cyanolichen Leptogium marginellum. We hypothesized that larger thalli and thalli facing south (towards the pole) would have a higher density of apothecia. Individuals with larger body sizes may store more resources that can be invested in sexual reproduction, and thalli facing south in the southern hemisphere could be exposed to more favorable abiotic conditions, similar to the north in the northern hemisphere. We collected L. marginellum thalli along a stream in a protected southeast Brazil area. Cardinal directions and the largest diameter of each thallus were registered with a GPS and a digital pachymeter, respectively. We observed the thalli with a stereomicroscope, delimited a region of 1×1 cm, and photographed it to count the number of apothecia with ImageJ. We found that cardinal direction did not affect the body size or the density of apothecia. However, lichen size was an important variable in the density of apothecia, explaining almost 60% of the variation observed. According to our findings, reproduction can be considered an allometric process, and reproductive patterns can vary with the hemisphere where the lichen is found. To our knowledge, this is the first research studying reproductive allocation in a tropical lichen. Keywords: Allometry; apothecia; body size; cardinal directions; lichen ecology; life-history strategy; reproductive allocation.
34754Halıcı M., Güllü M., Kahraman Yiğit M. & Barták M. (2022): Three new records of lichenised fungi for Antarctica. - Polar Record, 58: e22 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1017/ S0032247422000195.
As part of a project aiming to determine the lichenised fungal biodiversity of James Ross Island (Eastern coast ofAntarctic Peninsula), we identified three infrageneric taxa which were previously not reported from Antarctica: Farnoldia micropsis (A. Massal.) Hertel, Gyalolechia epiphyta (Lynge) Vondrák and Placidium squamulosum var. argentinum (Räsänen) Breuss. Detailed morphological and anatomical properties of these species along with photographs based on the Antarctic specimens are provided here. In addition, the nrITS, mtSSU and/or RPB1 gene regions of the selected specimens are studied and the phylogenetic positions of the species are discussed. The DNA sequence data for Farnoldia micropsis are provided for the first time. Farnoldia micropsis and Gyalolechia epiphyta are also new to the Southern Hemisphere. Keywords: Antarctic Peninsula; Biodiversity; James Ross Island; Lichens.
34753Ravera S. (2000): Contributo alla conoscenza della flora epifitica dell'Umbria. - Studia Geobotanica, 19: 49–55. .
47 species of epiphytic lichens are reported as additions to the poorly known lichen flora of Umbria. The ecology and distribution of selected species are discussed. Keywords: Epiphytic lichens, Flora, Umbria, Central Italy.
34752Acharius E. (1808): Förteckning pa de i Sverige växande arter af Lafvarnes familj. - Kongl. Vetenskaps Akademiens Nya Handlingar Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [2. ser.], 29[2]: 125–132. .
34751Acharius E. (1804): Beiträge zum Methodus Lichenum. - Weber et Mohr, Archiv für die Systematische Naturgeschichte, 1: 81–110. .
34750Lee B.G. & Hur J.-S. (2022): A new species and four new records of Bacidia (Lecanorales, Ramalinaceae) from South Korea, with a key to Korean species. - Mycokeys, 93: 107–130. doi: 10.3897/mycokeys.93.89283.
A new species, Bacidia fuscopallida Lee & Heo and four new records, B. ekmaniana R. C. Harris, Ladd & Lendemer, B. friesiana (Hepp) Körb., B. heterochroa (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. and B. suffusa (Fr.) A. Schneid., are described from South Korea. Bacidia fuscopallida differs from B. diffracta S. Ekman, the most similar species, by warted but non-granular thallus, paler and smaller apothecia without pruina, proper exciple without crystals, over 11-septate ascospores and smaller pycnidia and pycnoconidia. Bacidia ekmaniana is recorded new to Asia, B. heterochroa is reported new to northeastern Asia and B. friesiana and B. suffusa are new to Korea. Molecular analyses employing internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences strongly support the classification of the five species of Bacidia. A surrogate key is provided to assist in the identification of all 19 taxa in Bacidia of Korea. Keywords: biodiversity, corticolous, lichen, phylogeny, taxonomy.
34749Morris C. & Stone D. (2022): Nephroma orvoi in western North America. - Evansia, 39(3): 82–86. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-39.2.82.
The recently described species Nephroma orvoi is part of the Nephroma parile complex. Both species are generally medium to dark brown, with rounded, smooth to distinctly foveolate lobes bearing sorediate to isidiate propagules. The best distinguishing character morphologically is the location of propagule formation. On N. orvoi they originate laminally while on N. parile they originate marginally. However, TLC provides the most accurate identification results, as the two species differ in terpenoids. We examined 76 presumed N. parile herbarium specimens from OSC, both morphologically and by TLC, and found that N. orvoi and N. parile have overlapping ranges in western North America and occur in similar boreal and temperate forest habitats. Key words. Lichens, distribution, boreal, temperate, Nephroma parile, TLC.
34748McCune B. & Stone D.F. (2022): Eight new combinations of North American macrolichens. - Evansia, 39(3): 123–128. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-39.3.123.
Eight new taxonomic combinations are made for macrolichens that occur in North America. These combinations attempt to improve the practicality of taxonomic revisions resulting from molecular systematics. The new combinations are in the genera Bryoria, Cetraria, Peltigera, Scytinium, and Sulcaria. Key words. Lichens, Ahtiana, Bryoria, Cetraria, Peltigera, Scytinium, Sulcaria.
34747Haldeman M. (2022): New and interesting records of lichens, lichenicolous fungi and other Ascomycota from northwestern USA V. - Evansia, 39(3): 129–137. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-39.3.129.
The lichenicolous fungus Sphaerellothecium taimyricum is reported as new to North America. The lichenicolous fungus Lichenopeltella leprosulae and the lichen Protothelenella leucothelia are reported as new to the USA and the hepaticolous fungus Pleostigma jungermannicola is reported as new to western North America. Arthonia xanthoparmeliarum is reported as new to northwestern North America and seven other species of lichenicolous fungi are reported as new to the contiguous 48 states of the USA. In total, 18 species are reported new to the state of Washington, 2 to California and Oregon, and one new species is reported for each of three other western states. Key words. Arthonia, biodiversity, Llimoniella, Phaeophyscia, Washington, Whatcom County.
34746Jones H., St. Clair L.L., Hollinger J., Cooper L.S., Rosentreter R., Keuler R. & Leavitt S.D. (2022): Anderson and Shushan: Lichens of Western North America Fascicle VIII. - Evansia, 39(3): 69–81. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-39.2.69.
Twenty-five North American lichens are issued in Fascicle VIII of the “Anderson and Shushan: Lichens of Western North America” series, numbers 176– 200. This fascicle is comprised of material representing specimens from the Rhizoplaca melanophthalma aggregate, including the vagrant taxa R. arbuscula, R. haydenii, and R. idahoensis; two collections representing unattached forms in the R. porteri group – R. melanophthalma ssp. crispa and an erratic form of R. porteri; and two umbilicate saxicolous taxa, R. robusta and R. shushanii, the former described as new to science here. We also provide the first morphological description for R. shushanii, a species that was initially described based on diagnostic DNA sequence characters. Key words. Biodiversity, lichens, collections-based research, herbarium, Intermountain West, USA.
34745Baugh M & Leavitt S. (2022): Investigating potential factors influencing shifting lichen distributions—a case study of the maritime sunburst lichen (Xanthoria parietina) on a university campus in the Great Basin. - Evansia, 39(3): 115–122. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-39.3.115.
There are growing numbers of lichens observed outside their expected distributions. A recent discovery of Xanthoria parietina in Provo, Utah, USA is added to that list. Other individuals of this species have been noted in inland western United States, but this specimen was believed to be the first sighting of X. parietina in the Great Basin. Herbaria records were investigated for distribution data for other collections of X. parietina outside of their typical habitat. The identity of this unexpected lichen occurring in Provo was confirmed via DNA sequencing, and based on herbarium records, was found to be the second known occurrence in the Great Basin. This discovery raises questions regarding human facilitated dispersal and establishment of lichens. Key words. Conservation, Great Basin, lichenized fungi.
34744Genovesi V., Puntillo D. & Ravera S. (2001): Studia lichenologica in Italia Centrale. III. Specie nuove per l'Umbria. - Studia Geobotanica, 20: 61–66. .
31 infrageneric taxa are reported as new to the lichen flora of Umbria (Central Italy). Notes conceming their ecology and distribution are given. The new combination Phaeocalicium mildeanum (Hepp) Puntillo is proposed. Keywords: Central ltaly, Flora, Lichens, Umbria.
34743Chesnokov S.V. & Konoreva L.A. (2022): Checklist of lichens of Shikotan Island (Southern Kuril Islands, Russian Far East). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 56(2): 413–439. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2022.56.2.413.
Information on lichens of Shikotan Island based on original and literature data is provided. Altogether 278 lichen species and allied fungi are documented, of which Xylographa hians is new to Eurasia, Candelariella subdeflexa is new to Russia, nine species are new to the Russian Far East, 28 species are new to the Sakhalin Region, 39 species are new to Kuril Islands, and 94 species are new to Shikotan Island. For each species, data on distribution in the Sakhalin Region and neighboring regions are given. Key words: distribution of lichens, new records, Kuril Islands.
34742Frolov I.V., Evdokimov G.S. & Kataeva O.A. (2022): Calogaya elvebakkiana (Teloschistaceae), a new combination and a new lichen species to Russia. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 56(2): 405–412. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2022.56.2.405.
Caloplaca elvebakkiana is a rare lichen from the family Teloschistaceae known only from Svalbard. Due to lack of molecular data, it still does not have a certain generic affiliation in the current taxonomy of Teloschistaceae, remaining within an unsorted pile of species called “Caloplaca s. l.”. Here we present two new records of the species from Russia — from Wrangel Island and the southeastern part of the Chukotka Peninsula. On the base of two nrITS sequences obtained from the fresh material, we discovered that the species belongs to the genus Calogaya and formally proposed a new combination Calogaya elvebakkiana. Key words: Caloplaca s. l., lichens, ITS, new records, taxonomy, Arctic, Chukotka, Far East, Wrangel Island.
34741Kuznetsova E.S., Dudov S.V. & Ryabenko O.I. (2022): New data on diversity of lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Amur Region and the Russian Far East. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 56(2): 357–370. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2022.56.2.357.
The lichen biota of the Amur Region (southern Russian Far East) was studied in the course of several geobotanical expeditions. In total 38 species of lichens and three lichenicolous fungi are reported for the first time for the Amur Region. Among them four species (Fulgidea oligospora, Peltigera frippii, Psora globifera, and Rhizoplaca subdiscrepans) are new to the Russian Far East and nine more — to the southern Russian Far East. Four and 38 species are new to the Zeya Reserve and Tokinsko-Stanovoy National Park, respectively. Key words: distribution of lichens, lichenicolous fungi, new records, Zeya Nature Reserve, Stanovoy Range, Tokinsko-Stanovoy National Park, Tukuringra Range.
34740Stepanchikova I.S., Himelbrant D.E., Chesnokov S.V., Konoreva L.A. & Timofeeva E.A. (2022): Modern and historical lichen biota of Karelian Isthmus: the case of Motornoe-Zaostrovje proposed protected area (Leningrad Region, Russia). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 56(2): 371–404. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2022.56.2.371.
The revealed lichen diversity of the proposed protected area Motornoe-Zaostrovje counts 452 species, including 400 lichens, 34 lichenicolous fungi, four facultatively lichenicolous fungi, and 14 non-lichenized saprobic fungi. Micarea synotheoides and Tremella hypocenomycis are new to Russia; Rhizocarpon sublavatum is new to European Russia; Absconditella celata, Biatora albidula, Cyphobasidium hypogymniicola, Karschia talcophila, Micarea melanobola, Pyrenula laevigata, Sclerococcum microsporum, Sphinctrina anglica, and Trapeliopsis glaucolepidea are new to North-Western European Russia; Arthrorhaphis alpina, Lecaimmeria cupreoatra, Micarea nowakii, Protothelenella petri, Pycnora xanthococca, and Sagedia simoënsis are new to the Leningrad Region. Of particular interest are lichens of old-growth spruce forest in the Rytovka stream valley in its middle course. The lichen biota of Motornoe-Zaostrovje is one of the richest lichen biotas known in the Leningrad Region. It comprises 32 red-listed species, 20 habitat specialists (i. e., species restricted to biologically valuable forests) and 24 indicator species, and deserves protection on the regional level. Key words: Micarea synotheoides, Tremella hypocenomycis, protected areas, Isthmus karelicus.
34739Kotkova V.M., Afonina O.M., Androsova V.I., Arslanov S.N., Belyakov E.A., Chernova A.M., Czernyadjeva I.V., Davydov E.A., Doroshina G.Ya., Erokhina O.V., Garin E.V., Gorbunova I.A., Grishutkin O.G., Guziev Kh.Yu., Ignatenko M.E., Ignatov M.S., Ivchenko T.G., Kapitonov V.I., Kharpukhaeva T.M., Komarova A.S., Kuzmina E.Yu., Liksakova N.S., Makarova M.A., Melekhin A.V., Philippov D.A., Potemkin A.D., Romanov R.E., Ryzhkova P.Yu., Shiryaeva O.S., Sonina A.V., Storozhenko Yu.V., Tarasova V.N., Timdal E., Vishnyakov V.S., Yakovchenko L.S. & Yatsenko-Stepanova T.N. (2022): New cryptogamic records. 10. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 56(2): 477–517. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2022.56.2.477.
First records of Xanthophyceae for the Vologda and Sverdlovsk regions, and Moscow, Characeae for the Vologda, Orenburg, Tver regions and the Crimea Peninsula, diatoms for the Orenburg Region, aphyllophoroid fungi for the Novgorod and Tyumen regions, agaricoid fungi for the Novosibirsk and Vologda regions, and for the Republic of Altai, lichens for the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk regions, Altai Territory, the Republic of Buryatia and Primorye Territory, mosses for the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, the Republic of Buryatia, Novaya Zemlya Archipelago and the Kuril Islands, liverwort for the Kurgan Region are presented. The data on their localities, habitats, distribution are provided. The specimens are kept in the herbaria of the Altai State University (ALTB), of the Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBIW), of the Institute of Problems of Industrial Ecology of the North KSC RAS (INEP), of the Polar-alpine botanical garden-institute KSC RAS (KPABG), of the Komarov Botanical Institute RAS (LE), of the Mire Research Group of the Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters RAS (MIRE), the Central Siberian botanical garden SB RAS (NSK), of the Natural History Museum in Oslo, Norway (O), of the Petrozavodsk State University (PZV), of the Museum of the Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology (SVER), of the Tobolsk complex scientific station of the UB RAS (TOB), of the Institute of General and Experimental Biology SB RAS (UUH) and algological collection in the laboratory of the Algology Group of the Institute for Cellular and Intracellular Symbiosis of the UB RAS. Key words: Amaurodon viridis, Aneura pinguis, Aphanobasidium pseudotsugae, Aporpium macroporum, Bacidia herbarum, Bacidia rosella, Bacidia rosellizans, Bacidina chloroticula, Bagliettoa calciseda, Biatoridium monasteriense, Brachythecium udum, Bryonora rhypariza, Bryum caespiticium, Caloneis biconstrictoides, Cephalozia connivens, Cephalozia lunulifolia, Cephaloziella spinigera, Ceriporiopsis mucida, Chaenotheca cinerea, Chamaepinnularia krookii, Chara papillosa, Chiloscyphus fragilis, Chiloscyphus pallescens, Clitocybe dryadicola, Conocybe juniana, Conocybe merdaria, Cortinarius rufostriatus, Cyclostephanos invisitatus, Cyclostephanos makarovae, Cyclotella atomus, Diploneis oculata, Diploschistes gypsaceus, Discostella pseudostelligera, Entoloma atrosericeum, Fallacia subhamulata, Farnoldia jurana, Flammulina fennae, Gomphonema augur, Hemimycena hirsuta, Hydnum umbilicatum, Hyphodontia alienata, Inocybe cincinnata, Inocybe pusio, Isopterygiopsis muelleriana, Lecidea berengeriana, Lepista densifolia, Leptodontium flexifolium, Mesoptychia rutheana, Metulodontia nivea, Mylia anomala, Nitellopsis obtusa, Nitzschia aurariae, Pellia epiphylla, Pellia neesiana, Phaeorrhiza nimbosa, Phlegmacium durus, Pholiota populnea, Pluteus exiguous, Protothelenella sphinctrinoidella, Protothelenella sphinctrinoides, Pseudofallacia tenera, Pseudosperma obsoletum, Reimeria uniseriata, Rhizochaete sulphurina, Rhizoctonia ochracea, Sagiolechia protuberans, Sarcogyne regularis, Sarmentypnum tundrae, Scoliciosporum umbrinum, Staurothele rupifraga, Stereocaulon wrightii, Tetramelas geophilus, Thelidium papulare, Thelocarpon intermediellum, Tomentellopsis pulchella, Vaucheria alaskana, Vaucheria bursata, Vaucheria canalicularis, Vaucheria cruciata, Vaucheria dichotoma, Vaucheria frigida, Vaucheria geminata, Vaucheria hercyniana, Vaucheria pseudogeminata, Volvariella volvacea, Xanthophyceae, Xenasma pruinosum.
34738Davydov E.A., Yakovchenko L.S., Paukov A.G. & Ohmura Y. (2022): Lithographa tesserata (Trapeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) new to Japan. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 56(2): 351–356. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2022.56.2.351.
The genus Lithographa and the species L. tesserata are reported for the first time for Japan. The species was collected on siliceous rocks in mountain areas of Hokkaido. It is characterized by having crustose areolate thallus, black lirellate ascomata, simple hyaline ascospores and the presence of norstictic acid. Characteristic features of the species based on the Japanese material, distribution, comparison with other species of the genus are provided. In addition, a short description of a specimen of L. tesserata from Sakhalin Island and a comparison with the Japanese material are given. Key words: distribution, new records, taxonomy, East Asia, Hokkaido, Sakhalin.
34737Phraphuchamnong P., Nelsen M.P., Distefano I., Mercado-Díaz J.A., Parnmen S., Rangsiruji A., Buaruang K., Lücking R. & Lumbsch H.T. (2022): A new species of Megalaria (Ramalinaceae, Ascomycota) from Thailand, and recognition of subgenus Catillochroma. - MycoKeys, 93: 149–163. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.93.90962.
Tropical regions harbor a substantial diversity of lichenized fungi, but face numerous threats to their persistence, often even before previously unknown species have been described and their evolutionary relationships have been elucidated. Megalaria (Ramalinaceae) is a lichen-forming genus of fungi that produces crustose thalli, and includes a number of lineages occupying tropical rain forests; however, taxonomic and phylogenetic work on this clade is limited. Here we leverage both morphological and sequence data to describe a new species from the tropics, M. pachaylenophila. This taxon forms a crustose thallus, lacks secondary metabolites, and occurs in mangrove forests of Thailand. We supplemented molecular data from this species with data from other species, including two genera related to and occasionally included in Megalaria, namely Catillochroma and Lopezaria. Our analyses revealed Catillochroma species form a monophyletic group embedded within Megalaria, and we therefore recognize this clade at the subgeneric level. Since we only included the type species of Lopezaria in this study, we refrain from proposing a taxonomic conclusion for that clade at the moment. Several taxonomic combinations are made to reflect phylogenetic evidence supporting the inclusion of these species in Megalaria. Keywords: Asia, lichens, mangroves, new taxa, tropical diversity.
34736Ashraf A., Habib K. & Khalid A.N. (2022): A new pruinose lichen species in genus Lobothallia (Megasporaceae, lichen forming Ascomycota) from Pakistan. - Acta Botanica Brasilica, 36: e2021abb0225 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-33062021abb0225.
A new species in the genus Lobothallia (Megasporaceae, lichenized ascomycetes), from Margalla Hills, Pakistan, is described and illustrated here under the name Lobothallia densipruinosa. It is characterized by contiguous, clustered, densely pruinose dark olive apothecia, conidia 6-10 µm long, and large areoles and lobes. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS-nrDNA sequencing placed our species relative to L. pruinosa. Descriptions and images of the new species are provided, as well as a key for the 21 species of Lobothallia known to the world. Keywords: Lichenized ascomycetes; Megasporaceae; molecular systematics.
34735Thakur M., Shrikhandia S.P.P. & Kumar V. (2022): A lichens-mediated mechanism for environmental biodeterioration. - Air, Soil and Water Research, 15: 1‒10. https://doi.org/10.1177/11786221221131004.
As mediators in soil formation, lichens play an essential role in the physical and biological formation of the natural environment. A recent study showed that they are capable of biodegrading stone substrates in a little amount of time, despite being excluded in a geological setting. Many species, mainly those able to produce an oxalate at the thallus-substratum interface, can alter the surface, affecting it chemically. The oxalate remains a noticeable increase even after the lichen has faded, and it makes a major contribution to the structure and composition of the thallus itself. These severe oxalate deposits on historical sites have been alternatively attributed to the earlier as the consequence of air pollutants, prior mechanical/chemical renovation treatments, as well as environmental deterioration. Lichen growth on building materials and biodegradation are frequently based on environmental variables. The biogeophysical and biogeochemical weathering of the substrate by the lichens is the mechanism underlying biodegradation. For stone surfaces, lichens can endeavor bio protection by acting as a barrier against weathering, holding humidity, improving permeability, reducing heat stress and erosion, and absorbing contaminants. Lichen’s significance as a biodeteriorant, its colonization and impact on monuments, as well as bioprotection, are all discussed in the current review. Keywords: Biodeterioration, bioprotection, environment, lichens, monuments.
34734Wieder R.K., Scott K.D., Vile M.A. & Herron C. (2022): Are bog plant/lichen tissue concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, and P affected by fugitive dust released from oil sands development in the Fort McMurray region of Alberta?. - Science of The Total Environment, 849: 157684 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157684.
Bogs are ombrotrophic, relying solely on atmospheric deposition for new inputs of elements. Increased element deposition through anthropogenic activities has the potential to alter nutrient availability, and hence ecosystem function, in bogs. Further, because of efficient element retention, bogs may function as effective monitors of element deposition. To assess the potential effects of particulate fugitive dust from oil sands development in Alberta, Canada, we quantified plant/lichen tissue Ca, Mg, K, and P concentrations in 6 bogs ranging from 12 to 77 km from the oil sands industrial center. Deposition of Ca and Mg, but not K or P, quantified using ion exchange resin collectors, to bogs decreased with distance from the oil sands industrial center. Concentrations of Ca and Mg, but not K or P, in tissues of lichens (Cladonia mitis, Evernia mesomorpha) and Sphagnum (S. capillifolium, S. fuscum) decreased with distance from the oil sands industrial center. Tissue Ca concentrations were positively correlated with growing season Ca and Mg deposition in all species except Vaccinium oxycoccos, Rhododendron groenlandicum, and Picea mariana; leaf Mg concentrations were positively correlated with growing season Mg deposition for all species except P. mariana. Tissue concentrations of K and P were not correlated with growing season K and P deposition. For each species, receptor modeling identified two distinct sources, one dominated by Ca and Mg, presumed to represent particulate fugitive dust from oil sands activities, and a second dominated by K and P, which may reflect tight internal cycling and upward translocation of K and P in peat and/or K and P deposition as particulates generated in wildfires. Increasing Ca2+ and Mg2+ deposition may acidify bog porewaters through cation exchange in peat.
34733Adenubi O.T., Famuyide I.M., McGaw L.J. & Eloff J.N. (2022): Lichens: An update on their ethnopharmacological uses and potential as sources of drug leads. - Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 298: 115657 [25 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2022.115657.
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Lichens, a unique symbiotic association between an alga/cyanobacterium and a fungus, produce secondary metabolites that are a promising source of novel drug leads. The beauty and importance of lichens have not been adequately explored despite their manifold biological activities such as anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antiparasitic. Aim of the study: The present review collates and discusses the available knowledge on secondary metabolites and biological activities of lichens (in vitro and in vivo). Materials and methods: Using relevant keywords (lichens, secondary metabolites, bioactivity, pharmacological activities), five electronic databases, namely ScienceDirect, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and Recent Literature on Lichens, were searched for past and current scientific contributions up until May 2022. Literature focusing broadly on the bioactivity of lichens including their secondary metabolites were identified and summarized. Results: A total of 50 review articles and 189 research articles were searched. Information related to antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and insecticidal activities of 90 lichen species (from 13 families) and 12 isolated metabolites are reported. Over 90% of the studies comprised in vitro investigations, such as bioassays evaluating radical scavenging properties, lipid peroxidation inhibition and reducing power, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial bioassays of lichen species and constituents. In vivo studies were scarce and available only in fish and rats. Most of the studies were done by research groups in Brazil, France, Serbia, India and Turkey. There were relatively few reports from Asia and Africa despite the ubiquitous nature of lichens and the high occurrence in these continents. Conclusion: Secondary metabolites from lichens are worthy of further investigation in terms of their potential therapeutic applicability, including better understanding of their mechanism(s) of action. This would be of great importance in the search for novel drugs.
34732Ryde I., Davie-Martin C.L., Li T., Naursgaard M.P. & Rinnan R. (2022): Volatile organic compound emissions from subarctic mosses and lichens. - Atmospheric Environment, 290: 119357 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2022.119357.
Plant volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions can drive important climate feedbacks. Although mosses and lichens are important components of plant communities, their VOC emissions are poorly understood. It is crucial to obtain more knowledge on moss and lichen VOCs to improve ecosystem VOC emission models. This is especially relevant at high latitudes, where mosses and lichens are abundant and VOC emissions are expected to increase in response to climate change. In this study, we examined VOC emissions from four common moss (Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Sphagnum warnstorfii, and Tomentypnum nitens) and lichen (Cladonia arbuscula, Cladonia mitis, Cladonia pleurota, and Nephroma arcticum) species in the Subarctic using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Moss and lichen VOC emissions were dominated by low molecular weight (LMW) VOCs, such as acetone and acetaldehyde, as well as hydrocarbons (HCs) and oxygenated VOCs (oVOCs). Of the studied mosses, S. warnstrofii had the highest and H. splendens had the lowest total VOC emission rates. The VOC emission blends of P. schreberi, S. warnstrofii, and T. nitens were clearly distinct from one another. Of the lichens, N. arcticum had a different VOC blend than the Cladonia spp. N. arcticum also had higher emission rates of HCs, oVOCs, and other GC-MS-based VOCs, but lower LMW VOC emission rates than the other lichen species. Our study demonstrates that mosses and lichens emit considerable amounts of various VOCs and that these emissions are species dependent.
34731Kuzmina D., Lim A.G., Loiko S.V. & Pokrovsky O.S. (2022): Experimental assessment of tundra fire impact on element export and storage in permafrost peatlands. - Science of The Total Environment, 853: 158701 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.158701.
Extensive studies have been performed on wildfire impact on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the taiga biome, however consequences of wildfires in the tundra biome remain poorly understood. In such a biome, permafrost peatlands occupy a sizable territory in the Northern Hemisphere and present an extensive and highly vulnerable storage of organic carbon. Here we used an experimental approach to model the impact of ash produced from burning of main tundra organic constituents (i.e., moss, lichen and peat) on surrounding aquatic ecosystems. We studied the chemical composition of aqueous leachates produced during short-term (1 week) interaction of ash with distilled water and organic-rich lake water at 5 gsolid L−1 and 20 °C. The addition of ash enriched the fluid phase in major cations (i.e., Na, Ca, Mg), macro- (i.e., P, K, Si) and micronutrients (i.e., Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Mo). This enrichment occurred over <2 days of experiment. Among 3 studied substrates, moss ash released the largest amount of macro- and micro-components into the aqueous solution. To place the obtained results in the environmental context of a peatbog watershed, we assume a fire return interval of 56 years and that the entire 0–10 cm of upper peat is subjected to fire impact. These mass balance calculations demonstrated that maximal possible delivery of elements from ash after soil burning to the hydrological network is negligibly small (<1–2 %) compared to the annual riverine export flux and element storage in thermokarst lakes. As such, even a 5–10 fold increase in tundra wildfire frequency may not sizably modify nutrient and metal fluxes and pools in the surrounding aquatic ecosystems. This result requires revisiting the current paradigm on the importance of wildfire impact on permafrost peatlands and calls a need for experimental work on other ecosystem compartments (litter, shrubs, frozen peat) which are subjected to fire events.
34730Rola K., Latkowska E., Ogar W. & Osyczka P. (2022): Towards understanding the effect of heavy metals on mycobiont physiological condition in a widespread metal-tolerant lichen Cladonia rei. - Chemosphere, 308: 136365 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.136365.
Heavy metals present in the environment can cause a variety of injury symptoms in various organisms including lichens. Most studies examined metal-induced stress under controlled laboratory conditions, and little is known about actual response of lichens in their natural habitat. This study aims to recognize the effect of heavy metal accumulation (total and intracellular) on lichen physiological and biochemical parameters specifically related to the functioning of fungal component. Cladonia rei was used as a model species due to its common occurrence both in unpolluted and extremely polluted sites. We observed a decline in the fungal metabolism which was expressed by a decrease in ergosterol content and an increase in cell membrane damage as a result of increased Zn, Cd, Cu and Ni accumulation. Additionally, the results indicated that increased accumulation of xenobiotics (Pb and As) caused reduction of glutathione (GSH) concentrations and increased membrane lipid peroxidation. Therefore, we conclude that GSH does not provide high oxidative stress protection in C. rei which is somewhat against its insensitivity to pollution. The reduced pool of GSH could be explained by its oxidation to glutathione disulphide induced by heavy metal stress or its use for phytochelatin (PC) synthesis. The content of secondary metabolites was not related to heavy metal accumulation and remained at a relatively stable level. This indicates that the decline in the physiological condition did not weaken the mycobiont of C. rei enough to inhibit the synthesis of secondary metabolites and their precursors were supplied at a sufficient level. Thus, the potential function of main secondary metabolites as extracellular metal immobilizers and antioxidants is still possible even in individuals growing at extremely polluted sites. Despite the evident heavy metal stress, C. rei copes well and spreads easily through extremely polluted environments, which underlines its unique pioneering abilities in highly disturbed sites.
34729Greaver T., McDow S., Phelan J., Kaylor S.D., Herrick J.D. & Jovan S. (2023): Synthesis of lichen response to gaseous nitrogen: Ammonia versus nitrogen dioxide. - Atmospheric Environment, 292: 119396 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2022.119396.
The dominant chemical form of nitrogen pollution in the atmosphere in the U.S. is shifting from oxidized nitrogen, primarily from combustion of fossil fuels, to reduced nitrogen from agricultural animal waste and fertilizer applications. Does it matter to lichens? In this synthesis, we characterize U.S. air concentrations of the most ubiquitous gaseous forms of reduced and oxidized nitrogen, NO2 and NH3, respectively, and their direct effects on lichens. In the U.S., the 3-year average (2017–2019) of the annual mean for each monitoring site ranges up to 56.4 μg NO2 m−3 (∼30 ppb) and 6 μg NH3 m−3 (∼9 ppb). The spatial coverage of current routine monitoring of NO2 and NH3 likely does not accurately represent exposures of NO2 to ecosystems in rural areas or capture spikes of NH3 concentrations proximal to intensive agriculture, which are documented to exceed 700 μg NH3 m−3 (∼1000 ppb) for short durations. Both NO2 and NH3 can act as nutrients to lichens, but as exposures rise, both can cause physiological stress and mortality that then change community composition and diversity. There is a growing body of evidence that lichen community composition is altered at current levels of exposure in the U.S. with estimated no effect or lowest effect concentrations from <1 to 3 μg m−3 NO2 and <1 μg m−3 NH3. Better spatial characterization of both NO2 and NH3 concentrations, especially near intensive agriculture, would help to characterize the extent of the impacts across the U.S. These findings are discussed in the context of U.S. air pollution policy. Keywords: Air pollution; Terrestrial ecosystems; Fertilizer emissions; Nitrogen; Biodiversity; Lichens; Atmospheric pollution.
34728Cowden P., Hanner R., Collis B., Kuzmina M., Conway A., Ivanova N. & Stewart K. (2022): Early successional changes in biological soil crust community assembly and nutrient capture in mining impacted landscapes. - Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 175: 108841 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2022.108841.
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are communities of bryophytes, lichens, bacteria, and fungi and are the primary colonizing communities in early successional landscapes. In early ecosystem development BSCs often improve the physical and chemical conditions while also promoting soil microbial communities. Although BSCs are considered ecosystem engineers in many early successional environments, the links between BSC functional processes and their developmental stage are unclear, especially in landscapes recovering from anthropogenic disturbances. In this study we examined natural BSC development over a 30-year chronosequence on two mining impacted landscapes in both boreal and arctic regions of Canada. Using High Throughput Sequencing (HTS), we found similar ubiquitous ruderal bryophytes and bacteria species common at both study areas, but significant differences in lichen and fungal community structure between the two locations. In addition, community assembly of BSC macro (bryophytes and lichens) and micro (bacteria and fungi)-phyla changed over the first 30 years of recovery at both mine sites, however, these changes were unique to each study location. We observed nutrient accumulation in the crust layer but did not find clear trends in available nutrients or gas flux over time. Instead, changes in our functional measurements were associated with colonization by specific BSC species. Further, the bacterial community at both mines seemed to be responding to changes in the bryophyte communities as they developed over time. This suggests that the establishment of bryophyte communities in early succession may be driving micro-phyla BSC community composition. A holistic view of BSCs as they develop over time in relation to their functional abilities needs further investigation, and this study provides insight into these interactions. This knowledge will improve both our understanding of early stage BSC development and our ability to develop restoration techniques to effectively restore landscapes disturbed by anthropogenic activities. Keywords: Biological soil crusts; Community assembly; Early succession; ITS2; Mine restoration; Nutrient accumulation.
34727Dhaouadi S., Khalloufi N., Ayati K., Ayeb N. & Béjaoui M. (2022): Use of lichen species for air pollution biomonitoring: Case of Dar-Chichou forest (Cap-Bon, North-East Tunisia). - Environmental and Sustainability Indicators, 16: 100211 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indic.2022.100211.
In the present work, we investigated the bio-uptake of 4 MTE (Ni, Cd, Pb, Zn) in the thalli of some species of lichens near a road crossing the Dar-Chichou forest (NE- Tunisia). In the absence of previous studies on the lichenic heritage of this forest, the objectives of this work are. first of all to identify for the first time the lichen species present in the forest, to determine the impact of this road pollution on certain physiological parameters of these pioneer species, such as the chlorophyll a and b levels, the content of carotenoids, theperoxidation (H2O2) and the ipoperoxidation (MDA) and on the other hand, to show the bioindicatory and bioaccumulative importance of these lichens in front of certain trace metals (Pb, Cd, Zn and Ni). In this study, 23 lichen species with different thallus was detected. The amounts of MTE in thalli of several lichen species were determined using the flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Significant positive correlations between the production of H2O2 and the MDA content and on the MTE content (Ni, Pb, Zn) indicating a defense against oxidative stress. The presence of Evernia prunastri, Xanthoria parietina, Physcia adscendens and Cladonia stellaris, made it possible to classify the air quality of the Dar-Chichou Forest. P. adscendens present the weakest reaction against oxidative stress (H2O2) and seemed the most resistant compared to the two other species. This study was conducted as part of a comprehensive approach combining chemical and biological parameters to assess the effect of road traffic on air quality. It provides the first database in Tunisia referring to MTE contamination and their probable biological effects. This study fills a necessary gap in the literature.
34726David M.L.R., Innasimuthu G.M., Rajaram S.K. & Nooruddin T. (2022): An endophytic Streptomyces sp. DARP-7 isolated from coastal lichen and enhancement of its antibacterial metabolite production using response surface methodology. - South African Journal of Botany, 151: 636–648. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2022.10.022.
Actinomycete DARP-7 was isolated from the coastal foliose lichen Dirinaria aegilita (Afzel.ex Ach.) B.J.Moore and identified as Streptomyces sp. using 16S rRNA sequencing. Among the eight culture media used for antimicrobial metabolite production, the peptone yeast extract iron medium (ISP-6) showed higher production with the maximum zone of inhibition (12 mm) against Staphylococcus aureus. Further, the ISP-6 medium components were optimized through the Plackett-Burman design (PBD) followed by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Yeast extract, sodium thiosulphate, and ferric ammonium citrate would play a significant role in antibiotic production. Further, the significant variables from PBD were optimized through Central Composite Design (CCD) of RSM for enhanced antibiotic production. The optimal medium components were found to be peptone - 15 (g/L), protease peptone - 5 (g/L), yeast extract - 2.915 (g/L), ferric ammonium citrate - 0.651 (g/L), K2HPO4 – 1 (g/L) and Na2S2O3– 0.155 (g/L), respectively. The optimized result was validated and the antibacterial activity against S. aureus increased upto 19.9 mm (66.7%). The resazurin dye based quantification of minimum inhibitory concentration of the DARP-7 crude extract was found to be 41.34 µg and 46.44 µg against S. aureus and E.coli, respectively. Further, the compound profiling was done using UV-VIS, FTIR, EEM and GC-MS confirming the presence of polyene conjugates. Thus, the study delivers coastal lichen could be promising source for isolating bioactive metabolites producing rare actinobacteria. Furthermore, the use of a statistical optimization tool to improve bioactive metabolite yield is discussed. Keywords: Lichen; GC-MS analysis; Plackett-Burman design; Response surface methodology.
34725Isidorov V.A., Pirożnikow E., Spirina V.L., Vasyanin A.N., Kulakova S.A., Abdulmanova I.F. & Zaitsev A.A. (2022): Emission of volatile organic compounds by plants on the floor of boreal and mid‑latitude forests. - Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 79: 153–166. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10874-022-09434-3.
The forests of the boreal and mid-latitude zones of the Northern Hemisphere are the largest source of reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which have an important impact on the processes occurring in the atmospheric boundary layer. However, the composition of biogenic emissions from them remains incompletely characterized, as evidenced by the significant excess OH radical concentrations predicted by models in comparison with those observed under the forest canopy. The missing OH sink in the models may be related to the fact that they do not take into account the emission of highly reactive VOCs by vegetation on the forest floor. In this work, we report the results of laboratory determinations of the composition of VOCs emitted by representatives of different groups of plants that form the living soil cover (LSC) in the forests of the boreal and mid-latitude zones: bryophytes, small shrubs, herbaceous plants, and ferns. In the chromatograms of volatile emissions of all 11 studied plant species, 254 compounds with carbon atoms ranging in number from two to 20 were registered. All plants were characterized by the emission of terpenes, accounting for 112 compounds, and the second largest group (35 substances) was formed by carbonyl compounds. Both groups of compounds are characterized by high reactivity and are easily included in the processes of gas-phase oxidation with the participation of radicals HO, NO3 and ozone. These data indicate the importance of a thorough study of the so far disregarded source of VOCs, that is, the LSC in forests. In this work, we studied the composition of volatile emissions of representatives of various groups of plants growing on the forest floor: six species of bryophytes (mosses Dicranum polysetum, Hylocomnium splendens, Leucobrium glaucum, Pleurozium schreberi, Sphagnum phallax and one of the "deer mosses", lichen Cladonia arbuscula), two representatives of small shrubs from the Ericaceae family (Vaccinium myrtillus and Chimaphilla umbellata), two herbaceous species (Asarum europaeum and Antennaria dioica), and one fern species (Pteridium aguilium).
34724Wieder R.K. (2022): Element stoichiometry and nutrient limitation in bog plant and lichen species. - Biogeochemistry, 160: 355–379. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-022-00968-y.
Ombrotrophic bogs receive new inputs of elements solely through atmospheric deposition, except for N where inputs are predominantly through N2-fixation, at least in low N deposition environments. At various locations across the globe, including the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of northern Alberta, Canada, element atmospheric deposition has increased as a result of anthropogenic activities. Regional and/or global deposition gradients offer an opportunity to examine questions related to nutrient limitation and element stoichiometry, i.e., the maintenance of relatively constant element ratios in bog lichen/plant tissues despite differing element deposition/availability. Using a dataset of tissue element concentrations in eight lichen/plant species in six AOSR bogs, supplemented with literature data from other sites globally, this synthesis asks: is there evidence of element stoichiometric homeostasis in lichen or plant species in AOSR bogs; if so, do stoichiometric homeostasis relationships extend globally beyond the AOSR, and; do element ratios provide insight into element limitation for the eight species? Mean element ratios and their coefficients of variation, ternary NPK and CaMgK plots, and scaling coefficients revealed widespread evidence of stoichiometric homeostasis. Stoichiometric relationships generally were unaffected by differences in element deposition among the AOSR bogs. Stoichiometric relationships sometimes extended to a species globally, but sometimes did not. Element ratios and ternary diagrams suggested a combination of N-, P-, and K-limitation, both within and beyond the AOSR bogs. Regionally high atmospheric N deposition may have shifted some species from N-limitation prior to the Industrial Revolution to P- or K-limitation today. Keywords: Bog · Lichen · Nutrient limitation · Plants · Sphagnum · Stoichiometry.
34723Kholod S.S. & Konoreva L.A. (2022): Lichens in the polar deserts of the northern tip of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 506: 212–238. DOI: 10.1134/S0012496622050052.
[Original Russian text published in Botanicheskii Zhurnal, 2022, Vol. 107, No. 1, pp. 18–37.] For the polar deserts of the Novaya Zemlya archipelago, the analysis of the dependence of the distribution of lichens on altitude above sea level, exposure by cardinal direction, the granulometric composition of soils, morphometric parameters of structural soils, the cover values of bryophytes and the total cover of cushion forms of plants and lichens was carried out. Based on 157 sample plots, nine lichenocenotypes (lichen community formed in a specific type of habitat) were identified. It is shown that with increasing height (during the transition from zonal to orozonal positions), the cover and the number of lichen species decrease. The cover of lichens also decreases with an increase in the cover of mosses. With an increase in the content of a fraction in soils of more than 0.125 mm, the species diversity and the cover of lichens increases. A total of 84 lichen species were identified, of which Thamnolia vermicularis s. l. is classified as the most active, nine are highly active, 11—medium-active, the rest are little active and inactive. The current pattern of lichen distribution in the landscape of the far North of Novaya Zemlya is largely due to historical reasons―the youth of the landscape, recently freed from the ice cover, an exceptionally high degree of mobility of the cover of loose Quaternary deposits. Keywords: lichens, lichenocenotype, habitat, species activity, altitude gradient, soil moisture, nivality, granulometric composition, polar deserts, Novaya Zemlya.
34722Akpinar A., Cansev A. & Isleyen M. (2022): Impact of Peltigera praetextata on zucchini grown in weathered p,p'‑DDE‑contaminated soil and its responses. - Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 44: 140 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-022-03474-8.
Terricolous lichens, located in soils, can change the bioavailability of polluted soil biologically, chemically and physically with their effective enzymatic content. Their effects are unknown especially on weathered p,p'-DDE-contaminated soil. However, we obtain new information by increasing our studies on this subject. In the present study, the impact of Peltigera praetextata (a terricolous lichen) on zucchini (Cucurbita pepo spp. pepo) grown in weathered p,p'-DDE-contaminated soil was shown via its physiological responses. At the same time, the physiological responses of Peltigera praetextata were also given. The results show that the growth and development of the zucchini grown in weathered p,p'-DDE-contaminated soil was positively affected by Peltigera praetextata. Peltigera praetextata was increased the bio-usefulness of weathered p,p'- DDE-contaminated soil with its effective enzyme contents. Moreover, Peltigera praetextata was able to cope with p,p'-DDE contamination with the strong antioxidative defence system. Keywords: Terricolous lichens · Peltigera praetextata · Persistent organic pollutants · Weathered p,p'-DDE-contamination · Antioxidative defence system · Physiological responses.
34721Cometto A., Leavitt S.D., Millanes A.M., Wedin M., Grube M. & Muggia L. (2022): The yeast lichenosphere: high diversity of basidiomycetes from the lichens Tephromela atra and Rhizoplaca melanophthalma. - Fungal Biology, 126: 587–608. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2022.07.004.
Lichens are well-known examples of complex symbiotic associations between organisms from different Kingdoms. Microfungi in particular, establish diverse associations with the hosting lichen thallus, as species-specific parasites or transient co-inhabitants. The whole community of lichen-associated fungi constitute the ‘lichen mycobiome’ comprising both ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, including filamentous and yeast taxa. Metabarcoding results and microscopy analyses show that in some thalli, basidiomycetes are frequent lichen-associated fungi but still only a few species could be axenically isolated and morphologically characterized. Within a broad project aiming at characterizing the mycobiome diversity by culture-dependent and independent approaches in two lichen species selected as reference models – Rhizoplaca melanophthalma and Tephromela atra, we succeed in isolating and culturing 76 new strains of basidiomycetous yeasts. The lichen thalli were collected in different mountain regions worldwide and at relatively high elevation. The yeast strains were isolated on different growth media and were studied for their morphological and genetic diversity. Nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and ribosomal large subunit (LSU) sequence analyses identified them to belong to ten families within the orders Agaricostilbomycetes, Cystobasidiomycetes, Microbotryomycetes, Tremellomycetes and Ustilaginomycetes. The yeasts here detected showed patterns of host-preference in a few cases and they are potentially related to the ecological conditions. Keywords: Culture; Cystobasidiomycetes; Microbotryomycetes; Phylogeny; Symbiosis; Tremellomycetes.
34720Kranner I., Pichler G. & Grube M. (2022): The lichen market place. - New Phytologist, 234: 1541–1543. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.18130.
Commentary on the paper Spribille et al. (2022), New Phytologist 234: 1566–1582. [jjh34719]
34719Spribille T., Resl P., Stanton D.E. & Tagirdzhanova G. (2022): Evolutionary biology of lichen symbioses. - New Phytologist, 234: 1566–1582. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.18048.
Tansley review. Lichens are the symbiotic outcomes of open, interspecies relationships, central to which are a fungus and a phototroph, typically an alga and/or cyanobacterium. The evolutionary processes that led to the global success of lichens are poorly understood. In this review, we explore the goods and services exchange between fungus and phototroph and how this propelled the success of both symbiont and symbiosis. Lichen fungal symbionts count among the only filamentous fungi that expose most of their mycelium to an aerial environment. Phototrophs export carbohydrates to the fungus, which converts them to specific polyols. Experimental evidence suggests that polyols are not only growth and respiratory substrates but also play a role in anhydrobiosis, the capacity to survive desiccation. We propose that this dual functionality is pivotal to the evolution of fungal symbionts, enabling persistence in environments otherwise hostile to fungi while simultaneously imposing costs on growth. Phototrophs, in turn, benefit from fungal protection from herbivory and light stress, while appearing to exert leverage over fungal sex and morphogenesis. Combined with the recently recognized habit of symbionts to occur in multiple symbioses, this creates the conditions for a multiplayer marketplace of rewards and penalties that could drive symbiont selection and lichen diversification. Key words: algae, anhydrobiosis, cyanobacteria, desiccation, fungi, microbiology, phenotypes, syntrophy.
34718Concostrina-Zubiri L., Prieto M., Hurtado P., Escudero A. & Martínez I. (2022): Functional diversity regulates the effects of habitat degradation on biocrust phylogenetic and taxonomic diversities. - Ecological Applications, 32: e2599 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.2599.
Biocrusts are major contributors to dryland diversity, functioning, and services. However, little is known about how habitat degradation will impact multiple facets of biocrust diversity and measurable functional traits. We evaluated changes in taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity of biocrust-forming lichens along a habitat degradation gradient related to the presence of linear infrastructure (i.e., a road) and a profound agricultural driven transformation. To do so, we selected 50 remnants of a Mediterranean shrubland. We considered several surrogates of habitat quality and causal disturbance on the various diversity facets of biocrusts by using structural equation modeling, hypothesizing that habitat degradation primarily affects functional diversity, which in turn regulates changes in taxonomic and phylogenetic diversities, and also that taxonomic and phylogenetic diversities are coupled. Fragment connectivity, distance to linear infrastructure (i.e., a road) and, particularly, soil fertility (i.e., soil P concentration), had mostly negative effects on biocrust functional diversity, which in turn affected both taxonomic and phylogenetic diversities. However, we found no direct effects of habitat degradation variables on the taxonomic and phylogenetic diversities. We also found that increases in phylogenetic diversity had a positive effect on taxonomic diversity along the habitat degradation gradient. Our results indicate that functional diversity of biocrusts is strongly affected by habitat degradation, which may profoundly alter their contribution to ecosystem functioning and services. Furthermore, functional diversity regulates the response of biocrust taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity to habitat degradation. These findings indicate that habitat degradation alters and simplifies the diversity of functional traits of biocrust-forming lichens, leading to biodiversity loss, with important consequences for the conservation of global drylands biodiversity. Keywords: biological soil crusts, drylands, fragmentation, functional traits, habitat degradation, lichens, linear infrastructure, soil fertility.
34717Weber B., Belnap J., Büdel B., Antoninka A.J., Barger N.N., Chaudhary V.B., Darrouzet-Nardi A., Eldridge D.J., Faist A.M., Ferrenberg S., Havrilla C.A., Huber-Sannwald E., Issa O.M., Maestre F.T., Reed S.C., Rodriguez-Caballero E., Tucker C., Young K.E., Zhang Y., Zhao Y., Zhou X. & Bowker M.A. (2022): What is a biocrust? A refined, contemporary definition for a broadening research community. - Biological Reviews, 97: 1768–1785. https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12862.
Studies of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) have proliferated over the last few decades. The biocrust literature has broadened, with more studies assessing and describing the function of a variety of biocrust communities in a broad range of biomes and habitats and across a large spectrum of disciplines, and also by the incorporation of biocrusts into global perspectives and biogeochemical models. As the number of biocrust researchers increases, along with the scope of soil communities defined as ‘biocrust’, it is worth asking whether we all share a clear, universal, and fully articulated definition of what constitutes a biocrust. In this review, we synthesize the literature with the views of new and experienced biocrust researchers, to provide a refined and fully elaborated definition of biocrusts. In doing so, we illustrate the ecological relevance and ecosystem services provided by them. We demonstrate that biocrusts are defined by four distinct elements: physical structure, functional characteristics, habitat, and taxonomic composition. We describe outgroups, which have some, but not all, of the characteristics necessary to be fully consistent with our definition and thus would not be considered biocrusts. We also summarize the wide variety of different types of communities that fall under our definition of biocrusts, in the process of highlighting their global distribution. Finally, we suggest the universal use of the Belnap, Büdel & Lange definition, with minor modifications: Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) result from an intimate association between soil particles and differing proportions of photoautotrophic (e.g. cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes) and heterotrophic (e.g. bacteria, fungi, archaea) organisms, which live within, or immediately on top of, the uppermost millimetres of soil. Soil particles are aggregated through the presence and activity of these often extremotolerant biota that desiccate regularly, and the resultant living crust covers the surface of the ground as a coherent layer. With this detailed definition of biocrusts, illustrating their ecological functions and widespread distribution, we hope to stimulate interest in biocrust research and inform various stakeholders (e.g. land managers, land users) on their overall importance to ecosystem and Earth system functioning. Key words: biological soil crust, biocrust, definition, taxonomy, habitat, physical structure, function, climate.
34716Grudzińska M., Paśko P., Wróbel-Biedrawa D., Podolak I. & Galanty A. (2022): Antimelanoma potential of Cladonia mitis acetone extracts – Comparative in vitro studies in relation to usnic acid content. - Chemistry and Biodiversity, 19: e202200408 [6 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202200408.
In this study, the cytotoxic activity of acetone extracts of Cladonia mitis was assessed with respect to the content of usnic acid, a secondary metabolite commonly present in this species. Following quantitative HPLC analysis of the extracts, usnic acid was isolated by preparative chromatography. The study of cytotoxic activity was performed using the MTT test on three melanoma cell lines – HTB140, A375 and WM793. The selectivity of action was also assessed by comparing the effect towards normal human keratinocytes HaCaT. The results showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic activity of the extracts tested and usnic acid itself, but no relationship was found between the content of usnic acid and the activity of the extracts. Furthermore, the extracts showed varied, but rather low anti-tyrosinase activity. Other in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary to demonstrate that C. mitis extracts may be useful in the adjuvant external treatment of skin melanoma. Keywords: Cladonia mitis, usnic acid, melanoma, tyrosinase.
34715Mendili M., Khadhri A., Jemâa J.M.-B., Andolfi A., Tufano I., Aschi-Smiti S. & DellaGreca M. (2022): Anti-inflammatory potential of compounds isolated from Tunisian lichens species. - Chemistry and Biodiversity, 19: e202200134 [10 p.]. doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202200134.
The lichen’s special symbiotic structure enables it to produce bioactive substances. They have historically been recognized for their aesthetic and medicinal benefits. Furthermore, in recent years, they have performed in various fields, including perfumery, dyeing, and pharmacology due to their rich secondary metabolites. From our study, four compounds were isolated from organic extracts of Parmotrema hypoleucinum, Roccella phycopsis, and Xanthoria parietina and identified by spectroscopic investigation as atranorin, (+)-iso-usnic acid, methyl orsellinate, and parietin, respectively. The anti-inflammatory effects of lichens extracts, and pure compounds were evaluated on RAW 264.7 macrophages cells at different concentrations. At 25 μg/mL all treated samples did not show any effect on cell viability. Atranorin and (+)-iso-usnic acid showed an inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Nitric oxide (NO) production was measured using Griess reagent, atranorin and (+)-iso-usnic acid showed a high anti-inflammatory potential (75.99% and 57.27% at 25 μg/mL). On the other hand, methyl orsellinate and the organic extracts of three lichens showed good anti-inflammatory activity ranging from 29.16% at 25 μg/mL to 86.91% at 100 μg/mL. Keywords: Lichens, anti-inflammatory activity, atranorin, (+)-iso-usnic acid, methyl orsellinate, parietin.
34714Tullus T., Lutter R., Randlane T., Saag A., Tullus A., Kaasik A., Sopp R., Ots K., Kaivapalu M., Pärtel M. & Tullus H. (2022): The biodiversity of birch stands in agricultural landscapes of Estonia is associated with past land use, restoration approach, site and landscape variables. - Applied Vegetation Science, 25: e12678 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12678.
Questions: Abandonment of agricultural land followed by tree planting or natural regeneration has increased forest area in Europe. We asked how restoration approach, past land use, site and landscape variables affected the richness and composition of vascular plants (field and shrub layers), bryophytes and lichens in middle-aged forests. Location: Thirty-three birch stands in Estonia. Methods: Data were collected from stands on former agricultural land that originated from plantations (PL-A) or natural regeneration (NR-A), and for reference, from native forest land (NR-F). In every stand a 10 m × 10 m survey plot was established. Generalised Linear Mixed Models were used to test the effect of restoration approach, past land use, soil, light, stand and landscape variables on species richness estimates. Compositional patterns were analysed using Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling, permutational multivariate analysis of variance and indicator species analysis. Results: Altogether 215 vascular plant, 70 bryophyte and 63 lichen species were found. The effects of restoration approach, past land use, and site and landscape variables on the species richness varied depending on the taxonomic and ecological groups of species. The richness of shrubs and bryophytes was higher in NR-A than in PL-A, and both variables were also related to soil properties. The richness of the field layer was related to past land use because previous croplands hosted fewer forest species than previous grasslands and stands on forest land. Higher current forest cover around the studied stands increased the richness of lichens, which were also affected by light and soil conditions. Species composition differed among the three stand types; however, the previous land use (agriculture vs forest) had a stronger effect than the restoration approach. Conclusions: Although natural forest regeneration promoted biodiversity the most, plantations also supported the recovery of biodiversity at abandoned agricultural sites. Therefore, on a regional scale both restoration approaches are recommended. Keywords: Betula, bryophytes, land-use change, lichens, natural regeneration, plantation, recent forests, vascular plants.
34713Reding J.M., Davies G.M. & Klips R.A. (2022): Rock climbing disturbance severity and abiotic gradients interact to determine cryptogam diversity and community structure. - Applied Vegetation Science, 25: e12680 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12680.
Questions: Plant communities are shaped by interactions between natural and anthropogenic disturbances and underlying environmental conditions. We asked how disturbance by rock climbing alters patterns of cryptogam species diversity and composition along elevational abiotic gradients. Location: Red River Gorge, Kentucky, United States of America. Methods: Surveying was completed within 19 climbing routes on sandstone “slabs.” Quadrats were placed at three different vertical positions (elevations) and three different horizontal positions (center of the route, route margin, off-route). The former provides a gradient of light and moisture availability while the latter corresponds to climbing impact. Cryptogam species cover was visually assessed in all quadrats. Quadrat microtopography was quantified as well as route-level Heat Load Index and Climbing Use Intensity. We assessed differences in species richness and Shannon diversity (H) among quadrat positions and evaluated differences in species and cryptogam morphological type abundance and composition. Results: Significant differences existed in richness H, and total cryptogam abundance between quadrat vertical and horizontal positions with a significant interaction between these two factors. Cryptogram abundance was greatest in off-route quadrats and increased with elevation in such settings. Abundance was consistently lower in on-route quadrats and, here, did not change with elevation. Richness and H were greatest in off-route quadrats and declined with increasing elevation in on-route quadrats. Significant differences in community composition existed as a function of vertical and horizontal position. On-route quadrats were associated with crustose and granulose species, while foliose and squamulose lichens, and bryophytes were associated with off-route quadrats. Conclusions: Cryptogam composition and abundance were associated with varying intra-route environmental conditions, and off- to on-route disturbance gradients. There is potential for substantive impacts on the ecology of cliff face ecosystems from climbing. Impacts could be reduced by spacing routes widely and avoiding impacts on upper elevations where diversity and abundance are greatest. Keywords: abundance, bryophyte, Kentucky, lichen, microtopography, recreation, Red River Gorge, richness, sandstone, slab.
34712Tonteri T., Hallikainen B., Merilä P., Miina J., Rautio P., Salemaa M. & Tolvanen A. (2022): Response of ground macrolichens to site factors, co-existing plants and forestry in boreal forests. - Applied Vegetation Science, 25: e12690 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12690.
Aim: Ground lichens have declined in boreal and temperate Europe. The potential causes of the decline were explored by analysing the response of lichen cover to forest management, site and stand variables as well as co-existing plants in different boreal vegetation subzones. Location: Finland. Methods: Understorey vegetation was surveyed on a systematic network of 1721 sample plots in forests on mineral soil. The response of macrolichen cover to explanatory variables was analysed by generalised linear mixed models (GLMMs). Results: Ground lichens favoured old Pinus sylvestris forests on xeric sites with sufficient light conditions. Intensive forest management regimes, such as regeneration cutting and soil ploughing decreased lichen cover, while lighter scarification methods had less effect on lichens. Lichens benefitted from intermediate cutting on sites with low bryophyte cover. Lichens responded similarly to site and stand variables in all boreal subzones, showing that despite heavy reindeer grazing these response patterns apply also in the northern boreal subzone. Lichens showed both negative (Vaccinium myrtillus, Empetrum nigrum and Calluna vulgaris) and positive (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) responses to increasing dwarf shrub cover. Generally, lichens negatively responded to increasing bryophyte cover, indicating either that bryophytes benefit from a decline of lichens or that there is real competition between these groups. The negative relationship between bryophytes and lichens strengthened as the tree canopy becomes denser. Conclusions: Our study provides new quantitative insights into the effects of forest management and changes in forest structure as underlying factors for lichen decline both inside and outside the reindeer-herding area (i.e., the northern boreal subzone). These factors include increased canopy cover with increased shading as well as disturbance caused by regeneration cutting and soil preparation. The possible effects of the long-term legacy of nitrogen deposition, lack of forest fires and climate change are also discussed. Keywords: bryophytes, dwarf shrubs, epigeic lichens, forest management, generalised linear mixed models, terricolous lichens, understorey vegetation.
34711Cossu T.A., Lücking R., Vargas-Estupiñán N., Carretero J., Vasco-Palacios A.M., Moncada B., Kirk P., de Almeida R.F., Gaya E., Coca L.F., de Souza J., Díaz-Escandón D., Franco-Molano A.E., Gómez-Montoya N., González-Cuellar F.E., Jaramillo-Ciro M.M., Motato-Vásquez V., Fernandez Y.M.N., Ortiz-Moreno M.L., Peña-Cañón E.R., Piepenbring M., Ramírez-Castrillón M., Salazar-Yepes M., Sanjuan T., Simijaca D., Soto-Medina E. & Diazgranado M. (2022): Annotated checklist of fungi of Colombia. - In: de Almeida R.F., Lücking R., Vasco-Palacios A.M., Gaya E. & Diazgranados M. (eds), Catalogue of Fungi of Colombia, p. 209–424, Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. .
chapter in book; it includes lichenicolous and lichenized fungi as well [bilingual in Spanish and English] A comprehensive checklist of the fungi known for Colombia is presented in this chapter. This checklist is one of the core outputs of the Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia (UPFC) project, produced by a multinational team of researchers. The checklist includes supraspecific taxonomic ranks, accepted species and authors, synonyms and authors, common names, species origin (when available), geographic information (regions, departments, elevation range), trophic mode, host/ associated species and family (if pertinent), conservation status at global and national levels (assessments of the accepted name), and level 1 of the category of use. The taxonomic coverage and statistics are provided in Chapter 3. Analysis of specific groups of fungi can be found in Chapters 4–9. Notes on the geographic distribution are provided in Chapter 10. Analyses on the conservation status are included in Chapter 14. At the end of the catalogue, indexes of synonyms, families and genera are also provided. For full details on each species, readers should scan the QR codes or click in the species hyperlink to visit the species profiles in ColFungi. These include morphological descriptions, geographic distribution and maps, synonymy, notes on uses, links to fungarium specimens, field images of fungi, illustrations, economic botany items, bibliography and additional sources.
34710Wang H., Xuan M., Huang C. & Wang C. (2022): Advances in research on bioactivity, toxicity, metabolism, and pharmacokinetics of usnic acid in vitro and in vivo. - Molecules, 27(21): 7469 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27217469.
Lichens are among the most widely distributed plants on earth and have the longest growth cycle. Usnic acid is an abundant characteristic secondary metabolite of lichens and the earliest lichen compound used commercially. It has diverse pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer, antioxidant, and photoprotective effects, and promotes wound healing. It is widely used in dietary supplements, daily chemical products (fodder, dyes, food, perfumery, and cosmetics), and medicine. However, some studies have found that usnic acid can cause allergic dermatitis and drug-induced liver injury. In this paper, the bioactivity, toxicity, in vivo and in vitro metabolism, and pharmacokinetics of usnic acid were summarized. The aims were to develop and utilize usnic acid and provide reference for its future research. Keywords: usnic acid; lichen; biological activity; hepatotoxicity; metabolism.
34709Kaufmann M. (2022): Flechtenvegetationskundliche Momentaufnahmen an einem unreifen, karbonatisch zementierten Quarzsandstein (Reiselsberg-Formation; Vorarlberger Flysch) in unterschiedlichen Verwitterungsstadien, mit einem Seitenblick auf die ökologische Standortskonstanz. - inatura – Forschung online, 99: 1–63. .
Das Hauptaugenmerk der flechtensoziologischen Untersuchungen am Reiselsberger-Sandstein der Flyschzone Vorarlbergs galt dem Gesteins-Chemismus, der durch das Verwitterungsgeschehen geprägt ist. Trotz Dominanz von Quarz zeigt der verwitternde Sandstein aufgrund des gelösten carbonatischen Bindemittels die Charakteristika eines Intermediärgesteins. Bearbeitet wurden großflächige, mehr oder weniger steilgestellte Felsplatten, die an Steilabhängen anstehen oder an Felsabbrüchen und Felsgraten der subalpinen Stufe (bis 1960 m SH). Sie sind von einer krustigen Pionierflechtenvegetation, dem III. Acarosporetum badiofuscae (Asta & Roux, 1977) ex M.Kaufmann nov. comb. (hier in ihrem Kernareal, dem eurosibirischen Raum erstmals gültig beschrieben) besiedelt. An Überhängen des zerblockten Gesteins an Graten wurde das IV. Buellio-Xanthorietum elegantis Creveld, 1981 (bis 1955 m SH), und an einem ausgetrockneten, felsigen Bacheinschnitt im Wald (bei 1485 m SH) wurde das Fragment des V. Stenhammarelletum turgidae Hertel, 1967 ex Asta, Clauzade & Roux, 1973 aufgenommen. Daneben wurden zwei silicole Flechtenassoziationen der Fließgewässer auf Bachfelsen erhoben: Einerseits auf einem steilen Abschnitt einer nordseitigen, licht-bewaldeten Bachschlucht und andererseits an einem flachen sonnigen Wiesenbach fanden sich das II. Porpidietum hydrophilae Ullrich, 1962 in hochmontaner Lage (bei 1070 m SH) und das I. Staurotheletum fuscocupreae Coste, 1981 ass. prov. (um 1640 m SH) ausgebildet. Alle diese Gesellschaften werden im Detail beschrieben und ausgewählte, für sie typische Flechtenarten werden diskutiert. Key words: Flechtensoziologie, Flechtengemeinschaften, Lichenes, Standortskonstanz, Sandstein, Flysch, Verwitterung.
34708Ortiz-Moreno M.L., Moncada B., Vasco-Palacios A.M., de Almeida R.F. & Gaya E. (2022): Fungi in Colombian and international biological collections. - In: de Almeida R.F., Lücking R., Vasco-Palacios A.M., Gaya E. & Diazgranados M. (eds), Catalogue of Fungi of Colombia, p. 189–207, Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. .
Colombia ranks among the 17 countries considered megadiverse, hosting almost 10% of the planet’s biodiversity and only being surpassed by Brazil, a country seven times larger than Colombia. Unfortunately, fungi are mostly left out of these counts. One of the issues faced when attempting to report the fungal diversity in Colombia is the inability to account for the fungal specimens scattered in national and international collections, which are often not properly curated or digitised. In this chapter, we describe the first attempt to compile the available information on fungal collections from Colombia as a contribution towards a more realistic estimation of their diversity and attempt to establish a baseline to improve mycological knowledge in the country. Databases of national and international biological collections and personal databases from several mycologists were consulted, using the keywords “Colombia”, “fungi”, “hongos”, “lichens”, and “liquenes”. Uncatalogued Colombian collections were also examined when possible, and experts and collection managers were also consulted. All metadata associated with the voucher specimens (e.g., locality, collection date, ecology and classification) were extracted and analysed using descriptive statistics. We found, unsurprisingly, that species of fungi that are considered economically important or with potential biotechnological applications, or otherwise conspicuous or enigmatic, were overall the best represented within national and international collections. We highlight the need to increase sampling efforts in the country, as well as the need for regularisation and proper digitisation of specimens from biological collections so that they can be appropriately accounted for in future fungal research. This chapter is expected to be an invitation for mycologists to increase their efforts to improve the knowledge of Colombian funga through proper curation and documentation of their collections, and urges the institutions that promote biological research to support the growth and maintenance of Colombian fungal collections.
34707Harnesk D. (2022): The decreasing availability of reindeer forage in boreal forests during snow cover periods: A Sámi pastoral landscape perspective in Sweden. - Ambio, 51: 2508–2523. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-022-01752-w.
This paper argues that Sámi reindeer pastoralism in Sweden is highly stressed during the critical snow cover periods due to large-scale human interventions, especially forestry, and that these have over time significantly worsened the ecological conditions for natural grazingbased responses to changing snow conditions caused by climate change. Informed by a literature review, the paper conceptualises two, overlapping ecological dynamics that shape the availability of lichen as key forage resources within a Sámi pastoral landscape perspective: the grazing dynamics of reindeer during snow cover periods as determined by climatic stochasticity, and the more predictable vegetation dynamics of lichen habitat formation, growth and sustenance based on structured forestry practices. This could help articulate an intervention ecology that pursues sustainable ecological conditions for natural grazing-based Sámi reindeer pastoralism, along with other goals. As such alternatives are likely to face political resistance, the article discusses the implications of its findings within a science–politics interface. Keywords: Equilibrium theory  Forestry  Lichens  Non-equilibrium theory  Reindeer husbandry  Sámi pastoralism.
34706Santos A.M., Vitorino L.C., Cruvinel B.G., Ávila R.G., Vasconcelos Filho S.C., Batista P.F. & Bessa L.A. (2022): Impacts of Cd pollution on the vitality, anatomy and physiology of two morphologically different lichen species of the genera Parmotrema and Usnea, evaluated under experimental conditions. - Diversity, 14(11): 926 [29 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d14110926.
The heavy metal Cd accumulates in trophic chains, constituting a toxic element for photosynthesizing organisms, including the algal photobionts of lichen. Thus, as lichens respond differently to heavy metal toxicity, we hypothesized that the species Parmotrema tinctorum and Usnea barbata, commonly sampled in the Cerrado ecoregion, could be sensitive to Cd and, therefore, be used to biomonitor the dispersion of this metal. We also aimed to indicate the responsiveness of biological markers to Cd in these species by exposing the thalli to simulated rainfall with increasing metal concentrations. We observed that both lichen species are responsive to Cd stress; however, different pathways are accessed. The synthesis of carotenoids by P. tinctorum and the production of antioxidant enzymes by U. barbata seem to constitute relevant response strategies to Cd-induced stress. The lichen morphoanatomy, cell viability, photobiont vitality index, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and chlorophyll a synthesis were efficient biomarkers for the effects of increasing Cd exposure in P. tinctorum, being the variables primarily associated with damage to the photobiont. For U. barbata, the lichen morphoanatomy, photochemistry, and antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase) were essential to reflect Cd toxicity. However, the species P. tinctorum was characterized as the most sensitive to Cd toxicity, constituting a good bioindicator for the presence of this metal. It can be used in the diagnosis of air quality in urban and industrial areas or even in forest areas influenced by Cd in phosphate fertilizers. Keywords: agricultural pollutant; air pollution; heavy metal pollution; mycobiont; photobiont.
34705Deka D., Sonowal S., Chikkaputtaiah C. & Velmurugan N. (2020): Symbiotic associations: Key factors that determine physiology and lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 11: 555312 [8 p.]. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.555312.
Although biological soil crusts (biocrusts) occur globally in arid and semi-arid environments, most of our knowledge of biocrust cover and ecology is from a relatively small number of locations worldwide. Some plant communities are known to have high cover of biocrusts, but the abundance of biocrusts is largely undocumented in most plant communities. Using a data driven approach, we identified 16 plant communities based on plant cover from the Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring Strategy data from the Bureau of Land Management (AIM, 5,200 plots). We found that abundance of lichens and mosses varies among communities, but that both components of biocrusts are present in all plant communities. Biocrusts are indicators of two of these communities: one that is defined by high cover of mosses and basin big sagebrush and one that is defined by high cover of lichens and shadscale saltbush. Using non-parametric multiplicative regression, we evaluated a suite of abiotic and disturbance variables to assess the degree to which climate and soils are associated with the abundance of lichens and mosses at the regional scale. At the regional scale, soil depth and maximum vapor pressure deficit were found to be strongly associated with the abundance of lichens and January minimum temperature dictated the abundance of mosses. At the scale of plant communities, community specific metrics of soils and climate were better able to explain the abundance of biocrusts. Our demonstration of the presence of biocrusts across the western US suggests that studies on ecosystem function could include these organisms because they are present in all plant communities, maintain arguably stronger associations with climatic variation, are directly associated with soils, and contribute to ecosystem functions that are not solely maintained by vascular plants. Keywords: oleaginous microorganisms, symbiotic associations, physiology, evolutionary relationships, artificial symbiosis.
34704Hembre K., Meyer A., Route T., Glauser A. & Stanton D.E. (2021): Stand-level variation drives canopy water storage by non-vascular epiphytes across a temperate-boreal ecotone. - Frontiers in Forests and Global Change, 4: 704190 [11 p.]. doi: 10.3389/ffgc.2021.704190.
Epiphytes, including bryophytes and lichens, can significantly change the water interception and storage capacities of forest canopies. However, despite some understanding of this role, empirical evaluations of canopy and bole community water storage capacity by epiphytes are still quite limited. Epiphyte communities are shaped by both microclimate and host plant identity, and so the canopy and bole community storage capacity might also be expected to vary across similar spatial scales. We estimated canopy and bole community cover and biomass of bryophytes and lichens from ground-based surveys across a temperate-boreal ecotone in continental North America (Minnesota). Multiple forest types were studied at each site, to separate stand level and latitudinal effects. Biomass was converted into potential canopy and bole community storage on the basis of water-holding capacity measurements of dominant taxa. Bole biomass and potential water storage was a much larger contributor than outer canopy. Biomass and water storage capacity varied greatly, ranging from 9 to >900kg ha−1 and 0.003 to 0.38 mm, respectively. These values are lower than most reported results for temperate forests, which have emphasized coastal and old-growth forests. Variation was greatest within sites and appeared to reflect the strong effects of host tree identity on epiphyte communities, with conifer-dominated plots hosting more lichendominated epiphyte communities with lower potential water storage capacity. These results point to the challenges of estimating and incorporating epiphyte contributions to canopy hydrology from stand metrics. Further work is also needed to improve estimates of canopy epiphytes, including crustose lichens. Keywords: interception, stemflow, water-holding capacity (WHC), bryophytes, lichen, canopy hydrology.
34703Varlı M., Pham H.T., Kim S.-M., Taş İ., Gamage C.D.B., Zhou R., Pulat S., Park S.-Y., Sesal N.C., Hur J.-S., Kang K.B. & Kim H. (2022): An acetonic extract and secondary metabolites from the endolichenic fungus Nemania sp. EL006872 exhibit immune checkpoint inhibitory activity in lung cancer cell. - Frontiers in Pharmacology, 13: 986946 [13 p.]. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2022.986946.
Background: Endolichenic fungi (ELF), which live the inside the lichen thallus, contain many secondary metabolites that show various biological activities. Recent studies show that lichen and ELF secondary metabolites have antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, and anticancer activities. Purpose: Here, the effects of an ELF extract and its bioactive compounds were investigated on the H1975 cell line focusing on immune checkpoint marker inhibition. Methods: An ELF was isolated from the host lichen Bryoria fuscescens (Gyelnik) Brodo and D. Hawksw and identified the species as Nemania sp. EL006872. The fungus was cultured on agar medium and acetonic extracts were obtained. Secondary metabolites radianspenes C and D, and dahliane D, were isolated from the crude extract. The biological effects of both the crude extract and the isolated secondary metabolites were evaluated in cell viability, qRT-PCR assays, flow cytometry analysis and western blotting. Results: The cell viability assay revealed that extracts from Nemania sp. EL006872 and the isolated secondary compounds had low cytotoxicity. The crude extract, radianspenes C and D, and dahliane D, suppressed expression of mRNA encoding PD-L1 and aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and surface expression of PD-L1 protein by cells exposed to benzo[a] pyrene. Radianspenes C and D, and dahliane D, reduced expression of AhR, PDL1, ICOSL, and GITRL proteins by H1975 lung cancer cells, as well as exerting anti-proliferative effects. Conclusion: Radianspenes C and D, and dahliane D, bioactive compounds isolated from Nemania sp. EL006872 ELF, have the potential for use as immunotherapy and immunoncology treatments. Keywords: Nemania sp., benzo[a]pyrene, programmed death-ligand 1, inducible T Cell costimulator ligand, radianspenes C and D, dahliane D, immune checkpoints.
34702Muster C., Leiva D., Morales C., Grafe M., Schloter M., Carú M. & Orlando J. (2022): Peltigera frigida lichens and their substrates reduce the influence of forest cover change on phosphate solubilizing bacteria. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 13: 843490 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.843490.
Phosphorus (P) is one of the most critical macronutrients in forest ecosystems. More than 70 years ago, some Chilean Patagonian temperate forests suffered wildfires and the subsequent afforestation with foreign tree species such as pines. Since soil P turnover is interlinked with the tree cover, this could influence soil P content and bioavailability. Next to soil microorganisms, which are key players in P transformation processes, a vital component of Patagonian temperate forest are lichens, which represent microbial hotspots for bacterial diversity. In the present study, we explored the impact of forest cover on the abundance of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) from three microenvironments of the forest floor: Peltigera frigida lichen thallus, their underlying substrates, and the forest soil without lichen cover. We expected that the abundance of PSB in the forest soil would be strongly affected by the tree cover composition since the aboveground vegetation influences the edaphic properties; but, as P. frigida has a specific bacterial community, lichens would mitigate this impact. Our study includes five sites representing a gradient in tree cover types, from a mature forest dominated by the native species Nothofagus pumilio, to native second-growth forests with a gradual increase in the presence of Pinus contorta in the last sites. In each site, we measured edaphic parameters, P fractions, and the bacterial potential to solubilize phosphate by quantifying five specific marker genes by qPCR. The results show higher soluble P, labile mineral P, and organic matter in the soils of the sites with a higher abundance of P. contorta, while most of the molecular markers were less abundant in the soils of these sites. Contrarily, the abundance of the molecular markers in lichens and substrates was less affected by the tree cover type. Therefore, the bacterial potential to solubilize phosphate is more affected by the edaphic factors and tree cover type in soils than in substrates and thalli of P. frigida lichens. Altogether, these results indicate that the microenvironments of lichens and their substrates could act as an environmental buffer reducing the influence of forest cover composition on bacteria involved in P turnover. Keywords: Chilean Patagonia, lichen microbiome, Nothofagus forests, phosphorus cycling, Peltigera.
34701Barre J.P.G., Queipo-Abad S., Sola-Larrañaga C., Deletraz G., Bérail S., Tessier E., Elustondo Valencia D., Santamaría J.M., de Diego A. & Amouroux D. (2020): Comparison of the isotopic composition of Hg and Pb in two atmospheric bioaccumulators in a Pyrenean beech forest (Iraty Forest, Western Pyrenees, France/Spain). - Frontiers in Environmental Chemistry, 1: 582001 [16 p.]. doi: 10.3389/fenvc.2020.582001.
Mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) isotopic compositions were investigated in mosses and lichens collected in a large mountainous beech forest (Iraty Forest) located on the French-Spanish Pyrenean border. Hg isotopic signature in topsoil samples were also analyzed in selected sampling sites. This is the first work that uses the complementary information of both isotopic systems in two distinct atmospheric bioaccumulators. Mosses and lichens present characteristic accumulation due to their integration times, displaying different information on metal pollution over the area. Hg and Pb concentrations in annual moss shoots represent recent atmospheric accumulation, while whole lichen thalli integrates a process of accumulation over a longer period. Lead isotope ratios in mosses are consistent with reported data corresponding to the actual European atmospheric background (206Pb/207Pb ∼ 1.158), while Hg isotopic composition reflects potential uptake of both dry and wet Hg depositions. For lichens, Pb isotopic composition exhibits the contribution of a longer integration period of both industrial Pb emissions and legacy of leaded gasoline pollution. Hg isotopes in lichens discriminate two main groups: a larger one representing the background atmospheric contribution and a second one corresponding to unexpected higher Hg content. The similarities in odd and even Mass-independent fractionation of Hg isotopes between topsoils and lichens from the larger group, support the idea that foliage uptake is the main input of Hg in soils. The second group of lichens exhibits more negative δ 202Hg (down to –4.69‰) suggesting a new source of fractionation in this area, probably related to lichens aging and/or stubble and grass fires due to pastoral activities. This study demonstrates that using both Hg and Pb isotopic signature in lichens and mosses allows to trace atmospheric sources and environmental pathways of these metals in forested ecosystems. This original data set in a remote environment provides also new information on the fate of atmospheric Pb and Hg depositions. Keywords: bioaccumulator, lichens, mosses, soils, mercury, lead, isotopes, forest ecosystem.
34700Cai L., Zheng Y., Chu Y., Lin Y., Liu L. & Zhang G. (2022): The synergism of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases with lichenase and their co-immobilization on silica nanospheres for green conversion of lichen biomass. - Frontiers in Nutrition, 9: 970540 [12 p.]. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2022.970540.
Enzyme-assisted valorization of lichenan represents a green and sustainable alternative to the conventional chemical industry. The recently discovered lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are essential components of state-of-the-art enzyme cocktails for lichenin bioconversion. The LPMOs named SpyTag fused LPMOs (AST) from Chaetomium globosum was functionally expressed in E. coli and exhibited 1.25-fold synergism with lichenase, whereas AST alone produced no detectable reducing sugars. HPLC results further confirm that AST does not alter the endogenous hydrolysis mode of lichenase but rather enhances its hydrolysis efficiency by disrupting the long chain of lichenan and releasing more reducing ends. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first report on the synergistic effect of LPMOs and lichenase, which may have great synergistic potential in the conversion of lichen biomass. Furthermore, a novel strategy for the covalently immobilizing AST and lichenase on silica nanoparticles (SNPs) from the cell lysate in a single step was proposed, which exhibited high activity recovery (82.9%) and high immobilization yield (94.8%). After 12 independent runs, about 67.4 % of the initial activity of the immobilized enzymes was retained. The resulted biocatalyst systems exhibited the green and sustainable strategy in the bioconversion of lichen biomass as well as other diverse polysaccharides. Keywords: lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase, synergistic effect, lichenase, silica nanoparticles, multi-enzyme immobilization.
34699Tanunchai B., Schroeter S.A., Ji L., Wahdan S.F.M., Hossen S., Lehnert A.-S., Grünberg H., Gleixner G., Buscot F., Schulze E.-D., Noll M. & Purahong W. (2022): More than you can see: Unraveling the ecology and biodiversity of lichenized fungi associated with leaves and needles of 12 temperate tree species using high-throughput sequencing. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 13: 907531 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.202.
Currently, lichen surveys are generally based on the examination of fruiting bodies. Lichens in the mycelial stage, in spores, or awaiting conditions for fruiting body formation are usually overlooked, even though they are important for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem functions. This study aimed to explore the lichenized fungal community composition and richness associated with leaves and needles of 12 temperate tree species using Illumina MiSeq-based amplicon sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 2 region. Picea abies harbored the highest richness and number of lichenized fungal species. We found that the lichenized fungus Physcia adscendens dominated the leaves and needles of the most temperate tree species. Eleven lichenized fungal species detected in this study were recorded for the first time on leaves and needles. In addition, we identified Athallia cerinella, Fellhanera bouteillei, and Melanohalea exasperata that are on the German national red lists. Lichenized fungal richness was higher in conifer compared to broadleaf trees. Overall, tree species (within coniferous trees) and tree types (broadleaved vs. coniferous trees) harbored significantly different lichenized fungal community compositions pointing out the importance of host species. Diversity and community composition patterns of lichenized fungi were correlated mainly with tree species. Our study demonstrates that the diversity of foliicolous lichens associated with leaves and needles of 12 temperate tree species can be appropriately analyzed and functionally assigned using the ITS-based high-throughput sequencing. We highlighted the importance of conifers for maintaining the biodiversity of foliicolous lichens. Based on the discovery of many red list lichens, our methodological approach and results are important contributions to subsequent actions in the bio-conversation approaches. Keywords: ITS2, Physcia adscendens, red-list lichenized fungi, foliicolous lichens, Illumina MiSeq.
34698Di Nuzzo L., Canali G., Giordani P., Nascimbene J., Benesperi R., Papini A., Bianchi E. & Porada P. (2022): Life-stage dependent response of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria to climate. - Frontiers in Forests and Global Change, 5: 903607 [14 p.]. doi: 10.3389/ffgc.2022.903607.
Lichens are poikilohydric organisms, whose internal water content tends to reflect external humidity conditions. After drying, they can reactivate their metabolic activity through water vapor uptake or liquid water input. Thus, lichen water-related functional traits are important as they are involved in the duration of the hydrated period. Models predicting the effect of environmental conditions on lichens are based mainly on the presence or absence of adult thalli. Nevertheless, ecological conditions required by lichens might vary during their life cycle, for example during propagule establishment or in the first stages of thallus development. Little is known about the different ecological requirements at the different development stages in lichens. In this work, we measured water holding capacity (WHC) and specific thallus mass (STM) of adult and juvenile thalli of the model species Lobaria pulmonaria along a climatic gradient to constrain the processbased model LiBry. The LiBry model allows accounting for the productivity of lichens with different physiological strategies under various environmental conditions. We simulated the activity and performance of adult and juvenile thalli in 9 regions of Italy and Corsica. The model was used to test if adult thalli of L. pulmonaria have a higher survival probability due to their higher aerodynamic resistance. In the current climatic condition, the LiBry model predicts a higher survival probability of adults with decreasing absolute survival rates of both life stages with increasing temperature. Adult thalli also result in having higher active time, STM, and relative growth rate (RGR). We discuss the main implications of our simulation outputs, provide future perspectives and possible implementations of the LiBry model. Keywords: lichens, LiBry, mechanistic models, growth, Lobaria.
34697He Z. & Naganuma T. (2022): Chronicle of research into lichen-associated bacteria. - Microorganisms, 10(11): 2111 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10112111.
Lichens are mutually symbiotic systems consisting of fungal and algal symbionts. While diverse lichen-forming fungal species are known, limited species of algae form lichens. Plasticity in the combination of fungal and algal species with different eco-physiological properties may contribute to the worldwide distribution of lichens, even in extreme habitats. Lichens have been studied systematically for more than 200 years; however, plasticity in fungal–algal/cyanobacterial symbiotic combinations is still unclear. In addition, the association between non-cyanobacterial bacteria and lichens has attracted attention in recent years. The types, diversity, and functions of lichen-associated bacteria have been studied using both culture-based and culture-independent methods. This review summarizes the history of systematic research on lichens and lichen-associated bacteria and provides insights into the current status of research in this field. Keywords: lichen–bacterial association; symbiosis; culture; DNA sequencing; -omics.
34696Kuusisto I. & Mattanen S. (2022): Caloplaca tornoënsis new to Finland. - Graphis Scripta, 34(6): 54–58. https://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/34_6/GS_34_54.pdf.
Caloplaca tornoënsis is reported from Finland for the first time. Specimens were collected from five locations of NW Finland and from one location of NE Finland. Collections were made from snowbeds on bryophytes using transect plot-based sampling method. C. tornoënsis has a circumpolar distribution and it is probably overlooked, although a rare species in Finland. The species should be looked for in late melting areas of mountains of northernmost Finland.
34695da Silva B.F., da Silva K.E.M., de Farias E.E.G., de França E.J., Martins M.C.B., Santos M.L.O., Buril M.M.L., Alves G.G.S., Silva A.K.O., Júnior E.B.L., da Silva N.H. & Pereira E.C. (2022): Cladonia verticillaris (lichen) can exhibit defense mechanisms against Rn-222 under controlled conditions. - Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 331: 3671–3679. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-022-08430-x.
This study aimed to evaluate the efects of the Rn-222 progeny on the lichen Cladonia verticillaris under controlled conditions. The results showed resistance of the species, and few changes in the level of photosynthetic pigments. Blockage in the biosynthetic route of the major phenolic compound fumarprotocetraric acid was also identifed, and accumulation of protocetraric acid, as defense mechanism against external pollutants, to maintain thallus vitality. The accumulation of the 210Pb and 226Ra, radioisotopes estimated from the daughter of 214Bi and 214Pb, was incipient. C. verticillaris showed resistance to 222Rn, with accumulation of intermediary phenolic only at the begining of experiments. Highlights ● Cladonia verticillaris was resistant to high doses of radiation, showing stability in the production of chlorophyll. ● Blockage in the biosynthesis of fumarprotocetraric acid was identifed, causing accumulation of protocetraric acid, as a form of protection against the activity of Rn-222. ● Daughters of Rn-222 were determined, but the species reported low accumulation, and ability of self-protection. Keywords: Bioindication · Primary metabolites · Phenolic compounds · Cladoniaceae.
34694Kalın Ş.N., Altay A. & Budak H. (2022): Inhibition of thioredoxin reductase 1 by vulpinic acid suppresses the proliferation and migration of human breast carcinoma. - Life Sciences, 310: 121093 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2022.121093.
Aims It was aimed to investigate the thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1)-targeted anticancer effect of vulpinic (VA) and lecanoric (LA) acids, which are lichen secondary metabolites, on breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-453 cell lines, and to compare the effectiveness of this potential effect against commercial chemotherapeutic drugs carboplatin and docetaxel. Main methods The anticancer effects of both lichen metabolites were evaluated by XTT, flow cytometry analysis, cell scratch, and transwell migration assays. Apoptotic results were also confirmed by qPCR and western blot. Changes in TrxR1 were investigated in gene and protein expressions and enzyme activity levels. Key findings VA suppressed the proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-453 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and the IC50 values were calculated as 22.92 μg/ml and 95.65 μg/ml, respectively. As for LA, it did not have a considerable antiproliferative effect on both cell lines. VA had stronger cytotoxicity than both chemotherapeutic drug in MCF-7 cells and showed antiproliferative activity closer to carboplatin in MDA-MB-453 cells. qPCR, western blot, and flow cytometry analysis results revealed that VA did not induce apoptosis in both cell lines. In contrast, VA caused cell cycle arrest, significantly. Migration assay results showed that VA suppressed migration in both cells. VA induced the gene expression of TrxR1 while inhibiting its protein expression and enzymatic activity in both cell lines. Significance The findings reveal that vulpinic acid may be a novel inhibitor candidate on TrxR1 and could be considered a potential chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer treatment, especially in MCF-7 cells.
34693Rocha B., Matos P., Giordani P., Lõhmus P., Branquinho C., Casanelles-Abella J., Aleixo C., Deguines N., Hallikma T., Laanisto L., Moretti M., Alós Ortí M., Samson R., Tryjanowski P. & Pinho P. (2022): Modelling the response of urban lichens to broad-scale changes in air pollution and climate. - Environmental Pollution, 315: 120330 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.120330.
To create more resilient cities, it is important that we understand the effects of the global change drivers in cities. Biodiversity-based ecological indicators (EIs) can be used for this, as biodiversity is the basis of ecosystem structure, composition, and function. In previous studies, lichens have been used as EIs to monitor the effects of global change drivers in an urban context, but only in single-city studies. Thus, we currently do not understand how lichens are affected by drivers that work on a broader scale. Therefore, our aim was to quantify the variance in lichen biodiversity-based metrics (taxonomic and trait-based) that can be explained by environmental drivers working on a broad spatial scale, in an urban context where local drivers are superimposed. To this end, we performed an unprecedented effort to sample epiphytic lichens in 219 green spaces across a continental gradient from Portugal to Estonia. Twenty-six broad-scale drivers were retrieved, including air pollution and bio-climatic variables, and their dimensionality reduced by means of a principal component analysis (PCA). Thirty-eight lichen metrics were then modelled against the scores of the first two axes of each PCA, and their variance partitioned into pollution and climate components. For the first time, we determined that 15% of the metric variance was explained by broad-scale drivers, with broad-scale air pollution showing more importance than climate across the majority of metrics. Taxonomic metrics were better explained by air pollution, as expected, while climate did not surpass air pollution in any of the trait-based metric groups. Consequently, 85% of the metric variance was shown to occur at the local scale. This suggests that further work is necessary to decipher the effects of climate change. Furthermore, although drivers working within cities are prevailing, both spatial scales must be considered simultaneously if we are to use lichens as EIs in cities at continental to global scales. Keywords: Urban macroecology; Spatial scales; Atmospheric pollution; Ecological indicator; Biodiversity-based metrics; Trait-based diversity.
34692Lendemer J.C. & McMullin R.T. (2022): Lectotypification of the threatened endemic Appalachian lichen Alectoria fallacina. - Taxon, 71(5): 1077–1083. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12719.
Alectoria fallacina, described by the prolific 20th century lichenologist Josef Motyka, is a threatened species narrowly endemic to the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. The production of a unique unidentified fatty acid as the main secondary metabolite chemically separates A. fallacina from its congeners, especially the morphologically similar A. sarmentosa. Here we show that while A. fallacina and A. sarmentosa are entirely allopatric, the type collection of A. fallacina is a mixture of the two taxa and the holotype is A. sarmentosa. Detailed analyses of the original material support the conclusion that the lichen in the holotype packet was taken from another collection, and is in direct conflict with both the protologue and the current application of the name. We assert that the lichen currently assumed to be the holotype of A. fallacina was erroneously placed in the holotype packet by Motyka after the description, while the actual holotype lichen was likely retained in his personal herbarium now deposited at LBL. This highly unusual scenario is supported by other cases from the literature pertaining to the types of names published by this author. Based on the fact that the currently accepted holotype of A. fallacina directly conflicts with the protologue, that all evidence suggests it could not have been derived from the type locality, and the known working methods of both the collector of the type (Gunnar Degelius) as well as the describing author (Motyka), the holotype of A. fallacina is treated as effectively lost and the name is lectotypified with an isotype that unambiguously represents A. fallacina. Keywords: biodiversity hotspot; conservation; fruticose; fungi; Parmeliaceae.
34691Frisch A., Ohmura Y., Holien H. & Bendiksby M. (2022): A phylogenetic survey of the ascomycete genus Arthrorhaphis (Arthrorhaphidaceae, Lecanoromycetes) including new species in Arthrorhaphis citrinella sensu lato. - Taxon, 71(5): 936–962. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12718.
The genus Arthrorhaphis is a group of ascomycetes comprising lichenised and non-lichenised taxa from temperate to arctic-alpine regions in both hemispheres. Nine species and two infraspecific taxa are currently recognised. Their delimitation, inter-relationships, and phylogenetic placement remain poorly understood. We have used an integrative taxonomic approach to assess taxon limits, phylogenetic placement of the family, and to test the hypothesis that transition to lichenisation has happened only once. We present a first molecular phylogenetic hypothesis of all but one known Arthrorhaphis species based on Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of multilocus DNA sequence data. Our results support monophyly of Arthrorhaphis, phylogenetic placement in the Ostropomycetidae, and lichenisation having evolved from lichenicolous ancestors only once. The lichenicolous Arthrorhaphis species are well-defined both morphologically and genetically. The lichenised A. alpina s.l. and A. citrinella s.l., however, include multiple genetic clades that are partly supported by phenotypic data. We split A. citrinella s.l. into the following five species: (1) A. bullata sp. nov., (2) A. catolechioides comb. & stat. nov., (3) A. citrinella, (4) A. farinosa sp. nov., and (5) A. vulgaris comb. & stat. nov. A sixth phylogenetic clade from the Neotropics remains undescribed herein due to insufficient data. Five circumarctic accessions of A. alpina s.l. form a genetically distinct but morphologically poorly understood clade sister to the alpina-vacillans clade, which we preliminarily name “A. septentrionalis”. Jointly, our multispecies coalescence analyses, of both single-locus (bGMYC) and multilocus (bPtP, bP&P) datasets, largely support our proposed species hypotheses in Arthrorhaphis. Keywords: integrative taxonomy; lichenicolous fungi; lichens; molecular phylogenetics; Ostropomycetidae; species delimitation.
34690Vasco-Palacios A.M., Lücking R., Moncada B., Palacio M. & Motato-Vásque V. (2022): A critical assessment of biogeographic distribution patterns of Colombian fungi. - In: de Almeida R.F., Lücking R., Vasco-Palacios A.M., Gaya E. & Diazgranados M. (eds), Catalogue of Fungi of Colombia, p. 121–137, Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. .
Book chapter. This chapter attempts to assess the distribution patterns of three selected groups of fungi, namely polypores, ectomycorrhizal fungi (EcM), and lichenised fungi in Colombia. Assessing the biogeography of fungi is difficult because of two key issues: 1. information gaps on their distribution and biology in biodiversity-rich countries, such as Colombia, and 2. the traditional, phenotype-based species concepts, which make it difficult to recognise cryptic species or species complexes. This latter aspect is very frequent in fungi, as currently revealed by advanced molecular biology and phylogenetic analysis techniques. For instance, Polyporus is a widespread genus, commonly found in Colombia with numerous species recorded as cosmopolitan. However, detailed studies in some Polyporus sensu lato in Brazil and Argentina showed a hidden diversity now accommodated in different genera such as Atroporus, Neodictyopus, and Bresadolia. On the other hand, the various fungal lineages show different distribution patterns depending on their biology. This fact evidences how the biogeographic distribution of ectomycorrhizal symbiont fungi (EcM) is closely linked with the distribution patterns of their host plants, but due to information gaps, their real distribution ranges are unknown. It has been observed that the EcM fungi associated with Fagaceae in the Andean region belong to Holarctic lineages, while the species associated with the Fabaceae or Dipterocarpaceae in the Colombian Amazonia Region come from tropical lineages of Gondwanan origin. Finally, for lichenised fungi, we looked at eight genera in four families and two classes and phyla: Bunodophoron (Sphaerophoraceae), Neoprotoparmelia (Parmeliaceae), Crocodia, Lobariella, Podostictina, Pseudocyphellaria, Sticta (Peltigeraceae, all Ascomycota), and Cora (Hygrophoraceae, Basidiomycota). Comparing traditional taxonomy with modern taxon concepts derived from integrative approaches using molecular and phenotype data revealed that the proportion of distribution types assessed from the data changed substantially. When using a traditional taxon concept, 45% of the species were inferred to have a broad, intercontinental distribution, 39% neotropical, and 12% endemic. On the other hand, using the modern taxon concept indicated that only 4% of them were widespread, 20% neotropical, and 76% potentially endemic. These findings underline the importance of accurate taxon concepts and proper knowledge of evolutionary relationships when performing biogeographical analyses of Colombian fungi. As mycologists, we must then continue to generating information that allows us to understand the historical processes responsible for the geographical distributions of the different lineages of fungi present in the national territory. Keywords: cryptic species, dispersal, ectomycorrhizae, Gondwanan lineages, Holarctic lineages, lichenised fungi, neotropical distribution, vicariance, saprotroph.
34689Studzińska-Sroka E., Majchrzak-Celińska A., Bańdurska M., Rosiak N., Szwajgier D., Baranowska-Wójcik E., Szymański M., Gruszka W. & Cielecka-Piontek J. (2022): Is caperatic acid the only compound responsible for activity of lichen Platismatia glauca within the nervous system?. - Antioxidants, 11(10): 2069 [30 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11102069.
Lichens are a source of various biologically active compounds. However, the knowledge about them is still scarce, and their use in medicine is limited. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of the lichen Platismatia glauca and its major metabolite caperatic acid in regard to their potential application in the treatment of central nervous system diseases, especially neurodegenerative diseases and brain tumours, such as glioblastoma. First, we performed the phytochemical analysis of the tested P. glauca extracts based on FT-IR derivative spectroscopic and gas chromatographic results. Next the antioxidant properties were determined, and moderate anti-radical activity, strong chelating properties of Cu2+ and Fe2+ ions, and a mild effect on the antioxidant enzymes of the tested extracts and caperatic acid were proved. Subsequently, the influence of the tested extracts and caperatic acid on cholinergic transmission was determined by in vitro and in silico studies confirming that inhibitory effect on butyrylcholinesterase is stronger than against acetylcholinesterase. We also confirmed the anti-inflammatory properties of P. glauca extracts and caperatic acid using a COX-2 and hyaluronidase inhibition models. Moreover, our studies show the cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activity of the P. glauca extracts against T98G and U-138 MG glioblastoma multiforme cell lines. In conclusion, it is possible to assume that P. glauca extracts and especially caperatic acid can be regarded as the source of the valuable substances to finding new therapies of central nervous system diseases. Keywords: lichen extracts; biological activity; anti-neurodegenerative potential; anticancer activity.
34688Gueidan C., Monnat J.-Y. & Roux C. (2022): Verrucariopsis Gueidan, Monnat et Cl. Roux gen. nov., genre nouveau de lichens (Ascomycota, Verrucariaceae). - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 73: 61–77. .
[in French, additionally with Esperanto and English abstracts] Description of the new lichen genus Verrucariopsis Gueidan, Monnat & Cl. Roux gen. nov. whose type species, V. suaedae Gueidan, Monnat & Cl. Roux sp. nov., was discovered on the coast of Brittany and Loire – Atlantique, on the upper schorre of rias where it grows on stems of Suaeda vera, on the supralittoral zone. The morpho – anatomical and phylogenetic study showed that Verrucariopsis belongs to the Verrucariaceae family and that it is related to the marine lichen genera Wahlenbergiella, Mastodia and especially to the marine species Verrucaria halophila with which it is compared in detail. Proposal for the new combination Verrucariopsis halophila (Nyl. ex Branth et Rostr.) Gueidan, Monnat & Cl. Roux comb. nov. The thallus of Verrucariopsis suaedae is quite often parasitized by a lichenicolous fungus, Stigmidium verrucariopsidis Monnat et Cl. Roux sp. nov., described in appendix.
34687Mkhize K.W.G., Minibayeva F. & Beckett R.P. (2022): Lichen photobionts can be hardened to photoinhibition by pretreatment with light. - Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 44: 122 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-022-03458-8.
Lichens often grow in microhabitats where they receive more light than they are capable of using to fx carbon. Unless regulated, this excess energy can end up activating oxygen, thereby forming reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS can damage the photosynthetic apparatus and other cellular components, causing photoinhibition and photo-oxidative stress. Tolerance to high light theoretically can be achieved in a variety of ways, but for lichen photobionts, our knowledge of the precise mechanisms involved is rather fragmentary. Here, we show that tolerance to photoinhibition in the cephalolichen Crocodia aurata could be increased by pretreating thalli at a moderate light intensity for 48 h. Increased tolerance was correlated with increased ability to avoid oxidative stress by dissipating the excess energy as heat, here assessed by measuring non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Increased tolerance only occurred when thalli were pretreated hydrated. The same pretreament did not increase tolerance in the cyanolichen Sticta fuliginosa, which grows in similar habitats to Crocodia, suggesting that cephalo- and cyanobacterial lichens may require diferent pretreatment conditions. Similarly, tolerance was not increased in collections of the chlorolichen Ramalina celastri from exposed habitats, although additional experiments showed that fuorescence parameters in Ramalina can display considerable plasticity. It seems likely that in “sun” populations tolerance is fully expressed and cannot be further increased. However, the ability to harden Crocodia to photoinhibitory stress could provide a foundation for more detailed investigations into the mechanism of photoprotection in lichen photobionts such as the type of NPQ or the role of antioxidant enzymes. Keywords: Photoinhibition · High light stress · Acclimation · Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) · Electron transfer reaction (ETR).
34686Ndhlovu N.T., Minibayeva F. & Beckett R.P. (2022): Unpigmented lichen substances protect lichens against photoinhibition of photosystem II in both the hydrated and desiccated states. - Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 44: 123 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-022-03455-x.
Lichen secondary metabolites have been suggested to play a great diversity of roles in lichen biology by acting as UV screens, antimicrobials, herbivore deterrents or allelopathic compounds. However, evidence is also beginning to accumulate that in addition to these roles, even faintly pigmented or unpigmented lichen substances can reduce photoinhibition caused by high levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Here we used an acetone rinsing technique to remove lichen substances from four common epiphytic Afromontane macro lichens, Parmelia perlata, Ramalina celastri, Usnea dasaea, and Heterodermia leucomela. Results showed that lichen substances can increase the tolerance of lichens to the photoinhibition of PSII of their photobionts when hydrated, apparently by increasing refectance. However, in the feld, lichens may sufer more photoinhibition when fully or partially desiccated. Here we show for the frst time that, except for the atranorin-containing Heterodermia, lichen substances can also protect desiccated lichens. Interestingly, removal of substances has no efect on refectance when lichens are dry, suggesting that lichen substances protect photobionts in other ways. Keywords: Secondary metabolites · Light stress · Desiccation · Photoinhibition · Chlorophyll fuorescence.
34685Bergauer M., Dembicz I., Boch S., Willner W., Babbi M., Blank‑Pachlatko J., Catalano C., Cykowska‑Marzencka B., Gehler J., Guarino R., Keller S., Moysiyenko I., Vynokurov D., Widmer S. & Dengler J. (2022): Scale‑dependent patterns and drivers of vascular plant, bryophyte and lichen diversity in dry grasslands of the Swiss inneralpine valleys. - Alpine Botany, 132: 195–209. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00035-022-00285-y.
The inner-alpine dry valleys of the Swiss Alps are characterized by subcontinental climate, leading to many peculiarities in dry grassland species composition. Despite their well-known uniqueness, comprehensive studies on biodiversity patterns of the dry grasslands in these valleys were still missing. To close this gap, we sampled 161 10-m2 vegetation plots in the Rhône, Rhine and Inn valleys, recording vascular plants, terricolous bryophyte and lichen species, as well as environmental data. Additionally, we tested the scale-dependence of environmental drivers using 34 nested-plot series with seven grain sizes (0.0001–100 m2 ). We analysed the efects of environmental drivers related to productivity/stress, disturbance and within-plot heterogeneity on species richness. Mean species richness ranged from 2.3 species in 0.0001 m2 to 58.8 species in 100 m2 . For all taxa combined, the most relevant drivers at the grain size of 10 m2 were southing (negative), litter (negative), mean annual precipitation (unimodal), gravel cover (negative), inclination (unimodal) and mean annual precipitation (unimodal). For vascular plants the pattern was similar, while bryophyte and lichen richness difered by the opposite relationship to mean annual precipitation as well as negative infuences of mean herb layer height, grazing and mowing. The explained variance of the multiple regression model increased with grain size, with very low values for the smallest two grain sizes. While southing and litter had high importance for the fver larger grain sizes, pH and gravel cover were particularly important at the intermediate grain sizes, and inclination and mean annual precipitation for the two largest grain sizes. The fndings emphasize the importance of taxonomic group and grain size for patterns and drivers of species richness in vegetation, consistent with ecological theory. Diferences in the diversity–environment relationships among the three taxonomic groups can partly be explained by asymmetric competition that leads to low bryophyte and lichen diversity where vascular plants do well and vice versa. The relatively low alpha diversity of vascular plants in dry grasslands in Swiss inner-alpine valleys compared to similar communities in other parts of the Palaearctic remains puzzling, especially because Swiss stands are often large and well-preserved. Keywords: Biodiversity · Bryophyte · Dry grassland · Lichen · Scale dependence · Vascular plant.
34684Нотов А.А., Гимельбрант Д.Е., Степанчикова И.С. & Волков В.П. [Notov A.A., Himelbrant D.E., Stepanchikova I.S. & Volkov V.P.] (2022): Дополнение к лихенофлоре Центрально-Лесного государственного природного биосферного заповедника [Additions to the lichen flora of the Central Forest State Natural Biosphere Reserve]. - Вестник Тверского государственного университета. Серия: Биология и экология [Herald of Tver State University. Series: Biology and Ecology], 2022/2(66): 122–132. .
[in Russian with English summary:] Four species of lichens, four species of fungi and one species of parasitic myxomycete are reported for the first time for the Central Forest State Natural Biosphere Reserve (CFR). Data on localities and habitats are provided for all species; nearest known localities in Tver Region are discussed. Nowadays the list of lichens and allied fungi of the CFR counts 413 species from 157 genera. Keywords: lichens, ichenicolous fungi, lichen flora, Central Forest State Natural Biosphere Reserve (CFR), Tver Region.
34683Yang Q., Hollinger J., Leavitt S.D. & Wei X. (2022): Two new species and two new records of the lichen-forming fungal genus Peltula (Ascomycota: Peltulaceae) from China. - Biology, 11(10): 1518 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11101518.
In this study, two new species, Peltula confusa Q.X. Yang & X.L. Wei, sp. nov., growing in a dry microenvironment within a semi-humid area, and Peltula subpatellata Q.X. Yang & X.L. Wei, sp. nov., occurring in arid and semi-arid regions, are described. In addition, two species, P. polyspora (Tuck.) Wetmore and P. obscuratula (Nyl.) Poelt ex Egea, are recorded for the first time in China. All four species are described based on morphological, anatomical and molecular data. Peltula confusa is characterized by a lighter, brighter, and more yellowish upper surface than other species of this genus, with discs concentrated in the central part of squamules, and a thick lower cortex. Peltula subpatellata can be distinguished from P. patellata (Bagl.) Swinscow & Krog by its non-thickened and sometimes darkened margins and sometimes the presence of peltate squamules. Phylogenetic analysis based on DNA sequences of four loci (ITS, nrSSU, nrLSU, and RPB2) demonstrates the placement of these species within Peltula, and supports current species delimitations. We suggest that the growth substrate should be considered as an additional characteristic for species delimitation. Keywords: biodiversity; biological soil crusts; lichens; Lichinales; molecular phylogeny; Peltula; semi-arid; semi-humid; taxonomy.
34682Ndhlovu N.T., Solhaug K.A., Minibayeva F. & Beckett R.P. (2022): Melanisation in boreal lichens is accompanied by variable changes in non-photochemical quenching. - Plants, 11(20): 2726 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202726.
Lichens often grow in microhabitats where they absorb more light than they can use for fixing carbon, and this excess energy can cause the formation of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS). Lichen mycobionts can reduce ROS formation by synthesizing light-screening pigments such as melanins in the upper cortex, while the photobionts can dissipate excess energy radiationlessly using non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). An inherent problem with using fluorimetry techniques to compare NPQ in pale and melanised thalli is that NPQ is normally measured through a variously pigmented upper cortex. Here we used a dissection technique to remove the lower cortices and medullas of Lobaria pulmonaria and Crocodia aurata and then measure NPQ from the underside of the thallus. Results confirmed that NPQ can be satisfactorily assessed with a standard fluorimeter by taking measurement from above using intact thalli. However, photobionts from the bottom of the photobiont layer tend to have slightly lower rates of PSII activity and lower NPQ than those at the top, i.e., display mild “shade” characteristics. Analysis of pale and melanised thalli of other species indicates that NPQ in melanised thalli can be higher, similar or lower than pale thalli, probably depending on the light history of the microhabitat and presence of other tolerance mechanisms. Keywords: lichens; non-photochemical quenching; melanins; photoprotection; photoinhibition.
34681Bertrand M., Gueidan C., Pinault P. & Roux C. (2022): Scytinium imbricatum (P. M. Jørg.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin, a cyanolichen (Collemataceae, Ascomycota) rare in France : current distribution and new molecular data. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 73: 53–60. .
Revision of the ecology and chorology of Scytinium imbricatum in France on the basis of newly discovered stations. New its sequences of the taxon are published, and a phylogenetic study presented.
34680Méric J.-C., Aïtelli M., Bertrand M., Poumarat S. & Roux C. (2022): Lichénologie à l’anse de Figuerolles, La Ciotat (13) : 16 octobre 2021. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 73: 13–27. .
[in French] Report on a lichenological excursion with a rich photodocumentation of recorded lichens.
34679Poumarat S., Roux C. & Daval G. (2022): Zwackhiomyces fuscatus Poumarat, Daval et Cl. Roux sp. nov., champignon lichénicole (Ascomycota, Xanthopyreniaceae) parasite d’Acarospora fuscata. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 73: 43–50. .
[in French with Esperanto and English abstracts] Description of a new species, Zwackhiomyces fuscatus Poumarat, G. Daval et Cl. Roux, parasite of the lichen Acarospora fuscata of which it bleaches the thallus. Comparison with other species of the genus Zwackhiomyces. Key words : Dothideales, Zwackhiomyces, lichenicolous, Acarospora fuscata, France.
34678Roux C. et al. (2022): Additions à la 3e édition du Catalogue des lichens de France (2). Changements nomenclaturaux importants et liste commentée des espèces et taxons infraspécifiques nouvellement trouvés en France (du 2021/09/20 au 2022/09/19). - Bulletin de Association Française de Lichénologie, 47(1): 1–30. .
[in French with French and Esperanto summaries] Résumé : Mise à jour de la 3e édition du Catalogue des lichens de France dans l’attente de sa 4e édition. Changements nomenclaturaux importants : Acarospora glaucocarpa et A. cervina ; Acarospora impressula s. l. (A. atrata, A. impressula, A. opaca, A. pseudosuzae) ; liste des noms de Caloplaca s. l. attribués à d’autres genres que Caloplaca ; liste des Polysporina s. l. attribués aux genres Acarospora et Sarcogyne ; Lobothallia uxoris (Werner) Cl. Roux comb. nov. ; Rusavskia elegans subsp. mediterraneoatlantica ad. int. ; liste commentée de 71 espèces et taxons infraspécifiques nouvellement trouvés en France ; liste de 15 combinaisons nouvelles.
34677Roux C., Pinault P. & Ertz D. (2022): Corticifraga ramalinae P. Pinault, Ertz et Cl. Roux sp. nov., champignon lichénicole non lichénisé (Ascomycota, Gomphillaceae). - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 73: 29–35. .
[in French with Esperanto and English abstracts] Description of the new species Corticifraga ramalinae P. Pinault, Ertz et Cl. Roux sp. nov., close to C. peltigerae, from which it differs by its parasitism on the thallus (rarely the apothecia) of Ramalina fraxinea where it does not induce galls but which its discolors, by its spores (0)3 – septate, a little longer and less wide, mostly 17,5 – 25,5 × 4 – 5 μm, and by its distinct phylogenetic position (its sequence) (sister species of C. fuckelii). Identification key for the Corticifraga species in the world. Comparison with related or analogous Corticifraga species.
34676Roux C., Brien Y., Monnat J.-Y. & Gardiennet A. (2022): Muellerella solenopsorae Brien, Cl. Roux et Monnat sp. nov., champignon lichénicole (Ascomycota) sur Solenopsora holophaea. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 73: 37–42. .
[in French with Esperanto and English abstracts] Description of a new species of non-lichenized lichenicolous fungus, Muellerella solenopsorae Brien, Cl. Roux and Monnat, with 1 – 3 – septate spores, growing on the lichen Solenopsora holophaea which it does not seem to alter. Comparison with other species of the genus Muellerella and with Capronia triseptata.
34675Roux C., Bertrand M., Poumarat S. & Uriac P. (2022): Quelques espèces nouvelles saxicoles–calcifuges de Lecanora du groupe polytropa (Ascomycota, Lecanoraceae) découvertes en France. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 73: 79–120. .
[in French with Esperanto and English abstracts] Detailed description of five species novae and one species newly found in France, saxicolous–calcifugous, belonging to the Lecanora polytropa group: Lecanora crassiuscula Cl. Roux, Poumarat et M. Bertrand sp. nov., L. crozensis Cl. Roux et S. Poumarat sp. nov., L. hyperpolytropa Cl. Roux et M. Bertrand, L. intricatoides M. Bertrand et Cl. Roux sp. nov., L. polytropopsis Cl. Roux, M. Bertrand et Poumarat sp. nov., L. tolypodes Poelt et Vězda so far only known from one station in Switzerland. Identification key for the saxicolous Lecanora of the polytropa group from France. Lecanora vocontia (Clauzade et Cl. Roux) Cl. Roux et M. Bertrand comb. nov.
34674 Макрый Т.В. & Скирина И.Ф. [Makryi T.V. & Skirina I.F.] (2022): Lathagrium latzelii (Collemataceae) – новый для России вид лишайника с юга Дальнего Востока [Lathagrium latzelii (Collemataceae) – a new lichen record to Russia from the south of Far East]. - Turczaninowia, 3: 217–220. DOI: 10.14258/turczaninowia.25.3.20.
[in Russian with English summary: ] The description and location of the new to Russia lichen record Lathagrium latzelii collected in the Jewish Autonomous Region on the Sutar Range are given in the article. The ecology of this rare species is discussed, as well as the peculiarities of its range, which consists of two isolated areas, the Atlantic coastal region and the Pacific coastal region. L. latzelii is compared with L. fuscovirens and Collema flaccidum, which the species may be confused with. Lathagrium fuscovirens (With.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. is excluded from the list of lichenoflora of the Far East. Keywords: collemiform lichens, distribution, floristic finding, Jewish Autonomous Region, rare species.
34673Zontikov D.N., Malakhova K.V. & Sergeev R.V. (2022): The use of tissue culture method for the study of lichenized fungi (Lobariaceae Chevall., Parmeliaceae Zenker.) of the European part of Russia. - Turczaninowia, 3: 177–188. DOI: 10.14258/turczaninowia.25.3.16.
Lichenized fungi as a multicomponent biological system are an interesting but difficult research object. In view of the complex interaction of the myco- and photobiont, the slow growth of natural thalli, their exceptional exactingness to environmental factors, the study of the biological characteristics of lichens is significantly difficult. This article discusses the problem of studying the anatomical and morphological structure of the myco- and photobiont of lichenized fungi using the tissue culture method on the example of rare species (Lobaria pulmonaria) and species with pharmaceutical potential (Usnea dasopoga, Cetraria islandica). The authors proposed a method for cultivating of myco- and photobionts of these species on synthetic nutrient media for the purpose of further research on the characteristics of lichenized fungi. Fragments of thalli, apothecia (for C. islandica), and soredia (for U. dasopoga and L. pulmonaria) were used as donor material. For the introduction of the photobiont under sterile conditions, a homogenate of the thallus region was prepared. Pure cultures of the myco- and photobiont of L. pulmonaria, U. dasopoga, and C. islandica were obtained on three types of hormone-free nutrient media, namely MS nutrient medium, modified MS medium with a reduced nitrogen content, Czapek medium. The verification of the research results was carried out taking into account the microscopy of the obtained cultures of myco- and photobionts. Using microscopy, the dimensional characteristics of the obtained mycobionts were determined. The diameters of the hyphae of L. pulmonaria, U. dasopoga, and C. islandica were 4.3–4.4 µm, 4.6 µm, and 4.1–4.3 µm, respectively, which corresponds to the size of the hyphae in natural samples. The use of the tissue culture method makes it possible to study and analyze the biological characteristics of lichenized fungi as a multicomponent biological system, as well as to contribute to the preservation of rare species and their components in the Red Data Book; while optimizing the method of cultivating myco- and photobiont on synthetic nutrient media, to reduce the anthropogenic load on natural populations of lichens when using them as medicinal raw materials. Keywords: Cetraria islandica, lichens, lichenized fungi, Lobaria pulmonaria, mycobiont, photobiont, tissue culture, Usnea dasopoga.
34672Урбанавичюс Г.П., Урбанавичене И.Н. , Симакова У.В. & Москаленко В.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P., Urbanavichene I.N., Simakova U.V. & Moskalenko V.N.] (2022): Staurolemma omphalarioides (Pannariaceae, Ascomycota) – новый для лихенофлоры России вид и род с полуострова Абрау (Северо-Западный Кавказ) [Staurolemma omphalarioides (Pannariaceae, Ascomycota), a new species and genus for the lichen flora of Russia from Abrau Peninsula (North-Western Caucasus)]. - Turczaninowia, 3: 115–120. DOI: 10.14258/turczaninowia.25.3.11.
[in Russian with English summary: ] The genus Staurolemma Körb., represented by the species S. omphalarioides (Anzi) P. M. Jørg. et Henssen, identified both by morphology and using DNA barcoding (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 gene), is reported for the first time for Russia, based on materials collected in the North-Western Caucasus in the Utrish Reserve on the Abrau Peninsula. The genus Staurolemma is widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics, and only one species S. omphalarioides, has a Mediterranean-Atlantic area. As in the Mediterranean basin, in the Abrau Peninsula, the species is confined to warm and humid habitats on the Black Sea coast, where it grows in sub-Mediterranean plant communities, in oak-juniper and juniper-pistachio forests, on the trunks and branches of deciduous trees, mainly on Pistacia mutica Fisch. et C. A. Mey. and Quercus pubescens Willd. Description and photo of species are given with a discussion on their taxonomy and distribution. For some studied specimens, new rITS sequences were generated and their GenBank accession numbers are provided. Keywords: area, DNA barcoding, ecology, floristic finding, Krasnodar Territory, lichen, Staurolemma.
34671Ismailov A.B. & Volobuev S.V. (2022): Dirina ceratoniae (Arthoniales, Ascomycota): first record from Russia. - Turczaninowia, 3: 189–193. DOI: 10.14258/turczaninowia.25.3.17.
The Mediterranean species Dirina ceratoniae (Roccellaceae, Arthoniales) is reported for the first time for Russia, specifically the Greater Caucasus in Daghestan, based on morphological and molecular evidences. The specimen collected on Populus nigra in a coastal lowland region is sorediate and sterile. The sorediate morph is not common in this species and currently known only from a few specimens from the Canary Islands. In the phylogenetic analysis, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequence obtained for the material grouped in a well-supported clade with all D. ceratoniae specimens available in GenBank, within a lineage including three other species: D. canariensis, D. fallax, and D. massiliensis. The discovery of D. ceratoniae in Daghestan substantially expands the known distributional range of this taxon to the east of Eurasia.
34670Moncada B., Coca L.F., Díaz-Escandón D., Jaramillo-Ciro M., Simijaca D., Soto E. & Lücking R. (2022): Diversity, ecogeography, and importance of lichens of Colombia. - In: de Almeida R.F., Lücking R., Vasco-Palacios A.M., Gaya E. & Diazgranados M. (eds), Catalogue of Fungi of Colombia, p. 77–90, Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. .
Lichenised fungi constitute a substantial portion of the known Colombian fungi, with 2,670 out of 7,241 species. This fairly high number is not because lichens represent a particularly diverse group of fungi but because they are relatively wellstudied in the country compared to non-lichenised fungi. Lichens have traditionally been defined as a symbiosis between a fungus (mycobiont), an alga and/or a cyanobacterium (photobionts). A modern definition also incorporates components of the lichen microbiome, particularly other fungi, and bacteria. However, the scientific names given to lichens strictly refer to the primary mycobiont. Globally, Colombia ranks among the top ten countries in terms of known lichen diversity. Most top-ranking countries are outside the tropics, so this supports Colombia’s position among the three most biodiverse tropical countries worldwide. The total number for Colombia is estimated at 5,000 species, almost twice the number of species currently known. Unrecognised species are predicted to be found in understudied regions, understudied groups, and in genera where broad species concepts may include substantial hidden diversity. Diverse ecological studies assess environmental factors, such as altitudinal range, topography, and habitat diversity, as drivers of lichen biodiversity. On the basis of these findings, the impact of land-use changes and environmental pollution on lichen communities can be quantified, providing the foundation for using lichens as bioindicators to monitor ecosystem health and to perform environmental impact studies. However, such applications first require a systematic inventory of the lichens of Colombia. Keywords: Cora, Graphis, Lobariella, Sticta, veda.
34669Wang L., Zhang S., Fang J., Jin X., Mamut R. & Li P. (2022): The chloroplast genome of the lichen photobiont Trebouxiophyceae sp. DW1 and its phylogenetic implications. - Genes, 13(10): 1840 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13101840.
Lichens are symbiotic associations of algae and fungi. The genetic mechanism of the symbiosis of lichens and the influence of symbiosis on the size and composition of the genomes of symbiotic algae have always been intriguing scientific questions explored by lichenologists. However, there were limited data on lichen genomes. Therefore, we isolated and purified a lichen symbiotic alga to obtain a single strain (Trebouxiophyceae sp. DW1), and then obtained its chloroplast genome information by next-generation sequencing (NGS). The chloroplast genome is 129,447 bp in length, and the GC content is 35.2%. Repetitive sequences with the length of 30–35 bp account for 1.27% of the total chloroplast genome. The simple sequence repeats are all mononucleotide repeats. Codon usage analysis showed that the genome tended to use codon ending in A/U. By comparing the length of different regions of Trebouxiophyceae genomes, we found that the changes in the length of exons, introns, and intergenic sequences affect the size of genomes. Trebouxiophyceae had an unstable chloroplast genome structure, with IRs repeatedly losing during evolution. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Trebouxiophyceae is paraphyletic, and Trebouxiophyceae sp. DW1 is sister to the clade of Koliella longiseta and Pabia signiensis. Keywords: algae; genome size; Peltigera; Prasiolales; phylogeny.
34668Voitk A. (2021): Typification of Agaricus cespitosus, Ag. oniscus, and Ag. sphagnicola and their synonymy with Lichenomphalia umbellifera. - Mycotaxon, 136(4): 789–818. https://doi.org/10.5248/136.789.
Protologue descriptions and original material of Agaricus cespitosus, Ag. oniscus, and Ag. sphagnicola were studied to determine the intended species concept for each. Agaricus cespitosus fits the second most common presentation of the current Lichenomphalia umbellifera and is placed in synonymy with it. Agaricus oniscus was created as a synonym of Ag. cespitosus, confirmed by its original material; therefore, it is also placed in synonymy with L. umbellifera, resolving problems noted with past attempts trying to apply the epithet to darker sphagnicolous species of Arrhenia. Careful analysis of the protologue for Ag. sphagnicola revealed a good fit with L. umbellifera but serious conflict if applied to species of sphagnicolous Arrhenia ; it was, therefore, also synonymized with L. umbellifera. Agaricus cespitosus and Ag. oniscus are lectotypified with illustrations from their original material, Ag. oniscus is epitypified with a modern sequenced collection from Sweden, and Ag. sphagnicola neotypified with a K collection made by Berkeley, both identified as L. umbellifera.
34667Xu H., Wang L., Feng X. & Gong X. (2022): Core taxa and photobiont‑microbial interaction within the lichen Heterodermia obscurata (Physcsiaceae, Heterodermia). - Symbiosis, 86: 187–204. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-022-00832-5.
The dual nature of fungal-algal lichen symbioses is extended by other microbial associations. Increasing evidence has confirmed that lichens are successful holobionts composed of complex and multiple species. Specific interactions between these microbes contributed to the lichens’ health, growth and fitness. Previous studies suggested that the composition of microorganisms in lichens was potentially influenced by the genetic background of the host-symbiont, large-scale geography or different photobiont-types (cyanobiont and chlorobiont). However, our knowledge of the interactions between the main symbiotic partners under a certain ecological condition and how horizontal acquisition of these microorganisms contributes to endolichenic microbiome diversity remains limited. In the present study, using amplicon sequencing, we investigated the complex diversity and community composition of fungi, bacteria, and microalgae within Heterodermia obscurata from a similar niche. We found that endophytic bacteria displayed greater diversity than fungi and microalgae. Although preferences for core taxa varied among the different definitions, all analyses support that lichen-forming genus Heterodermia and green alga Trebouxia sp. OTU A15 were the main symbionts, and the bacterium Beijerinckiaceae was the core microbiome in H. obscurata. Significantly, we found that different alga species (Trebouxia) from H. obscurata are accompanying with a shift in composition and function of endolichenic bacteria and fungi. This finding suggested that besides host- or habitat specificity as well as photobiont-types, the shifts of dominant alga may also contribute to the taxonomical and functional differences of microbiomes within lichens. Keywords: Amplicon sequencing · Composition diversity · Endophytes · Lichen · Core microbiome · Photobiont-microbial interaction.
34666Kumar T.K., Siva B., Anand A., Anusha K., Mohabe S., Reddy A.M., Le Devehat F., Tiwari A.K., Boustie J. & Babu K.S. (2022): Comprehensive lichenometabolomic exploration of Ramalina conduplicans Vain [sic!] using UPLC-Q-ToF-MS/MS: An identification of free radical scavenging and anti-hyperglycemic constituents. - Molecules, 27(19): 6720 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27196720.
In this study, we propose ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF-MS/MS)-guided metabolite isolation as a choice analytical approach to the ongoing structure–activity investigations of chemical isolates from the edible lichen, Ramalina conduplicans Vain. This strategy led to the isolation and identification of a new depside (5) along with 13 known compounds (1–4, 6–14), most of which being newly described in this lichen species. The structures of the isolates were established by detailed analysis of their spectral data (IR, NMR, and Mass). The acetone extract was further analyzed by UPLC-Q-ToF-MS/MS in a negative ionization mode, which facilitated the identification and confirmation of 18 compounds based on their fragmentation patterns. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen acetone extract (AE) and isolates were measured by tracking DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging activities. Most isolates displayed marked radical scavenging activities against ABTS while moderate activities were observed against DPPH radical scavenging. Except for atranol (14), oxidative DNA damage was limited by all the tested compounds, with a marked protection for the novel isolated compound (5), as previously noted for the acetone extract (p < 0.001). Furthermore, compound (4) and acetone extract (AE) have inhibited intestinal α-glucosidase enzyme significantly (p < 0.01). Although some phytochemical studies were already performed on this lichen, this study provided new insights into the isolation and identification of bioactive compounds, illustrating interest in future novel analytical techniques. Keywords: R. conduplicans; lichen; secondary metabolites; antioxidant; DNA damage; α-glucosidase inhibition.
34665Shelyakin M., Malyshev R., Silina I., Zakhozhiy I. & Golovko T. (2022): UV‑B induced changes in respiration and antioxidant enzyme aktivity in the foliose lichen Peltigera aphthosa (L.) Willd.. - Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 44: 116 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-022-03457-9.
Lichens are phototrophic organisms tolerant to adverse environmental conditions. However, the mechanisms underlying their stress tolerance are not fully understood. For photosynthetic organisms depending on solar radiation, UV-B radiation (280–320 nm) acts as a stress factor. We studied the pro-/antioxidant and respiratory metabolism of Peltigera aphthosa to identify adaptive responses of lichen to a physiological dose of UV-B radiation (14 kJ day− 1 for 10 days). A browning of the upper cortex, the appearance of dark spots in the medulla layer of treated thalli, and an increase in the browning reflectance index indicated the synthesis of protective UV screening pigments. UV-B treatment did not cause significant changes in the photosynthetic activity of thalli and isolated algal cells. More intense lipid peroxidation activity and transient changes in H2O2 content accompanied the acclimation process. Higher superoxide dismutase and catalase isoenzyme levels and activity were noted 4 days following the termination of the UV-B treatment. Increased alternative respiration capacity (AP) and a contribution of this energy-dissipating respiratory pathway of up to 45% of the total respiration rate were noted in treated thalli, but not in isolated algal cells. These data demonstrate the UV-B effect on the Peltigera aphthosa respiratory metabolism to be higher due to reactions of the mycobiont than those of the photobiont. We suggest that the activation of the energy-dissipating AP in mycobiont mitochondria may be associated with the synthesis of protective pigments. Keywords: UV-B radiation · Oxidative stress · Antioxidant enzymes · Alternative and cytochrome respiration · Photobiont and mycobiont · Peltigera aphthosa.
34664Borisov S.A., Luzina O.A., Khvostov M.V., Tolstikova T.G. & Salakhutdinov N.F. (2022): Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of (+)-usnic acid derivatives as hypoglycemic agents. - Molbank, 2022(4): M1459 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/M1459.
Usnic acid is produced by lichens and exhibits different biological properties, including hypoglycemic ones. However, this effect becomes noticeable only at relatively high doses, something that may lead to some adverse effects. The chemical modification of the molecule is able to enhance its safety profile and its hypoglycemic properties. We synthesized six enamine derivatives of (+)-usnic acid, and two of them are novel. All compounds were evaluated for the hypoglycemic effect after oral introduction in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The derivative containing a 4-trifluoromethylphenyl fragment showed the most pronounced hypoglycemic effect, which was detected starting from sixth day of the experiment. Also, OGTT was performed in mice without alteration of glucose metabolism (C57BL/6), which showed no hypoglycemic effect after oral introduction of all studied compounds. Keywords: usnic acid; enamines; hypoglycemic action; diabetes mellitus.
34663Vasco-Palacios A.M. & Moncada B. (2022): Two centuries of mycological history in Colombia. - In: de Almeida R.F., Lücking R., Vasco-Palacios A.M., Gaya E. & Diazgranados M. (eds), Catalogue of Fungi of Colombia, p. 33–43, Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. .
Book chapter. Current knowledge about the Colombian funga results from countless expeditions, researchers, and national and foreign institutions that have contributed to the development of mycology in Colombia for more than two centuries. This historical timeline will probably remain incomplete because several historical accounts are difficult to track down, but four different periods are highlighted: 1. Fungal knowledge from pre-Hispanic times is still incomplete despite efforts to compile the biocultural heritage of ancestral knowledge of indigenous, root, and traditional farming populations; 2. The 19th century’s study of the funga started with The Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada and was followed by other important expeditions; 3. The 20th century was a period marked by expeditions of European naturalists, but Colombian mycologists also started to develop areas such as phytopathology and clinical mycology; 4. From the 1970s to today, the knowledge on Colombian funga has grown due to the contributions of foreign and national mycologists, with about 80 Colombian research groups studying fungi nowadays. In each of these periods, some notable events and influential figures left their mark on the historical memory of Colombian mycology. Keywords: biodiversity expeditions, diversity, funga, expedición botánica, ethnomycology, Francisco José de Caldas.
34662Gaya E., Motato-Vásquez V. & Lücking R. (2022): Diversity of fungi of Colombia. - In: de Almeida R.F., Lücking R., Vasco-Palacios A.M., Gaya E. & Diazgranados M. (eds), Catalogue of Fungi of Colombia, p. 74–76, Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. .
Book chapter. This chapter provides a brief overview of the diversity of fungi of Colombia, both in comparison with other organisms and in a global context, including an assessment of the current state of knowledge and an estimate of the actual species richness. The current checklist of fungi of Colombia, including lichenised and fungus-like organisms unrelated to the true Fungi, comprises 7,241 species. Assessments of biodiversity-rich countries are usually based on plants and vertebrates, but here we provide an expanded perspective, including fungi and selected invertebrates. The documented diversity of fungi of Colombia is lower than that of plants, vertebrates, and insects, which we attribute to the lack of rigorous taxonomic studies and systematic inventories. Colombia ranks second in plant and vertebrate diversity in the world, trailing only Brazil. However, in terms of known fungal diversity, Colombia is not among the top ten countries and even far behind smaller temperate countries, such as France, Italy, the UK, Germany, and Japan, again highlighting the need for much additional work. Estimates of the existing species richness of fungi of Colombia oscillate between 27,430 and 380,000 species, depending on the extrapolation method. Although these numbers may seem exaggerated, currently reported numbers for the United States already exceed 45,000 and estimates for Mexico predict up to 260,000 species. To catalogue the diversity of the Colombian funga fully, a thorough assessment is needed, including molecular studies of presumably known taxa that may include morphologically cryptic species and effective detection methods for ecologically hidden fungi.
34661Lumbsch H.T. & Türk R. (2022): Varicellaria velata occurs in the Alps. - Herzogia, 35(1): 74–76. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.1.2022.174.
Varicellaria velata in its current circumscription has a worldwide distribution and is common in tropical and subtropical habitats but also extends into the temperate zone. In Europe it has a subatlantic distribution and has also been recorded from a single locality in Austria for the Alps. This record has recently been interpreted as dubious and consequently, the species was not listed in recent checklists of the Alps and Austria. We here report a new collection of this species from Austria and confirm the identity of the previous record of Varicellaria velata confirming its presence in the Alps. Keywords: Alps, distribution, diversity, lichenized fungi, Varicellariaceae.
34660Исмаилов А.Б. [Ismailov A.B.] (2022): Анализ разнообразия и функциональных признаков эпифитных лишайников в лесах Дагестана разных формаций [Analysis of diversity and functional traits of epiphytic lichens in Dagestan forests of different formations]. - Юг России: экология, развитие [South of Russia: ecology, development], 17(3): 125–134. DOI: 10.18470/1992‐1098‐2022‐3‐125‐134.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Aim. The structure of forest communities changes along the altitude gradient, which determines the composition of epiphytic lichens. The aim of the study is to compare the species composition and functional characteristics of epiphytic lichens in Dagestan forests of different formations to identify key differences in the lichen flora. Material and Methods. Data on diversity and structure of 334 species of epiphytic lichens revealed during in field work from 2015 to 2019 were used as material for the work. Statistical analysis and data visualization were performed in Statistica 13.3 and PAST 4.0. Results. The highest number of epiphytic lichens was revealed in forests with complex tree structure with the participation of pine. A decrease of specific species and genera was noted with altitude increase. Cluster analysis of species, genera, reproductive strategies and growth forms showed the proximity of mountain forests (Pineta kochiana and Fageta orientalis) and their distance from lowland forests (Carpineta betulus). The percent of species forming vegetative diaspores increases in mountain cluster forests. The "photobiont" indicator is clearer separated of studied formations. The greatest contribution to the division of the total sample is caused by difference in altitude, grouping the samples into mountainous and lowland. Conclusion. The differences in lichens species composition are results not only of diversity of the components which form the structure of the forest community, but also of specific microclimatic conditions which change with altitude, as well as the degree of anthropogenic disturbance. Key Words: Lichens, forest formations, altitude gradient, biodiversity, East Caucasus, epiphytes.
34659Soto Medina E., Aptroot A. & Lücking R. (2022): New records of lichen genera and species for Colombia. - Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, 46(180): 751–757. https://doi.org/10.18257/raccefyn.1726.
Dirina paradoxa, Heterocyphelium triseptatum, Julella sublactea, Opegrapha aurantiaca, Peltula steppae, Sarcographina cyclospora and Schistophoron tenue are reported for the first time in Colombia. The genera Dirina, Heterocyphelium Sarcographina and Schistophoron are reported for the first time in Colombia. These lichens mainly originate from dry ecosystems where previous collections of lichenized fungi have been uncommon. Key words: crustose lichens; tropic; taxonomy.
34658Brunialti G. (2022): Mousses et lichens. 290 espèces faciles à identifier, by Volkmar Wirth, Ruprecht Düll and Steffen Caspari. Édition française, Paris, Delachaux et Niestlé SA, 2021, 336 pp., €35.90 (hardback), ISBN 978-2-603-02670-0. - International Journal of Environmental Studies, 79(3): 577–578. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207233.2021.1920766.
Book review
34657Frati L., Brunialti G., Landi S., Filigheddu R. & Bagella S. (2022): Exploring the biodiversity of key groups in coppice forests (Central Italy): the relationship among vascular plants, epiphytic lichens, and wood-decaying fungi. - Plant Biosystems, 156(4): 835–846. https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2021.1922533.
Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) indicators consider the main ecological and socioeconomic functions of forests but do not currently include some key groups widely adopted to assess the effects of forest management, such as herbaceous vascular plants, epiphytic lichens, and wood-decay fungi. Moreover, they are shaped into high forests while in the Mediterranean area the oldest type of forest management is coppice. We investigated the diversity and the relationships of the above-mentioned groups of taxa in three European Forest Types (EFTs) to contribute to the selection of indicator species suitable for monitoring Mediterranean coppice forests. We find only a weak cross-taxon congruence between vascular plants and lichens on considering the whole dataset, while no significant correlations are evident within the three EFTs. Species richness was significantly different among EFTs, being Thermophilous deciduous forests the richest, both considering the groups of taxa separately and the total species richness. As for species composition, significant differences were found both for the whole dataset and also for pairwise comparisons among EFTs. We provided a dwelling-species list of the three key groups of taxa, which could be suitable for monitoring the sustainability characteristics of fragmented and low continuity forests such as coppice stands. Keywords: Cross-taxon congruence; European forest types; Fagus sylvatica; Quercus cerris; Q. ilex; forest-dwelling species.
34656Gheza G., Di Nuzzo L., Nimis P.L., Benesperi R., Giordani P., Vallese C. & Nascimbene J. (2022): Towards a Red List of the terricolous lichens of Italy . - Plant Biosystems, 156(3): 824–825. https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2022.2065379.
Terricolous lichens, threatened in many areas of Europe, have been greatly overlooked in conservation policies. This work provides a provisional Red List of the terricolous lichens of Italy, to favour their inclusion in conservation policies. The taxa were assigned to IUCN categories according to a simplified assessment procedure based on their rarity and past/current distribution in the administrative regions and ecoregions of Italy. We evaluated 162 species: 30 were listed as regionally extinct, 22 critically endangered, 16 endangered, 49 vulnerable, 27 near-threatened, 7 least-concern, and 11 data deficient. A quarter of the terricolous lichens of Italy is likely to be threatened, but a rigorous assessment is hindered by the scarcity of data. Further field work is needed for more precise assessments of their conservation status. Keywords: Biodiversity; conservation; floristics; historical collections; lichen biota; Natura 2000 Network.
34655Errington R.C., Macdonald S.E., Melnycky N.A. & Bhatti J.S. (2022): Estimating lichen biomass in forests and peatlands of northwestern Canada in a changing climate. - Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 54(1): 221–238. https://doi.org/10.1080/15230430.2022.2082263.
Climate warming in the North could lead to lichen decline within critical woodland caribou habitat. We used repeat measurements of sixty-nine plots over ten years (2007–2008 and 2017–2018) to assess lichen biomass changes under a warming climate along a latitudinal/climatic gradient in northwestern Canada. We compared lichen biomass on sensitive landscape features, including peat plateaux (permafrost-containing bogs), areas of permafrost thaw within the peat plateaux (collapse scars), and low-productivity upland forests occurring on mineral soils. Field-based measures of lichen cover and height were coupled with samples of lichen biomass to develop biomass prediction equations. The optimal model incorporated both cover and height, with landscape feature as a covariate. Although height significantly improved the equation fit, models were successfully developed with cover alone. Modeled lichen biomass differed significantly between landscape features, declining from peat plateau (502 g m−2) to upland forest (54.0 g m−2) and collapse scar (0.690 g m−2) environments. In the absence of permafrost collapse at any monitoring location, lichen biomass declined significantly over the ten years for peat plateaux (−75.6 g m−2) and upland forests (−17.5 g m−2). These results will be important for quantifying landscape-level lichen biomass changes under climate warming in boreal and subarctic environments.
34654Saha S., Pal A. & Paul S. (2021): A review on pharmacological, anti-oxidant activities and phytochemical constituents of a novel lichen Parmotrema species. - Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature, 11(3): 190–203. https://doi.org/10.1080/22311866.2021.1916596.
Increased resistance and side effects of synthetic pharmaceutical drugs have led to the exploration of bioactive compounds from alternative sources. Therefore, research on drug development from members of natural sources has gained much importance. Lichens are a unique association of fungi and algae, producing a wide array of secondary metabolites which has immense pharmacological activities. Lichen extracts have been used in traditional systems of medicines and are known to cure several diseases. Parmotrema is a large genus of foliose lichen belonging to the family Parmeliaceae. Parmeloid lichens are a diverse and ubiquitous group of lichens. Members of the Parmeliaceae family have been used in several traditional systems of medicines. One hundred and nine articles have been reported till date regarding pharmacological activities of Parmotrema species. Studies reveal that Parmotrema exhibits numerous biological activities ranging from anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-oxidative, and anti-proliferative properties. These properties can be attributed to the presence of pharmacologically active compounds like depsides, depsidones, phenolics, polysaccharides, lipids, diphenyl ethers, and dibenzofurans. The free radical scavenging activity and cytotoxicity specifically towards cancer cells infer that this lichen genus can have potential anti-cancer properties and should be extensively investigated for pharmaceutical purposes. This review dealt with the in-depth potentiality of this novel lichen Parmotrema species and its role in pharmacology.
34653Susithra E., Meena R., Chamundeeswari D., Rajasekhar C., Naveena Lavanya Latha J. & Basaveswara Rao M.V. (2022): Low molecular weight non-peptidyl antimalarial leads: Lichen metabolite, usnic acid and its analogues. - Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds, 42(8): 5020–5028. https://doi.org/10.1080/10406638.2021.1920985.
The search for newer antimicrobial agents is a developing and continuing process. With an aim to discover new antimalarial leads from natural sources, a unique lichen-derived metabolite namely, usnic acid (USA) and their analogues were screened against a chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 line using an in vitro parasite growth inhibition assay. A bio guided fractionation of USA, the molecule of interest, derived from the ether extract of the lichen, Usnea undulata, reported to exhibit significant protease enzyme inhibitory activity, was used as a natural product scaffold and was chemically modified to yield three hydrazine, viz usnic acid anhydro phenyl hydrazone (S1), usnic acid anhydro 4-nitro phenyl hydrazone (S2), usnic acid anhydro 2,4-dinitro phenyl hydrazone (S3) and two amino compounds namely usnic acid anhydro o-phenylene diamine derivative (S5) and usnic acid anhydro piperazine derivative (S6) respectively. These low molecular weight non-peptidyl newer chemical entities (USA, S1, S2, S3, S5 and S6) were tested in vitro against the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum and among all, the hydrazine moiety, usnic acid anhydro 4-nitro phenyl hydrazone (S2) was shown to the most active compound with an IC50 of 1.4105 M when compared to the parent pharmacophore, USA with an IC50 of 6.5105 M. The results reveal that lichen metabolite; USA offers a large scaffold for combinatorial outputs in developing lead candidates with potent antimalarial activity. Keywords: Antimalarial; parasite growth inhibition assay; semisynthetic derivatives; usnic acid.
34652Mendili M., Seaward M.R.D. & Khadhri A. (2022): Does the lichenicolous fungus Heterocephalacria bachmannii affect the antimicrobial potential of its host Cladonia foliacea?. - Natural Product Research, 36(12): 3095–3099. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2021.1933974.
The effects of the lichenicolous fungus Heterocephalacria bachmannii on the antimicrobial potential of the lichen Cladonia foliacea demonstrated that the extracts investigated have antimicrobial potential against gram-positive and negative bacteria, and yeast, and inhibit the germination of fungal spores. Inhibition activity varied considerably depending on the extract, the bacterial species, and the absence or presence of H. bachmannii; unparasitised C. foliacea has a higher antimicrobial activity. Methanol and acetone extracts of C. foliacea alone have higher inhibition diameters than C. foliacea with H. bachmannii against Enterobacter cloacae; the methanol extract of C. foliacea showed the best inhibition (250 µg/ml). C. foliacea also has a high lysozyme potential against Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus. Fungal hyphae of Alternaria alternata were more affected by the methanol extract from C. foliacea.
34651Bui V.M., Huynh B.L.C., Pham N.K.T., Nguyen T.A.T., Nguyen T.T.T., Nguyen K.P.P. & Nguyen T.P. (2022): Usneaceratins A and B, two new secondary metabolites from the lichen Usnea ceratina. - Natural Product Research, 36(15): 3945–3950. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2021.1901288.
Two new compounds, comprising one dibenzofuran, named usneaceratin A (1), and one phenolic acid, named usneaceratin B (2), together with one known dibenzofuran, isousnic acid (3), and two known phenolics, orsellinic acid (4) and methyl orsellinate (5) were clarified from the lichen Usnea ceratina using variously chromatographic methods. Their structures were testified by comprehensive HR-ESI-MS, and NMR spectroscopic analysis, and comparison with published data. Their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of all compounds was measured. Usneaceratin B (2) possessed better inhibition against α-glucosidase enzyme (IC50 value of 41.8 μM) than the standard drug acarbose (IC50 value of 214.50 μM).
34650Pham N.-K.-T., Nguyen H.T., Dao T.-B.-N., Vu-Huynh K.L., Nguyen T.-Q.-T., Huynh B.-L.-C., Le T.-D., Nguyen N.-H, Nguyen N.-H. & Duong T.-H. (2022): Two new phenolic compounds from the lichen Parmotrema cristiferum growing in Vietnam. - Natural Product Research, 36(15): 3865–3871. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2021.1892672.
Two new phenolic compounds, cristiferides A-B (1-2) together with six known compounds, 2,4-dihydroxyphthalide (3), lecanoric acid (4), orsellinic acid (5), 5-chloroorsellinic acid (6), methyl haematommate (7), and methyl β-orsellinate (8) were isolated from the lichen Parmotrema cristiferum (Taylor) Hale (Parmeliaceae). The structures of isolated compounds were identified from its spectroscopic data and by comparison with the literatures. Compounds 1-3 and 6-8 were evaluated for alpha-glucosidase inhibition. Compounds 2 and 7 revealed potent activity with IC50 values of 72.66 μM and 48.73 μM, respectively. Keywords: Lichen; Parmotrema cristiferum; cristiferides; depside; Parmeliaceae; monoaromatic compound; alpha-glucosidase.
34649Duong T.-H., Nguyen V.-K., Sichaem J., Tran T.-N., Do T.-H., Pham N.-K.-T., Nguyen T.-A.-T., Nguyen T.-H.-T., Mai D.-T., Nguyen N.-H. & Huynh B.-L.-C. (2022): Reticulatin, a novel C43-spiroterpenoid from the lichen Parmotrema reticulatum growing in Vietnam. - Natural Product Research, 36(14): 3705–3712. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2021.1885032.
A novel C43-spiroterpenoid, reticulatin (1), was isolated from the lichen Parmotrema reticulatum (Taylor) M. Choisy (Parmeliaceae). Five previously-reported compounds were also isolated: zeorin (2), leucotylin (3), lupeol (4), betulinic acid (5), and dihydroreynosin (6). The structures were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR, and HRESIMS spectroscopy and comparison with the literature. We propose that reticulatin is a biosynthetic product of fusicoccadiene and vinapraesorediosic acid A via Diels-Alder addition. Reticulatin is the first C43-spiroterpenoid identified from lichen metabolites. All compounds were evaluated for inhibition of α-glucosidase. Compound 1 showed the most potent inhibition, with an IC50 value of 3.90 μM, much lower than that of the acarbose positive control (IC50 165 µM). Keywords: Parmeliaceae; Parmotrema reticulatum; Lichen; C43-spiroterpenoidγ-lactonereticulatin; α-glucosidase.
34648Lendemer J.C. (2022): Recent literature on lichens—266. - Bryologist, 125(3): 501–504. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.3.499.
34647Allen J.L. & McMullin R.T. (2022): Assessing identification accuracy of research grade iNaturalist observations in lichens and other taxonomically difficult organisms. - Biodiversity Information Science and Standards, 6: e95689 [2 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3897/biss.6.95689.
Conference abstract
34646Yarzábal L.A., Buela L., de los Ríos A., Peláez D., Romero M., Espinoza F., Torres A.S., Medina G.M., Landi J.G. & Tapia M.V. (2022): Biological deterioration of an Inca monument at high altitude in the Andean range: A case study from Ingapirca’s Temple of the Sun (Ecuador). - Heritage, 5(3): 2504–2518. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage5030130.
Scientific studies concerning the causes and consequences of the biodeterioration of stone monuments located at high altitudes in permanently cold, mountainous regions are scarce. For that reason, this study aimed to detect and identify the bacteria involved in the deterioration of this type of monument. To achieve this goal, we focused on the most important archeological Inca site in the Ecuadorian Andes: Ingapirca’s Temple of the Sun, built approximately 500 years ago at 3.100 m.a.s.l. We first examined the stone surfaces of the temple by scanning electron microscopy and showed the detrimental impact on the mineral structure of the green andesite mineral used to build the temple, caused by crustose lichen thalli and heterotrophic bacteria. Then, we isolated, characterized, and identified several of these bacteria. Most of them multiplied at a wide range of temperatures, from 4 °C to 30 °C, and were thus considered eurypsychrophiles. Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria species dominated the culturable fraction of this community. Several isolates produced metabolites that solubilized mineral phosphates at low temperatures; others solubilized iron-containing mineral fractions in the green andesite rock when tested in vitro. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report related to the biodeterioration of an Inca monument at such an altitude in the Andes range. Keywords: Inca monument; biodeterioration; heterotrophic bacteria; eurypsychrophilic bacteria; Andean mountains.
34645Mikhailova I.N. (2022): Dynamics of distribution boundaries of epiphytic macrolichens after reduction of emissions from a copper smelter. - Russian Journal of Ecology, 53(5): 335–346. DOI: 10.1134/S1067413622050083.
[English translation of Russian Text published in Ekologiya, 2022, No. 5, pp. 321–333] Natural recovery of forest ecosystems after the termination of impacts caused by emissions from large industrial enterprises gives a clue to their sustainability mechanisms. However, the lack of data on dif- ferent ecosystem components, natural zones, and emission sources makes it impossible to identify general patterns of restorative successions. This paper examines the distribution and abundance dynamics of macrol- ichens growing on birch trunks in the southern taiga forests of the Middle Urals affected for many years by emissions from the Middle Ural Copper Smelter. Two periods were compared: (1) period of intense emissions (1995–1997); and (2) period of almost ceased emissions (2014–2016). In the interval between the two studied periods, technogenic boundaries of all studied lichen species distribution have shifted closer to the smelter, and the abundance of most species increased in all pollution zones, including the slightly polluted and back- ground zones. However, the frequency and abundance of the species still go down as the distance to the smelter decreases. The explerent species Tuckermanopsis sepincola demonstrates the opposite response: it dis- appears from background and slightly polluted areas reaching maximum abundance in the extremely severe pollution zone. Keywords: epiphytic lichens, sulfur dioxide, heavy metals, natural recovery, dynamics, sustainability, recolo- nization, environmental strategies, Middle Urals.
34644Valenzuela C., Leiva D., Carú M. & Orlando J. (2022): Prediction of the metabolic functions of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur cycling bacteria associated with the lichen Peltigera frigida. - Microbiology, 91(5): 604–610. DOI: 10.1134/S0026261721102117.
Lichens are currently interpreted as complex self-sustaining ecosystems formed by the interaction of the primary symbionts and other microorganisms. These microorganisms, which colonize the surface of lichen thalli, could be crucial actors in nutrient cycling. Here, we used PICRUSt2 to predict and compare the potential functions of bacteria closely associated with Peltigera frigida thalli and their substrates. We found that these bacteria could potentially transform organic and inorganic molecules related to nitrogen, phospho- rus, and sulfur cycles. Although further experiments to verify these potential contributions are required, these results reinforce the proposal of the nutrient-cycling role of bacteria associated with P. frigida. Keywords: lichen microbiome, nutrient cycling, functional prediction, Southern Chile.
34643Ureña-Vacas I., González-Burgos E., Divakar P.K. & Gómez-Serranillos M.P. (2022): Lichen extracts from cetrarioid clade provide neuroprotection against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. - Molecules, 27(19): 6520 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27196520.
Oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative diseases. Lichens have antioxidant properties attributed to their own secondary metabolites with phenol groups. Very few studies delve into the protective capacity of lichens based on their antioxidant properties and their action mechanism. The present study evaluates the neuroprotective role of Dactylina arctica, Nephromopsis stracheyi, Tuckermannopsis americana and Vulpicida pinastri methanol extracts in a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress model in neuroblastoma cell line “SH-SY5Y cells”. Cells were pretreated with different concentrations of lichen extracts (24 h) before H2O2 (250 µM, 1 h). Our results showed that D. arctica (10 µg/mL), N. stracheyi (25 µg/mL), T. americana (50 µg/mL) and V. pinastri (5 µg/mL) prevented cell death and morphological changes. Moreover, these lichens significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipid peroxidation and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and glutathione (GSH) levels. Furthermore, they attenuated mitochondrial membrane potential decline and calcium homeostasis disruption. Finally, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that the secondary metabolites were gyrophoric acid and lecanoric acid in D. artica, usnic acid, pinastric acid and vulpinic acid in V. pinastri, and alectoronic acid in T. americana. In conclusion, D. arctica and V. pinastri are the most promising lichens to prevent and to treat oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative diseases. Keywords: lichens; neuroprotection; cetrarioid clade; oxidative stress.
34642Acharius E. (1801): Nya och mindre kända Svenska Laf-arter, beskrifne. VII. Fortsättning. - Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar / Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [ser. 2], 22[2]: 157–168, tab. .
34641Carrillo W., Calva J. & Benítez Á. (2022): The use of bryophytes, lichens and bromeliads for evaluating air and water pollution in an Andean city. - Forests, 13(10): 1607 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101607.
Air and water pollution are global environmental problems; thus, bioindicators have become important tools for monitoring various pollutants, including metals and metalloids. Parmotrema arnoldii (Du Rietz) Hale and Tillandsia usneoides L. were evaluated as indicators of heavy metals in the air and Platyhypnidium aquaticum A. Jaeger and Marchantia polymorpha L. as indicators of heavy metals and a metalloid in water. The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) as air pollutants and aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and arsenic (As) as water pollutants were analyzed within four different zones (control, northern, central and southern) in an Andean city of Ecuador. The level of metal concentrations in the air for P. arnoldii and T. usneoides had the following order of concentration: Zn > Mn > Pb > Cd > Cu. In the case of water, P. aquaticum pointed out a concentration of Al > Mn > Fe > Zn > As > Pb > Cd and proved to be more effective in detecting water pollution than the species M. polymorpha, which had a concentration of Al >Zn > Fe > Cd >As > Mn > Pb. P. aquaticum showed a higher capacity to accumulate heavy metals than M. polymorpha; therefore, it can be used as a model species for passive water quality monitoring. However, P. arnoldii and T. usneoides showed similar heavy metal accumulation related to air quality. The passive monitoring of air quality using bromeliads and lichens as well as bryophytes for water quality proved their effectiveness and applicability in tropical regions such as Ecuador. Keywords: passive biomonitoring; metal; lichen; bromeliad; mosses.
34640Belguidoum A., Lograda T. & Ramdani M. (2022): The lichen flora on Quercus in the Tamentout Forest of Algeria. - Phytotaxa, 566(2): 200–208. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.566.2.4.
Lichens are major components of forest ecosystems. However, their accurate identification at species level is often difficult, especially in poorly investigated areas. The objective of this study is an inventory of epiphytic lichens in the Tamentout Forest on three types of phorophytes, Quercus faginea, Q. suber and Q. ilex. In this region, 68 epiphytic lichen species have been identified, belonging to 23 families and 36 genera. The specific richness on the three phorophytes was different. Quercus suber, the dominant phorophyte, supports the highest number of species compared to Q. faginea, and Q. ilex. An analysis of growth forms shows that all are represented in the study area. However, crustose and foliose lichens are the most common ones. As a result of our inventory, we report Parmeliella testacea new to Algeria, and list 20 lichen species now protected by Algerian legislation. Keywords: Algeria, Lichens, Biodiversity, Epiphytes, Quercus, Tamentout Forest.
34639Robison A., Baugh M., Muggia L. & Leavitt S.D. (2022): Fruticose lichen communities at the edge: Distribution and diversity in a desert sky island on the Colorado Plateau. - Conservation, 2(4): 550–565. https://doi.org/10.3390/conservation2040037.
Subalpine habitats in sky islands in the Southwestern USA are currently facing large-scale transformations. Lichens have widely been used as bioindicators of environmental change. On the Colorado Plateau, fruticose lichens occur in patchy, disconnected populations, including unique lichen-draped conifer sites in subalpine forests in the La Sal Mountains in southeastern Utah. Here, we document the distribution and fungal diversity within these lichen communities. We find that lichen-draped conifer sites in the La Sal Mountains are restricted to only three known, small areas in Picea englemannii forests above 3000 m above sea level, two of which have recently been impacted by wildfire. We document 30 different species of lichen-forming fungi in these communities, several which represent the first reports from the Colorado Plateau. We also characterize mycobiont haplotype diversity for the fruticose lichens Evernia divaricata, Ramalina sinensis, and multiple Usnea species. We also report a range of diverse fungi associated with these lichens, including genetic clusters representing 22 orders spanning seven classes of Ascomycetes and fewer clusters representing Basidiomycetes. Our results provide a baseline for ongoing monitoring and help to raise awareness of unique lichen communities and other biodiversity in the region. Keywords: amplicon sequencing; biodiversity; biomonitoring; ecological sampling; epiphyte; Illumina; fungi; internal transcribed spacer region (ITS); inventory; ITS2; subalpine; semi-arid.
34638Zhang T., Zhu X., Vizzini A., Li B., Cao Z., Guo W., Qi S., Wei X. & Zhao R. (2022): New insights into lichenization in Agaricomycetes based on an unusual new basidiolichen species of Omphalina s. str.. - Journal of Fungi, 8(10): 1033 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8101033.
The genus Omphalina is an ideal genus for studying the evolutionary mechanism of lichenization. Based on molecular phylogeny using ITS and nuLSU sequences by means of Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses and morphological examination, combining the existence of green algae in basidiomata stipe and a Botrydina-type vegetative thallus, we described a bryophilous new basidiolichen species, Omphalina licheniformis, from a residential area of Jiangxi Province, China. This finding of unusual new basidiolichen species updated our understanding of the delimitation of Omphalina, indicating that both non-lichen-forming and lichen-forming fungal species are included simultaneously. The presence of algal cells in the basidiomata should receive more attention, as this would be helpful to distinguish more potential basidiolichens and explore the cryptic species diversity. This work provides new insights and evidence for understanding the significance of lichenization during the evolution of Agaricomycetes. Keywords: agaricales; basidiolichen; basidiomycota; fruiting body; green algae; phenotype; systematics; new taxon.
34637Vasarri M., Ponti L., Degl’Innocenti D. & Bergonzi M.C.C. (2022): Usnic acid-loaded polymeric micelles: An optimal migrastatic-acting formulation in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. - Pharmaceuticals, 15(10): 1207 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15101207.
Usnic acid (UA) is one of the most abundant and common metabolites of lichens, known for its numerous pharmacological properties. Nevertheless, it presents some criticalities that severely limit its use in therapy: poor solubility in water and significant hepatotoxicity. Soluplus and Solutol HS15 and D-α-Tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) were employed to develop polymeric micelles (UA–PM). The chemical and physical properties of the system were characterized, including the size, homogeneity, zeta potential, critical micellar concentration (CMC), encapsulation efficiency (EE%), and in vitro release. The freeze-drying process was considered to prevent agglomeration and improve the stability of the formulation. The stability of the micelles and the freeze-dried product (UA–PML) was also evaluated. The anti-migratory activity of UA and UA–PM was evaluated in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells using the wound healing assay. Their effect on the activity of metalloproteinases (MMP)-2/9 involved in the migration process of cells was verified by gelatin zymography. The optimized UA–PM contained Soluplus, Solutol HS15, and TPGS in a 1:4:0.5 weight ratio and increased the aqueous solubility to about 150-fold solubilized, solubilizing 0.5 mg/mL of UA. UA–PM has a small size (45.39 ± 0.31 nm), a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.26 ± 0.01, and an EE% of 82.13 ± 5.57%. The colloidal dispersion was stable only for 9 days at 4 °C, while the freeze-drying process improved the stability for up to 30 days. UA was released for a prolonged period during the in vitro release study. The in vitro cell-based experiments showed that UA–PM (0.2 µg/mL) inhibited SH-SY5Y cell migration and the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2/9 in culture media, while free UA at the same concentration exerted no biological activity. This study demonstrates that polymeric micelles are an excellent formulation for UA to manifest inhibitory action on neuroblastoma cell migration. Keywords: usnic acid; polymeric micelles; solubility; SH-SY5Y; wound-healing assay; cell migration; metalloproteinases.
34636Sipman H. & Raus T. (2020): Lichens and lichenicolous fungi on the island Skiros, Aegean Sea, Greece. - Parnassiana Archives, 8: 18–49. .
From the isolated Aegean island Skiros ("Skyros") in Greece we report 229 species of lichenized fungi, and 8 species of lichenicolous, non-lichenized fungi. 7 Lichenized fungi (Caloplaca arcis (Poelt & Vězda) Arup, C. scotoplaca (Nyl.) H. Magn., Collema euthallinum (Zahlbr.) Degel., Lecidea erythrophaea Flörke ex Sommerf., Lichenomphalia meridionalis (Contu & La Rocca) P.-A. Moreau & Courtec., Polyblastia dermatodes A. Massal., and Waynea giraltiae van den Boom) and 3 lichenicolous fungi (Arthonia punctella Nyl., Lichenodiplis pertusariicola (Nyl.) Diederich, and Pyrenidium actinellum Nyl.) are new to Greece. A full list with vouchers, habitat information and in some cases secundary chemistry, ITS sequences and comments is presented. Keywords: lichenized fungi, distribution, systematics, Mediterranean, diversity, lichenicolous fungi, Aegean Sea, Acer sempervirens-Quercus coccifera forest.
34635Lohtander K., Källersjö M., Moberg R. & Tehler A. (2000): The family Physciaceae in Fennoscandia: phylogeny inferred from ITS sequences. - Mycologia, 92(4): 728–735. .
The internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2), and the 5.8S region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA were sequenced for 52 specimens representing 35, mostly foliose, taxa of the lichen family Physciaceae (Lecanorales). The sequences were phylogenetically analyzed using parsimony jackknifing. Xanthoria parietina and X. sorediata were chosen as outgroups. Because of the variable nature of the ITS regions parsimony jackknifing analyses were performed on different alignments. The analyses resulted in trees with several shared, well-supported groups. A consensus tree, summarizing all the trees from different alignments was also calculated. In that tree the family Physciaceae formed a monophyletic group. Some of the crustose species of Physciaceae (in the genera Amandinea, Buellia and Dimelaena) appeared as two sister groups to the rest of the family. In this latter group Physcia, Heterodermia speciosa and Mobergia calculiformis constituted the sister group to the remaining family, which included the genera Anaptychia, Hyperphyscia, Phaeorrhiza, Phaeophyscia, Physconia, and Rinodina. The genus Phaeophyscia was found to be monophyletic with 100% support. Anaptychia and Physconia, together with Phaeorrhiza nimbosa and Rinodina turfacea formed its sister group. Hyperphyscia adglutinata was found in a trichotomy with the other two groups. Key Words: Ascomycetes, Lecanorales, lichenized fungi.
34634González-Montelongo C. & Pérez-Vargas I. (2022): Together apart: Evaluating lichen-phorophyte specificity in the Canarian laurel forest. - Journal of Fungi, 8: 1031 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8101031.
The effects of host tree identity on epiphyte lichen communities are a controversial issue, as the results obtained in different forest environments studied are not consistent. We investigated the host preferences for lichens in the laurel forest ofMacaronesia. For this purpose, we analyzed the lichen communities growing on the four most common trees (Erica canariensis Rivas-Mart., M. Osorio and Wildpret, Morella faya (Aiton) Wilbur, Laurus novoca-nariensis Rivas-Mart., Lousa, Fern. Prieto, E. Días, J.C. Costa and C. Aguiar, and Ilex canariensis Poir. in Lamarck) in the laurel forest of the Canary Islands. The diversity, richness, and lichen composition showed a repetitive and common pattern with the functional traits studied. Although the existence of specificity with respect to the phorophyte species was not demonstrated, there was a clear affinity of the epiphytic lichens to the physico-chemical features of the bark (texture and pH), canopy architecture, foliar characteristics, etc. Our results highlight the importance of the natural diversity of tree species in the laurel forest. Due to the diversity and uniqueness of the lichen species that support each of the phorophytes, this fact should be taken into account in landscape protection and restoration actions, especially in those islands where the forest is highly fragmented. Keywords: Canary Islands; epiphytic lichen; laurel forest; Macaronesia; phorophyte.
34633Vinuesa M.L.A., Sanches-Puelles J.M. & Tibell L. (2001): Intraspecific variation in Mycocalicium subtile (Mycocaliciaceae) elucidated by morphology and the sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. - Mycological Research, 105(3): 323–330. .
The aim of the present paper is to investigate if Mycocalicium subtile as presently circumscribed is a morphologically highly variable species, or in fact represents two or more cryptic species, and further to investigate the status of M. minutellum. The morphological variation of 19 specimens of Mycocalicium subtile from five continents was investigated and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of their rDNA sequenced. Sequences from closely related taxa, 4 specimens of M. albonigrum, 2 of Mycocalicium sp., and Chaenothecopsis nana were also included. For comparison the corresponding sequence of M. victoriae and C. pusilla were also determined. We used the sequence of Monascus purpureus as the outgroup for the analysis. The sequences were used for phylogenetic inference using parsimony and distance methods. All the specimens assigned to M. subtile with the exception of two, form a well-supported monophyletic group. Those two specimens represent a morphologically cryptic, but genetically distinctive taxon. The infraspecific clades of M. subtile in the molecular phylogeny did not correspond to geographical origin. Only a weak correlation with geographical origin was found in the morphological analysis. The molecular analysis supports the suggestion that Mycocalicium minutellum is a taxonomic synonym of M. subtile.
34632Svensson M. & Fryday A.M. (2022): Gilbertaria, a first crustose genus in the Sphaerophoraceae (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota) for Catillaria contristans, Toninia squalescens and related species. - Mycological Progress, 21: 90 [23 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-022-01838-5.
Lecideoid lichen-forming fungi are a large, heterogeneous group that includes many species described during the nineteenth century that are of unclear taxonomic status. We revise such a group, the species of which have previously been treated under the much-misunderstood names Catillaria contristans or Toninia squalescens, and use a seven-locus phylogeny to determine its phylogenetic position. We found strong support for a previously unrecognized monophyletic lineage within the Sphaerophoraceae, comprising five phylogenetic species, and describe the new genus Gilbertaria to accommodate them. The new genus is characterized by a crustose growth form, 1-septate ascospores, thick ((1.5–)2–3(–4) μm wide) paraphyses and asci of the Biatora-type. We revise the nomenclature and give new delimitations and descriptions of the Northern Hemisphere species Gilbertaria contristans comb. nov., G. holomeloides comb. nov., G. squalescens comb. nov. and describe the new species G. astrapeana from the Falkland Islands. Keywords: Catillaria . Five new taxa . Lecidea . Phylogeny . Three new typifications . Taxonomy.
34631Menshakova M., Huber M., Gainanova R., Surovets V., Moiseeva N., Nizikova A. & Mashinets M. (2022): Content of heavy metals in the lichens of winter reindeer pastures of the Timan and Bolshezemelskaya tundras. - Agriculture, 12(10): 1560 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12101560.
This article is devoted to the study of the contents of zinc, cadmium, copper, and lead in lichen in the pastures of reindeer studs in the Timan and Bolshezemelskaya tundras. These areas are located in the Arctic part of Russia, to the west of the Polar Urals. These are areas where carbonate and sandstone rocks of the Permian–Mesozoic age dominate under the soil cover, as well as older deposits located in the western part of the research area (dated to the Cambrian–Devonian period). In these rocks, there is mineralization with metals, including copper. Research carried out in 2018 showed that in the surface layer of lichens, the concentration of metals was assessed differently in the upper, middle, and lower parts of the hill. On this basis, it was possible to identify clean and contaminated pastures. The high copper content in some pastures can be explained by the migration of metal ions from the parent rock. Due to the similar ionic radius of copper and the higher electrocativity in relation to zinc, the metal was probably displaced in the lichen. The observed concentrations can cause high levels of metals in the tissues and organs of deer. A high content of metals in lichens was found in samples collected near industrial enterprises, as well as at a considerable distance from them. At the same time, lichens at some locations near boiler houses or oil rigs are quite pure. In this regard, it has been suggested that the source of pollutants can be either natural factors (copper-bearing sands) or the ingress of metals from a remotely located source. Keywords: heavy metals; lead; copper; biological permeability; lichens; reindeer pastures.
34630Toure S., Millot M., Ory L., Roullier C., Khaldi Z., Pichon V., Girardot M., Imbert C. & Mambu L. (2022): Access to anti-biofilm compounds from endolichenic fungi using a bioguided networking screening. - Journal of Fungi, 8(10): 1012 [20 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8101012.
Endolichenic microorganisms represent a new source of bioactive natural compounds. Lichens, resulting from a symbiotic association between algae or cyanobacteria and fungi, constitute an original ecological niche for these microorganisms. Endolichenic fungi inhabiting inside the lichen thallus have been isolated and characterized. By cultivation on three different culture media, endolichenic fungi gave rise to a wide diversity of bioactive metabolites. A total of 38 extracts were screened for their anti-maturation effect on Candida albicans biofilms. The 10 most active ones, inducing at least 50% inhibition, were tested against 24 h preformed biofilms of C. albicans, using a reference strain and clinical isolates. The global molecular network was associated to bioactivity data in order to identify and priorize active natural product families. The MS-targeted isolation led to the identification of new oxygenated fatty acid in Preussia persica endowed with an interesting anti-biofilm activity against C. albicans yeasts. Keywords: endolichenic fungi; Candida biofilms; metabolomic; fatty acids.
34629Valim H.F., DalGrande F., Otte J., Singh G., Merges D. & Schmitt I. (2022): Identification and expression of functionally conserved circadian clock genes in lichen‑forming fungi. - Scientific Reports, 12: 15884 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-19646-y.
Lichen-forming fungi establish stable symbioses with green algae or cyanobacteria. Many species have broad distributions, both in geographic and ecological space, making them ideal subjects to study organism-environment interactions. However, little is known about the specific mechanisms that contribute to environmental adaptation in lichen-forming fungi. The circadian clock provides a well-described mechanism that contributes to regional adaptation across a variety of species, including fungi. Here, we identify the putative circadian clock components in phylogenetically divergent lichen-forming fungi. The core circadian genes (frq, wc-1, wc-2, frh) are present across the Fungi, including 31 lichen-forming species, and their evolutionary trajectories mirror overall fungal evolution. Comparative analyses of the clock genes indicate conserved domain architecture among lichen- and non-lichen-forming taxa. We used RT-qPCR to examine the core circadian loop of two unrelated lichen-forming fungi, Umbilicaria pustulata (Lecanoromycetes) and Dermatocarpon miniatum (Eurotiomycetes), to determine that the putative frq gene is activated in a light-dependent manner similar to the model fungus Neurospora crassa. Together, these results demonstrate that lichen-forming fungi retain functional light-responsive mechanisms, including a functioning circadian clock. Our findings provide a stepping stone into investigating the circadian clock in the lichen symbiosis, e.g. its role in adaptation, and in synchronizing the symbiotic interaction.
34628Printzen C., Brackel W. v., Bültmann H., Cezanne R., Dolnik C., Dornes P., Eckstein J., Eichler M., John V., Killmann D., Nimis P.L., Otte V., Schiefelbein U., Schultz M., Stordeur R., Teuber D. & Thüs H. (2022): Die Flechten, flechtenbewohnenden und flechtenähnlichen Pilze Deutschlands – eine überarbeitete Checkliste. - Herzogia, 35: 193–393. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.1.2022.193.
The present work lists 2051 lichens, 520 lichenicolous and 55 allied fungi, altogether 2626 taxa and their synonyms, whose occurrence has been reported from the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany by the end of 2021. The list is based on the last species list published in 2011 and comprises 326 new records as well as 428 nomenclatural changes published in 253 publications between 2012 and 2021. The list also includes 114 taxa, mostly from the Verrucariaceae, whose status is still considered problematic. Key words: Biodiversity, Central Europe, taxonomic reference.
34627Gaya E., Fernández-Brime S., Vargas R., Lachlan R.F., Gueidan C., Ramírez-Mejía M. & Lutzoni F. (2015): The adaptive radiation of lichen-forming Teloschistaceae is associated with sunscreening pigments and a bark-to-rock substrate shift. - The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(37): 11600–11605. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1507072112.
Adaptive radiations play key roles in the generation of biodiversity and biological novelty, and therefore understanding the factors that drive them remains one of the most important challenges of evolutionary biology. Although both intrinsic innovations and extrinsic ecological opportunities contribute to diversification bursts, few studies have looked at the synergistic effect of such factors. Here we investigate the Teloschistales (Ascomycota), a group of >1,000 lichenized species with variation in species richness and phenotypic traits that hinted at a potential adaptive radiation. We found evidence for a dramatic increase in diversification rate for one of four families within this order—Teloschistaceae—which occurred ∼100 Mya (Late Cretaceous) and was associated with a switch from bark to rock and from shady to sun-exposed habitats. This adaptation to sunny habitats is likely to have been enabled by a contemporaneous key novel phenotypic innovation: the production in both vegetative structure (thallus) and fruiting body (apothecia) of anthraquinones, secondary metabolites known to protect against UV light. We found that the two ecological factors (sun exposure and rock substrate) and the phenotypic innovation (anthraquinones in the thallus) were all significant when testing for state-dependent shifts in diversification rates, and together they seem likely to be responsible for the success of the Teloschistaceae, one of the largest lichen-forming fungal lineages. Our results support the idea that adaptive radiations are driven not by a single factor or key innovation, but require a serendipitous combination of both intrinsic biotic and extrinsic abiotic and ecological factors. Keywords: adaptive radiation | lichens | sunlight protection | substrate switch | Teloschistaceae.
34626Jiang S.-H., Zhang C., Xue X.-D., Aptroot A., Wei J.-C. & Wei X.-L. (2022): Morphological and phylogenetic characterizations reveal five new species of Astrothelium (Trypetheliales, Ascomycota) from China. - Journal of Fungi, 8(10): 994 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8100994.
The lichenized fungal genus Astrothelium is an important element of crustose lichen communities in tropical to subtropical forests. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic approaches to investigate species diversity of Astrothelium (Trypetheliaceae) from Southern China were carried out in this study. Bayesian and maximum-likelihood (ML) analyses were generated based on the combined data set of internal transcribed spacer (ITS), partial regions of the nuclear ribosomal large subunit (LSU), and the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II gene sequences (RPB1). The morphological comparison with the known Astrothelium taxa and molecular phylogeny support five new species: Astrothelium jiangxiense sp. nov., A. luminothallinum sp. nov., A. pseudocrassum sp. nov., A. subeustominspersum sp. nov., and A. subrufescens sp. nov. All these species are described and illustrated in detail. Keywords: diversity; morphology; new taxa; Trypetheliaceae; phylogeny.
34625Marín C., Barták M., Palfner G., Vergara-Barros P., Fernandoy F., Hájek J. & Casanova-Katny A. (2022): Antarctic lichens under long-term passive warming: Species-specific photochemical responses to desiccation and heat shock treatments. - Plants, 11(19): 2463 [23 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192463.
Climate warming in the Antarctic tundra will affect locally dominant cryptogams. Being adapted to low temperatures and freezing, little is known about the response of the polar lichens’ primary photochemistry to warming and desiccation. Since 2008, we have monitored the ecophysiological responses of lichens to the future warming scenario during a long-term warming experiment through open top chambers (OTCs) on Fildes Peninsula. We studied the primary photochemical response (potential Fv/Fm and effective efficiency of photosystem II YPSII) of different lichen taxa and morphotypes under desiccation kinetics and heat shock experiments. As lichens grow slowly, to observe changes during warming we methodologically focused on carbon and nitrogen content as well as on the stable isotope ratios. Endemic Himantormia lugubris showed the strongest effect of long-term warming on primary photochemistry, where PSII activity occurred at a lower %RWC inside the OTCs, in addition to higher Fv/Fm values at 30 °C in the heat shock kinetic treatment. In contrast, Usnea aurantiaco-atra did not show any effect of long-term warming but was active at a thallus RWC lower than 10%. Both Cladonia species were most affected by water stress, with Cladonia aff. gracilis showing no significant differences in primary photochemical responses between the warming and the control but a high sensibility to water deficiency, where, at 60% thallus RWC, the photochemical parameters began to decrease. We detected species-specific responses not only to long-term warming, but also to desiccation. On the other hand, the carbon content did not vary significantly among the species or because of the passive warming treatment. Similarly, the nitrogen content showed non-significant variation; however, the C/N ratio was affected, with the strongest C/N decrease in Cladonia borealis. Our results suggest that Antarctic lichens can tolerate warming and high temperature better than desiccation and that climate change may affect these species if it is associated with a decrease in water availability. Keywords: chlorophyll fluorescence; nitrogen isotope; climate change; thermal shock.
34624Halıcı M.G., Güllü M., Bölükbaşı E. & Kahraman Yiğit M. (2022): Shackletonia backorii - A new species of lichenised fungus from James Ross Island (Antarctic Peninsula). - Turkish Journal of Botany, 46(5): 500–506. https://doi.org/10.55730/1300-008X.2725.
The new lichen species Shackletonia backorii Halıcı, Güllü & Kahraman is described from James Ross Island, which is located in the North-East Antarctic Peninsula region. The new species is morphologically most similar to S. insignis (Søchting & Øvstedal) Søchting, Frödén & Arup, which was described from Livingstone Island (North-West Antarctic Peninsula region). These two species have a similar bluish grey to blackish thallus with a microfruticose and coralloid structure and red brown or almost black zeorine apothecia, but S. backorii has rhomboid ascospores and grows on soil whereas S. insignis has ellipsoid ascospores and occurs in sheltered crevices of rocks. The nrITS and mtSSU gene regions of the new species are studied and the phylogenetic position of the species is in the genus Shackletonia within the subfamily Xanthorioideae and it is clearly separated from the other species of the genus. Key words: Antarctica, biodiversity, lichenized fungi, Teloschistaceae.
34623Monaci F., Ancora S., Paoli L., Loppi S. & Wania F. (2022): Lichen transplants as indicators of gaseous elemental mercury concentrations. - Environmental Pollution, 313: 120189 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.120189.
Lichens play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of mercury (Hg) and are commonly used as indicators of Hg enrichment in remote and anthropogenically impacted environments. To assess their capacity for Hg uptake and accumulation, we determined the concentration of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) in air and the concentration of total Hg (THg) in transplanted thalli of two lichen species. Lichen transplants and passive air samplers (PASs) were concurrently deployed, side by side, at 10 sites within an abandoned mining area, characterized by large gradients in atmospheric Hg contamination. Highly variable time-weighted GEM concentrations determined by the PASs, ranging from 17 to 4,200 ng/m3, were mirrored by generally high Hg concentrations in transplanted thalli of both Xanthoria parietina (174–8,800 ng/g) and Evernia prunastri (143–5,500 ng/g). Hg concentrations in the two species co-varied linearly indicating about 60% greater Hg accumulation in X. parietina than in E. prunastri. Whereas Hg uptake in the fruticose E. prunastri increased linearly with GEM, a power law equation with a fractional exponent described the uptake in the foliose X. parietina. Extrapolating the relationships observed here to higher GEM levels yielded concentrations in lichen that agree very well with those measured in an earlier fumigation experiment performed under laboratory-controlled conditions. The uptake model of X. parietina was further verified by correctly estimating GEM concentrations from the THg measured in autochthonous thalli collected from the urban area adjacent to the mine site. Passive sampling can effectively provide time-weighted data of suitable spatial resolution to quantitatively describe GEM assimilation by lichens. Therefore, the combined use of passive sampling and lichen transplants can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the role of lichens, and potentially also of other cryptogams, in the deposition of atmospheric Hg to terrestrial ecosystems.
34622Kantelinen A., Purhonen J., Halme P. & Myllys L. (2022): Growth form matters – Crustose lichens on dead wood are sensitive to forest management. - Forest Ecology and Management, 524: 120529 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2022.120529.
Lichens have a vital role in forest ecosystems and they are a threatened group in boreal forests. However, the conservation ecology of the total lichen community has very rarely been studied. Here we studied lichen species and communities, including macrolichens (=foliose and fruticose growth forms) and rarely studied crustose lichens, on decaying wood in boreal spruce-dominated forests in Finland. We also studied obligate lignicoles that grow only on dead wood and are mostly crustose in growth form. Species richness and community composition were examined on decaying logs and natural or cut stumps of Picea abies at different decay stages (2–5) in 14 stands, half of which were natural or seminatural and half recently managed. We used thorough search to yield a species list as close to complete as possible. Our study questions were: 1) Are species richness and lichen communities different in natural and managed forests, and if so, are there differences between macrolichens, crustose lichens and obligate lignicoles in how they respond to forest management? 2) How does the decay stage and dead wood type affect the lichens, i.e. are there differences between stumps and logs? We found a total of 127 lichen species. Most (75 %) of the recorded lichen species were crustose. With a generalized linear model we found that crustose lichens and obligate lignicoles had a higher species richness in natural than managed forests, but macrolichen richness was not significantly affected by forest management. Utilizing non-metric multidimensional scaling we discovered that site level community composition of macrolichens, crustose lichens and obligate lignicoles was also significantly different between natural and managed forests. We found that on dead wood unit level the decay stage had a significant effect on species richness and community composition, so that the species richness of all studied groups declined during the decay process. The dead wood type (stump vs log) had a significant effect on species richness of macrolichens and obligate lignicoles, both for which species richness was higher on logs than on stumps, as well as on the communities of crustose lichens. Keywords: Wood-inhabiting species; Conservation; Red listed lichens; Boreal forests.
34621Kantelinen A., Printzen C., Poczai P. & Myllys L. (2022): Lichen speciation is sparked by a substrate requirement shift and reproduction mode differentiation. - Scientific Reports, 12: 11048 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-14970-9.
We show that obligate lignicoles in lichenized Micarea are predominately asexual whereas most facultative lignicoles reproduce sexually. Our phylogenetic analyses (ITS, mtSSU, Mcm7) together with ancestral state reconstruction show that the shift in reproduction mode has evolved independently several times within the group and that facultative and obligate lignicoles are sister species. The analyses support the assumption that the ancestor of these species was a facultative lignicole. We hypothezise that a shift in substrate requirement from bark to wood leads to differentiation in reproduction mode and becomes a driver of speciation. This is the first example of lichenized fungi where reproduction mode is connected to substrate requirement. This is also the first example where such an association is demonstrated to spark lichen speciation. Our main hypothesis is that obligate species on dead wood need to colonize new suitable substrata relatively fast and asexual reproduction is more effective a strategy for successful colonization.
34620Blázquez M. (2022): Preliminary checklist of the lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain). - Botanica Complutensis, 46: 1–45. https://dx.doi.org/10.5209/bocm.81990.
A preliminary checklist of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi of Castilla-La Mancha is presented. A total of 5064 records have been compiled from 204 publications. The number of taxa ascends to 832, of which 820 are species and 12 infraspecific taxa. Of these 763 are lichenized and 69 correspond to lichenicolous fungi. Keywords. Lichens, checklist, lichen diversity, Castilla-La Mancha, Spain.
34619Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2022): Ядро заповедника «Кологривский лес» (Россия) – горячая точка биоразнообразия лишайников южной тайги в Восточной Европе [The core of the Kologriv Forest State Nature Reserve (Russia) is a hotspot of lichen biodiversity in the southern taiga of Eastern Europe]. - Nature Conservation Research. Заповедная наука, 7(3): 46–63. https://dx.doi.org/10.24189/ncr.2022.029.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] In this study, we aim to evaluate the diversity of lichens and allied non-lichenised fungi, co-existing in dark-coniferous and broad-leaved forests of the southern taiga in the East European Plain. The Kologriv Forest State Nature Reserve (589 km2) was established in 2006 to preserve the last fragments of the unique primeval forests of the southern taiga. The territory of the Kologriv cluster of the Kologriv Forest State Nature Reserve (481 km2) is located in the north of the Kostroma Region (Russia). The main phorophytes in this cluster are Picea abies, Tilia cordata, Betula pubescens, and Abies sibirica. In our time-limited study (four days in May 2021), we selected a 10 000-m2 (hereinafter – 1-ha) plot (a presumed lichen diversity hotspot) in the primeval forest stand in the core of the Kologriv cluster of the Kologriv Forest State Nature Reserve (58.80164° N, 43.98533° E, at altitude ca. 200 m a.s.l.). For a detailed study of the species composition of lichens on this plot, all types of substrates were examined, including trunks and branch surface of various tree species under various conditions, dead and rotting wood of snags, stumps, and fallen logs. In addition, 22 points in various parts of the protected core were examined by the route method in May 2019 and May 2021. This detailed survey in the primeval forest in the core of the Kologriv Forest State Nature Reserve has revealed an unexpectedly high lichen diversity: 230 species recorded in a single 1-ha plot is equal to or much more than the number of species recorded in several Protected Areas of far larger sizes in European Russia. The number of species found on this plot is 73% of the one recorded in the whole protected core (316 species) and 58% of the lichen diversity known in the entire area of the Kologriv Forest State Nature Reserve (398 species). The genus Asterophoma is new for European Russia. The genera Bachmanniomyces and Bryostigma are new for the lichen flora of the middle belt of European Russia. There are 91 species listed for the first time for the lichen flora of the Kologriv Forest State Nature Reserve. Of them, 83 species are new to the Kostroma Region. Two species (Micarea synotheoides and Stigmidium exasperatum) are new to Russia. Rinodina macrospora was found for the first time in Europe. Three species, Asterophoma mazaediicola, Biatora veteranorum, and Biatoropsis minuta, are new to European Russia. 13 species were found for the first time in the middle belt of European Russia: Bachmanniomyces punctum, Bryostigma lapidicola, Heterocephalacria bachmannii, Lepra borealis, Micarea byssacea, M. melaeniza, M. nowakii, M. pseudomicrococca, M. pycnidiophora, Ochrolechia mahluensis, Scoliciosporum perpusillum, Skyttea gregaria, Stigmidium congestum, Trapeliopsis gelatinosa, Xylographa soralifera. Four threatened species (Leptogium burnetiae, Lobaria pulmonaria, Menegazzia terebrata and Nephromopsis laureri) are listed in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation. We have made a comparison of the lichen flora diversity found in the core of the Kologriv Forest State Nature Reserve with previously obtained data in Western and Central Europe. The core of the Kologriv Forest State Nature Reserve meets the criteria of a hotspot of lichen biodiversity on the European level. We would like to emphasise the importance of finding such hotspots of lichen diversity by an inventory of the lichen flora in other Protected Areas. Keywords: biodiversity, inventory, Kostroma Region, lichen flora, Micarea synotheoides, primeval forest, Rinodina macrospora, Stigmidium exasperatum, Usnea longissima, virgin forests.
34618Petrová K., Bačkorová M., Demčišáková Z., Petrovová E., Goga M., Vilková M., Frenák R., Bačkor M., Mojžiš J. & Kello M. (2022): Usnic acid isolated from Usnea antarctica (Du Rietz) reduced in vitro angiogenesis in VEGF- and bFGF-stimulated HUVECs and ex ovo in quail chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. - Life, 12(9): 1444 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/life12091444.
Natural products include a diverse set of compounds of drug discovery that are currently being actively used to target tumor angiogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-angiogenic activities of secondary metabolite usnic acid isolated from Usena antarctica. We investigated the in vitro effects on proliferation, migration, and tube formation of VEGF- and bFGF-stimulated HUVECs. Ex ovo anti-angiogenic activity was evaluated using the CAM assay. Our findings demonstrated that usnic acid in the concentration of 33.57 µM inhibited VEGF (25 ng/mL) and bFGF (30 ng/mL)-induced HUVECs proliferation, migration, and tube formation. The ex ovo CAM model was used to confirm the results obtained from in vitro studies. VEGF- and bFGF-induced vessel formation was inhibited by usnic acid after 72 h in over 2-fold higher concentrations compared to in vitro. Subsequently, histological sections of affected chorioallantoic membranes were stained with hematoxylin–eosin and alcian blue to determine the number and diameter of vessels as well as the thickness of the individual CAM layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm). Usnic acid was able to suppress the formation of VEGF- and bFGF-induced vessels with a diameter of less than 100 μm, which was demonstrated by the reduction of mesoderm thickness as well. Keywords: angiogenesis; bFGF; CAM; HUVECs; usnic acid; VEGF.
34617Vallese C., Di Musciano M., Muggia L., Giordani P., Francesconi L., Benesperi R., Chiarucci A., Di Cecco V., Di Martino L., Di Nuzzo L., Gheza G., Zannini P. & Nascimbene J. (2022): Water-energy relationships shape the phylogenetic diversity of terricolous lichen communities in Mediterranean mountains: Implications for conservation in a climate change scenario. - Fungal Ecology, 60: 101189 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2022.101189.
Lichens are symbiotic organisms sensitive to climate change and susceptible to a severe decline in diversity, especially in high elevation environments that are already threatened. In this study, we focused on water-energy relationships derived from climatic variables and phylogenetic diversity indices of terricolous lichen communities occurring on a representative Mediterranean mountain. We hypothesized that the variation of precipitation and temperature and their interaction along the altitudinal gradient will shape the phylogenetic diversity and structure of lichen communities. Our results reveal that dry and arid conditions lead to a strong loss in phylogenetic diversity with consequent impoverishment of high elevation lichen communities under a climate change scenario. The interaction between variables, reflecting water-energy relationships with phylogenetic and community diversity patterns, suggests that in a future climate change scenario, the novel climatic conditions may reduce the capability of the species to survive harsher conditions, and Mediterranean mountains may face a severe loss of genetic diversity in a climate change scenario. Keywords: Altitudinal gradient; Climate change; High elevation environments; Maiella massif; Mediterranean mountains; Phylogenetic diversity; Structure; Terricolous lichens; Water-energy hypothesis.
34616Miral A., Kautsky A., Alves-Carvalho S., Cottret L., Guillerm-Erckelboudt A.-Y., Buguet M., Rouaud I., Tranchimand S., Tomasi S. & Bartoli C. (2022): Rhizocarpon geographicum lichen discloses a highly diversified microbiota carrying antibiotic resistance and persistent organic pollutant tolerance. - Microorganisms, 10(9): 1859 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10091859.
As rock inhabitants, lichens are exposed to extreme and fluctuating abiotic conditions associated with poor sources of nutriments. These extreme conditions confer to lichens the unique ability to develop protective mechanisms. Consequently, lichen-associated microbes disclose highly versatile lifestyles and ecological plasticity, enabling them to withstand extreme environments. Because of their ability to grow in poor and extreme habitats, bacteria associated with lichens can tolerate a wide range of pollutants, and they are known to produce antimicrobial compounds. In addition, lichen-associated bacteria have been described to harbor ecological functions crucial for the evolution of the lichen holobiont. Nevertheless, the ecological features of lichen-associated microbes are still underestimated. To explore the untapped ecological diversity of lichen-associated bacteria, we adopted a novel culturomic approach on the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum. We sampled R. geographicum in French habitats exposed to oil spills, and we combined nine culturing methods with 16S rRNA sequencing to capture the greatest bacterial diversity. A deep functional analysis of the lichen-associated bacterial collection showed the presence of a set of bacterial strains resistant to a wide range of antibiotics and displaying tolerance to Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Our study is a starting point to explore the ecological features of the lichen microbiota. Keywords: culturomics; holobiont; antibiotic resistance; lichen microbiome.
34615Muggia L. & Chiva S. (2022): Catocala promissa mimetic on lichens. - Notiziario della Società Lichenologica Italiana, 35: 99–101. .
34614Raimundo-Costa W., Ferreira D.C., Anhê A.C.B.M. & Senhuk A.P.M.S. (2021): The use of Parmotrema tinctorum (Parmeliaceae) as a bioindicator of air pollution. - Rodriguésia, 72: e01872019 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1590/2175-7860202172090.
Air quality monitoring by automatic stations, although efficient, does not allow evaluating the effects of pollution on living organisms and communities. Thus, the aim of the present study was to use lichens of the Parmotrematinctorum species in active air quality biomonitoring. We used a new methodology of chlorosis area analyses in QGis software, as low-cost and complementary tool to physicochemical methods. Samples of the aforementioned species were exposed to atmospheric pollution for 30 consecutive days in the dry and rainy seasons, in urban and industrial regions. The chlorosis rate (34% of the lichen thalli, on average) and the accumulation of sulfur (1.1 g.kg-1, on average) were higher in the samples of lichens exposed in the industrial region, in the dry season. There was a moderate-to-high positive correlation between chlorosis rate and lichen content of nitrogen, sulfur, iron and zinc, in the dry season, mainly with sulfur (r = 0.71). The results confirmed the sensitive of P. tinctorum to atmospheric pollution, even after a short exposure time. Such new active biomonitoring methodology (chlorosis analysis in the QGis) can be used in future studies of air quality assessment by environmental and health surveillance managers. Key words: active biomonitoring, air quality, lichen.
34613Fayyaz I., Afshan N.S., Niazi A.R., Khalid A.N. & Ruprecht U. (2022): A new species of Lecidella (Lecanorales, Ascomycota) from Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. - Acta Botanica Brasilica, 36: e2021abb0324 [6 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-33062021abb0324.
The newly described species, Lecidella iqbalii sp. nov., is so far only known from Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. A comparative morpho-anatomical study combined with a phylogenetic analysis based on the marker ITS placed this species together with two accessions from southern South America in a distinct and highly supported group at the base of the Lecidella stigmatea clade. The taxon is characterized by a shiny thallus, strongly convex apothecia, a thin excipulum, a dark brown epihymenium and relatively small ascospores (10-) 11-12 (-13) × (6-) 6.5-8(-9) µm. Keywords: crustose lichen; Ganga choti; Garhi dupatta; saxicolous; lichenized ascomycetes.
34612Svensson M., Haugan R., Timdal E., Westberg M. & Arup U. (2022): The circumscription and phylogenetic position of Bryonora (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota), with two additions to the genus. - Mycologia, 114(3): 516–532. https://doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2022.2037339.
Lecanoraceae is one of the largest families of the Lecanoromycetes, with about 30 accepted genera, many of which, however, have uncertain status and/or circumscriptions. We assess the phylogenetic position of the genus Bryonora and its segregate Bryodina for the first time, using a six-locus phylogeny comprising the Lecanoraceae as well as closely related families. We find strong support for the placement of Bryonora in the Lecanoraceae, whereas there is no support for treating Bryodina as a genus separate from Bryonora. Hence, we reduce Bryodina to synonymy with Bryonora. Further, we describe Bryonora microlepis as new to science and transfer Lecanora castaneoides to Bryonora and L. vicaria to Miriquidica. A world key to Bryonora is included. Keywords: Ascomycota; Bryodina; key; Lecanoraceae; new species; 3 new taxa; 3 new typifications.
34611Yang J.H., Oh S.-Y,, Kim W. & Hur J.-S. (2022): Endolichenic fungal community analysis by pure culture isolation and metabarcoding: A case study of Parmotrema tinctorum. - Mycobiology, 50(1): 55–65. https://doi.org/10.1080/12298093.2022.2040112.
Lichen is a symbiotic mutualism of mycobiont and photobiont that harbors diverse organisms including endolichenic fungi (ELF). Despite the taxonomic and ecological significance of ELF, no comparative investigation of an ELF community involving isolation of a pure culture and high-throughput sequencing has been conducted. Thus, we analyzed the ELF community in Parmotrema tinctorum by culture and metabarcoding. Alpha diversity of the ELF community was notably greater in metabarcoding than in culture-based analysis. Taxonomic proportions of the ELF community estimated by metabarcoding and by culture analyses showed remarkable differences: Sordariomycetes was the most dominant fungal class in culture- based analysis, while Dothideomycetes was the most abundant in metabarcoding analysis. Thirty-seven operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were commonly observed by cultureand metabarcoding-based analyses but relative abundances differed: most of common OTUs were underrepresented in metabarcoding. The ELF community differed in lichen segments and thalli in metabarcoding analysis. Dissimilarity of ELF community intra lichen thallus increased with thallus segment distance; inter-thallus ELF community dissimilarity was significantly greater than intra-thallus ELF community dissimilarity. Finally, we tested how many fungal sequence reads would be needed to ELF diversity with relationship assays between numbers of lichen segments and saturation patterns of OTU richness and sample coverage. At least 6000 sequence reads per lichen thallus were sufficient for prediction of overall ELF community diversity and 50,000 reads per thallus were enough to observe rare taxa of ELF. Keywords: Lichen; endolichenic fungi; fungal community; culture; metabarcoding.
34610Wang L. & Mamut R. (2021): Mitochondrial genome from the lichenized fungus Peltigera rufescens (Weiss) Humb, 1793 (Ascomycota: Peltigeraceae). - Mitochondrial DNA Part B, 6(8): 1286–1287. https://doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1944374.
Known colloquially as ‘dog-lichens’ or ‘pelt-lichens’, most species of Peltigera grow on soil and mosses. Some species contribute a significant amount of nitrogen to the environment and have been used as traditional medicines. We analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome of P. rufescens, which is a circular genome 65,199 bp in size and its CG content is 26.7%. It contains 15 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 27 transport RNAs (tRNAs), and 3 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). Also, the atp9 gene is present in the genome. We used the complete mitochondrial genome to construct a phylogenetic tree by the Bayesian method, which was consistent with the phylogenetic relationship published for P. membranacea which is closely related to P. rufescens. Keywords: Peltigera rufescens; mitochondrial genome; phylogenetic analysis.
34609Galanina I.A., Sheard J.W. & Konoreva L.A. (2022): A new saxicolous species, Rinodina jacutica (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) from the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia. - Phytotaxa, 564(1): 121–126. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.564.1.10.
This paper presents a new saxicolous species of Rinodina from the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia. Rinodina jacutica is characterized by spores of the Dirinaria-type and type A development, a light-gray thallus with a slight yellowish tinge and spot tests K+ yellow and P+ yellow, atranorin present. The paper provides data on the morphology, anatomy, ecology, and collection site of R. jacutica. Keywords: biodiversity, biogeography, lichens, new species, North East Asia, Siberia.
34608Henrie J.R., Thomson B.M., Yungfleisch A.A., Kerr M. & Leavitt S.D. (2022): Characterizing crustose lichen communities—DNA metabarcoding reveals more than meets the eye. - Diversity, 14(9): 766 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d14090766.
Biodiversity inventories are important for informing land management strategies, conservation efforts, and for biomonitoring studies. For many organismal groups, including lichens, comprehensive, accurate inventories are challenging due to the necessity of taxonomic expertise, limitations in sampling protocols, and the commonplace occurrence of morphologically cryptic species and other undescribed species. Lichen communities in arid regions are often dominated by crustose lichens, which have been particularly difficult to incorporate into biodiversity inventories. Here, we explore the utility of DNA metabarcoding for characterizing the diversity of lichen-forming fungi at a typical crustose lichen-dominated site on the Colorado Plateau in the southwestern USA. We assessed the consistency of independent sampling efforts to comprehensively document lichen diversity, evaluated the capability of minimally trained technicians to effectively sample the lichen communities, and provide a metagenomic-based inventory of lichen diversity, including representative sequence data, for a diverse, crustose-dominate lichen community on the Colorado Plateau. Our results revealed that crustose lichen communities in the southwestern USA are more diverse than traditionally thought, and community metabarcoding is a promising strategy for characterizing the lichen-forming fungal diversity more thoroughly than other methods. However, consistently sampling the diversity of crustose lichen communities, even at small spatial scales, remains difficult. Interpreting these results within a traditional taxonomic context remains challenging without the use of vouchers. Keywords: amplicon sequencing; biodiversity; biomonitoring; ecological sampling; Illumina; internal transcribed spacer region (ITS); inventory; ITS2; semi-arid.
34607Thiyagaraja V., Ertz D., Lücking R., Wanasinghe D.N., Aptroot A., Cáceres M.E.S., Hyde K.D., Tapingkae W. & Cheewangkoon R. (2022): Taxonomic and phylogenetic reassessment of Pyrgidium (Mycocaliciales) and investigation of ascospore morphology. - Journal of Fungi, 8(9): 966 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8090966.
Mycocaliciales comprise non-lichenized either saprotrophic or lichenicolous fungi which occur in temperate and tropical regions. The mazaediate, saprotrophic and monospecific genus, Pyrgidium, is currently assigned to this order, yet the phylogenetic placement of the genus has remained uncertain due to the absence of molecular data. In order to investigate the systematic position of Pyrgidium, two specimens collected in Brazil and Thailand, respectively, were used to generate mtSSU, SSU, LSU and ITS sequences. However, given that most other representatives of this order only have LSU and ITS sequences available, the phylogenetic reconstruction was limited to these two markers. The phylogenetic analyses confirmed placement of the genus within Mycocaliciales, the genus possessing a sister group relationship with the lichenicolous genus Sphinctrina. Detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations are provided, including those for type specimens of the various synonyms subsumed under the hitherto only accepted species, Pyrgidium montellicum (Beltr.) Tibell. The ascospore morphology was investigated using compound and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed for the ascospore size using PC-ORD 7. The molecular data and re-examination of the type specimens support the monospecific nature of this genus. Keywords: Ascomycota; morphology; Mycocaliciaceae; PCA; saprotrophs; SEM.
34606Caggiano R., Speranza A., Imbrenda V., Afflitto N. & Sabia S. (2022): A holistic approach based on biomonitoring techniques and satellite observations for air pollution assessment and health risk impact of atmospheric trace elements in a semi-rural area of southern Italy (High Sauro Valley). - Atmosphere, 13(9): 1501 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13091501.
Air pollution is one of the most important environmental problems for rural, urban and industrial areas. This study assesses the concentrations, the possible interaction with the vegetation conditions and the sources of trace elements in atmospheric aerosol particles. To this aim, a novel holistic approach integrating biomonitoring techniques, satellite observations and multivariate statistical analysis was carried out in a semi-rural area before an on-shore reservoir (crude oil and gas) and an oil/gas pre-treatment plant identified as “Tempa Rossa” (High Sauro Valley—Southern Italy) were fully operative. The atmospheric trace element concentrations (i.e., Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti and Zn) were assessed by “lichen-bag” monitoring. Satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI’) estimates were used to support the identification of environmental imbalances affecting vegetation conditions and linked to possible anthropogenic drivers. Principal component analysis (PCA) allowed identifying both natural and anthropogenic trace element sources, such as crustal resuspension, soil and road dust, traffic, biomass burning and agriculture practices. Empirical evidence highlighted an interaction between NDVI’ and S, Ni, Pb and Zn. The health risk impact of atmospheric trace elements on the exposed population, both adults and children, considering inhalation, ingestion and the dermal contact pathway, highlighted a possible non-carcinogenic risk concerning Ni and a not-negligible carcinogenic risk related to Cr(VI) for the adult population in the study area. Keywords: air pollution; biomonitoring; NDVI’; trace elements; principal component analysis; human health.
34605Genikova N.V., Kryshen A.M., Obabko R.P., Karpechko A.Y. & Pekkoev A.N. (2022): Structural features of a post-clear-cutting ecotone between 90-year-old bilberry spruce forest and 35-year-old herbs-forbs deciduous stand. - Forests, 13(9): 1468 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f13091468.
In a natural regeneration process, a community dominated by birch and aspen forms in the site 35 years after a bilberry-type spruce stand is logged down. The newly formed ecotone complex consists of four zones, each characterized by certain features of the ground vegetation and epiphytic vegetation structure. The transitional zones and the mature bilberry-type spruce forest feature a clear dominance of boreal dwarf shrubs (bilberry and cowberry). Another feature of the transitional zone is a greater role of hygrophytic mosses of the genera Polytrichum and Sphagnum. Meanwhile, the true mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens dominate under spruce forest canopy, and the moss cover in the young deciduous stand is virtually nonexistent. The structure of epiphytic vegetation depends on the habitat conditions—the surface of tree trunks in the transitional zone is better lit and drier than inside the tree stand, which results in a higher abundance of epiphytic lichens of the genus Cladonia. The deciduous–coniferous fine root biomass ratio is dependent on the tree stand structure and is unrelated to ecotone zones. Overall, studies have demonstrated that transitional zones have certain characteristic ecological and community features, which persist for a long time after tree stand removal. View Full-Text Keywords: ecotone complex; bilberry-type spruce forest; deciduous stand; clear-cut; edge effect; ground vegetation; epiphytes; tree fine root biomass.
34604Ossowska E.A., Moncada B., Kukwa M., Flakus A., Rodriguez-Flakus P., Olszewska S. & Lücking R. (2022): New species of Sticta (lichenised Ascomycota, lobarioid Peltigeraceae) from Bolivia suggest a high level of endemism in the Central Andes. - MycoKeys, 92: 131–160. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.92.89960.
Six species of Sticta are described as new to science on the basis of material from Bolivia and supported by phylogenetic analysis of the fungal ITS barcoding marker. The species were resolved in all three of the clades (I, II, III) widespread and common in the Neotropics, as defined in an earlier study on the genus. Comparison with material from neighbouring countries (i.e. Colombia, Ecuador, Peru) suggests that these new species may be potentially endemic to the Bolivian Yungas ecoregion. For each species, a detailed morphological and anatomical description is given. Sticta amboroensis Ossowska, Kukwa, B. Moncada & Lücking is a medium-sized green-algal species with laminal to submarginal apothecia with hirsute margins and with light to dark brown lower tomentum. Sticta aymara Ossowska, Kukwa, B. Moncada, Flakus, Rodriguez-Flakus & Lücking is a comparatively small cyanobacterial taxon with Nostoc as photobiont, laminal, richly branched, aggregate isidia and a golden to chocolate-brown lower tomentum. The medium-sized, cyanobacterial S. bicellulata Ossowska, Kukwa, B. Moncada & Lücking has cyanobacterial photobiont, bicellular ascospores, apothecia with white to golden-brown hairs on the margins, K+ violet apothecial margin (ring around disc) and epihymenium and a white to dark brown lower tomentum. In contrast, the green-algal species, S. carrascoensis Ossowska, Kukwa, B. Moncada & Lücking is characterised by its large size, apothecia with dark brown hairs on the margins and a yellow medulla. The cyanobacterial S. catharinae Ossowska, B. Moncada, Kukwa, Flakus, Rodriguez-Flakus & Lücking forms stipitate thalli with Nostoc as photobiont, abundant, laminal to submarginal apothecia and a golden-brown lower tomentum. Finally, the cyanobacterial S. pseudoimpressula Ossowska, Kukwa, B. Moncada & Lücking produces laminal apothecia with an orange-yellow line of pruina along the margins which reacts K+ carmine-red. In addition to the six new Bolivian taxa, the cyanobacterial S. narinioana B. Moncada, Ossowska & Lücking is described as new from Colombia and it represents the closely-related sister species of the Bolivian S. aymara; it differs from the latter largely in the marginal instead of laminal isidia. Keywords: lichens, Lobarioideae, molecular barcoding, pigments.
34603Nill L., Grünberg I., Ullmann T., Gessner M., Boike J. & Hostert P. (2022): Arctic shrub expansion revealed by Landsat-derived multitemporal vegetation cover fractions in the Western Canadian Arctic. - Remote Sensing of Environment, 281: 113228 [20 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2022.113228.
Warming induced shifts in tundra vegetation composition and structure, including circumpolar expansion of shrubs, modifies ecosystem structure and functioning with potentially global consequences due to feedback mechanisms between vegetation and climate. Satellite-derived vegetation indices indicate widespread greening of the surface, often associated with regional evidence of shrub expansion obtained from long-term ecological monitoring and repeated orthophotos. However, explicitly quantifying shrub expansion across large scales using satellite observations requires characterising the fine-scale mosaic of Arctic vegetation types beyond index-based approaches. Although previous studies have illustrated the potential of estimating fractional cover of various Plant Functional Types (PFTs) from satellite imagery, limited availability of reference data across space and time has constrained deriving fraction cover time series capable of detecting shrub expansion. We applied regressionbased unmixing using synthetic training data to build multitemporal machine learning models in order to estimate fractional cover of shrubs and other surface components in the Mackenzie Delta Region for six time intervals between 1984 and 2020. We trained Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) and Random Forest Regression (RFR) models using Landsat-derived spectral-temporal-metrics and synthetic training data generated from pure class spectra obtained directly from the imagery. Independent validation using very-high-resolution imagery suggested that KRR outperforms RFR, estimating shrub cover with a MAE of 10.6% and remaining surface components with MAEs between 3.0 and 11.2%. Canopy-forming shrubs were well modelled across all cover densities, coniferous tree cover tended to be overestimated and differentiating between herbaceous and lichen cover was challenging. Shrub cover expanded by on average + 2.2% per decade for the entire study area and + 4.2% per decade within the low Arctic tundra, while relative changes were strongest in the northernmost regions. In conjunction with shrub expansion, we observed herbaceous plant and lichen cover decline. Our results corroborate the perception of the replacement and homogenisation of Arctic vegetation communities facilitated by the competitive advantage of shrub species under a warming climate. The proposed method allows for multidecadal quantitative estimates of fractional cover at 30 m resolution, initiating new opportunities for mapping past and present fractional cover of tundra PFTs and can help advance our understanding of Arctic shrub expansion within the vast and heterogeneous tundra biome. Keywords: Tundra; Vegetation change; Shrubification; Greening; Spectral unmixing; Mackenzie Delta.
34602Farkas E., Sinigla M., Szabó K., Varga N. & Farkas E. (2022): The long-term effect of removing the UV-protectant usnic acid from the thalli of the lichen Cladonia foliacea. - Mycological Progress, 21: 83 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-022-01831-y.
Terricolous lichens are abundant in semi-arid areas, where they are exposed to high irradiation. Photoprotection is essential for the algae as the photobiont provides the primer carbon source for both symbionts. The UV-protectant lichen metabolites and different quenching procedures of the alga ensure adequate photoprotection. Since the long-term effect of diminishing UVprotectant lichen metabolites is unknown, a major part of lichen secondary metabolites was removed from Cladonia foliacea thalli by acetone rinsing, and the lichens were then maintained under field conditions to investigate the effect on both symbionts for 3 years. Our aim was to determine if the decreased level of UV-protectant metabolites caused an elevated photoprotection in the algae and to reveal the dynamics of production of the metabolites. Photosynthetic activity and light protection were checked by chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics measurements every 6 months. The concentrations of fumarprotocetraric and usnic acids were monitored by chromatographic methods. Our results proved that seasonality had a more pronounced effect than that of acetone treatment on the function of lichens over a long-term scale. Even after 3 years, the acetone-treated thalli contained half as much usnic acid as the control thalli, and the level of photoprotection remained unchanged in the algae. However, the amount of available humidity was a more critical limiting environmental factor than the amount of incoming irradiation affecting usnic acid production. The lichenicolous fungus Didymocyrtis cladoniicola became relatively more abundant in the acetone-treated samples than in the control samples, indicating a slight change caused by the treatment. Keywords: Lichen-forming fungi . Symbiosis . Photoprotection . Acetone rinsing . Seasonality . Lichenicolous fungi.
34601Kumar D., Pandey A., Rawat S., Joshi M., Bajpai R., Upreti D.K. & Singh S.P. (2022): Predicting the distributional range shifts of Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC. in Indian Himalayan Region under future climate scenarios. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29: 61579–61593. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15624-5.
Himalaya, the highest mountain system in the world and house of important biodiversity hotspot, is sensitive to projected warming by climate change. Rhizocarpon geographicum (map lichen), a crustose lichen, grows in high mountain ranges, is a potential indicator species of climate change. In the present study, MaxEnt species distribution modeling algorithm was used to predict the suitable habitat for R. geographicum in current and future climate scenarios. Nineteen bioclimatic variables from WorldClim database, along with elevation, were used to predict the current distribution and three representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios by integrating three general circulation models (GCMs) for future distribution of species covering years 2050 and 2070. Furthermore, we performed change analysis to identify the precise difference between the current and future distribution of suitable areas of the species for delineating habitat range expansion (gain), habitat contraction (loss), and stable habitats. The final ensemble model obtained had average test value 0.968, and its predicted ~ 27.5% of the geographical area in the Indian Himalayan Region is presently climatically suitable for the species. The predicted highly suitable area for R. geographicum is observed to be declining in Northwestern Himalaya, and it is shifting towards the higher elevation areas of the Eastern Himalaya. The projected distribution in future under the RCP scenarios (RCP 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) showed the range expansion towards higher elevations, and it is more pronounced for the extreme future scenarios (RCP 8.5) than for the moderate and intermediate climate scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 6.0). However, assuming that species can migrate to previously unoccupied areas, the model forecasts a habitat loss of 10.86–16.51% for R. geographicum, which is expected due to increase in mean annual temperature by 1.5–3.7 °C. The predictiveMaxEnt modeling approach for mapping lichen will contribute significantly to the understanding of the impact of climate change in Himalayan ecosystems with wide implications for drawing suitable conservation plans and to take adaptation and mitigation measures. Keywords: Rhizocarpon geographicum . Himalaya . Climate change .Habitat loss . Niche shifts . Species distributionmodeling . Lichen.
34600Şenol Z.M.,Gül Ü.D. & Şimşek S. (2022): Bioremoval of Safranin O dye by the identified lichen species called Evernia prunastri biomass; biosorption optimization, isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics. - Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 12: 4127–4137. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-020-01216-9.
Evernia prunastri (lichen), a novel, eco-friendly, cost-effective, wide availability, safe, renewable and easy collection biosorbent, has been utilized for the removal of Safranin O (SO) dye from an aqueous solution. The biosorption behavior of SO onto the lichen biomass was investigated concerning parameters such as initial SO concentration (10–2000 mg L−1), solution pH (2.0– 12.0), lichen biomass dosage (1–20 g L−1), contact time (2–1440 min), temperature (5 °C, 25 °C, and 40 °C), and recovery were investigated. The zeta potential analyses showed that electrostatic attraction existed during the biosorption process between the SO and lichen biomass. The maximum SO biosorption capacity of the lichen biomass was 0.257 mol kg−1 at pH 6.0 and 25 °C. The biosorption energy for SO onto the lichen biomass was found to be EDR:8.9 kJ mol−1 reveals the biosorption proceeds chemically. The biosorption process follows the pseudo-second order and intra particle diffusion rate kinetics. Thermodynamic studies showed that SO biosorption, by this the lichen biomass is possible, spontaneous, and endothermic. Keywords: Lichen . Evernia prunastri . Biosorption . Cationic dye . SafraninO.
34599Berger F. (2022): Flechten und Flechten bewohnende Pilze im Auwald der Donauinsel „Soldatenau“ bei Passau. - Der Bayerische Wald, 35: 58–75. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/DerBayerischeWald_35_1-2_0058-0075.pdf.
[in German with English abstract: ] 119 lichenized ascomycetes and 27 lichenicolous fungi were encountered on „Soldatenau“, a flat silting island situated in the Danube just downstream of the town Passau. The species list allows conclusions on habitat and pressure due to airborne pollution.
34598Tibell L. (1989): Caliciales exsiccatae. Fasc. 7 (Nos 151-175). - Thunbergia, 8: 1-9. .
34597Tibell L. (1990): Caliciales exsiccatae. Fasc. 8 (Nos 176-200). - Thunbergia, 13: 1-9. .
34596Tibell L. (1990): Caliciales exsiccatae. Fasc. 9 (Nos 201-225). - Thunbergia, 18: 1-15. .
34595Santesson R. (1988): Fungi lichenicoli exsiccati. Fasc. 5–6 (Nos 101–150). - Thunbergia, 6: 1–18. .
Arthonia linitae R. Sant., Lichenopeltella epiphylla R. Sant., Rosellinula frustulosae (Vouaux) R. Sant., Stigmidium hagenidae (Rehm) Hafellner, Stigidium fuscatae (Arnold) R. Sant.
34594Santesson R. (1984): Fungi lichenicoli exsiccati. Fasc. I–II (No 1–50). - Publications from the Herbarium University of Uppsala, 13: 1–20. .
Stigmidium icmadophilae R. Sant.
34593Thell A. & Divakar P.K. (2022): Nephromopsis annae – a new combination in the Parmeliaceae with notes on related species. - Graphis Scripta, 34(5): 51–53. https://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/34_5/GS_34_51.pdf.
A new combination, Nephromopsis annae (Oxner) A.Thell & Divakar is proposed and the basionym Cetraria subalpina Imshaug is preferred over the combination in Nephromopsis.
34592McMullin R.T., Cadranel C., Drotos K.H.I., Maloles J.R., Skuza J.T. & Wegenschimmel C.-A. (2022): Lichens and allied fungi of Rouge National Urban Park in the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario. - Urban Naturalist, 9(55): 1–19. .
Rouge National Urban Park is in the eastern region of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) of southern Ontario. It was established in 2015 and is Canada’s first national urban park. To better understand the biodiversity in the park, we conducted a survey of the lichens and allied fungi and discovered 124 species in 69 genera. Three species are reported for the first time from Canada: Arthonia cf. granosa, Verrucaria dolosa, and V. phloeophila. Two additional species are reported for the first time in Ontario: Halecania sp. and Verrucaria praetermissa. Thirty-three species are new to the GTA. Four species have a provincial rank of S3 (vulnerable). Ten species are considered rare in Ontario. Most of the rare species occur in the narrow southern portion of the park that is heavily forested with deep ravines, flood plains, and old-growth forests. Our results show the importance of protected natural areas in urban landscapes for biodiversity, even for taxa that are sensitive to disturbance, such as species of lichens and their related fungi.
34591Singh G., Calchera A., Merges D., Valim H., Otte J., Schmitt I. & Dal Grande F. (2022): A candidate gene cluster for the bioactive natural product gyrophoric acid in lichen-forming fungi. - Microbiology Spectrum, 10(4): 10.1128/spectrum.00109-22 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.00109-22.
Natural products of lichen-forming fungi are structurally diverse and have a variety of medicinal properties. Despite this, they have limited implementation in industry mostly because the corresponding genes are unknown for most of their natural products. Here, we implement a long-read sequencing and bioinformatic approach to identify the putative biosynthetic gene cluster of the bioactive natural product gyrophoric acid (GA). Using 15 high-quality genomes representing nine GA-producing species of the lichen-forming fungal genus Umbilicaria, we identify the most likely GA cluster and investigate the cluster gene organization and composition across the nine species. Our results show that GA clusters are promiscuous within Umbilicaria, and only three genes are conserved across species, including the polyketide synthase (PKS) gene. In addition, our results suggest that the same cluster codes for different, but structurally similar compounds, namely, GA, umbilicaric-, and hiascic acid, bringing new evidence that lichen metabolite diversity is also generated through regulatory mechanisms at the molecular level. Ours is the first study to identify the most likely GA cluster and, thus, provides essential information to open new avenues for biotechnological approaches to producing and modifying GA and similar lichen-derived compounds. GA PKS is the first tridepside PKS to be identified. Importance: The implementation of natural products in the pharmaceutical industry relies on the possibility of modifying the natural product (NP) pathway to optimize yields and pharmacological effects. Characterization of genes and pathways underlying natural product biosynthesis is a major bottleneck for exploiting the medicinal properties of the natural products. Genome mining is a promising and relatively cost- and time-effective approach to utilize unexplored NP resources for drug discovery. In this study, we identify the most likely gene cluster for the lichen-forming fungal depside gyrophoric acid in nine Umbilicaria species. This compound shows cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties against several cancer cell lines and is also a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent. This information paves the way for generating GA analogs with modified properties by selective activation/ deactivation of genes. Keywords: biosynthetic genes, depsides, fungi, genome mining, long-read sequencing, microbial biotechnology, PKS phylogeny, secondary metabolites, Umbilicaria, genomics, lichen compounds, nonreducing PKSs, pharmaceutically relevant natural products.
34590Mueller G.M., Cunha K.M., May T.W., Allen J.L., Westrip J.R.S., Canteiro C., Costa-Rezende D.H., Drechsler-Santos E.R., Vasco-Palacios A.M., Ainsworth A.M., Alves-Silva G., Bungartz F., Chandler A., Gonçalves S.C., Krisai-Greilhuber I., Iršėnaitė R., Jordal J.B., Kosmann T., Lendemer J., McMullin R.T., Mešić A., Motato-Vásquez V., Ohmura Y., Reese Næsborg R., Perini C., Saar I., Simijaca D., Yahr R. & Dahlberg A. (2022): What do the first 597 Global Fungal Red List assessments tell us about the threat status of fungi?. - Diversity, 14(9): 736 [25 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d14090736.
ungal species are not immune to the threats facing animals and plants and are thus also prone to extinction. Yet, until 2015, fungi were nearly absent on the IUCN Red List. Recent efforts to identify fungal species under threat have significantly increased the number of published fungal assessments. The 597 species of fungi published in the 2022-1 IUCN Red List update (21 July 2022) are the basis for the first global review of the extinction risk of fungi and the threats they face. Nearly 50% of the assessed species are threatened, with 10% NT and 9% DD. For regions with a larger number of assessments (i.e., Europe, North America, and South America), subanalyses are provided. Data for lichenized and nonlichenized fungi are also summarized separately. Habitat loss/degradation followed by climate change, invasive species, and pollution are the primary identified threats. Bias in the data is discussed along with knowledge gaps. Suggested actions to address these gaps are provided along with a discussion of the use of assessments to facilitate on-the-ground conservation efforts. A research agenda for conservation mycology to assist in the assessment process and implementation of effective species/habitat management is presented. Keywords: conservation; threats; Basidiomycota; Ascomycota; lichens; funga; IUCN; extinction risk.
34589Váczi P. & Barták M. (2022): Multispectral aerial monitoring of a patchy vegetation oasis composed of different vegetation classes. UAV-based study exploiting spectral reflectance indices. - Czech Polar Reports, 12(1): 131–142. https://doi.org/10.5817/CPR2022-1-10.
The study brings data on monitoring of spectral refectance signatures of different components of Antarctic terrestrial vegetation by using a high-resolution multispectral images. The aim of the study was to compare several spots of a vegetation oasis by mapping vegetation cover using an UAV approach. This study provides data on vegetation distribution within a long-term research plot (LTRP) located at the northern coast of James Ross Island (Antarctica). Apart from normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), 10 spectral reflectance indices (NDVI, NDVIRed-edge, RGBVI, NGRDI, ExG, TGI MSR, MSRRed-edge, Clgreen, ClRed-edge, GLI) were evaluated for different spots representing vegetation classes dominated by different Antarctic autotrophs. The UAV application and spectral reflectance indices proved their capability to detect and map small-area vegetated patches (with the smallest area of 10 cm2) dominated by different Antarctic autotrophs, and identify their classes (moss / lichens / biological soil crusts / microbiological mats / stream bottom microbiological mats). The methods used in our study revealed sufficiently high resolution of particular vegetation-covered surfaces and the spectral indices provided important indicators for environmental characteristics of the long-term research plot at the James Ross Island, Antarctica. Keywords: remote sensing, UAV, James Ross Island, vegetation mapping, spectral reflectance, functional substrate types.
34588Puhovkin A., Bezsmertna O. & Parnikoza I. (2022): Interspecific differences in desiccation tolerance of selected Antarctic lichens: Analysis of photosystem II effectivity and quenching mechanisme. - Czech Polar Reports, 12(1): 31–43. https://doi.org/10.5817/CPR2022-1-3.
Lichens can survive and cope with unsufficient water supply resulting in low in-trathalline relative water content.Under such conditions, photosynthesis is negatively affected by different degree of dehydration. In our study, fully hydrated samples of Xanthoria elegans, Umbilicaria decussata and Usnea aurantiaco-atra were light-accli-mated and during following desiccation from a fully hydrated to dry state, steady-statechlorophyll fluorescence (FS), effective quantum yield of photochemical processes in PSII (ФPSII), and nonphotochemical quenching (qN) were measured in response to decreasing relative water content (RWC). The three experimental lichen species showed a high desiccation tolerance. The desiccation-induced decrease in ФPSII was found in X. elegans, U. decussata and U. aurantiaco-atra, at the RWC values below 30%. This is well comparable to the evidence reached in other Arctic/Antarctic lichen species. Inter-specific differences in desiccation tolerance of these selected Antarctic lichens, based on the analysis of photosystem II effectivity and quenching mechanisms, were described and discussed.Key words: chlorophyll fluorescence, drought stress, James Ross Island, Nelson Island, primary photosynthetic processes.
34587Chesnokov S.V., Konoreva L.A. & Davydov E.A. (2022): Addition to the lichen biota of Franz Josef Land archipelago. - Czech Polar Reports, 12(1): 78–88. https://doi.org/10.5817/CPR2022-1-6.
Forty-four new lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus have been identified as a result of studies of the lichen biota of the Franz Josef Land archipelago. Bryocaulon hyperboreum was reported for the first time from Russia. Gyalecta hypoleuca and Umbilicaria maculata were first identified in the Arctic. Arctocetraria andrejevii, Brodoa oroarctica, Candelariella borealis, Cercidospora stereocaulorum, Massalongia carnosa, Miriquidica nigroleprosa, M. plumbeoatra, Myriolecis zosterae var. palanderi and Polyblastia gothica are new to the Arkhangelsk Region; and Arthrorhaphis citrinella, Mycoblastus alpinus, Racodium rupestre, Rhizocarpon ferax, Scytinium intermedium, Stereocaulon glareosum are new to the Arctic part of the Arkhangelsk Region. Species new to Arkhangelsk Region, Arctic and Russia are supplied with information on distribution in neighboring regions and world and on differences from closely related species. The checklist of the Franz Josef Land archipelago thus includes 277 species and 6 varieties of lichenized and 43 lichenicolous fungi to date. Keywords: Arctic, Arkhangelsk Region, lichenized fungi, new records.
34586Borgato L., Ertz D., Van Rossum F. & Verbeken A. (2022): The diversity of lichenized trentepohlioid algal (Ulvophyceae) communities is driven by fungal taxonomy and ecological factors. - Journal of Phycology, 58: 582–602. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpy.13252.
Trentepohliales are a group of both free-living and lichenized algae, with most diversity occurring in tropical regions. Recent studies showed that the abundance of lichens with a trentepohlioid photobiont has been increasing in temperate habitats, probably because of global warming, which makes them an interesting study case. A detailed molecular study of the diversity of lichenized Trentepohliales, epiphytic as well as epilithic, was performed in three forests of north-western Europe. Additional samples of lichens of the Arthoniales order (associating essentially with a trentepohlioid photobiont) from other European regions and from other continents were also sequenced. A total of 195 algal sequences were obtained. Phylogenetic analyses with rbcL and ITS loci were performed and associations between phylogenetic distances of photobionts and ecological factors (substratum, climate or Wirth indices, mycobiont taxonomy, and geographic location) were tested by variation partitioning and phylogenetic signal analyses. The high number of rbcL algal haplotypes found in some lichens or on different substrata revealed that the Trentepohliales diversity in extratropical regions was underestimated. The phylogenetic patterns showed selectivity of some photobionts in their fungal partner choice and vice-versa, while others were linked with several haplotypes. Photobionts seemed to be less selective than mycobionts. The main factors influencing lichenized algal community were climate and mycobiont species. Coevolution between mycobionts and photobionts as well as switching between free living and lichenized lifestyles appeared to drive the evolution of Trentepohliales and might explain the high cryptic diversity observed, which might be changing in some regions due to climate change. Key index words: Climate change; ITS; mycobiont; photobiont; phylogenetic signal; rbcL; selectivity; symbiosis; variation partitioning.
34585Lücking R., Moncada B., Widhelm T.J., Lumbsch H.T., Blanchon D.J. & de Lange P.J. (2022): The Sticta filix - Sticta lacera conundrum (lichenized Ascomycota: Peltigeraceae subfamily Lobarioideae): unresolved lineage sorting or developmental switch?. - Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 199(3): 706–727. https://doi.org/10.1093/botlinnean/boab083.
We assessed the status of two New Zealand endemic morphodemes in the genus Sticta, currently treated as two separate taxa, Sticta filix and Sticta lacera. Both are green-algal lichens with a distinct stipe that grow in forested habitats and are suitable indicators of the indigenous vegetation health in forest ecosystems in New Zealand. They exhibit different morphologies and substrate ecologies: S. filix forms rather robust thalli, often on exposed trunks of phorophytes, with erect stems distinctly emerging from the substrate, whereas S. lacera is a more delicate lichen growing near the base of trees, usually among bryophyte mats or sheltered in the exposed portions of the phorophyte root-plate, with a prostrate, branched, stolon-like stem barely emerging from the substrate. Throughout their range, both taxa grow sympatrically and often in close proximity (syntopically). Despite the differences, ITS barcoding does not support the two morphodemes as separate species. In this study we assessed two possible explanations: (1) S. filix and S. lacera are discrete phenotypes of a single species, caused by developmental switching triggered by a discrete environmental variable, the propagules developing either on bare substrate or between bryophytes; and (2) the two morphodemes represent separate lineages, but ITS does not provide sufficient resolution to reflect this. We performed a quantitative analysis of morphological and ecological parameters, based on vouchered herbarium collections and field observations on iNaturalist NZ (https://inaturalist.nz), to assess the level of discreteness of the growth forms and to test for a correlation with the presence of a bryophyte mat. We further took advantage of an existing molecular data set from a target capture approach, comprised of 205 protein markers. This data set was used to establish a framework of percentage identities between pairs of the same and of different species among lobarioid Peltigeraceae and then to test whether the S. filix/lacera pairing fell closer to a within-species or a between-species pairing. The morphometric analysis of herbarium material resolved S. filix and S. lacera as two discrete morphs with little overlap, supported by numerous observations on iNaturalist NZ. However, whereas herbarium material suggested a significant association of the lacera morph with bryophyte mats, no such pattern was evident from field images on iNaturalist NZ, in which both morphs frequently associated with bryophyte mats. This highlights the limitations of herbarium material to correctly assess substrate ecology, whereas iNaturalist NZ postings had issues with correct identifications, given that especially S. lacera is easily confused with Pseudocyphellaria multifida. Based on the target capture data, the percentage identity of the S. filix/lacera pairing (99.43%) was significantly higher than that of all 12 between-species pairings (93.20–98.01%); it was at the same time lower than that of all within-species pairings (99.63–99.99%) but significantly so only in comparison with five out of the eight within-species pairings. The target capture approach is thus inconclusive, but the combination of all data suggests that S. filix and S. lacera are not discrete morphodemes of a single species but represent two separate lineages which emerged recently and hence cannot be resolved using the ITS barcoding marker or even a deeper phylogenomic approach based on protein-coding markers. We propose transplantation experiments and the application of RADseq to further assess this situation. Keywords: conservation, environmental indicators, fungal barcoding, genome skimming, iNaturalist NZ, integrative taxonomy, phylogenetic resolution.
34584Garrido-Benavent I., Molins A. & Barreno E. (2022): Genetic variation in the symbiont partners in the endangered macrolichen Seirophora villosa (Teloschistaceae: Ascomycota). - Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 199(4): 816–829. https://doi.org/10.1093/botlinnean/boab100.
The decline observed in many populations of highly sensitive lichens has led to the inclusion of some species on regional Red Lists, but this has seldom been accompanied by an examination of the genetic variation of the fungal and algal symbiotic partners. Here, the red-listed epiphytic lichen Seirophora villosa was surveyed in 14 Mediterranean coastal populations to examine the genetic diversity of both partners. The geographical distribution of four-locus haplotypes followed the same trend in mycobiont and photobiont data sets, some being widespread and others restricted to single localities. The fungus showed a moderate selectivity in its photobiont choice, associating with two undescribed Trebouxia microalgae with a biased distribution across the western Mediterranean. One alga species occurred exclusively in the Italian Peninsula. This region also hosted the highest number of haplotypes for both symbionts. The use of 454-pyrosequencing revealed no clear signs of algal coexistence within selected thalli. The phylogenetic reconstruction for the mycobiont showed uncertain limits among Seirophora spp., stressing the need for further taxonomic evaluation. Additionally, we found that Ramalina lacera, a co-occurring epiphytic lichen in the studied area, shared photobiont genotypes with S. villosa. Our results thus suggest that the protection not only of the red-listed species S. villosa, but also of the whole epiphytic lichen community investigated here might be advisable. Keywords: coastal habitat – conservation – fungi – Juniperus – lichens – Mediterranean – microalgae – phylogeny – phylogeography – red-listing.
34583Fernández-Prado N., Aragón G., Prieto M., Benítez Á. & Martínez I. (2022): Differences in epiphytic trunk communities in secondary forests and plantations of southern Ecuador. - Forestry, 2022: cpac034 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/cpac034.
Deforestation is the most important cause of biodiversity loss in tropical ecosystems. Epiphytic species, lichens and bryophytes, are very sensitive to environmental changes, including those produced by conversion of primary forests into secondary vegetation. However, little is known about the differences between different secondary forests and plantations regarding the epiphytic biota. We compared epiphytic communities among different secondary forests and non-native plantations in southern Ecuador. Four forest typeswere considered: non-native Pinus patula plantations, monospecific secondary forests of Alnus acuminata, monospecific secondary forests of Andesanthus lepidotus and mixed secondary forests. Within each forest type, two stands were surveyed, establishing a total of 80 plots and analyzing four trees per plot. We estimated lichen and bryophyte cover in four inventories per tree and calculated and compared different metrics for taxonomic and functional diversity, as well as community composition. The results revealed forest type as the major predictor for the species and functional traits richness, and for diversity and composition. In total, 422 taxa were identified (312 lichens and 110 bryophytes), with mixed secondary forests having the richest communities (194 species) and nonnative plantations having the lowest richness (105 species). Bryophyte richness was highest in A. lepidotus forests. Taxonomic and functional diversity, and species composition differed greatly among forest types and followed a different pattern depending on the organism considered. Lichens were the most sensitive indicators of environmental conditions associated with different tropical forest types.
34582Acharius E. (1801): Nya och mindre kända Svenska Laf-arter, beskrifne. VIII. Fortsättning. - Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar / Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [ser. 2], 22[4]: 339–350, tab. .
34581Lynikienė J., Gedminas A., Marčiulynas A., Marčiulynienė D. & Menkis A. (2022): Can Larix sp. Mill. provide suitable habitats for insects and lichens associated with stems of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. in northern Europe?. - Diversity, 14: 729 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d14090729.
Recent observations suggest that climate change affects the growth conditions and range of tree species distribution in Europe. This may also have a major effect on communities of different organisms associated with these tree species. We aimed to determine whether Larix sp. could provide suitable habitats to insects and lichens associated with P. abies to conserve their biodiversity under climate change. The study sites were 10 Larix sp. and 10 P. abies forest stands in Lithuania. Both living and dead trees were included. Sticky traps, bark sheets, and exit hole methods were used for the assessment of insects. Independent plots on tree stems were established for the assessment of lichens. There were 76 and 67 different insect species on dead and living P. abies, respectively, using sticky traps. Similarly, there were 64 and 68 on dead and living Larix sp., respectively. The overall community of xylophagous insects consisted of nine and eight species, which were detected using the bark sheet and exit hole methods, respectively. The bark area colonized by lichens was 34.3% on dead P. abies and 63.2% on dead Larix sp., and 40.4% on living P. abies and 78.0% on living Larix sp. Taken together, the results demonstrate that native P. abies and introduced Larix sp. support similar diversity of stem-associated insect and lichen species. Keywords: biodiversity; climate change; Norway spruce; larch; insects; lichens; forest management.
34580Miranda-González R., Epitacio-Joaquin G., Tehler A., Téllez N.S. & Herrera-Campos M.A. (2022): Roccella ramitumidula (Roccellaceae), a new species from the tropical dry forest of Mexico. - Bryologist, 125(3): 477–484. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.3.477.
The new species Roccella ramitumidula is described from a tropical dry forest in the Pacific Coast of Mexico. The new species is characterized by fertile thalli, saxicolous habit, irregularly swollen branches and erythrin and lecanoric acid as lichen products. It differs from R. decipiens by its narrower and longer ascospores, irregularly swollen branches, uneven surface, and smaller branches. Sequences of the genetic markers ITS, nuLSU and RPB2 from the new species were added to a phylogenetic tree based on four genetic markers that included all the Roccella species known for the Americas. The biogeography and ecology of the species is discussed. We reported R. gracilis for the first time for the state of Jalisco, Mexico. Keywords: New species, biogeography, Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere Reserve, hurricane effects, lichen systematics, phylogeny.
34579Doležal J., Dančák M., Kučera J., Majeský L., Altman J., Řeháková K., Čapková K., Vondrák J., Fibich P. & Liancourt P. (2022): Fire, climate and biotic interactions shape diversity patterns along an Afrotropical elevation gradient. - Journal of Biogeography, 49: 1248–1259. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.14378.
Aim: Untangling multiple drivers influencing biodiversity along elevation gradients is necessary for predicting the consequences of climate change on mountain communities. We examine the direct and indirect effects of macroclimate, edaphic conditions, fire frequency and putative biotic interactions on species richness and abundance of co-occurring primary producers on Mount Cameroon. Location: Mount Cameroon, Cameroon. Taxon: vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens, and soil microbial phototrophs. Methods: We combine ground-level survey of multi-taxa diversity, soil nutrient stoichiometry, continuous climate monitoring using dataloggers and remote sensing data, for 115 plots sampled along a 2200–4000 m elevation gradient. We used GAMs to assess elevational patterns in ecosystem properties and SEMs to determine their direct and indirect effects on species richness and abundance. Results: Vascular plant diversity peaked at mid-elevation and emerged from the combined effects of intermediate levels of energy, total above-ground standing biomass, fire frequency, guild abundances and edaphic conditions. Bryophyte–lichen diversity increased monotonically towards high elevation with decreasing temperature and increasing nutrient scarcity, while the diversity of soil phototrophs peaked at both lower elevation fire-prone Afromontane and cold higher elevation Afroalpine zones. The role of macroclimate was indirect and scale dependent. Higher temperatures increased plant richness mainly indirectly via enhanced fire frequency, while soil N:P ratio had direct positive effect on plant richness. Precipitation decreased plant richness indirectly via decreased fire frequency. Fires also increased plant and bryophyte– lichen cover. Positive bryophyte–lichen and vascular plants associations strengthened in the Afroalpine zone. Main conclusions: We demonstrate the role of disturbance/fire and biotic interactions in mitigating macroclimate effects and in controlling variation in community diversity along elevation gradients. While the macroclimate is often a strong predictor of ecological patterns along elevation gradients, our study illustrates that attributing these patterns exclusively to climate can lead to an incorrect assessment of the impact of climate change on biodiversity. Keywords: biotic interactions, elevation gradient, fire disturbance, precipitation, scale, soil fertility, species richness, temperature.
34578Miller J.E.D., Weill A.M. & Villella J. (2022): Epiphytic macrolichen communities take decades to recover after high-severity wildfire in chaparral shrublands. - Diversity and Distributions, 28: 454–462. DOI: 10.1111/ddi.13295.
Aim: Fire regimes are shifting globally due to climate change, land management practices and population growth, putting species at risk if they are unable to adapt to more frequent or severe wildfires. While many fire-adapted species may be able to accommodate some amount of change in fire regimes, fire-sensitive or late-successional species that colonize fire-prone ecosystems between wildfires may be especially vulnerable to more frequent or severe fires. Here, we seek to understand the rate of lichen recolonization after high-severity fires in an ecosystem that is experiencing increasing fire frequency. Location: The Inner North Coast Range of California, USA. Methods: Using a chronosequence of wildfires in a Northern California chaparral shrubland, we compare lichen communities among sites that burned 3, 13, 22, 30 and 65 years previously, as well as old-growth chaparral sites without a recorded fire over the past century. Results: We find that lichen richness increases consistently with time since fire but begins to level off 20–30 years following fire, roughly corresponding to the closure of the shrub canopy. Some taxa and guilds were found only in old-growth chaparral. Conclusions: Our findings highlight that fire-intolerant organisms may be relatively slow to recolonize landscapes after high-severity fire and that the majority of chaparral lichen taxa may be lost where fire intervals shorten to <20 years, which has already occurred in some parts of California. Keywords: biodiversity, chaparral, chronosequence, dispersal, disturbance, fire regimes, succession.
34577Masumoto H. & Degawa Y. (2022): Cyphellostereum ushimanum sp. nov. (Hygrophoraceae, Agaricales) described from Amami‑Oshima Island (Kagoshima Prefecture, Ryukyu Islands), Japan, with ultrastructural observations of its Rhizonema photobiont flaments penetrated longitudinally by a central haustorium. - Mycological Progress, 21: 167–179. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-021-01766-w.
We collected a resupinate fungus lichenized with flamentous Rhizonema cyanobacteria in Amami-Oshima Island, Japan. Microscopic observations and molecular phylogenetic analyses of both the basidioma and the lichenized thallus indicated afnities within Cyphellostereum, the frst record of this basidiomycete genus from Japan. Its unique combination of structural characters and ITS rDNA sequences suggests a new species, described here as C. ushimanum. Light and transmission electron microscopic observations revealed tubular intracellular haustoria penetrating longitudinally within the cyanobacterial cells, a feature typically seen in the related genus Dictyonema, but unusual in Cyphellostereum. The generic circumscription of Cyphellostereum was therefore emended to include features of C. ushimanum and other recently described species that deviate from the conventional defnition of the genus. Ultrastructural details of symbiont interactions are provided for the frst time in this genus. We also succeeded in cultivating the fungus from hyphae regenerated from thallus fragments, and include a brief description of those results. Keywords: Athelia · Culture · Haustorium · Lichenized basidiomycetes · Rhizonema · TEM.
34576Thiyagaraja V., Ertz D., Hyde K.D., Karunarathna S.C., To-Anun C. & Cheewangkoon R. (2022): Morphological and phylogenetic reassessment of Sclerococcum simplex from China. - Phytotaxa, 559(2): 167–175. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.559.2.5.
Sclerococcum is a species rich lichenicolous genus in Ascomycota. However, many species of Sclerococcum have been described based only on morphology. This study provides sequences for the large-subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU), internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and mitochondrial small-subunit ribosomal RNA (mtSSU) for the first time for Sclerococcum simplex, and the first geographical record of the genus from China. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that S. simplex clustered within Sclerococcum sensu stricto while the genus was recovered as paraphyletic in Dactylosporaceae. Our asexual specimen of Sclerococcum simplex was collected on a corticolous Pertusaria thallus. The taxonomic affinity of Sclerococcum simplex is investigated based on phylogenetic and morphological evidence. Keywords: asexual morph, Dactylosporaceae, lichenicolous, Pertusaria.
34575Dominguez R.D., Stanton D., Peralta M. & Rodriguez J.M. (2022): Water regulation dynamics of lichens as functional traits could predict future climate change scenarios in an elevational gradient from Central Argentina. - Bryologist, 125(3): 466–476. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.3.466.
Mountain top environments are particularly vulnerable to climate change effects, given that biological organisms in these systems live at specific temperature conditions. The poikilohydric nature of lichens emphasizes variables like water holding capacity (WHC) and the hydrophobicity of the thallus to understand the species occupational patterns in altitudinal gradients and microsites. WHC and hydrophobicity were measured in 3 saxicolous species with 2 different morphologies in an elevational mountain gradient of Central Argentina: Usnea amblyoclada, Parmotrema reticulatum and Parmotrema warmingii. We measured WHC in three elevations corresponding to the distribution range of the species, and 3 microsite conditions: north (equatorial-facing)/south (polar-facing) aspect with high steep inclination >70° and rock outcrops with low steep inclination <20°. Results show differences between U. amblyoclada, P. reticulatum, and P. warmingii for measured traits. Hydrophobicity and WHC of U. amblyoclada showed a significant interaction between microsite and elevation. WHC of P. reticulatum was greater at 900 m.a.s.l. while its hydrophobicity was higher at 1800 m.a.s.l. WHC and hydrophobicity of P. warmingii are higher in samples from south-facing rocks. Results suggest that P. reticulatum can acclimate at microsite level without the ability to cope with more drastic environmental demands, losing the possibility to migrate to higher elevations in a climatic change scenario, while U. amblyoclada show higher intraspecific water retention variations, hence a wider potential distribution. P. warmingii could migrate to more protected microsites but will tend to disappear in an extreme scenario where temperature will increase. Keywords: Water holding capacity, hydrophobicity, Parmotrema, Usnea, microsites, South America.
34574Aptroot A., Souza M.F., dos Santos L.A., Oliveira Junior I., Barbosa B.M.C. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2022): New species of lichenized fungi from Brazil, with a record report of 492 species in a small area of the Amazon Forest. - Bryologist, 125(3): 433–465. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.3.433.
We report a record lichen biodiversity from a small area in the Brazilian Amazon, with 492 identifiable lichen species within nine hectares of protected forest, in the Cristalino Reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil, collected during one week. This is already an absolute world record, but given our observations while in the field, and the fact that we sampled only a small fraction to the area, we hypothesize that the number of species in this area could be even much higher, well establishing that lichen biodiversity per area in the tropics is higher than elsewhere. Among the species reported, two are new to the southern hemisphere, nine are new to the Neotropics, 30 are first reports for Brazil, and 247 are new to Mato Grosso state. We also describe 40 new lichenized fungi species, mainly from the Amazon, 19 of which are from Cristalino Reserve: Aggregatorygma lichexanthonicum, Allographa pruinodisca, Architrypethelium submuriforme, Astrothelium gyalostiolatum, A. infravulcanum, A. inspersonitidulum, A. parathelioides, A. quintannulare, A. quintosulphureum, A. squamosum, A. stromatocinnamomeum, A. xanthosordithecium, Caloplaca cinereosquamosa, Carbacanthographis tetrinspersa, Cladonia megafurcata, Coniarthonia echinospora, C. micromuralis, Coniocarpon foliicola, Cresponea pallidosorediata, Cryptothecia demethylconfluentica, C. methylperlatolica, C. parvopsoromica, Fissurina isohypocrellina, Heterodermia apicalis, Lecidella fuliginea, Malmidea densisidiata, M. nigra, Mazosia flavida, Multisporidea conidiophora, Porina albotomentosa, P. muralisidiata, Psorinia cyanea, Ramboldia badia, Saxiloba pruinosa, Sclerophyton perithecioideum, Sporopodium soredioflavescens, Synarthonia xanthonica, Tingiopsidium tropicum, Tylophoron rufescens, and Viridothelium sinuosogelatinosum. Identification keys are given to the Brazilian species of Coniarthonia and Cryptothecia. Keywords: Lichens, biodiversity, Mato Grosso, Reserva Cristalino, Trypetheliaceae, Arthoniaceae, Argentina.
34573Perez-Mon C., Stierli B., Plötze M. & Frey B. (2022): Fast and persistent responses of alpine permafrost microbial communities to in situ warming. - Science of the Total Environment, 807: 150720 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150720.
Global warming in mid-latitude alpine regions results in permafrost thawing, together with greater availability of carbon and nutrients in soils and frequent freeze–thaw cycles. Yet it is unclear how these multifactorial changes will shape the 1 m-deep permafrost microbiome in the future, and how this will in turn modulate microbiallymediated feedbacks between mountain soils and climate (e.g. soil CO2 emissions). To unravel the responses of the alpine permafrost microbiome to in situ warming, we established a three-year experiment in a permafrost monitoring summit in the Alps. Specifically, we simulated conditions of warming by transplanting permafrost soils from a depth of 160 cm either to the active-layer topsoils in the north-facing slope or in the warmer south-facing slope, near the summit. qPCR-based and amplicon sequencing analyses indicated an augmented microbial abundance in the transplanted permafrost, driven by the increase in copiotrophic prokaryotic taxa (e.g. Noviherbaspirillum and Massilia) and metabolically versatile psychrotrophs (e.g. Tundrisphaera and Granulicella); which acclimatized to the changing environment and potentially benefited from substrates released upon thawing. Metabolically restricted Patescibacteria lineages vastly decreased with warming, as reflected in the loss of α-diversity in the transplanted soils. Ascomycetous sapro-pathotrophs (e.g. Tetracladium) and a few lichenized fungi (e.g. Aspicilia) expanded in the transplanted permafrost, particularly in soils transplanted to the warmer south-facing slope, replacing basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Glaciozyma). The transplantation-induced loosening of microbial association networks in the permafrost could potentially indicate lesser cooperative interactions between neighboring microorganisms. Broader substrate-use microbial activities measured in the transplanted permafrost could relate to altered soil C dynamics. The three-year simulated warming did not, however, enhance heterotrophic respiration, which was limited by the carbon-depleted permafrost conditions. Collectively, our quantitative findings suggest the vulnerability of the alpine permafrost microbiome to warming, which might improve predictions on microbially-modulated transformations of mountain soil ecosystems under the future climate. Keywords: Alpine; Climate change; Microbial community; Permafrost; Transplantation; Warming.
34572Santesson R. (2008): Fungi Lichenicoli Exsiccati. Fasc. 15 & 16 (Nos 351-400). - Thunbergia, 36: 1-21. http://www.evolutionsmuseet.uu.se/publikation/thunbergia36.pdf.
Isotypes of the following species are distributed: Lichenostigma super- tegentis Ihlen & R.Sant., Opegrapha phaeophysciae R.Sant., Diederich, Ertz & Christnach, Plectocarpon bunodophori Wedin, Ertz & Diederich, Plectocarpon concentricum Ertz, Diederich & Wedin, Plectocarpon latisporum Ertz, Diederich & Wedin, Plectocarpon pseudoleuckertii Diederich, Ertz & Wedin and Stigmidium epixanthum Hafellner. An index to the 400 numbers hitherto distributed is presented and lists of the six described taxa, the six new combinations, and the fourteen isotypes are given. A summary of publication dates for the sixteen fascicles is presented
34571Santesson R. (1998): Fungi Lichenicoli Exsiccati. Fasc. 11 & 12 (Nos 251-300). - Thunbergia, 22: 1-19. http://www.evolutionsmuseet.uu.se/publikation/thunbergia28.pdf.
Lichenopeltella thamnoliae sp. nov. (Colombia; on Thamnolia vermicularis)
34570Santesson R. (1994): Fungi Lichenicoli Exsiccati. Fasc. 9 & 10 (Nos 201-250). - Thunbergia, 22: 1-24. http://www.evolutionsmuseet.uu.se/publikation/thunbergia22.pdf.
Endococcus apiciicola (J. Steiner) comb.nov. Also includes an index to the first 10 fascicles
34569Santesson R. (1994): Fungi Lichenicoli Exsiccati, Fasc. 7 & 8 (Nos 151-200). - Thunbergia, 21: 1-18. http://www.evolutionsmuseet.uu.se/publikation/thunbergia21.pdf.
Karschia inops Triebel & Rambold sp. nov. (Australia, on Caloplaca cinnabarina), Plectocarpon cladoniae sp. nov. (Sweden, Norway, on Cladonia pyxidata). Isotypes are also distributed for previously described Arthonia peltigerea, A. pseudocyphellariae, A. subconveniens, and Reconditella physconiarum
34568Santesson R. (1986): Fungi Lichenicoli Exsiccati. Fasc. 3-4 (Nos 51-100). - Thunbergia, 3: 1-18. http://www.evolutionsmuseet.uu.se/publikation/thunbergia03.pdf.
Labels for nos. 51-100 in this exsiccat. Arthonia gelidae sp. nov. and A. molendoi (Frauenfeld) comb. nov.] foliicolous, new taxa, Arthonia
34567Ходосовцев О.Є., Безсмертна О.О. & Мерленко Н.О. [Khodosovtsev A.Ye., Bezsmertna O.O. & Merlenko N.O.] (2022): Перші відомості щодо лишайників та ліхенофільних грибів Ківерцівського національного природного парку «Цуманська пуща» [The first contribution to lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Kivertsy National Nature Park «Tsumanska Pushcha»]. - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 18(1): 79–86. doi: 10.32999/ksu1990-553X/2022-18-1-5.
[in Ukrainian with English abstract: ] The first data on the lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Kivertsy National Natural Park «Tsumanska Pushcha» are reported. Totally, 50 species of lichens and one lichenicolous fungus were found. Among them, Acrocordia gemmata, Arthonia radiata, Athallia pyracea, Biatora chrysantha, Catillaria nigroclavata, Chaenotheca phaeocephala, Cladonia cariosa, C. coniocraea, Coppinsidea croatica, Heterocephalacria physciacearum Graphis scripta, Lecaniella naegelii, Lecanora expallens, Lepra albescens, L. amara, Lepraria incana, L. finkii, Mycobilimbia epixanthoides, Phlyctis argena, Peltigera didactyla, Porina aenea, Physcia tenella, Placynthiella uliginosa, Polyozosia persimilis, P. sambuci, Pseudoschismatomma rufescens, Rinodina freyi, Scoliciosporum sarothamni are new to the Volyn region. Coppinsidea croatica is recorded for the first time for the lowland part of Ukraine. Rinodina freyi are new for Ukraine. This species is common in the forest areas of Asia, Europe and North America. It is a pioneer lichen on thin twigs of shrubs or damaged areas (scars) on the bark of trees. Rinodina freyi is characterized by a thin, almost inconspicuous gray thallus with flat areolas and negative reactions to chemical tests, sessile apothecia 0.4–0.7 µm in diameter with a grayish-brown thalline margin (50–70 μm thick), and Physcia-type ascospores 15–19 × 6.5–8.5 µm. Lichen communities are presented mainly by epiphytic species that grow on the bark of Alnus incana, Quercus robur, Salix fragilis. Low number of species were found sandy soil of river terraces. Acrocordia gemmata is a species that was included in the regional Red List of the Volyn region. Keywords: Rinodina freyi, biodiversity, Volyn region, Ukraine.
34566Zulfiqar R., Razzaq F., Afshan N., Fayyaz I., Habib K., Khalid A.N. & Paukov A.G. (2022): Three new species of Lobothallia (Megasporaceae, Pertusariales, Ascomycota) from Pakistan and a new combination in the genus. - Mycological Progress, 21: 80 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-022-01830-z.
Three new species Lobothallia elobulata, L. iqbalii, and L. pakistanica from Pakistan are described as new to science and illustrated. Lobothallia elobulata is characterized by the absence of lobes, the presence of a distinct black hypothallus, and small, almost sphaeric ascospores 9–12 × 5–8 μm. Lobothallia iqbalii is characterized by its crustose–placodioid thallus with large appressed apothecia, single on areole, a high hymenium, 100–150 μm tall, and absence of prothallus and secondary metabolites. Lobothallia pakistanica is characterized by its thin, closely adnate, lobate thallus, lecanorine–aspiciloid apothecia, 2–3 on areole, and the absence of secondary metabolites. A comparative morpho-anatomical study and ITS-based molecular analysis confirmed the position of the species within the genus Lobothallia. Keywords Gilgit–Baltistan . Azad Jammu and Kashmir . Kohistan . Lichenized fungi . Taxonomy . ITS . Phylogeny.
34565Popovici V., Matei E., Cozaru G.C., Bucur .L, Gîrd C.E., Schröder V., Ozon E.A., Karampelas O., Musuc A.M., Atkinson I., Rusu A., Petrescu S., Mitran R.-A., Anastasescu M., Caraiane A., Lupuliasa D., Aschie M. & Badea V. (2022): Evaluation of Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg extract in canola oil loaded in bioadhesive oral Films for potential applications in oral cavity infections and malignancy. - Antioxidants, 11(8): 1601 [35 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11081601.
Usnea lichens are known for their beneficial pharmacological effects with potential applications in oral medicine. This study aims to investigate the extract of Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg from the Călimani Mountains in canola oil as an oral pharmaceutical formulation. In the present work, bioadhesive oral films (F-UBO) with U. barbata extract in canola oil (UBO) were formulated, characterized, and evaluated, evidencing their pharmacological potential. The UBO-loaded films were analyzed using standard methods regarding physicochemical and pharmacotechnical characteristics to verify their suitability for topical administration on the oral mucosa. F-UBO suitability confirmation allowed for the investigation of antimicrobial and anticancer potential. The antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27353, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, and Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019 were evaluated by a resazurin-based 96-well plate microdilution method. The brine shrimp lethality assay (BSL assay) was the animal model cytotoxicity prescreen, followed by flow cytometry analyses on normal blood cells and oral epithelial squamous cell carcinoma CLS-354 cell line, determining cellular apoptosis, caspase-3/7 activity, nuclear condensation and lysosomal activity, oxidative stress, cell cycle, and cell proliferation. The results indicate that a UBO-loaded bioadhesive film’s weight is 63 ± 1.79 mg. It contains 315 µg UBO, has a pH = 6.97 ± 0.01, a disintegration time of 124 ± 3.67 s, and a bioadhesion time of 86 ± 4.12 min, being suitable for topical administration on the oral mucosa. F-UBO showed moderate dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the growth of both bacterial and fungal strains. Moreover, in CLS-354 tumor cells, F-UBO increased oxidative stress, diminished DNA synthesis, and induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. All these properties led to considering UBO-loaded bioadhesive oral films as a suitable phytotherapeutic formulation with potential application in oral infections and neoplasia. Keywords: Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg; canola oil; bioadhesive oral films; poloxamer 407; antimicrobial activity; Artemia salina; blood cells; CLS-354 tumor cell line; anticancer activity.
34564Egea J.M. & Torrente P. (1997): Tres nuevas especies de hongos liquenizados de la provincia del Cabo (Sudafrica) - Correccion. - Cryptogamie, Bryologie-Lichénologie, 18(1): 77-77. .
New: Arthonia brussei nom. nov. (for A. capensis Egea & Torrente.)
34563Kerboua M., Monia A.A., Samba N., Silva L., Raposo C., Díez D. & Rodilla J.M. (2022): Phytochemical composition of lichen Parmotrema hypoleucinum (J. Steiner) Hale from Algeria. - Molecules, 27(16): 5229 [25 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27165229.
In this work, we carried out studies of the chemical composition of hexane, chloroform and ethanol extracts from two samples of the lichen Parmotrema hypoleucinum collected in Algeria. Each sample of the lichen P. hypoleucinum was collected on two different supports: Olea europaea and Quercus coccifera. Hexane extracts were prepared, in Soxhlet; each hexane extract was fractionated by its solubility in methanol; the products soluble in methanol were separated (cold): 1-Hexane, 2-Hexane; and the products insoluble in methanol (cold): 1-Cires, 2-Cires. A diazomethane esterified sample of 1-Hexane, 2-Hexane, 1-Cires and 2-Cires was analyzed by GC-MS, and the components were identified as methyl esters. In the 1-Hexane and 2-Hexane fractions, the methyl esters of the predominant fatty acids in the lichen were identified: palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid; a hydrocarbon was also identified: 13-methyl-17-norkaur-15-ene and several derivatives of orsellinic acid. In the 1-Cires and 2-Cires fractions, the previous fatty acids were no longer observed, and only the derivatives of orsellinic acid were found. The analysis of the 1-Hexane, 2-Hexane fractions by HPLC-MS/MS allows us to identify different chemical components, and the most characteristic products of the lichen were identified, such as Atranol, Chloroatranol, Atranorin and Chloroatranorin. In the fractions of 1-Cires and 2-Cires, the HPLC-MS/MS analysis reveals that they are very similar in their chemical components; the characteristic products of this lichen in this fraction are Atranorin and Chloroatranorin. In the extracts of chloroform, 1-Chloroform and 2-Chloroform, the analysis carried out by HPLC-MS/MS shows small differences in their chemical composition at the level of secondary products; among the products to be highlighted for this work, we have chloroatranorin, the stictic acid, norstictic acid and other derivatives. In the analysis of the most polar extracts carried out in ethanol: 1-Ethanol and 2-Ethanol, HPLC-MS/MS analysis shows very similar chemical compositions in these two extracts with small differences. In these extracts, the following acids were identified as characteristic compounds of this lichen: constictic acid, stictic acid, substictic acid and methylstictic acid. In the HPLC–MS/MS analysis of all these extracts, alectoronic acid was not found. Keywords: lichen; Parmotrema hypoleucinum; LC-MSD-Trap-XCT; phytochemical composition; norstictic acid and stictic acid.
34562Ongaro S., Lione G. & Isocrono D. (2022): Composition and conservation value of epiphytic lichen communities on common ash in north-western Alps: A first assessment. - Forests, 13: 1288 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f13081288.
In the western sector of the Alps, and particularly in the Aosta Valley, lichenological communities on broad-leaved trees have received very little attention, and information about lichen species associated with common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) are still scanty. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed epiphytic lichen communities of ash trees to estimate their composition, their conservation value, and their association with some key environmental variables. Our results show that lichen communities appear to be different in terms of occurrence and frequencies in different sampling sites. The tested environmental variables contribute to shape the lichen communities, which are significantly different (p < 0.05) in sites characterized by different elevation, solar radiation, and source vicinity. The conservation value of lichen species was assessed by comparing distributional data at the national and local level. Our findings show that, in the Italian Alps, ash trees represent an important substrate for locally, or even nationally, rare lichens: 14 recorded species were not previously known in the study area, and some (Lecanora impudens and Rinodina polyspora) were included in the red list of Italian epiphytic lichens. Keywords: lichens; Fraxinus; conservation; biodiversity; red-listed species.
34561Fernández-Prado N., Prieto M., Martínez I. & Aragón G. (2022): Líquenes epífitos de los Tepuyes de la cuenca alta del río Nangaritza, cordillera del Cóndor (Ecuador). - Caldasia, 44(1): 108–118. https://doi.org/10.15446/caldasia.v44n1.86522.
Tropics harbour the greatest biodiversity in the planet but are still largely unknown. Among these remote areas, there are the Tepuyes of Nangaritza Valley, in the Zamora Chinchipe province, southeastern Ecuador. They constitute isolated mountainous systems with great biological importance and high levels of endemicity. Therefore, the main objective of this study was the elaboration of the first catalogue of epiphytic lichens from several Tepuyes in the Nangaritza Valley. Two expeditions were carried out in two Tepuyes, between 900 and 2000 m of altitude, approximately 1,000 samples of lichens where collected at different habitats: piemontane wet forest, lower montane wet forest, dwarf forest, and paramillo. We identified 174 lichen species, belonging to 57 genera and 26 families. We found thirteen new records for South America, 64 for Ecuador, and 132 for the Zamora Chinchipe province. New chemotypes for species belonging to the Cladoniaceae family were found. Lichens with a crustose growth-form were the most abundant with around 40 % of the total richness, being Graphidaceae the richest family (27 species). Lichen species with green algae as photobiont were dominant, and especially those with Trenthepholia (66 species). This catalogue is a first approximation to the knowledge of the diversity of lichens from the Tepuyes of the Nangaritza Valley, and the high number of new records indicates a lack of knowledge of the biodiversity from these tropical forests. Keywords. Diversity, lichenized fungi, new chemotypes, South America.
34560Firdous Q., Habib K., Khalid A.N. & Aptroot A. (2022): Physcia vitii Nadv. new to south Asia - molecular data. - Pakistan Journal of Botany, 54(6): 2341–2345. http://dx.doi.org/10.30848/PJB2022-6(9).
A species in the genus Physcia was collected from dry temperate ecozones of Pakistan. The critical morpho-anatomical comparison to the known species of the genus revealed it to be P. vitii. Its existence here indicates that it is first report from South Asia and also here been described for the first time on the basis of ITS marker. A taxonomic treatment including a description based on the newly collected material is provided along with a molecular phylogenetic analysis. Key words: New record, Pakistan, Phylogeny, Physciaceae.
34559Wilk K. (2012): Calcicolous species of the genus Caloplaca in the Polish Western Carpathians. - Polish Botanical Studies, 29: 1–91. .
This monograph is based on a revision of material from national and foreign herbaria and on the author’s field study. Thirty-nine taxa of Caloplaca Th. Fr. were recognized in the Polish Western Carpathians: C. albolutescens (Nyl.) H. Olivier, C. albopruinosa (Arnold) H. Olivier, C. arnoldii subsp. obliterata (Pers.) Gaya, C. arnoldiiconfusa Gaya & Nav.-Ros., C. atroalba (Tuck.) Zahlbr., C. aurea (Schaer.) Zahlbr., C. biatorina (A. Massal.) J. Steiner, C. chalybaea (Fr.) Müll. Arg., C. chrysodeta (Vain. ex Räsänen) Dombr., C. cirrochroa (Ach.) Th. Fr., C. citrina (Hoffm.) Th. Fr., C. coccinea (Müll. Arg.) Poelt, C. coronata (Kremp. ex Körb.) J. Steiner, C. crenulatella (Nyl.) H. Olivier, C. decipiens (Arnold) Blomb. & Forssell, C. dichroa Arup, C. dolomiticola (Hue) Zahlbr., C. flavescens (Huds.) J. R. Laundon, C. flavocitrina (Nyl.) H. Olivier, C. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., C. holocarpa (Ach.) A. E. Wade, C. keissleri (Servít) Poelt, C. lactea (A. Massal.) Zahlbr., C. marmorata (Bagl.) Jatta, C. nubigena (Kremp.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., C. oasis (A. Massal.) Szatala, C. percrocata (Arnold) J. Steiner, C. polycarpa (A. Massal.) Zahlbr., C. proteus Poelt, C. pseudofulgensia Gaya & Nav.-Ros., C. pusilla (A. Massal.) Zahlbr., C. saxicola (Hoffm.) Nordin, C. soralifera Vondrák & Hrouzek, C. teicholyta (Ach.) J. Steiner, C. variabilis (Pers.) Müll. Arg., C. velana complex, C. vitellinaria Szatala, C. xantholyta (Nyl.) Jatta, and C. xanthostigmoidea (Räsänen) Zahlbr. Two species are new for Poland: C. albolutescens and C. arnoldiiconfusa. One is new for the Polish Carpathians: C. crenulatella. Many new regional records are given, helping to complete the geographical range of some poorly known taxa, such as C. chrysodeta, C. polycarpa and C. xantholyta. A few species were not confirmed from the study area: C. alociza (A. Massal.) Mig., C. aurantia (Pers.) Hellb., C. erythrocarpa (Pers.) Zwackh, and C. subochracea (Wedd.) Werner. Detailed descriptions of all recognized species are provided, with illustrations, distribution maps and a key for species identification. Key words: taxonomy, geographical distribution, Central Europe, new records.
34558Di Biase L., Di Lisio P., Pace L., Arrizza L. & Fattorini S. (2022): Use of lichens to evaluate the impact of post-earthquake reconstruction activities on air quality: A case study from the city of L’Aquila. - Biology, 11(8): 1199 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11081199.
Lichens are widely used as bioindicators of air quality because of their ability to absorb chemical pollutants. We used the Lichen Diversity Value (LDV) index to assess the effects of the urban reconstruction activities in the city of L’Aquila ten years after the 2009 earthquake on air quality. Sampling was conducted from the city centre (still mostly under reconstruction and closed to traffic) to suburban areas (where reconstruction is minimal). We tested if the LDV index varied with distance from the city centre because of the presence of air pollutants produced by reconstruction works. We also used Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) to detect the main pollutants accumulated in the sampled lichens. The LDV increased from the city centre towards suburban areas. EDS revealed high concentrations of pollutants related to demolition and reconstruction activities, such as aluminium and silicon (used in the manufacture of concrete), in the more central areas. These results suggest that the LDV index can be a useful tool to monitor air quality, even on a small scale, and in urban environments subject to building demolition and reconstruction. Moreover, EDS could represent a good preliminary analytical technique to identify the air pollutants associated with all of these activities. Keywords: biomonitoring; cities; demolition; ecological indicators; Italy; lichen diversity value; lichens; pollution; urban ecology; urban–rural gradient.
34557Pišút I. (1983): Nachträge zur Kenntnis der Flechten der Slowakei 10. - Zborník Slovenského národného múzea, Prírodné vedy [Acta rerum naturalium musei nationalis slovaci, Bratislava], 29: 67–77. .
Slovakia; lichenofloristics
34556Belkina O., Konstantinova N., Korolеva N., Konoreva L., Davydov D., Savchenko A. & Likhachev A. (2015): Bryophytes, lichens and cyanoprocaryotes in surroundings of Pyramiden (Svalbard): A concise guide-book. - Russian Academy of Sciences, The Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden and Institute by N. A. Avrorin, Svalbard Environmental Protection Fund, 254 p. https://www.miljovernfondet.no/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/atlas_en-13-12.pdf.
This book presents some widespread and rare species of mosses, liverworts, lichens and cyanoprokaryotes in the surroundings of Pyramiden town on Svalbard archipelago, together with brief explanations of morphology, ecology and distribution of selected species. Five excursion routes in and around Pyramiden show the diversity of cryptogamic organisms and their habitats. The book contains more than 200 full-colored photographs and five maps of the excursion routes. To all who are interested in Arctic wildlife.
34555Erlandsson R., Bjerke J.W., Finne E.A., Myneni R.B., Piao S., Wang X., Virtanen T., Räsänen A., Kumpula T., Kolari T.H.M., Tahvanainen T. & Tømmervik H. (2022): An artificial intelligence approach to remotely assess pale lichen biomass. - Remote Sensing of Environment, 280: 113201 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2022.113201.
Although generally given little attention in vegetation studies, ground-dwelling (terricolous) lichens are major contributors to overall carbon and nitrogen cycling, albedo, biodiversity and biomass in many high-latitude ecosystems. Changes in biomass of mat-forming pale lichens have the potential to affect vegetation, fauna, climate and human activities including reindeer husbandry. Lichens have a complex spectral signature and terricolous lichens have limited growth height, often growing in mixtures with taller vegetation. This has, so far, prevented the development of remote sensing techniques to accurately assess lichen biomass, which would be a powerful tool in ecosystem and ecological research and rangeland management. We present a Landsat based remote sensing model developed using deep neural networks, trained with 8914 field records of lichen volume collected for >20 years. In contrast to earlier proposed machine learning and regression methods for lichens, our model exploited the ability of neural networks to handle mixed spatial resolution input. We trained candidate models using input of 1 × 1 (30 × 30 m) and 3 × 3 Landsat pixels based on 7 reflective bands and 3 indices, combined with a 10 m spatial resolution digital elevation model. We normalised elevation data locally for each plot to remove the region-specific variation, while maintaining informative local variation in topography. The final model predicted lichen volume in an evaluation set (n = 159) reaching an R2 of 0.57. NDVI and elevation were the most important predictors, followed by the green band. Even with moderate tree cover density, the model was efficient, offering a considerable improvement compared to earlier methods based on specific reflectance. The model was in principle trained on data from Scandinavia, but when applied to sites in North America and Russia, the predictions of the model corresponded well with our visual interpretations of lichen abundance. We also accurately quantified a recent historic (35 years) change in lichen abundance in northern Norway. This new method enables further spatial and temporal studies of variation and changes in lichen biomass related to multiple research questions as well as rangeland management and economic and cultural ecosystem services. Combined with information on changes in drivers such as climate, land use and management, and air pollution, our model can be used to provide accurate estimates of ecosystem changes and to improve vegetation-climate models by including pale lichens. Keywords: Remote sensing ; Lichens ; Terricolous lichens ; Deep neural networks ; Artificial intelligence ; Cladonia ; Reindeer lichen ; Light lichens ; Light coloured lichens ; Pale lichens ; Landsat.
34554Koelemeijer I.A., Ehrlén J., Jönsson M., De Frenne P., Berg P., Andersson J., Weibull H. & Hylander K. (2022): Interactive efects of drought and edge exposure on old‑growth forest understory species. - Landscape Ecology, 37: 1839–1853. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-022-01441-9.
Context: Both climatic extremes and land-use change constitute severe threats to biodiversity, but their interactive effects remain poorly understood. In forest ecosystems, the effects of climatic extremes can be exacerbated at forest edges. Objectives: We explored the hypothesis that an extreme summer drought reduced the richness and coverage of old-growth forest species, particularly in forest patches with high edge exposure. Methods: Using a high-resolution spatially explicit precipitation dataset, we could detect variability in drought intensity during the summer drought of 2018. We selected 60 old-growth boreal forest patches in central Sweden that differed in their level of drought intensity and amount of edge exposure. The year after the drought, we surveyed red-listed and old-growth forest indicator species of vascular plants, lichens and bryophytes. We assessed if species richness, composition, and coverage were related to drought intensity, edge exposure, and their interaction. Results: Species richness was negatively related to drought intensity in forest patches with a high edge exposure, but not in patches with less edge exposure. Patterns differed among organism groups and were strongest for cyanolichens, epiphytes associated with high-pH bark, and species occurring on convex substrates such as trees and logs. Conclusions: Our results show that the effects of an extreme climatic event on forest species can vary strongly across a landscape. Edge exposed old-growth forest patches are more at risk under extreme climatic events than those in continuous forests. This suggest that maintaining buffer zones around forest patches with high conservation values should be an important conservation measure.
34553Barreno E., Muggia L., Chiva S., Molins A., Bordenave C., García-Breijo F. & Moya P. (2022): Trebouxia lynnae sp. nov. (former Trebouxia sp. TR9): Biology and biogeography of an epitome lichen symbiotic microalga. - Biology, 11(8): 1196 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11081196.
Two microalgal species, Trebouxia jamesii and Trebouxia sp. TR9, were detected as the main photobionts coexisting in the thalli of the lichen Ramalina farinacea. Trebouxia sp. TR9 emerged as a new taxon in lichen symbioses and was successfully isolated and propagated in in vitro culture and thoroughly investigated. Several years of research have confirmed the taxon Trebouxia sp. TR9 to be a model/reference organism for studying mycobiont–photobiont association patterns in lichen symbioses. Trebouxia sp. TR9 is the first symbiotic, lichen-forming microalga for which an exhaustive characterization of cellular ultrastructure, physiological traits, genetic and genomic diversity is available. The cellular ultrastructure was studied by light, electron and confocal microscopy; physiological traits were studied as responses to different abiotic stresses. The genetic diversity was previously analyzed at both the nuclear and organelle levels by using chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear genome data, and a multiplicity of phylogenetic analyses were carried out to study its intraspecific diversity at a biogeographical level and its specificity association patterns with the mycobiont. Here, Trebouxia sp. TR9 is formally described by applying an integrative taxonomic approach and is presented to science as Trebouxia lynnae, in honor of Lynn Margulis, who was the primary modern proponent for the significance of symbiosis in evolution. The complete set of analyses that were carried out for its characterization is provided. Keywords: culture; diversity; genetics; isolation; morphology; phylogeny; Ramalina.
34552Garrido-Huéscar E., González-Burgos E., Kirika P.M., Boustie J., Ferron S., Gómez-Serranillos M.P., Lumbsch H.T. & Divakar P.K. (2022): A new cryptic lineage in Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota) with pharmacological properties. - Journal of Fungi, 8(8): 826 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8080826.
We used molecular data to address species delimitation in a species complex of the parmelioid genus Canoparmelia and compare the pharmacological properties of the two clades identified. We used HPLC_DAD_MS chromatography to identify and quantify the secondary substances and used a concatenated data set of three ribosomal markers to infer phylogenetic relationships. Some historical herbarium specimens were also examined. We found two groups that showed distinct pharmacological properties. The phylogenetic study supported the separation of these two groups as distinct lineages, which are here accepted as distinct species: Canoparmelia caroliniana occurring in temperate to tropical ecosystems of a variety of worldwide localities, including America, Macaronesia, south-west Europe and potentially East Africa, whereas the Kenyan populations represent the second group, for which we propose the new species C. kakamegaensis Garrido-Huéscar, Divakar & Kirika. This study highlights the importance of recognizing cryptic species using molecular data, since it can result in detecting lineages with pharmacological properties previously overlooked. Keywords: Africa; antioxidant activity; biodiversity; chemical profiling; cytotoxic activity; lichenized fungi; molecular phylogeny; species delimitation.
34551Ai M., Li L.J., Worthy F.R., Yin A.C., Zhong Q.Y., Wang S.Q., Wang L.S. & Wang X.Y. (2022): Taxonomy of Buellia epigaea-group (Caliciales, Caliciaceae), revealing a new species and two new records from China. - MycoKeys, 92: 45–62. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.92.83939.
During the Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research Program, we discovered that white terricolous lichenized fungal species of Buellia De Not. were widely distributed across the Tibetan Plateau. After examining their morphology, chemistry and phylogeny, we describe Buellia alpina Xin Y. Wang & Li S. Wang, sp. nov. as new to science. It is present in alpine meadows, and is characterized by its effigurate thallus, distinct linear marginal lobes, cover of thick white pruina and four-spored asci. This is also the first report of Buellia elegans Poelt and Buellia epigaea (Pers.) Tuck from China. The Buellia epigaea-group has previously been characterized by white and often effigurate thalli that occur mainly on soil. However, our results show that species in this group actually belong to two distinct clades. This conclusion is based on analyses of the nuITS region and the combined regions dataset (nuITS-nuLSU-mtSSU-β-tubulin). We discuss differences in morphology, anatomy, chemistry and ecology among the putative Buellia epigaea-group. Detailed descriptions and figures for the three species from China and a key for species of Buellia epigaea-group are provided. Keywords: Lichenized fungi, nuITS-nuLSU-mtSSU-β-tubulin, phylogenetic analysis, terricolous, Tibetan Plateau.
34550Varrica D., Lo Medico F. & Alaimo M.G. (2022): Air quality assessment by the determination of trace elements in lichens (Xanthoria calcicola) in an industrial area (Sicily, Italy). - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(15): 9746 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159746.
This study provides data on variation in the content of metals and metalloids measured in the lichens (Xanthoria calcicola Oxner) collected in the Syracusan petrochemical complex (Sicily, Italy) which is considered one of the largest in Europe. Concentrations of eighteen trace elements measured in the lichens that were collected from 49 different points were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) device. The concentrations of the typical elements of industrial emissions (As, Cr, Ni, and V) highlight the environmental criticality that exists in the study area. The interpretation of the data in terms of multi-element statistical analysis (FA) and enrichment factor (EFs) proved to be particularly useful in identifying several sources that contribute to the presence of trace elements in the atmospheric particulate between anthropogenic emissions and geogenic emissions. The results of this study reveal the versatility of the lichen species Xanthoria calcicola Oxner in the search for trace elements in highly anthropized environments, so the approach followed in this study can also be applied to other industrial contexts. Keywords: trace elements; industrial area; atmospheric pollution; biomonitoring.
34549Cera A., Mendes J., Cortada À. & Gómez-Bolea A. (2022): Cover of Ramalina species as an indicator of habitat quality in threatened coastal woodlands. - Bryologist, 125(3): 424–432. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.3.424.
Coastal forests in the Mediterranean area are threatened habitats due to intense human influence. In the context of global change, a rapid tool is needed for the evaluation of habitat quality in woodlands by calculating lichen cover on twigs rather than weight biomass. We selected epiphytic Ramalina species as indicators of habitat quality and evaluated them in threatened woodlands dominated by Olea europea var. sylvestris on the island of Menorca, a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in the Mediterranean area. We measured species richness, percentage cover and dry weight in nine sites grouped into urban, rural and naturalized areas to evaluate the effect of land uses, and regressed dry weight against percentage cover. Percentage cover, dry weight, species richness of Ramalina and of its species varied depending on land use, reaching higher rates in naturalized and rural areas rather than in urban areas. In addition, we showed for the first time that field estimates of Ramalina cover at the field were related to dry weight by applying a logarithmic transformation to dry weight. Percentage cover of Ramalina was a good indicator of land uses and will be a rapid, easy and non-destructive tool to assess the quality of woodland habitats in the coastal zone. Keywords: Habitat quality, lichen ecology, Mediterranean region, lichen biomass, land use, bioindicator, Menorca.
34548Zulfiqar R., Habib K., Mayrhofer H. & Khalid A.N. (2022): A new species of the genus Rinodina (lichenized Ascomycota, Physciaceae) from Pakistan. - Bryologist, 125(3): 418–423. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.3.418.
Specimens of a species belonging to the genus Rinodina were collected during a lichen diversity study in district Kohistan, Pakistan. Both morphology and ITS sequence data confirm its position within the genus Rinodina and suggest it is distinct from other known species of the genus. The new taxon, described here as Rinodina iqbalii, is characterized by the absence of a prothallus; small apothecial discs up to 0.6 mm in diameter; and small, Milvina–type ascospores, (12.0–)16.0–18.5(–20.0) 3 (6.5–)8.0– 10.0(–12.0) µm, which become more or less Physcia–type during their ontogeny and the presence of atranorin. A tabular comparison of characters between the new species and similar taxa is provided. Keywords: Kohistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, morphology, phylogeny, taxonomy.
34547Favero-Longo S.E., Tabasso M.L., Brigadeci F., Capua M.-C., Morelli A., Pastorello P., Sohrabi M., Chaverdi A.A. & Callieri P. (2022): A first assessment of the biocidal efficacy of plant essential oils against lichens on stone cultural heritage, and the importance of evaluating suitable application protocols. - Journal of Cultural Heritage, 55: 68–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2022.02.006.
Plant essential oils (EOs) are increasingly considered as potential tools to control biodeterioration of stone cultural heritage. The application of EOs was indeed shown to devitalize photo- and hetero-trophic constituents of lithobiontic biofilms, but their effects on lichens, which are other remarkable biodeteriogens of stone surfaces, is still unexplored. In this work, we analyzed the biocidal efficacy of a commercial mixture of essential oils (Syzygium aromaticum, Thymbra capitata, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) against crustose lichen species on stone walls in Persepolis (Iran) and Saluzzo (Italy), in semi-arid and temperate bioclimatic areas, respectively. In the former site (ST1), the efficacy of EOs, quaternary ammonium and isothiazolinone biocides, applied with cellulose poultice, was compared against Acarospora cervina, Calogaya biatorina and Protoparmeliopsis usbekica. In the latter (ST2), the efficacy of different protocols to apply EOs was compared against Candelariella vitellina and Protoparmeliopsis muralis. The devitalization effect was evaluated by measuring chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters of lichen thalli (basal fluorescence, F0, and maximum quantum efficiency, Fv/Fm) and with epifluorescence microscopy. In ST1, EOs poultice application remarkably affected lichen vitality, determining in all the targets a decrease of Fv/Fm values similar or even higher than that observed for the other biocidal products. F0 values and epifluorescence microscopy, however, indicated some persistence of viable cells in A. cervina and P. usbekica. Incomplete hydration and metabolic activation of thalli during EOs application, also related to anatomical traits, may account for such partial resistance of these species of semi-arid areas. In ST2, the zeroing of Fv/Fm and a strong decrease of F0 indicated the devitalization of both the target species when EOs were applied with cellulose poultice, and also when the EOs application by brush (requiring a minor quantity of product) was combined with the immediate covering of the surface with a paper tissue, a second EOs supply and the final covering with a plastic film. Both these application protocols assured a prolonged wet condition of the surface -at least in the humid autumn climate of the temperate ST2-, and thus the metabolic activity of thalli and their susceptibility to the chemicals. The simple EOs application by brush, even if combined with the plastic film covering, was instead ineffective, likely due to the lower product supply and thallus hydration. In conclusion, the biocidal potency of EOs was also confirmed for lichens, although some species-specific resistance may be encountered, as in the case of A. cervina and P. usbekica in ST1. The set up of the application protocol, particularly with respect to the assurance of thallus hydration, was shown as crucial to make the EOs treatments effective and should be taken into particular care when targeting lichens of semi-arid areas and, in general, to plan interventions in favourable, more humid seasons. Keywords: Biodeterioration control; Chlorophyll a fluorescence; Lichen devitalization; Synthetic and natural biocides; Chemical stress tolerance.
34546Song H., Kim K.-T., Park S.-Y., Lee G.-W., Choi J., Jeon J., Cheong K., Choi G., Hur J.-S. & Lee Y.-H. (2022): A comparative genomic analysis of lichen‑forming fungi reveals new insights into fungal lifestyles. - Scientific Reports, 12: 10724 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-14340-5.
Lichen-forming fungi are mutualistic symbionts of green algae or cyanobacteria. We report the comparative analysis of six genomes of lichen-forming fungi in classes Eurotiomycetes and Lecanoromycetes to identify genomic information related to their symbiotic lifestyle. The lichenforming fungi exhibited genome reduction via the loss of dispensable genes encoding plant-cell-walldegrading enzymes, sugar transporters, and transcription factors. The loss of these genes reflects the symbiotic biology of lichens, such as the absence of pectin in the algal cell wall and obtaining specific sugars from photosynthetic partners. The lichens also gained many lineage- and species-specific genes, including those encoding small secreted proteins. These genes are primarily induced during the early stage of lichen symbiosis, indicating their significant roles in the establishment of lichen symbiosis.Our findings provide comprehensive genomic information for six lichen-forming fungi and novel insights into lichen biology and the evolution of symbiosis.
34545Ivanets V., Yevchun H., Miryuta N., Veselsky M., Salganskiy O., Konishchuk V., Kozeretska I., Dykyi E. & Parnikoza I. (2022): Skua and plant dispersal: lessons from the Argentine Islands – Kyiv Peninsula region in the maritime Antarctic. - Nordic Journal of Botany, 2022: e03326 [12 p.]. doi: 10.1111/njb.03326.
Birds are one of the most likely dispersal vectors for plants in Antarctica. We studied the nesting behavior of south polar skua Catharacta maccormicki and brown skua Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi to assess their potential role in ornithochory in the Argentine Islands – Kyiv Peninsula region. Nest samples were collected during 2009– 2020 years in the Argentine Islands – Kyiv Peninsula region including all islands and coasts of the Graham Land from the Lemaire Channel to the islands of Berthelot Islands from north to south and extending from west to east from the Roca Islands, Cruls Islands, Rasmussen Point to the coast. We found that skuas utilize different nest building materials, including bryophytes, vascular plants (hairgrass Deschampsia antarctica) and lichens. In south polar skua nests, mosses and lichens dominate in the nest material; in brown skuas Deschampsia antarctica and mosses dominate. Both bird species likely collect nest components from nearby vegetation formations (< 1 m distant). We conclude that C. maccormicki and C. antarctica lonnbergi are not selective in their choice of plant species, simply using the materials that dominate near the nest. Therefore, both species carry these materials from nearby sites, and only occasionally bring them from distant places. In conclusion, for both species we did not find any evidence to support their involvement in long-distance ornithochory (stomatochory) in the region. Keywords: Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi, Catharacta maccormicki, ornithochory, vegetation. [p. 10:] "Lichens were second-most abundant component in nests of south polar skua (up to 20.6%). This is interesting, since for a more northern region of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Peter et al. (1990) also recorded that C. maccormicki built nests mostly from lichens, such as Usnea spp., and to a lesser extent from mosses. The main mass in the lichen fraction in nests of south polar skuas in the Argentine Islands – Kyiv Peninsula region belonged to Usnea antarctica Du Rietz."
34544Trass H.H. (1963): K flore lishajnikov Kamchatki I. [On the lichen-flora of Kamchatka I]. – In: Parmasto, E. H., Raïk, A. A. & Trass, H. H. (eds.), Исследование природы Дальнего Востока. Investigationes Naturae Orientis Extremis. - Tallinn: Academia Scientiarum R.S.S. Estonia, pp. 170–220, tab.. .
34543Setchell A. & Haughian S.R. (2022): Translating a species distribution model into management recommendations for an at-risk lichen. - Écoscience, 29(2): 159–165. https://doi.org/10.1080/11956860.2021.1949821.
Species distribution models are powerful tools on their own for the management of rare and at-risk species, but their utility as such can be limited if their accuracy is low, or if management policies are applied without consideration of the structure of the data. We tested the accuracy of a MaxEnt species distribution model for white-rimmed shingle lichen (Fuscopannaria leucosticta) in New Brunswick, Canada, and proposed an additional decision support-tool that matches the species probability of occurrence (PO) to possible management actions. The model was tested using two years of new field observations. Classification trees were used to define four groups across the range of PO values. Chi-squared tests were used to test the accuracy of predictions in each class. The model was found to accurately predict occurrences in very low and moderate classes, but underpredicted occurrences in low and high classes. We recommend using similar, data-driven support tools in the conservation decision-making process to minimize losses of the species and maximize efficacy of management. Keywords: Decision-support tools; Fuscopannaria leucosticta; species at risk; New Brunswick; forest management.
34542Sánchez M., Ureña-Vacas I., González-Burgos E., Divakar P.K. & Gómez-Serranillos M.P. (2022): The genus Cetraria s. str.—A review of its botany, phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacology. - Molecules, 27(15): 4990 [26 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27154990.
The genus Cetraria s. str. (Parmeliaceae family, Cetrarioid clade) consists of 15 species of mostly erect brown or greenish yellow fruticose or subfoliose thallus. These Cetraria species have a cosmopolitan distribution, being primarily located in the Northern Hemisphere, in North America and in the Eurasia area. Phytochemical analysis has demonstrated the presence of dibenzofuran derivatives (usnic acid), depsidones (fumarprotocetraric and protocetraric acids) and fatty acids (lichesterinic and protolichesterinic acids). The species of Cetraria, and more particularly Cetraria islandica, has been widely employed in folk medicine for the treatment of digestive and respiratory diseases as decoctions, tinctures, aqueous extract, and infusions. Moreover, Cetraria islandica has had an important nutritional and cosmetic value. These traditional uses have been validated in in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies. Additionally, new therapeutic activities are being investigated, such as antioxidant, immunomodulatory, cytotoxic, genotoxic and antigenotoxic. Among all Cetraria species, the most investigated by far has been Cetraria islandica, followed by Cetraria pinastri and Cetraria aculeata. The aim of the current review is to update all the knowledge about the genus Cetraria covering aspects that include taxonomy and phylogeny, morphology and distribution, ecological and environmental interest, phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacological properties. Keywords: Cetraria; lichens; traditional uses; pharmacology; phytochemistry; botany.
34541He Z., Naganuma T., Nakai R., Imura S., Tsujimoto M. & Convey P. (2022): Microbiomic analysis of bacteria associated with rock tripe lichens in continental and maritime Antarctic regions. - Journal of Fungi, 8(8): 817 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8080817.
Increased research attention is being given to bacterial diversity associated with lichens. Rock tripe lichens (Umbilicariaceae) were collected from two distinct Antarctic biological regions, the continental region near the Japanese Antarctic station (Syowa Station) and the maritime Antarctic South Orkney Islands (Signy Island), in order to compare their bacterial floras and potential metabolism. Bulk DNA extracted from the lichen samples was used to amplify the 18S rRNA gene and the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, whose amplicons were Sanger- and MiSeq-sequenced, respectively. The fungal and algal partners represented members of the ascomycete genus Umbilicaria and the green algal genus Trebouxia, based on 18S rRNA gene sequences. The V3-V4 sequences were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which were assigned to eight bacterial phyla, Acidobacteriota, Actinomyceota, Armatimonadota, Bacteroidota, Cyanobacteria, Deinococcota, Pseudomonadota and the candidate phylum Saccharibacteria (also known as TM7), commonly present in all samples. The OTU floras of the two biological regions were clearly distinct, with regional biomarker genera, such as Mucilaginibacter and Gluconacetobacter, respectively. The OTU-based metabolism analysis predicted higher membrane transport activities in the maritime Antarctic OTUs, probably influenced by the sampling area’s warmer maritime climatic setting. Keywords: Umbilicaria; Antarctica; rRNA gene; V3-V4 region; MiSeq; OTUs; biogeography; metabolism.
34540Widhelm T. & Lumbsch H.T. (2011): The phylogenetic placement of Miltideaceae inferred from ribosomal DNA sequence data. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 106: 365–373. .
The phylogeny and systematic placement of the monotypic genus Miltidea was studied using maximum likelihood and a Bayesian approach based on nuclear LSU and mitochondrial SSU rDNA sequences. Two new sequences from Miltidea ceroplasta were aligned with 84 ascomycete sequences retrieved from GenBank. Our results show that Miltideaceae belongs to Agyriales (syn. Pertusariales). Miltideaceae forms a strongly supported sister-group with Agyriaceae and these two families form a strongly supported sister-group relationship with Pertusariaceae sensu stricto. Based on the results of the phylogenetic analyses we re-examined the morphology of Miltidea and found several micromorphological characters, including exciple and ascus type, that support a close relationship of Agyriaceae and Miltideaceae. Keywords: Acarosporinae, Agyriaceae, Australasia, lichenized fungi, Miltidea, Pertusariales.
34539Concostrina-Zubiri L., Valencia E., Ochoa V., Gozalo B., Mendoza B.J. & Maestre F.T. (2022): Biocrust-forming lichens increase soil available phosphorus under simulated climate change. - European Journal of Soil Science, 73: e13284 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.13284.
Drylands are important reservoirs of soil phosphorus (P) at the global scale, although large uncertainties remain regarding how climate change will affect P cycling in these ecosystems. Biocrust-forming lichens are important regulators of abiotic and biotic processes occurring in the soil surface, including nutrient availability and redistribution, across global drylands. However, their role as modulators of climate change impacts on soil P cycling is poorly known. We conducted a manipulative microcosm experiment to evaluate how six biocrust-forming lichens (Buellia zoharyi, Diploschistes diacapsis, Fulgensia subbracteata, Psora decipiens, Squamarina lentigera and Toninia sedifolia) with diverse morphology and chemistry affect soil available P concentration and the activity of acid phosphatase after 50 months of simulated ~2°C warming and 35% rainfall reduction. Lichens increased soil available inorganic and total available P, and the activity of acid phosphatase, although the magnitude of these effects was highly species-specific. Climate change treatments increased available organic P regardless of lichen species. Our findings provide novel experimental evidence of the importance of biocrusts as modulators of P cycling in drylands and highlight the necessity to take into account the identity of biocrust constituents when evaluating their effects on soil fertility. Highlights: Biocrust-forming lichens effects on soil phosphorus under simulated climate change were evaluated. A microcosm experiment with warming and rainfall reduction and six lichen species was conducted. Lichens increased available inorganic and total available P, and the activity of acid phosphatase. Biocrust-forming lichens have species-specific effects on phosphorus cycling in dryland soils. Keywords: biological soil crusts, climate change, drylands, lichens, soil fertility.
34538Bautista-González J.A., Montoya A., Bye R., Esqueda M. & Herrera‑Campos M.A. (2022): Traditional knowledge of medicinal mushrooms and lichens of Yuman peoples in Northern Mexico. - Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 18: 52 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-022-00550-8.
Background: Mushrooms and lichens are natural therapeutic resources whose millenary importance persists in indigenous and mestizo communities of Mexico. However, in this regard, in the northern part of the country there are few ethnobiological explorations. This study investigates the local knowledge of medicinal mushrooms and lichens used by Yuman peoples, whose native speakers are in imminent danger of extinction along with their biocultural heritage due to changes in their traditional primary activities and the usurpation of their ancestral lands. Methods: Ethnographic techniques in the feld and standard lichenological and mycological methods in the labora‑ tory were used. Results: Information was obtained on the medicinal use of 20 species, of which six are lichens of the genus Xanthoparmelia and 14 are non-lichenized fungi, mainly gasteroids. The latter are primarily used to treat skin lesions, while lichens are used in heart, urinary, and gastrointestinal diseases. The transmission of this local knowledge to future generations is discussed, as well as the intercultural cognitive convergence about the uses of medicinal mushrooms and lichens. Conclusions: The Yuman peoples preserve knowledge, practices and beliefs around mushrooms and lichens. Although increasingly less used, they still form part of their culinary and traditional medicine; even some are also used as ludic and ornamental purposes, and as trail markers. Beyond the pragmatic importance of these organisms, tradi‑ tional knowledge about them is an essential part of the cultural identity that the Yuman peoples strive to preserve. Keywords: Ethnomycology, Ethnolichenology, Traditional medicine, Yuman, Kiliwa, Paipai, Kumeyaay, Cucapá.
34537Morillas L., Roales J., Cruz C. & Munzi S. (2022): Lichen as multipartner symbiotic relationships. - Encyclopedia, 2(3): 1421–1431. https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030096.
Lichens have long been considered as composite organisms composed of algae and/or cyanobacteria hosted by a fungus in a mutualistic relationship. Other organisms have been gradually discovered within the lichen thalli, such as multiple algal species, yeasts, or even viruses. Of pivotal relevance is the existence of the lichen microbiome, which is a community of microorganisms that can be found living together on the lichen surface. This community performs a growing number of functions. In this entry, we explore the journey of lichens being considered from a dual partnership to a multi-species symbiotic relationship. Keywords: symbiosis; microbiome; partnership; mycobiont; photobiont; holobiont; bacterial layer.
34536Pykälä J. & Lommi S. (2021): Lichen flora of Finland – short history of Finnish lichenology and updated species statistics. - Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica, 97: 73–88. .
We present some statistics on Finnish lichens. The knowledge on taxonomy, distribution and ecology of Finnish lichens is extremely uneven between different lichen groups. At present 1708 lichen species are known from Finland. The number has increased by 20.4 % compared to Vitikainen et al. (1997), even when more than 100 species have been synonymized or proven to be erroneously reported from Finland. Most species are rare in Finland, and 204 species are known from one locality only. The proportion of lichen species known from Finland compared to estimated global number of lichen species is higher than among any other species-rich organism group. This outlines the importance of lichens as a crucial part of the Finnish biodiversity. Data on accepted species described from Finland (n=225) is presented.
34535Furmanek Ł., Czarnota P. & Seaward M.R.D. (2022): A review of the potential of lichen substances as antifungal agents: the effects of extracts and lichen secondary metabolites on Fusarium fungi. - Archives of Microbiology, 24: 523 [31 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-022-03104-4.
The present meta-analysis provides literature data on the effect of lichen extracts and single secondary metabolites used against Fusarium spp. moulds. Lichen extracts were obtained from 51 corticolous, 17 terricolous and 18 saxicolous lichen species and 37 secondary compounds were tested against eight fungal species, i.e., Fusarium acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. fujikuroi, F. oxysporum, F. roseum, F. solani and F. udum. The researchers used several test methods, mostly to determine MIC and IZ. Extracts were obtained using several solvents, mainly organic ones with use of the Soxhlet apparatus. The most frequently tested species was F. oxysporum, against which lichen substances from Alectoria sarmentosa, Cladonia mitis, C. rangiferina, Flavoparmelia caperata, Hypotrachyna cirrhata, Leucodermia leucomelos, Parmotrema austrosinense, P. reticulatum, Physcia aipolia, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Roccella montagnei and Umbilicaria nylanderiana and secondary metabolites such as 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3,6-dimethylbenzoic acid, atranorin, lecanoric and (+)-usnic acids showed the highest antifungal potential. These agencies could compete with the potential of fungicides, such as flucytosine and fluconazole. Other species have been poorly investigated. Statistical analysis of literature data showed that the fungistatic potential of lichen extracts is significantly different from individual secondary metabolites. Similarly, the potential of secondary metabolites often differs significantly from that of non-lichen substances. This meta-analysis indicates the potential of lichen substances as future anti-fusarial agents. Keywords: Antibiotics · Antifungal potential · Allelopathy · Fusarium · Lichen substances · Inhibition.
34534Kawagoe H., Itioka T., Hyodo F., Iku A., Shimizu-kaya U. & Meleng P. (2022): Evidence in stable isotope ratios for lichen-feeding by Lithosiini moths from a tropical rainforest but not from a temperate forest. - Entomological Science, 25: e12519 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/ens.12519.
Lithosiini (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae) is distinctive in having some species that feed on lichens, whereas the majority of moths feed on vascular plants. However, the larval diet of most Lithosiini species is poorly known. This study examines whether Lithosiini species, collected in a tropical rainforest of Borneo (nine species) and a temperate forest of Japan (eight species), feed on lichens as larvae, based on stable isotope analyses. As a result, the δ15N values for eight of nine Lithosiini species collected from Borneo were notably lower than those of nine co-occurring herbivorous non-Lithosiini species, and were similar to those of sympatric, lichen-feeding termites; however, δ13C and δ15N values of one Lithosiini species (Adites sp.) were significantly higher than those of the other moth species and similar to those of humus-feeding termites and predatory insects occurring at the same site. These results have suggested that the Lithosiini in the Southeast Asian tropical rainforests contain some species that feed on lichens as their larval main diet and at least one species whose larvae feed on humus or animal-derived materials. In contrast, the δ13C and δ15N values of all examined Lithosiini species (eight species) in the temperate forest have suggested that their larvae fed on plants and not on lichens. Our stable isotope ratio analysis presented quantitative evidence suggesting lichen-feeding by Lithosiini moths in a tropical rainforest without observation of feeding behavior during the larval stages. Key words: larval diet, Lepidoptera, Lithosiini, Sarawak, stable C and N isotopes.
34533Zorrilla J.G., D’Addabbo T., Roscetto E., Varriale C., Catania M.R., Zonno M.C., Altomare C., Surico G., Nimis P.L. & Evidente A. (2022): Antibiotic and nematocidal metabolites from two lichen species collected on the Island of Lampedusa (Sicily). - International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23(15): 8471 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23158471.
The antibiotic and nematocidal activities of extracts from two coastal lichen species collected on Lampedusa Island (Sicily), Ramalina implexa Nyl. and Roccella phycopsis Ach., were tested. Methyl orsellinate, orcinol, (+)-montagnetol, and for the first time 4-chlororcinol were isolated from Roccella phycopsis. (+)-Usnic acid was obtained from Ramalina implexa. The crude organic extract of both lichen species showed strong antibiotic activity against some bacterial species and nematocidal activity. Among all the pure metabolites tested against the infective juveniles (J2) of the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloydogine incognita, (+)-usnic acid, orcinol, and (+)-montagnetol had significant nematocidal activity, comparable with that of the commercial nematocide Velum® Prime, and thus they showed potential application in agriculture as a biopesticide. On the contrary, methyl orsellinate and 4-chlororcinol had no nematocidal effect. These results suggest that the substituent pattern at ortho-para-position in respect to both hydroxyl groups of resorcine moiety, which is present in all metabolites, seems very important for nematocidal activity. The organic extracts of both lichens were also tested against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Both extracts were active against Gram-positive species. The extract of Ramalina implexa showed, among Gram-negative species, activity against Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii, while that from Roccella phycopsis was effective towards all test strains, with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of (+)-usnic acid, methyl orsellinate, and (+)-montagnetol is already known, so tests were focused on orcinol and 4-chlororcinol. The former showed antibacterial activity against all Gram positive and Gram-negative test strains, with the exception of A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae, while the latter exhibited a potent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive test strains and among Gram-negative strains, was effective against A. baumannii and K. pneumonia. These results suggest, for orcinol and 4-chlororcinol, an interesting antibiotic potential against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Keywords: lichen; Ramalina implexa; Roccella phycopsis; secondary metabolites; antibiotic and nematocidal activity.
34532Daminova A.G., Rogov A.M., Rassabina A.E., Beckett R.P. & Minibayeva F.V. (2022): Effect of melanization on thallus microstructure in the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria. - Journal of Fungi, 8(8): 791 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8080791.
Lichens often grow in microhabitats where they experience severe abiotic stresses. Some species respond to high UV radiation by synthesizing dark brown melanic pigments in the upper cortex. However, unlike the melanized structures of non-lichenized fungi, the morphology of the melanic layer in lichens remains unstudied. Here, we analyzed the morphology, ultrastructure, and elemental composition of the melanized layer in UV-exposed thalli of the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. Using light microscopy, we detected a pigmented layer sensitive to staining with 3,4-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, a precursor of eumelanin, in the upper cortex of melanized thalli. Analysis of cross-sections of melanized thalli using scanning electron microscopy revealed that melanin-like granules are deposited into the hyphal lumens. Melanized thalli also possessed thicker hyphal cell walls compared to pale thalli. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis of the elemental composition of the hyphal walls and extracted melanin indicated that the type of melanin synthesized by L. pulmonaria is eumelanin. Transmission electron microscopy was used to show that during melanization melanosome-like dark vesicles are transported to the cell surface and secreted into the cell walls of the fungal hyphae. Results from this study provide new insights into the effects of melanin synthesis on the microstructure of lichen thalli. View Full-Text Keywords: lichens; melanins; mycobiont; scanning electron microscopy; transmission electron microscopy; UV stress.
34531Fayyaz I., Kouser R., Afshan N.S., Niazi A.R., Zulfiqar R., Khalid A.N. & Kondratyuk S.Y. (2022): Iqbalia kashmirensis gen. et sp. nov. from Pakistan (Teloschistaceae, lichenized ascomycetes) based on multigene phylogeny. - Mycological Progress, 21: 68 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-022-01823-y.
The robust monophyletic branch having the highest level of bootstrap support in the phylogenetic tree of the Teloschistaceae, based on combined dataset of nrITS, 28S nrLSU DNA, and mtSSU sequences, which does not belong to any other earlier proposed genera of the subfamily Teloschistoideae, is described as new genus. The genus Iqbalia is characterized and differs from the closely related genus Nevilleilla by having discrete and compact/aggregated, rather not scattered areoles, without schizidia-like formations, a wide septum in ascospores when mounted in water and in having different chemistry (in having variolaric acid). Keywords: Lichenized fungi . Garhi dupatta . Kotli . Teloschistaceae. Note: numerous sequences attributed to Kondratyuk and coauthors in Table 1 were in fact received and published earlier by other authors (usually under different generic names)! See the genbank.
34530Cometto A., Ametrano C.G. & Muggia L. (2022): Life on top: cryptoendolithic ascomycetes and microalgae isolated from over 6000 m altitude. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 67(1): 1–16. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2022-0001.
Rocks are among the oldest terrestrial niches hosting a multiplicity of life forms, of which diversity has been only partially uncovered. Endolithic metacommunities comprise all major groups of microorganisms, such as chemo-organotrophic, chemo-lithotrophic and phototrophic, represented by bacteria, microalgae and microfungi. Their diversity is often difficult to describe and may remain underestimated. Furthermore, knowledge about the diversity of microorganisms colonizing rocks in peculiar niches is even poorer due to the difficulty to retrieve environmental specimens. Here, we report the phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization of a few endolithic fungi and algae isolated from rock fragments collected at high elevation, i.e., on the top of two mountains over 6000 m altitude, Muztagh Ata (China) and Cerro Mercendario (Argentina). The identity of the strains was confirmed by sequencing the nuclear ITS and LSU, the plastidial rbcL loci and by morphological analysis. Three fungal strains belonging to the class Dothideomycetes and one algal strain belonging to the genus Trebouxia were isolated from Muztagh Ata, while six fungal strains belonging to the order Chaetothyriales and four algal strains belonging to the genus Myrmecia were isolated from Cerro Mercedario. The detected species diversity is discussed in an evolutionary and ecological context. Key words: Chaetothyriales, Dothideomycetes, Myrmecia, symbiosis, Trebouxia.
34529McMullin R.T. & Miadlikowska J. (2022): Two rare Peltigera species new to the Canadian Arctic, P. islandica and P. lyngei. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 67(1): 17–23. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2022-0002.
Peltigera islandica and P. lyngei are rarely reported lichens. Previously, P. islandica was known from British Columbia, Estonia, and Iceland, and P. lyngei from Amchitka Island (Alaska), Gough Island (South Atlantic), Iceland, Siberia and Svalbard. Both species are reported here for the first time from the Canadian Arctic and from the second localities in North America. Peltigera lyngei is also reported for the first time from Canada. The identities of these species are confirmed morphologically, chemically, and with molecular data. Phylogenetic relationships are inferred using the ITS region. The widespread, but scattered, distribution of both species suggests that they may be underreported throughout their range. Key words: Biogeography, Peltigerales, Arctic, Arviat, Kukluk/Bloody Falls Territorial Park, Nuvuk (proposed) Territorial Park, Sylvia Grinnell Territorial Park.
34528 Mishra G.K., Nayaka S., Upreti D.K., Kondratyuk S.Y., Thell A. & Kärnefelt I. (2022): Cetrarioid lichens from India revised, including Nephromopsis awasthii sp. nov. and new records. - Mycotaxon, 137: 283–334. https://doi.org/10.5248/137.283.
Morpho-taxonomic studies of cetrarioid lichens from India recorded 46 species representing Cetraria, Melanelia, Nephromopsis, and Platismatia. Nephromopsis awasthii is described as new to science; and Cetraria endochrysea, C. sinensis, Melanelia agnata, Nephromopsis ciliaris, N. morrisonicola, N. pseudocomplicata, N. pseudoweberi, N. rugosa, N. weii, and N. yunnanensis are reported for the first time from India. A key to all genera and species of cetrarioid lichens in India is provided together with their detailed morpho-taxonomic characters and distribution. Key words—ascomycetes, diversity, Himalaya, Parmeliaceae, taxonomy.
34527Garrido-Benavent I., Chiva S., Bordenave C. D., Molins A. & Barreno E. (2022): Trebouxia maresiae sp. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), a new lichenized species of microalga found in coastal environments. - Cryptogamie, Algologie, 43(9): 135–145. https://doi.org/10.5252/cryptogamie-algologie2022v43a9.
Coccoid microalgae of the genus Trebouxia Puymaly are by far the most prevalent among the various species involved in lichen symbioses. However, their taxonomic knowledge is rather scarce compared to that of lichenized fungi. In the present work, a taxonomic study integrating diverse techniques (phylogenetics, light, confocal and transmission electron microscopies) is carried out to describe Trebouxia maresiae Garrido-Benavent, Chiva & Barreno, sp. nov. This species widely associates with the red-listed lichenized fungus Seirophora villosa (Ach.) Frödén but also with species of the genus Ramalina Ach., both occurring in coastal environments in the western Mediterranean and the Cape Verdean islands. This microalga is circumscribed to Trebouxia clade A and is closely related to T. decolorans Ahmadjian. It is characterized by the cell size being up to 15 μm in diam., the crenulate chloroplasts, and the structure of pyrenoids, which in cultured cells fits well with the crenulata-type, with long branched tubules meandering through the pyrenoid matrix, whereas in the lichenized state it acquires a hybrid structure (maresiae-type), characterized by the periphery of the pyrenoid being rather gigantea-type, with thylakoid membranes forming short, branched tubules. With the present work, the taxonomy of the genus Trebouxia moves a step forward towards more accurately characterizing species in lichen microalgae which is a prerequisite for future, more complex studies on speciation, co-evolution and selectivity. Key words: Mediterranean, Cape Verde, lichen, photobiont, symbiosis, new species.
34526Rada P., Halda J.P., Holuša J., Maliňáková K. & Horák J. (2022): Urban fruit orchards: Biodiversity and management restoration effects in the context of land use. - Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 75: 127686. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2022.127686.
Urban areas have increased greatly in recent decades, which has resulted in habitat loss. However, the promotion of urban green spaces could have a profound effect on biodiversity. Traditional fruit orchards are an important land-use type with the potential to host myriad organisms. Our goal was to determine the most important factors that influence orchard biodiversity in the million city of Prague (the capital of the Czech Republic). We used a multitaxon approach to evaluate the effect of orchard restoration in a landscape context. Restoration had a positive impact on species diversity, specifically, the diversity of orthopterans and butterflies. Moreover, landscape context determined the biodiversity of orthopterans, butterflies, and birds but not that of lichens. Our study underlines the importance of both the internal and external structures of traditional fruit orchards for species richness and composition. The results of our study support the restoration of traditional fruit orchards as a suitable management practice for promoting city biodiversity. Furthermore, orchard restoration can improve the attractiveness of suburban areas. Such areas often lack sufficient urban greening. Thus, restoration in these areas can also increase future recreational value. Landscape effect, Multitaxa, Species response, Traditional landscape management, Urban agroforestry
34525Petersson L., Lariviere D., Holmström E., Fritz Ö. & Felton A. (2022): Conifer tree species and age as drivers of epiphytic lichen communities in northern European production forests. - Lichenologist, 54: 213-225. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000172.
The epiphytic lichen species richness and community composition was compared for 600 living trees distributed within the interior of 60 Scots pine and Norway spruce monoculture stands in southern Sweden. A higher species richness, and more unique species, was found on trees of Scots pine than of Norway spruce, and distinctive communities were associated with the two tree species. Lichen species com- position also shifted between the 30-, 55- and 80-year-old stands, although there was no significant difference in species richness between the different age classes. Tree species and age of the stand explained most of the variation in community composition (41%), with additional variance explained by lichen proximity to the ground (6%) and aspect (1%) (northern/southern side of trunk). Scots pine and Norway spruce share many attributes, such as both being conifers with acidic bark properties and having a similar geographical distribution in Fennoscandia. However, our study showed that species richness and community composition can nevertheless diverge in stands dominated by these two tree species. Since the occurrence of red-listed species was low in these stands, we suggest that 80-year rotations are not long enough for the occur- rence of the many rare and specialized lichen species that require old forest structures and long forest continuity in this region. biodiversity, forest management, Norway spruce, Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, Scots pine, species richness, stand age, Sweden, zonation
34524Rico V.J. (2022): Long sigmoid and twisted ascospores in the genus Harpidium: H. longisporum sp. nov., a synopsis of the genus and a key to the species. - Lichenologist, 54: 175-181. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000123.
Harpidium longisporum is proposed as a new species. It is characterized by an areolate, mainly black thallus with trebouxioid algae, K+ blue- purple pigmented parts, pycnoascocarps forming aspicilioid apothecia, with moniliform paraphyses, unitunicate-rostrate, thick-walled asci and long sigmoid, lunate to falcate or irregularly curved and twisted ascospores, growing on steps of a vertical, intermittently moist, gneiss rock face. The genus Harpidium now comprises four species worldwide and, based on the selected specimens, a genus synopsis, a compara- tive table and a key to the species are included. Harpidiaceae, lichens, new species, Spain, taxonomy
34523Orange A. & Chhetri S.G. (2022): Verrucariaceae from Nepal. - Lichenologist, 54: 139-174. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000160.
Twenty-eight species of Verrucariaceae are reported from Nepal. One genus and nine species are described as new: Nesothele gen. nov., sister to Staurothele s. lat., with a crustose to squamulose thallus, hymenial algae and 4–8 colourless muriform ascospores per ascus; Nesothele glebulosa sp. nov., resembling N. rugulosa but with smaller perithecia; Thelidium uvidulum sp. nov., producing a thin thallus with soralia, prominent perithecia, and 1-septate ascospores; Verrucaria antepotens sp. nov., having a well-developed thallus with dark- sided areoles, immersed perithecia, and small ascospores 12.5–16.5 μm long; V. lactea sp. nov., resembling V. praetermissa but with larger ascospores and a strongly deviating ITS sequence; V. parvipeltata sp. nov., with brown, basally constricted areoles on an extensive dark prothallus; V. senta sp. nov., with a brown cracked thallus and prominent naked perithecia; Willeya eminens sp. nov., with prominent peri- thecia, and differing from W. protrudens in its ITS sequence; W. irrigata sp. nov. with a thallus cracked into dark-sided areoles, and relatively large ascospores 28.5–40 μm long; W. nepalensis sp. nov. with a cracked thallus, immersed perithecia and a distinctive ITS sequence. Three species complexes might contain new taxa, but wider geographical sampling is necessary before delimiting species: Thelidium minutulum, Verrucaria elaeomelaena and V. hydrophila. Five new combinations are made: Willeya honghensis comb. nov. (for Staurothele honghensis), Nesothele globosa comb. nov. (for Endocarpon globosum), N. hymenogonia comb. nov. (for Staurothele hymenogonia), N. rugulosa comb. nov. (for Staurothele rugulosa) and N. succedens comb. nov. (for Staurothele succedens). Four species are unidentified. floristics, ITS, lichens, mtSSU, taxonomy
34522Stelate A., Del-Prado R., Alors D., Tahiri H., Divakar P.K. & Crespo A. (2022): Resolving the phylogenetic relationship between Parmotrema crinitum and Parmotrema perlatum populations. - Lichenologist, 54: 183-194. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000147.
The widespread species Parmotrema crinitum (Ach.) M. Choisy and Parmotrema perlatum (Huds.) M. Choisy are mainly distinguished by their reproductive strategies. While P. crinitum propagates by isidia, P. perlatum produces soredia. In this study, we aim to evaluate the phylogenetic relationship between both species and to critically examine their species boundaries. To this purpose, 46 samples belonging to P. crinitum and P. perlatum were used in our analysis, including 22 for which we studied the morphology and chemistry, before extracting their DNA. We used 35 sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS) of Parmotrema perlatum from Europe and Africa (20 of which were newly generated), and 11 of Parmotrema crinitum from Europe, North America and North Africa (two newly generated). Additionally, 28 sequences of several species from Parmotrema were included in the ITS dataset. The ITS data matrix was analyzed using different approaches, such as traditional phylogeny (maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses), genetic distances, auto- matic barcode gap discovery (ABGD) and the coalescent-based method poisson tree processes (PTP), in order to test congruence among results. Our results indicate that all samples referred to P. crinitum and P. perlatum nested in a well-supported monophyletic clade, but phylogenetic relationships among them remain unresolved. Delimitations inferred from PTP, ABGD and genetic distance analyses were comparable and suggested that P. crinitum and P. perlatum belong to the same lineage. Interestingly, two samples of P. perlatum separate in a different monophyletic clade, which is supported as a different lineage by all the analyses. genetic diversity, ITS, lichen, phylogenetic analyses, species delimitation
34521Fazan L., Gwiazdowicz D.J., Fragnière Y., Fałtynowicz W., Ghosn D., Remoundou I., Rusińska A., Urbański P., Pasta S., Garfì G. & Kozlowski G. (2022): Factors influencing the diversity and distribution of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes on the relict tree Zelkova abelicea (Lam.) Boiss. (Ulmaceae). - Lichenologist, 54: 195-212. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000159.
Trees have a crucial importance in the functioning of ecosystems on Earth. They are among the largest and longest-living taxa and provide habitat and shelter to numerous species belonging to diverse groups of organisms. Relict trees are of particular interest through their history of survival and adaptation, and because they potentially shelter rare or threatened organisms today. We investigated for the first time the diversity and distribution of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes found on the Cretan (Greek) endemic and relict phorophyte Zelkova abelicea (Ulmaceae). Our results showed that Z. abelicea hosts a high number of epiphytes. The Levka Ori mountain range in western Crete seems to be a hot spot for epiphytic lichens on Z. abelicea. Bryophytes had the highest diversity on Mt Kedros in central Crete but were absent from several other sites. Moreover, 17% of the studied lichens were recorded for the first time for Crete and 5% have never been recorded for Greece. Geographical position and browsing intensity seem to be important factors influencing the epiphytic community encountered. Tree morphology (dwarfed or arborescent) was also significant in influencing community composition although it was not possible to dis- sociate this factor from the effect of topography. Dwarfed individuals were found to have as much epiphytic diversity as arborescent trees. Ecological indicator values showed that high epiphytic diversity was found in some sites despite signs of eutrophication and disturbance due to pastoral activities and suggest the co-occurrence of both disturbance tolerant and sensitive species. Our results show how little is known about the biodiversity of Cretan phorophytes and highlights the need for further research on the topic. Crete, dwarfed over-browsed trees, ecological indicator values, epiphytic assemblages, Greece, phorophyte
34520Earland-Bennett P.M. (ed.) (1988): New, rare and interesting british lichen records. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 62: 8-30. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2062%20Summer%201988.pdf.
34519Henderson A. (1988): Etymological notes on lichen names – part 5. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 62: 13-14. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2062%20Summer%201988.pdf.
34518Woods R. (1988): Life in the squidgy bits. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 62: 10-10. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2062%20Summer%201988.pdf.
34517Gilbert O.L. (1988): Urban demolition sites: a neglected habitat. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 62: 1-3. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2062%20Summer%201988.pdf.
34516Cardile V., Graziano A.C.E., Avola R., Madrid A. & Russo A. (2022): Physodic acid sensitizes LNCaP prostate cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis . - Toxicology in Vitro, 84: 105432 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2022.105432.
In spite of the extensive research for developing new therapies, prostate cancer is still one of the major human diseases with poor prognosis and high mortality. Therefore, with the aim of identifying novel agents with antigrowth and pro-apoptotic activity on prostate cancer cells, in the present study, we evaluated the effect of lichen secondary metabolite physodic acid on cell growth in human prostate cancer cells. In addition, we tested the apoptotic activity of physodic acid on TRAIL-resistant LNCaP cells in combination with TRAIL. The cell viability was measured using MTT assay. LDH release, a marker of membrane breakdown, was also measured. For the detection of apoptosis, the evaluation of DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activity assay were employed. The expression of proteins was detected by Western blot analysis. It was observed that physodic acid showed a dose–response relationship in the range of 12.5–50 μM concentrations in LNCaP and DU-145 cells, activating an apoptotic process. In addition, physodic acid sensitizes LNCaP cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The combination of physodic acid with other anti-prostate cancer therapies could be considered a promising strategy that warrants further investigations. Keywords: Lichens; Depsidone; Physodic acid; Prostate cancer; Apoptosis; TRAIL.
34515Song G., Hui R., Yang H., Wang B. & Li X. (2022): Biocrusts mediate the plant community composition of dryland restoration ecosystems. - Science of the Total Environment, 844: 157135 [11 p.]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157135.
Degradation and expansion are current threats associated with drylands. During natural or artificial restoration, dryland ecosystems tend to contain a unique community, namely, biocrusts. Studies have shown that biocrusts serve multiple functions and have the potential to accelerate or inhibit degradation. However, the mechanisms by which biocrusts mediate dryland plant community structure and composition remain largely unknown. In this study, we performed a series of pot experiments under greenhouse conditions at three disturbance levels (strong, moderate and no disturbance) and at three rainfall gradients (− 50 %, normal, + 50 %) for different biocrust types. Our objective was to examine how biocrusts influence the introduction and establishment of different functional forms of plant species during the different succession stages of dryland recovery. Our results showed that biocrusts have significantly different effects on the seed germination and survival of the tested plant species. Although strong disturbances to the biocrusts and increasing rainfall alleviated the inhibitory effects of biocrusts on the perennial herb (S. glareosa) and subshrub (C. latens) species, these factors could only promote the temporary survival of these two plants in the revegetated area. These results indicate that biocrusts in revegetated systems play important sieving functions during plant species establishment. Additionally, the survival of S. viridis, a plant species with small seeds adapted to the current habitat, was promoted in the community, but two plant species that are currently unsuitable, S. glareosa and C. latens, were filtered out by the biocrusts. Our conclusions suggest that biocrusts play an ecological filtering role in plant species introduction and establishment in revegetated ecosystems and demonstrate the scientific significance of biocrusts in maintaining the health and stability of dryland ecosystems. Keywords: Biocrusts; Arid ecosystem; Restoration; Functional form; Germination; Establishment.
34514Orock A.E. & Fonge B.A. (2022): Diversity of lichens at Mount Cameroon, South West Region, Cameroon. - International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, 14(2): 72–93. https://doi.org/10.5897/IJBC2021.1517.
Concern about maintaining the biodiversity of lichen communities’ species has been an issue with lichenologists for many years. Many of the understudied regions face increasing threats from urban development, pollution, and potentially climate change, among other factors. The objective of this study was to examine the diversity of lichens on Mt. Cameroon. To achieve this objective, eight collection sites were surveyed on two flanks of the mountain at elevations ranging from 3 to 2178 m above sea level. The visual estimate sampling method using circular plots was adopted for the survey. Voucher specimens were collected in triplicate and deposited in the herbaria in Limbe and the University Buea. Lichens were identified by studying the morphology and chemical spot test. The morphology of the thallus and reproductive structures were examined under the stereomicroscope at 10×. The K-test, C-tests and KC-spot test were performed for each specimen with KOH and Ca(OCl)2. The abundance rating scale, species diversity, similarity and richness indices were computed. Identification by molecular, morphological and chemical spot tests produced a total of 89 species, 22 site-specific species, 52 genera belonging to 27 families and 11 orders. Four lichen specimens were identified to genus level and eighty-five to species level. According to the Cameroon lichen database, 82 of these are new discoveries. Parmeliaceae, Heterodermia, Usnea and Dirinaria applanata dominated the area. The identified species occurred in six growth forms and from nine substrates types. Foliose and corticolous lichens were most represented. Among the sites surveyed, Upper Buea situated on the leeward flank at high altitude >1000 m, recorded the highest diversity and site-specific species. Key words: Lichens diversity, Mt. Cameroon, Upper Buea Leeward flank.
34513Georgiev K.B., Bässler C., Feldhaar H., Heibl C., Karasch P., Müller J., Perlik M., Weiss I. & Thorn S. (2022): Windthrow and salvage logging alter β-diversity of multiple species groups in a mountain spruce forest. - Forest Ecology and Management, 520: 120401 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2022.120401.
The response of biodiversity to natural and anthropogenic disturbances is a central topic in applied ecology. Climate change has altered forest disturbance regimes, resulting in global increases in stand-replacing disturbances, which are regularly followed by the removal of trees (salvage logging). Yet, the mid- to long-term effects of disturbances and salvage logging and the importance of species relative abundances on β-diversity remain unclear. We compared the β-diversity of 13 taxonomic groups in intact forest, unlogged windthrow, and salvage-logged windthrow plots 11 years after a windthrow. Hill numbers were used to quantify differences in between-treatment and within-treatment β-diversity for rare, common, and dominant species. We found that over a decade post-disturbance, both windthrow and salvage logging led to significant changes in between-treatment β-diversity of all 13 taxonomic groups. In addition, differences in between- and within-treatment β-diversity were more pronounced for rare species than for common and dominant ones. Windthrow led to the homogenization of communities of most saproxylic and half of the non-saproxylic studied groups. However, contrary to our expectation, salvage logging did not further increase community homogenization for any taxonomic group or Hill number. Moreover, salvage logging even reversed the community homogenization caused by the windthrow for saproxylic groups, leading to more heterogeneous communities. This effect was likely caused by the relatively high amount and diversity of deadwood found on the salvage-logged plots. Our study suggests that differences in within-treatment β-diversity between salvaged and unsalvaged windthrows tend to vanish over time, whereas differences between-treatments persisted, especially for saproxylic groups and rare species. This finding underlines the importance of preserving the characteristic communities in unsalvaged wind-disturbed forests in the mid- to long-term. Therefore, we recommend a management strategy that balances the amount of salvage-logged areas with that of set-aside areas. Keywords: Forest management ; Natural disturbance ; Post-disturbance management ; Biodiversity ; Hill numbers ; Community homogenization ; Community composition.
34512Simko P., Leskanicova A., Suvakova M., Blicharova A., Karasova M., Goga M., Kolesarova M., Bojkova B., Majerova P., Zidekova N., Barvik I., Kovac A. & Kiskova T. (2022): Biochemical properties of atranorin-induced behavioral and systematic changes of laboratory rats. - Life, 12(7): 1090 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/life12071090.
Atranorin (ATR) is a secondary metabolite of lichens. While previous studies investigated the effects of this substance predominantly in an in vitro environment, in our study we investigated the basic physicochemical properties, the binding affinity to human serum albumin (HSA), basic pharmacokinetics, and, mainly, on the systematic effects of ATR in vivo. Sporadic studies describe its effects during, predominantly, cancer. This project is original in terms of testing the efficacy of ATR on a healthy organism, where we can possibly attribute negative effects directly to ATR and not to the disease. For the experiment, 24 Sprague Dawley rats (Velaz, Únetice, Czech Republic) were used. The animals were divided into four groups. The first group (n = 6) included healthy males as control intact rats (♂INT) and the second group (n = 6) included healthy females as control intact rats (♀INT). Groups three and four (♂ATR/n = 6 and ♀ATR/n = 6) consisted of animals with daily administered ATR (10mg/kg body weight) in an ethanol–water solution per os for a one-month period. Our results demonstrate that ATR binds to HSA near the binding site TRP214 and acts on a systemic level. ATR caused mild anemia during the treatment. However, based on the levels of hepatic enzymes in the blood (ALT, ALP, or bilirubin levels), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), or liver histology, no impact on liver was recorded. Significantly increased creatinine and lactate dehydrogenase levels together with increased defecation activity during behavioral testing may indicate the anabolic effect of ATR in skeletal muscles. Interestingly, ATR changed some forms of behavior. ATR at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight is non-toxic and, therefore, could be used in further research. Keywords: atranorin; microsomal stability; human serum albumin; behavioral changes; laboratory rats; metabolomics.
34511Sebald V., Goss A., Ramm E., Gerasimova J.V. & Werth S. (2022): NO2 air pollution drives species composition, but tree traits drive species diversity of urban epiphytic lichen communities. - Environmental Pollution, 308: 119678 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119678.
Lichens serve as important bioindicators of air pollution in cities. Here, we studied the diversity of epiphytic lichens in the urban area of Munich, Bavaria, southern Germany, to determine which factors influence species composition and diversity. Lichen diversity was quantified in altogether 18 plots and within each, five deciduous trees were investigated belonging to on average three tree species (range 1–5). Of the 18 plots, two were sampled in control areas in remote areas of southern Germany. For each lichen species, frequency of occurrence was determined in 10 quadrats of 100 cm2 on the tree trunk. Moreover, the cover percentage of bryophytes was determined and used as a variable to represent potential biotic competition. We related our diversity data (species richness, Shannon index, evenness, abundance) to various environmental variables including tree traits, i.e. bark pH levels and species affiliation and air pollution data, i.e. NO2 and SO2 concentrations measured in the study plots. The SO2 levels measured in our study were generally very low, while NO2 levels were rather high in some plots. We found that the species composition of the epiphytic lichen communities was driven mainly by NO2 pollution levels and all of the most common species in our study were nitrophilous lichens. Low NO2 but high SO2 values were associated with high lichen evenness. Tree-level lichen diversity and abundance were mainly determined by tree traits, not air pollution. These results confirm that ongoing NO2 air pollution within cities is a major threat to lichen diversity, with non-nitrophilous lichens likely experiencing the greatest risk of local extinctions in urban areas in the future. Our study moreover highlights the importance of large urban green spaces for species diversity. City planners need to include large green spaces when designing urban areas, both to improve biodiversity and to promote human health and wellbeing. Keywords: Community ecology ; Species richness ; Lichens ; Nitrogen dioxide NO2 ; Sulphur dioxide SO2 ; Ordination.
34510White F. J. & James P.W. (1987): A chemical checklist of british lichens. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 42-47. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34509Henderson A. (ed.) (1987): New, rare and interesting british lichen records. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 35-38. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34508Benfield B. (1987): Note on Arthopyrenia areniseda. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 34-34. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34507Guest J.P. (1987): Lichens of suburban Manchester. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 32-32. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34506Henderson A. (1987): Etymological notes on lichen names – part 3. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 29-30. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.