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35977Demková L., Bobuľská L., Harangozo Ľ. & Árvay J. (2023): Using bio-monitors to determine the mercury air pollution in a former mining area. - Engineering Proceedings, 57(1): 28 [7 p.].
Total mercury air pollution was evaluated in the former mining area of Gelnica (Slovakia) using tree bark, mosses (Climacium sp., Pleurosium sp.), and lichen (Pseudevernia sp.). Samples were collected (tree bark) and exposed (moss and lichen bags) on the heaps and near the mines. Additionally, the internal parts of the mines were evaluated. The mercury content in the bio-monitors was evaluated using an AMA-254 analyzer. The results showed significant differences in tree bark mercury content between the mines and heaps. The Hg content in mosses and lichens was not influenced by the type of mining work. The lichen Pseudevernia sp. was found to be the best Hg accumulator compared with mosses. Keywords: tree bark; moss and lichen bag technique; environmental monitoring; open mining pits; heaps of waste material.
35976Ertz D. (2023): The lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Semois valley between Bouillon and Bohan, with nineteen species new to Belgium. - Dumortiera, 121: 18-44.
335 species of lichens and 24 species of lichenicolous fungi were recorded during inventories carried out between 2020 and 2023 in the section of the Semois valley between Bouillon and Bohan. Nineteen species are new to Belgium: Abrothallus caerulescens, Arthonia digitatae, A. graphidicola, Bacidina piceae, Chaenothecopsis ochroleuca, Cresponea premnea, Dirina fallax, Lecanora cenisia, Lichenostigma alpinum, Mycoblastus caesius, Porina collina, Placopyrenium breussii, Polycoccum microsticticum, Ramonia chrysophaea, Rhizocarpon postumum, Rimularia intercedens, Synarthonia leproidica, Verrucaria devensis and V. lapidicola. New localities were discovered for Aquacidia antricola, Arthopyrenia salicis, Coniocarpon cuspidans, Eopyrenula grandicula, Opegrapha areniseda, Porocyphus coccodes, Pronectria pertusariicola, Rhizocarpon infernulum f. sylvaticum, Sclerococcum sphaerale, Strigula taylorii, Stromatopogon cladoniae and Zyzygomyces bachmannii which were previously known in Belgium from only one or two localities. Strigula taylorii is considered to be a rapidly expanding species in Belgium. Several macrolichens of great conservation value have been observed: Dermatocarpon meiophyllizum, Leptogium cyanescens, Nephroma parile, Ricasolia virens, Peltigera leucophlebia, Scytinium palmatum and Vahliella leucophaea. The majority of records of Porina aenea in Wallonia are probably related to Porina byssophila, which grows both on the bark of various trees and rocks. The status of integral natural reserve of the most diversified sites is strongly desired in order to preserve the species of conservation interest linked to the forest and rocky habitats.
35975Fernandes R.F., Atvars T.D.Z. & Temperini M.L.A. (2023): Exploring the non-traditional fluorescence emission of non-conjugated polymers dots for sensing pesticides. - Reactive and Functional Polymers, 182: 105483.
The chemical sensing of pesticides is a high priority for a broad range of areas, including public health and environmental sustainability, since the pesticides have expanded dramatically in various agrarian operations. In this sense, the optical properties of non-conjugated polymer dots (NCPDs) can be a decisive advantage for sensing since the high sensitivity, fast response, and excellent photostability are very convenient properties. Here, we present the unique emission of NCPDs based on- β-glucan polymer, the major polysaccharide from the Usnea lichen biomass, which was explored for the sensing of the methyl parathion and dicloran pesticides due to the inner filter effect mechanism quenching. The sensing performance of the low-cost and eco-friendly NCPDs from renewable resources can shed light on the recent advances and applications of carbon-based nanomaterials involving non-traditional fluorescent emission systems, especially to monitor biologically and environmentally important analytes. Fluorescence sensing, Inner filter effect, Pesticides, Non-conjugated polymer dots, β-Glucan
35974Expósito J.R., Barreno E. & Catalá M. (2023): Symbiotic interactions in the lichen Ramalina farinacea dramatically modify NO biosynthetic source in Trebouxia microalgae. - Algal Research, 75: 103247.
NO is a multifaceted molecule, key in functions such as abiotic stress tolerance and symbioses establishment and permanence. Lichens are complex symbiotic associations of microalgae, fungi and prokaryotes that release NO under stress conditions such as dessication-rehydration cycles and the presence of xenobiotics. NO synthase (NOS) oxidises l-arginine to produce NO in animals and some aquatic microalgae, while nitrate reductase (NR) reduces nitrate to NO in plants and fungi. Inhibition studies suggest that both activities might be present in thalli. Due to its multipartner compotition, our hypothesis is that Ramalina farinacea biosynthesises NO through both oxidative (NOS) and reductive (NR) enzymatic pathways. NR activity was quantified with a method optimised for lichens using NADH or/and NADPH, and NOS with a commercial kit in R. farinacea thalli and cultures of the isolated main symbionts: R. farinacea mycobiont, and Trebouxia jamesii and Trebouxia lynnae phycobionts. Inhibition studies in vitro were performed with L-NAME and tungstate. Immunodetection was carried out with specific polyclonal antibodies (anti-plant NADH-NR and anti-iNOS animal isoform). NADH-NR specific activity of R. farinacea is an order of magnitude higher than Arabidopsis thaliana's and in the range of the chlorophyte Ulva intestinalis. R. farinacea mycobiont possesses a canonical plant-like Moco-NR, while Trebouxia phycobionts' NR activity presents interesting peculiarities. NOS has not been immunodetected and NOS-like activity is inhibited by L-NAME only partially in T. jamesii. Despite NOS-like activity is very high in the isolated microalgae and fungus, it is strongly depressed in the holobiont. In summary, NR activity seems to be the main source of NO biosynthesis for the holobiont R. farinacea but it presents intriguing features that deserve further study. Enzyme activity, Immunodetection, Nitrate reductase, Nitric oxide synthase, Phycobiont, Symbiosis
35973Güllü M., Halıcı M. & Öztürk Küp F. (2023): Molecular and taxonomic studies on some Acarospora (Acarosporales, Ascomycota) species in Türkiye. - Biological Diversity and Conservation, 16(2): 84–97.
Acarospora is a crustose lichen genus in the family Acarosporaceae and has a wide distribution. While the lichen genus Acarospora has more than 200 species in the world, the number of species so far determined in Turkey is 41. Here we report three Acarospora species: A. irregularis H. Magn., A. rosulata (Th. Fr.) H. Magn., A. thamnina (Tuck.) Herre and two lichenicolous fungal species: Lichenostigma svandae Vondrák & Šoun, Stigmidium fuscatae (Arnold) R. Sant. new to Turkey. Detailed information on these 5 taxa is provided along with photographs. The nrITS, β tubulin and mtSSU gene regions of the new Acarospora records are studied and their phylogenetical positions are discussed.
35972Chrismas N., Tindall-Jones B., Jenkins H., Harley J., Bird K. & Cunliffe M. (2023): Metatranscriptomics reveals diversity of symbiotic interaction and mechanisms of carbon exchange in the marine cyanolichen Lichina pygmaea. - New Phytologist, 2023: 1-15.
Summary Lichens are exemplar symbioses based upon carbon exchange between photobionts and their mycobiont hosts. Historically considered a two-way relationship, some lichen symbioses have been shown to contain multiple photobiont partners; however, the way in which these photobiont communities react to environmental change is poorly understood. Lichina pygmaea is a marine cyanolichen that inhabits rocky seashores where it is submerged in seawater during every tidal cycle. Recent work has indicated that L.?pygmaea has a complex photobiont community including the cyanobionts Rivularia and Pleurocapsa. We performed rRNA-based metabarcoding and mRNA metatranscriptomics of the L.?pygmaea holobiont at high and low tide to investigate community response to immersion in seawater. Carbon exchange in L.?pygmaea is a dynamic process, influenced by both tidal cycle and the biology of the individual symbiotic components. The mycobiont and two cyanobiont partners exhibit distinct transcriptional responses to seawater hydration. Sugar-based compatible solutes produced by Rivularia and Pleurocapsa in response to seawater are a potential source of carbon to the mycobiont. We propose that extracellular processing of photobiont-derived polysaccharides is a fundamental step in carbon acquisition by L.?pygmaea and is analogous to uptake of plant-derived carbon in ectomycorrhizal symbioses. carbon, Cyanobacteria, lichens, Lichina pygmaea, marine, symbiosis
35971Chakarwarti J., Nayaka S. & Srivastava S. (2023): Diversity of endolichenic fungi within lichen genus Parmotrema from India. - Turkish Journal of Botany, 47(4): 291.
The lichens serve as an ecological niche for a group of unexplored fungal species residing inside their thallus without causing any noticeable symptoms and such fungi are termed as endolichenic fungi. The objective of the current study is to check the endolichenic fungal diversity within lichen genus Parmotrema. The study resulted in a total of 450 endolichenic fungi (ELF) isolates from 15 species of Parmotrema. Out of these, 73 sporulating isolates were identified using ITS sequences which resulted in 47 species under 23 genera. The phylogenetic assemblage of the fungi comprised Sordariomycetes (84.50%), Dothideomycetes (5.63%), Eurotiomycetes (7.04%), Pezizomycetes (1.40%), and Agaricomycetes (1.40%). Daldinia eschscholtzii, Xylaria feejeensis, Nemania diffusa, Annulohypoxylon truncatum, and Nigrospora sphaerica were frequently occurring isolates inhabiting at least five different species of Parmotrema. Furthermore, Daldinia eschscholtzii and Nemania diffusa were found to be with maximum colonization rate of 1.55% and relative frequency of 0.148. Sorenson's similarity coefficient was found to be highest between P. hababianum and P. nilgherrense with 0.36. The study encountered fungal taxa such as Annulohypoxylon truncatum, Coprinellus radians, Cladorrhinum sp., Plectania rhytidia, Fimetariella rabenhorstii, and Liangia sinensis earlier not reported as endolichenic fungi. Colonization rate, endosymbionts, relative frequency, biodiversity index, BIOACTIVE NATURAL-PRODUCTS, SECONDARY METABOLITES, ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS, HEPTAKETIDES, DERIVATIVES
35970Pino-Bodas R., Blázquez M., de los Ríos A. & Pérez-Ortega S. (2023): Myrmecia, not Asterochloris, is the main photobiont of Cladonia subturgida (Cladoniaceae, Lecanoromycetes). - Journal of Fungi, 9(12): 1160 [21 p.].
This study explores the diversity of photobionts associated with the Mediterranean lichen-forming fungus Cladonia subturgida. For this purpose, we sequenced the whole ITS rDNA region by Sanger using a metabarcoding method for ITS2. A total of 41 specimens from Greece, Italy, France, Portugal, and Spain were studied. Additionally, two specimens from Spain were used to generate four cultures. Our molecular studies showed that the genus Myrmecia is the main photobiont of C. subturgida throughout its geographic distribution. This result contrasts with previous studies, which indicated that the main photobiont for most Cladonia species is Asterochloris. The identity of Myrmecia was also confirmed by ultrastructural studies of photobionts within the lichen thalli and cultures. Photobiont cells showed a parietal chloroplast lacking a pyrenoid, which characterizes the species in this genus. Phylogenetic analyses indicate hidden diversity within this genus. The results of amplicon sequencing showed the presence of multiple ASVs in 58.3% of the specimens studied. Keywords: Cladonia; lichenized fungi; phycobiont; symbiosis; Trebouxiophyceae; ultrastructure.
35969Gustafsson L., Franzén M., Sunde J. & Johansson V. (2023): The non-native Quercus rubra does not substitute the native Quercus robur and Q. petraea as substrate for epiphytic lichens and bryophytes. - Forest Ecology and Management, 549: 121482 [8 p.].
Climate change will cause alterations in tree species ranges. Non-native tree species are likely to be increasingly used in production forests, due to their often better adaptation to a warmer climate and their lower susceptibility to pests and pathogens. Trees form an important habitat for numerous species, many of which are more or less specialised regarding tree species. Thus, the tree-associated flora and fauna may be heavily impacted if non-native trees replace native ones. Risk assessments from the introduction of non-native trees must rest on a solid knowledge base, including insights into the potential of such trees to function as biodiversity substitutes, i.e. to host similar biodiversity as closely related native tree species. In a study in temperate Sweden, we inventoried epiphytic lichens and bryophytes on ten random trees in each of 28 stands (14 stands of North American red oak Quercus rubra and 14 stands of native oak Q. robur/petraea), to compare species richness and composition. Overall, 101 lichen taxa and 35 bryophyte taxa were identified, and we found a generally higher diversity for native oak. The regional species richness (gamma diversity) for both lichens and bryophytes was higher in native oak than in red oak, and the lichen species richness at stand level (alpha diversity) was nearly significantly higher. Lichen composition differed between the two oak species, while there was no difference for bryophytes. More lichens were strongly associated with native oak than red oak, while most bryophyte species were generalists with no specific preference for either oak taxa. Bark structure was an important explanatory variable separating the lichen epiphytes, with species preferring smooth bark largely confined to red oak. In conclusion, our study suggests that substituting native oak with red oak could have adverse consequences for epiphytic lichen populations associated with native oak, resulting in a decline of several species. However, certain lichen and bryophyte species were exclusively found on Q. rubra, implying that incorporating a proportion of red oak stands in southern Swedish landscapes may enhance diversity. Further research is needed to explore the overlap between species associated with Q. rubra and other deciduous tree species that possess similar smooth bark. Our findings indicate that red oak may not be an appropriate alternative host tree for epiphytic lichens typically found on native oak, while the implications for bryophytes remain less clear. Keywords: Biodiversity; Bark; Exotic tree; Forest; Indigenous tree; Invasive; Microhabitat; Oak.
35968Coste C., Lamaze T., Grenouillet G. & Chauvet E. (2023): Vertical and altitudinal distribution patterns of hydrophilic saxicolous lichens across French streams. - Acta Oecologica, 120: 103936.
We collected 252 samples in 53 French streams at 3 different heights (low-flow channel, upper limit of streambed, and intermediate zone) across a 190–2200 m altitudinal range, from which we identified and determined the abundance of freshwater lichens to test hypotheses of assemblage zonation. A total of 149 lichenic taxa, including 42 hydrophilic species together with 6 environmental parameters (relative height to stream water, altitude, general and specific orientation, slope, and substratum) were recorded. Hydrophilic species richness was relatively homogenous across height categories and altitudinal classes. Using Canonical Correspondence Analyses, we showed that lichen species, particularly hydrophilic ones, were strongly discriminated along gradients of both exposure to stream water and altitude. Consequently, we proposed a new denomination of freshwater lichens based on their affinity with exposure to stream water: (i) hyperhydrophilic (submersion >9 mo/yr; 14 sp.), (ii) mesohydrophilic (15 sp.), and (iii) subhydrophilic (submersion <3 mo/yr; 15 sp.). We also introduced a 2D typology of freshwater lichens relying on both crossed environmental parameters and showing continuous shifts in species assemblage along gradients. Freshwater, Hyperhydrophilic, Mesohydrophilic, Subhydrophilic, Submersion, Vertical zonation
35967Anwar G., Mamut R. & Wang J. (2023): Characterization of Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of the Five Peltigera and Comparative Analysis with Relative Species. - Journal of Fungi, 9(10): 1-15.
In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genomes of five Peltigera species (Peltigera elisabethae, Peltigera neocanina, Peltigera canina, Peltigera ponojensis, Peltigera neckeri) were sequenced, assembled and compared with relative species. The five mitogenomes were all composed of circular DNA molecules, and their ranged from 58,132 bp to 69,325 bp. The mitochondrial genomes of the five Peltigera species contain 15 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNAs, 26–27 tRNAs and an unidentified open reading frame (ORF). The PCG length, AT skew and GC skew varied among the 15 PCGs in the five mitogenomes. Among the 15 PCGs, cox2 had the least K2P genetic distance, indicating that the gene was highly conserved. The synteny analysis revealed that the coding regions were highly conserved in the Peltigera mitochondrial genomes, but gene rearrangement occurred in the intergenic regions. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 14 PCGs showed that the 11 Peltigera species formed well-supported topologies, indicating that the protein-coding genes in the mitochondrial genome may be used as a reliable molecular tool in the study of the phylogenetic relationship of Peltigera. Peltigera, mitochondrial genome, comparative analysis
35966Andreev M. (2023): Lichens of Larsemann Hills and adjacent oases in the area of Prydz Bay (Princess Elizabeth Land and MacRobertson Land, Antarctica). - Polar Science, 2023: 101009.
The lichen flora of coastal (Larsemann Hills, Landing Bluff, Rouer Islands) and internal (Clemence Massif, Radok Lake, Luff Nunatak, Stinear, Rymill and Bloomfield Mountains and others) oases (Princess Elizabeth Land and Mac Robertson Land, Antarctica) was investigated. 72 lichen species (incl. 48 species known for the Larsemann Hills) belonging to 34 genera and 14 families were recorded. Investigated species are listed and data on localities, habitats and frequency of occurrence are provided. The most common lichens in the area are Candelariella flava, Lecidea cancriformis, Lecanora fuscobrunnea, Buellia frigida, Rinodina olivaceobrunnea and Acarospora gwynnii. Terrestrial flora, Vegetation, Continental oases, Nunataks
35965Ahmad N., Ritz M., Calchera A., Otte J., Schmitt I., Brueck T. & Mehlmer N. (2023): Biosynthetic gene cluster synteny: Orthologous polyketide synthases in Hypogymnia physodes, Hypogymnia tubulosa, and Parmelia sulcata. - MicrobiologyOpen, 12(5): e1386.
Lichens are symbiotic associations consisting of a photobiont (algae or cyanobacteria) and a mycobiont (fungus), which together generate a variety of unique secondary metabolites. To access this biosynthetic potential for biotechnological applications, deeper insights into the biosynthetic pathways and corresponding gene clusters are necessary. Here, we provide a comparative view of the biosynthetic gene clusters of three lichen mycobionts derived from Hypogymnia physodes, Hypogymnia tubulosa, and Parmelia sulcata. In addition, we present a high-quality PacBio metagenome of Parmelia sulcata, from which we extracted the mycobiont bin containing 214 biosynthetic gene clusters. Most biosynthetic gene clusters in these genomes were associated with T1PKSs, followed by NRPSs and terpenes. This study focused on biosynthetic gene clusters related to polyketide synthesis. Based on ketosynthase homology, we identified nine highly syntenic clusters present in all three species. Among the four clusters belonging to nonreducing PKSs, two are putatively linked to lichen substances derived from orsellinic acid (orcinol depsides and depsidones, e.g., lecanoric acid, physodic acid, lobaric acid), one to compounds derived from methylated forms of orsellinic acid (beta orcinol depsides, e.g., atranorin), and one to melanins. Five clusters with orthologs in all three species are linked to reducing PKSs. Our study contributes to sorting and dereplicating the vast PKS diversity found in lichenized fungi. High-quality sequences of biosynthetic gene clusters of these three common species provide a foundation for further exploration into biotechnological applications and the molecular evolution of lichen substances.
35964Lendemer J.C. (2023): Recent literature on lichens—271. - Bryologist, 126(4): 505–511.
35963Howland J.W. & Lendemer J.C. (2023): Molecular and phenotypic study put eastern North American Cetrelia in a global context of biogeography and phylogeny. - Bryologist, 126(4): 461–472.
Species of Cetrelia delimited based on chemical and morphological characters have been largely supported by subsequent phylogenetic analysis of molecular data. While a robust, taxonomically well sampled global phylogeny for Cetrelia exists, geographic sampling to date has focused on Europe and East Asia. Here we use extensive field, herbarium and laboratory study to examine the distributions and identities of the taxa occuring in eastern North America. The presence of three species in the region is confirmed with molecular data (C. chicitae, C. monachorum, C. olivetorum). While a fourth species (C. cetrarioides) also occurs based on phenotypic data; efforts to obtain sequences were unsuccessful. The subpopulations of Cetrelia species in the region have contrasting frequency and distribution patterns relative to disjunct European subpopulations. Quantification of frequency of Cetrelia occurrence compared to an index of habitat quality revealed that all species have a strong affinity to high quality habitats, reflecting broader connection between lichen species richness and disturbance found in numerous previous studies. The trends detected in Cetrelia are unlikely restricted to this genus and we suggest that large-scale detailed quantitative studies in local-scale occurrence over time are needed to address significant gaps in knowledge to advance lichen conservation. Keywords: Appalachian Mountains, biogeography, conservation, distribution, molecular phylogeny, morphology, taxonomy, species delimitation, thin layer chromatography.
35962Xavier-Leite A.B., Goto B.T., Lücking R. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2023): New genera in the lichenized family Gomphillaceae (Ascomycota: Graphidales) focusing on neotropical taxa. - Mycological Progress, 22: 88 [29 p.].
Previous molecular phylogenetic analysis in comparison with phenotype characters of Gomphillaceae resolved a total of 38 genus-level clades among the studied species, 17 of which in need to be recognized and formally established as new or reinstated genera. The four reinstated genus names, including one validation, are Microxyphiomyces Bat., Valle & Peres, Psathyromyces Bat. & Peres, Spinomyces Bat. & Peres ex Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, gen. nov., and Sporocybomyces H. Maia. The remaining 13 are newly described: Adelphomyces Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, gen. nov., Aptrootidea Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, gen. nov., Aulaxinella Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, gen. nov., Batistomyces Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, gen. nov., Bezerroplaca Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, gen. nov., Caleniella Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, gen. nov., Monocalenia Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, gen. nov., Pseudocalenia Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, gen. nov., Roselviria Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, gen. nov., Santricharia Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, gen. nov., Sipmanidea Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, gen. nov., Verruciplaca Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, gen. nov., and Vezdamyces Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, gen. nov. The following 53 new combinations are introduced for the species included in the new and reinstated genera: Adelphomyces cochlearifer (Lücking & Sérus.) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., A. epithallina (Lücking) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., A. parvula (Hafellner & Vězda) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., Aptrootidea amapensis (Bat. & Poroca) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., A. atrofusca (R. Sant.) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., A. atromuralis (Lücking) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., A. marginata (Lücking) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., A. triseptata (Lücking) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., A. wilsoniorum (Lücking) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., Aulaxinella corticola (Kalb & Vězda) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., A. minuta (R. Sant.) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., A. multiseptata (R. Sant.) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., Batistomyces pallidus (Vězda) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., B. hyalinus (Kalb & Vězda) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., Bezerroplaca fusconitida (Lücking) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., B. incrustatociliata (Sérus.) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., B. lucernifera (Kalb & Vězda) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., B. pachyparaphysata (R. Sant.) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., B. streimannii (Sérus.) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., Caleniella maculans (Vain.) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., C. triseptata (Zahlbr.) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., Microxyphiomyces cuneatus (L.I. Ferraro & Vězda) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., M. demoulinii (Sérus.) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., M. elegans (Sérus.) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., M. kashiwadanii (G. Thor, Lücking & Tat. Matsumoto) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., M. lancicarpus (Kalb & Vězda) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., M. vainioi (R. Sant.) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov. (syn.: M. manaosensis Bat., Valle & Peres.), M. santessonianus (Kalb & Vězda) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., M. santessonii (D. Hawks.) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., M. similis (Vězda) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., M. variratae (Lücking & Sipman) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., Monocalenia monospora (Vězda) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., Psathyromyces planus (Vězda) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., P. heterellus (Stirt.) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., Pseudocalenia solorinoides (Lücking) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., Roselviria lobulimarginata (Sipman & Lücking) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., R. purulhensis (Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., Santricharia farinosa (R. Sant.) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., Sipmanidea neotropica (Lücking) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. et stat nov., S. furcata (Sérus.) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., Spinomyces aggregatus (Lücking) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. et stat. nov., S. albostrigosus (Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., S. deslooveri (Sérus.) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., S. guatemalensis (Lücking & Barillas) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., S. microcarpus (Etayo & Lücking) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., S. verrucosus (Sérus.) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., Sporocybomyces leucomuralis (Lücking) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., S. leucotrichoides (Vain.) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., S. macgregorii (Vain.) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., Verruciplaca calcarea (Lücking) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. et stat. nov., V. verrucifera (Lücking) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov., Vezdamyces albopruinosus (Lücking) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. et stat. nov., and V. vulgaris (Müll. Arg.) Xavier-Leite, M. Cáceres & Lücking, comb. nov. Keywords: Batista · Foliicolous lichens · Mitochondrial small subunit rDNA · mtSSU · Nuclear large subunit rDNA · nuLSU · Morphological data · Nomenclature.
35961Sarlej M.I., Rodriguez M.P. & Michlig A. (2023): Los géneros Dirinaria (Caliciaceae), Hyperphyscia, Phaeophyscia y Physcia (Physciaceae) en la Reserva de Biosfera Yaboty (Misiones, Argentina). - Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica, 58(4): 1–15.
Background and aims: A study of species of the genera Dirinaria, Hyperphyscia, Phaeophyscia, and Physcia in the Yaboty Biosphere Reserve (Misiones, Argentina) is presented, aiming to contribute to lichens knowledge in the region. M&M: Specimens from CTES herbarium collected in Caá-Yarí, Esmeralda, and Moconá Provincial Parks, from the Yaboty Biosphere Reserve, were studied. Species identification included morphological and chemical analyses with spot tests with potassium hydroxide 10%, UV fluorescence, and TLC with solvent A. In order to determine the type of cortex and study ascospores morphology, sections were mounted in 5% potassium hydroxide and observed under an optical microscope. Results: Thirteen species were identified: Dirinaria aegialita, D. applanata, Hyperphyscia variabilis, Phaeophyscia hispidula, Physcia aipolia, P. alba, P. albata, P. atrostriata, P. erumpens, P. kalbii, P. poncinsii, P. rolfii, and P. sorediosa. Physcia kalbii is mentioned for the first time for Argentina and the genera Hyperphyscia and Phaeophyscia for the first time for Misiones province. A dichotomous key, descriptions of species for which distribution is extended, photographs, updated distributions, and observations are presented. Conclusions: This work provided new data about species of the Yaboty Biosphere Reserve, increasing knowledge about lichens diversity in the region. Key words: Distribution, diversity, foliose lichens, taxonomy.
35960Reipert S., Gruber D., Cyran N., Schmidt B., de la Torre Noetzel R., Sancho L.G., Goga M., Bačkor M. & Schmidt K. (2023): Freeze substitution accelerated via agitation: new prospects for ultrastructural studies of lichen symbionts and their extracellular matrix. - Plants, 12(23): 4039 [21 p.] .
Background: Lichens, as an important part of the terrestrial ecosystem, attract the attention of various research disciplines. To elucidate their ultrastructure, transmission electron microscopy of resin-embedded samples is indispensable. Since most observations of lichen samples are generated via chemical fixation and processing at room temperature, they lack the rapid immobilization of live processes and are prone to preparation artefacts. To improve their preservation, cryoprocessing was tested in the past, but never widely implemented, not least because of an extremely lengthy protocol. Methods: Here, we introduce an accelerated automated freeze substitution protocol with continuous agitation. Using the example of three lichen species, we demonstrate the preservation of the native state of algal photobionts and mycobionts in association with their extracellular matrix. Results: We bring to attention the extent and the structural variability of the hyphae, the extracellular matrix and numerous crystallized metabolites. Our findings will encourage studies on transformation processes related to the compartmentation of lichen thalli. They include cryopreserved aspects of algal photobionts and observations of putative physiological relevance, such as the arrangement of numerous mitochondria within chloroplast pockets. Conclusions: In summary, we present accelerated freeze substitution as a very useful tool for systematic studies of lichen ultrastructures. Keywords: lichens; algal photobionts; extracellular matrix; freeze substitution; sample preparation; transmission electron microscopy.
35959Khodosovtsev O.Ye. (2023): Lichen-forming, lichenicolous and lichen-related fungi of the Teremky woodland: experience of research in the Holosiivskyi National Nature Park during blackout. - Chornomorski Botanical Journal, 19(3): 306–323. doi: 10.32999/ksu1990-553X/2023-19-3-4.
[in Ukrainian with English title and abstract: ] Questions: How high is the diversity of the lichen-forming, lichenicolous and lichen-related fungi in Teremky woodland? How reprentative is the old-growth oak forest by Indicators of Ecological Continuity for the woodland? Location: Kyiv Region, Ukraine Materials and methods: аbout 80% of the observations were made during the autumn-winter blackout within 3 hours in the woodland per day; microscope technique Nomenclature: Index Fungorum, POWO 2023, Mucina et al. 2016 Results: The list of 126 species of lichen-forming, lichenicolous fungi and lichen-related fungi from 75 genera, 32 families, 19 orders, 8 classes and 2 divisions have been provided for the Teremky woodland as a part of the Holosiivskyi National Nature Park (Kyiv, Ukraine). Lichen-forming fungi are represented by 105 species, lichenicolous fungi – by 13 species, and lichen-related fungi (facultative lichens or semi-lichens) – by 8 species. Among them 54 species of lichens, lichenicolous and lichen-related fungi are new for the Holosiivskyi National Nature Park, 35 species new to the Kyiv region, 10 species new to the lowland part of Ukraine and three species new to Ukraine. Corticolous lichen species (101 species, 84%) are predominantly found in the Teremky woodland. It is highest representation on Quercus robur (72 species), but the peculiarity of the woodland is the presence of a significant number of old-growth Prunus avium trees with 44 corticolous species. The most abundant lichens (more then 11 locations) in the Teremky woodland are 19 species (15%), while more than half of the species (71 species, 56%) are rare (1–3 locations). Eight indicator species of the ecological continuity for woodland as Acrocordia gemmata, Anisomeridium biforme, Bactrospora dryina, Bacidia rubella, Chaenotheca phaeocephala, Ch. trichialis, Eopyrenula leucoplaca, Toniniopsis separabilis were found in the Teremky woodland, which is sufficient to indicate high representativeness (category B) of Central European hornbeam-oak habitats. The maximum diversity of corticolous lichen-forming, lichenicolous and lichen-related fungi is 63 species per hectare, which can be used as a baseline for comparison with other forest habitats of the plain part of Ukraine.The indicator qualities of corticolous lichen-forming fungi are discussed. Keywords: biodiversity, old-growth oak forest, indicator species, Ukraine.
35958Kumar T.K., Siva B., Kiranmai B., Alli V.J., Jadav S.S., Reddy A.M., Boustie J., Le Devehat F., Tiwari A.K. & Suresh Babu K. (2023): Salazinic acid and norlobaridone from the lichen Hypotrachyna cirrhata: Antioxidant activity, α-glucosidase inhibitory and molecular docking studies. - Molecules, 28(23): 7840 [20 p.] .
The present study was intended for the identification of secondary metabolites in acetone extract of the lichen Hypotrachyna cirrhata using UPLC-ESI-QToF-MS/MS and the detection of bioactive compounds. This study led to the identification of 22 metabolites based on their MS/MS spectra, accurate molecular masses, molecular formula from a comparison of the literature database (DNP), and fragmentation patterns. In addition, potent antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory potentials of acetone extract of H. cirrhata motivated us to isolate 10 metabolites, which were characterized as salazinic acid (11), norlobaridone (12), atranorin (13), lecanoric acid (14), lichesterinic acid (15), protolichesterinic acid (16), methyl hematommate (17), iso-rhizonic acid (18), atranol (19), and methylatratate (20) based on their spectral data. All these isolates were assessed for their free radicals scavenging, radical-induced DNA damage, and intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. The results indicated that norlobaridone (12), lecanoric acid (14), methyl hematommate (17), and atranol (19) showed potent antioxidant activity, while depsidones (salazinic acid (11), norlobaridone (12)) and a monophenolic compound (iso-rhizonic acid, (18)) displayed significant intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (p
35957Wang S., Li W., Wufuer R., Duo J., Pei L. & Pan X. (2023): The key role of cyclic electron flow in the recovery of photosynthesis in the photobiont during rehydration of the lichen Cladonia stellaris. - Plants, 12(23): 4011 [14 p.] .
Lichens are poikilohydric organisms and an important part of the ecosystem. They show high desiccation tolerance, but the mechanism of dehydration resistance still needs to be studied. The photosynthesis recovery of the photobiont in rehydrated lichen Cladonia stellaris after 11-year desiccation was investigated by simultaneously monitoring both photosystem I and II (PSI and PSII) activities. The responses of the photochemical efficiency and relative electron transport rate (rETR) of PSI and PSII, and the quantum yield of the cyclic electron flow (CEF) were measured using a DualPAM-100 system. PSI recovered rapidly, but PSII hardly recovered in C. stellaris during rehydration. The maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) was generally very low and reached about just 0.4 during the rehydration. These results indicated that PSII had restored little and was largely inactivated during rehydration. The quantum yield of PSI recovered quickly to almost 0.9 within 4 h and remained constant at nearly 1 thereafter. The results showed that the activation of the CEF in the early stages of rehydration helped the rapid recovery of PSI. The quantum yield of the CEF made up a considerable fraction of the quantum yield of PSI during rehydration. A regulated excess energy dissipation mechanism and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) also recovered. However, the small extent of the recovery of the NPQ was not enough to dissipate the excess energy during rehydration, which may be responsible for the weak activity of PSII during rehydration. The results indicated that both CEF and NPQ were essential during the rehydration of the photobiont in C. stellaris. The methods used in the measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence and P700+ absorbance changes in this study provided a speedy and simple way to detect the physiological characteristics of the photobionts of lichen during rehydration. This work improves our understanding of the mechanism behind lichen’s desiccation tolerance. Keywords: P700+ absorbance; chlorophyll a fluorescence; photosystem I; photosystem II; cyclic electron flow; non-photochemical quenching; rehydration; lichen.
35956Kitaura M.J., Scur M.C. & Lorenz A.P. (2023): A new species of Thyrea (Lichinales: Lichinaceae) from the Brazilian central-west region. - Anales de Biología, 45: 43–51.
In central-west Brazil, the Serra da Bodoquena region comprises riparian, seasonal deciduous, and semideciduous forests, where ca. 400 lichens species are known. The area is suffering the impacts of agriculture and intentional fires, which threaten the local biodiversity. Studying the lichen-forming fungi from the Serra da Bodoquena through integrative analyses, a new species was discovered, Thyrea pulverulenta (Lichinales, Lichinaceae). In addition, sequences of nuITS and mtSSU regions were generated, and the position of the genus within the Lichinomycetes was inferred, confirming its close phylogenetic relationship with Watsoniomyces. We also demonstrated that the region still needs to be studied, being a possible biodiversity hotspot with endemic species. Key words: Bodoquena; Cyanolichen; Diversity; Native areas; Rock outcrops.
35955Halici M.G., Güllü M., Bölükbaşi E. & Kahraman Yiğit M. (2023): Thamnolecania yunusii (Ramalinaceae) – A new species of lichenised fungus from Horseshoe Island (Antarctic Peninsula). - Polar Record, 59(e37): 1–7.
The new terricolous lichen species Thamnolecania yunusii Halıcı, Güllü, Bölükbaşı & Kahraman, which is characterised by its cream to greyish brown granulose-crustose thallus without vegetative propagules, is described from Horseshoe Island in the South-West Antarctic Peninsula region. All Thamnolecania species are known only from the Antarctic. The only species of the genus with a crustose thallus is T. racovitzae, but it differs from T. yunusii by growing on rocks, having an effuse to subeffigurate thallus that is sometimes isidiate and with shorter and narrower ascospores (c. 15 × 3.5 μm vs. 15.5–19.5 × 3.5–5.5 μm). The nrITS, mtSSU and RPB1 gene regions of the new species were studied and the phylogenetic position of the species was shown to be in the same clade as Thamnolecania gerlachei, T. brialmontii and T. racovitzae, but occurs on a different branch from these species. As T. yunusii is an Antarctic endemic, like the other Thamnolecania species, and most of the morphological characters fit well with this genus, we describe this new species under the genus Thamnolecania.
35954Charria-Girón E., Vasco-Palacios A.M., Moncada B. & Marin-Felix Y. (2023): Colombian fungal diversity: Untapped potential for diverse applications. - Microbiology Research, 14(4): 2000–2021.
The current list of fungi from Colombia updated in the present review contains a total of 7619 species. The Ascomycota appears as the most diverse group, with 4818 species, followed by the Basidiomycota, with 2555 species. Despite this, we presume that the actual fungal diversity in Colombia could amount to between 105,600 and 300,000 species. Fungi represent an underestimated resource, indispensable for human well-being. Even though the current knowledge on potential applications of Colombian fungi is still limited, the number of studies on areas such as natural products discovery, biological control, and food and beverages, among other biotechnological applications, are increasing. With the current review, we aim to present a comprehensive update on the fungal diversity in Colombia and its potential applications. Colombia’s native fungal biodiversity holds much potential within the country’s current social-economical context, and the future must ensure efforts to preserve both the biodiversity and the untapped resources of the fungi in Colombia, which in alignment with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) might result in new bioeconomy avenues for the country. Keywords: Ascomycota; early diverging fungi; Basidiomycota; lichens; secondary metabolism; biotechnological applications.
35953Yangua-Solano E., Carrión-Paladines V. & Benítez Á. (2023): Effects of fire on pyrodiversity of terricolous non-tracheophytes photoautotrophs in a páramo of southern Ecuador. - Diversity, 15(12): 1176 [15 p.] .
The páramos have a great diversity of flora, including terricolous non-tracheophyte photoautotrophs (bryophytes and lichens). Bryophytes and lichens are very sensitive to environmental changes related to anthropogenic fires, livestock, and agricultural activities. We determined for the first time in Ecuador the effects of prescribed fires on the pyrodiversity of terricolous non-tracheophyte photoautotroph in a páramo of South Ecuador. Three permanent sampling plots (T1, T2, and control) were established, each with a dimension of 4 m × 20 m and separated by 3 m (T1: one with fire-induced uphill and T2: one with fire-induced downhill and one control). They were installed in three different blocks, obtaining a total of nine plots. Three samplings (2, 6, and 12 months) were carried out in each plot, where the cover and richness of terricolous bryophytes and lichens were estimated in 216 quadrats of 20 × 30 cm. A total of 27 species (11 lichens and 16 bryophytes) were studied, where the lichen families, that is, Cladoniaceae and Baeomycetaceae, as well as the bryophytes families, namely, Dicranaceae, Jungermanniaceae, Bartramiaceae, Rhacocarpaceae, and Pallaviciniaceae, have been recorded as pioneers in areas under fire effects. Richness and diversity (calculated using the Shannon–Weaver and Simpson indexes) were affected by fire treatments; on the other hand, monitoring time (M3) positively affected species diversity. The composition of terrestrial non-tracheophyte photoautotroph communities showed slight changes between the control and T1 and T2, but the changes were more marked with time after the burns (M1 vs. M3), related to fire severity. Therefore, terricolous lichen and bryophyte communities (richness and diversity) can be used as model organisms for the assessment of the effects of prescribed fires on tropical páramos for subsequent management and conservation. Keywords: páramos; prescribed fires; bryophytes; lichens; non-tracheophyte photoautotrophs.
35952Khalife S. (1986): L' Aire minimale d'un peuplement terricole lichéno-bryophytique (Toninio-Psoretum decipientis Stodiek). - Ecologia Mediterranea, 11(4) : 11-24. .
[in French with French, Esperanto and English abstract: ] The minimal area of a licheno-bryophytic community (Toninio-Psoretum decipientis Stodiek) is studied hy two methods : - the method of the species-area curve; - the method of the mean similarity-area curve. Only the last method proved to be satisfactory and showed the determination of the qualitative minimal area (250-500cm2) and the quantitative minimal area (500-1000cm2).
35951Ravera S., Vizzini A., Totti C., Puglisi M., Azzella M.M., Battaglini A., Bernardo L., Bonini I., Calvia G., Cancellieri L., Cantonati M., De Giuseppe A.B., Fačkovcová Z., Filibeck G., Galasso G., Galli R., Gheza G., Guttová A., Hafellner J., Isocrono D., Malíček J., Nascimbene J., Nimis P.L., Ongaro S., Pandeli G., Paoli L., Passalacqua N.G., Potenza G., Prosser F., Puntillo D., Rosati L., Rossi S., Rapaccini G., Sicoli G., Spitale D. & Trainito E. (2023): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophtes [sic!], fungi and lichens: 16. - Italian Botanist, 16: 105–120.
In this contribution, new data concerning algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the algal genera Acetabularia, Nitella, and Nitellopsis for the bryophyte genera Drepanocladus, Fissidens, Hookeria, and Weissia, the fungal genera Alnicola, Arthonia, Cortinarius, Inocybe, Leucoagaricus, Neohygrocybe, and Puccinia and the lichen genera Bacidina, Chaenotheca, Flavoplaca, Gyalecta, Heterodermia, Rinodina, Scytinium, and Squamarina. Keywords: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Bryidae, Charophyceae, Ulvophyceae.
35950Zulfiqar R., Razzaq F., Iqbal M.S. & Khalid A.N. (2023): A new species of Lobothallia (Megasporaceae, Pertusariales, Ascomycota) from Pakistan. - Plant Systematics and Evolution, 309: 35 [7 p.].
Lobothallia pulvinata is described and illustrated here from Pakistan. The species is characterized by a thin thallus, large lecanorine apothecial discs, (0.3–1.2 mm), smaller ascospores, (8–12×4–6 µm) and the presence of norstictic acid than the similar L. pakistanica. Both the morphological and molecular characters confrm the novelty of this taxon. The phylogenetic position within the relatively recent genus-level circumscription of the family Megasporaceae is confrmed based on nrITS and mtSSU sequence datasets. Description, phylogenetic analysis and a comparison table with other Lobothallia species are provided. A brief note on L. iqbalii, norstictic acid chemotype is also presented. Keywords: Chilas · Kohistan · Phylogeny · Taxonomy.
35949Iqbal M.S., Fayyaz I., Afshan N.S., Iftikhar F. & Khalid A.N. (2023): A new species of Circinaria (Pertusariales, Megasporaceae) from Pakistan. - Botanica Serbica, 47(2): 235–239.
Circinaria pakistanica sp. nov. is described from the Himalayan moist temperate forests in Pakistan. The morphology, chemistry and ITS sequence support its distinction from other species of this genus. The taxon is characterised by a whitish to blackish grey thallus, greyish white epruinose apothecia, flat to slightly concave areoles, a hymenium 110-200 μm high, large ascospores (22-38 × 18-32 μm) and the absence of pycnidia; it also differs from related species in the ITS region. Keywords: Ganga Choti, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, phylogenetic relationships.
35948Roux C., Diederich P., Brand M. & Schiefelbein U. (2023): Quelques espèces nouvelles d’Endococcus, champignons lichénicoles non lichénisés (Dothideomycetes incertae sedis). - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 74: 147–156. .
[in French, with Esperanto, French, German and English abstract:] Description and illustration of three new Endococcus species, E. caesiocinereae, E. gennarii and E. truncatus. The three species are compared with each other and with the most similar species. A short description of the taxonomic position of the genus is given.
35947Suija A., McMullin R.T. & Lõhmus P. (2023): A phylogenetic assessment of a fungicolous lineage in Coniocybomycetes: Chaenotricha, a new genus of Trichaptum-inhabiting species. - Fungal Systematics and Evolution, 12: 255–269.
The globally distributed genus Trichaptum is one of the most species-rich among polypores in terms of hosting other fungi. Among Trichaptum-associates, there is a group of mazaediate lichenized fungi (Coniocybomycetes, Ascomycota) that previously had an uncertain phylogenetic position. DNA sequences – mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU), nuclear large subunit rDNA (nuLSU), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) – were obtained from 29 specimens collected from Europe and North America. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses of these three gene loci were used to infer phylogenetic position and relationships among lineages. Statistical tests were used to find which phenotypical characteristics distinguish species. The molecular sequence data provide evidence that the fungicolous specimens form a distinct lineage within Coniocybomycetes sister to the combined clade of Chaenotheca s. lat. and Sclerophora. Considering its phylogenetic placement and strict specialization, we describe a new genus – Chaenotricha. This fungicolous lineage contains three species based on molecular characteristics. Morphological characters mostly overlap except for spore size and stalk length of apothecia. We provide a new combination, Chaenotricha obscura, for the only previously described species for which we designate an epitype, and introduce a new species – Chaenotricha cilians. The third lineage remains undescribed because of a small sample size, which did not allow us to clearly delineate species boundaries. Key words: Ascomycota; epimycotic lichens; new taxa; polypores; sporocarp-inhabiting fungi.
35946Энхтуяа О. & Жавхлан С. [Enkhtuya O. & Javkhlan S.] (2022): Хусан ойн амьдрах орчны доройтлыг хагийн төрөл зүйлээр илэрхийлэх асуудалд (Төв аймаг, Батсүмбэр сум, Шатан өртөө, Өвгөнт уулын ойн жишээн дээр) [Identification of the degradation of birch forests habitats by lichen species: (On the example of the mountain forest Ubugunt at the station Shatan Batsumber Sumona, Central aimag)] . - Монголын ботаникийн сэтгүүл [Mongolian Journal of Botany], 4(30): 11–23.
[in Mongolian with English abstract: ] A study was conducted to determine the degradation of birch forest habitats by epiphytic lichens. As a result of research in the birch forest at the station Shatan somone Batsumbera of the Central aimag, 17 species of epiphytic lichens from 4 families and 13 genera were registered. The forest point was chosen as an example of a site with a change of primary vegetation type of larch forests from the forest of the steppe area of West Kentei. In terms of the number and diversity of species in point-of-forest studies, the number of species at the edge of the forest has decreased relative to the depth of the forest. In terms of species cover, 75% of the total species cover is Melanelia olivacea (45.8%), Physcia aipolia (18.2) and Evernia mesomorpha (11.5). At the same time we noted that the number of species and their diversity depends on the diameter of the tree trunk and the number of stumps, fallen and rotten trees. To determine the factors influencing species richness and distribution, a comparison was made between the number of stumps (large amounts of wood harvested in the forest) and the amount of manure residues (used for grazing) in the forest habitat. As a result, it has been established that the most important factor is the manifestation of the «edge effect» in the forest as a human factor. Thus, the decline in lichen species due to the loss of habitat diversity in birch forests indicates а increase in the degradation of birch forest habitats. Keywords: lichen species, edge forest, habitats, stumps, manure residues
35945Aptroot A., Weerakoon G., Cannon P., Coppins B., Sanderson N. & Simkin J. (2023): Ostropales: Graphidaceae, including the genera Allographa, Clandestinotrema, Crutarndina, Diploschistes, Fissurina, Graphis, Leucodecton, Phaeographis, Schizotrema, Thelotrema and Topeliopsis. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 36: 1–23.
35944Cannon P., Nordin A., Coppins B., Aptroot A., Sanderson N. & Simkin J. (2023): Pertusariales: Megasporaceae, including the genera Aspicilia, Aspiciliella, Circinaria, Lobothallia, Megaspora and Sagedia. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 34: 1–15.
35943Cannon P., Ekman S., Kistenich S., LaGreca S., Printzen C., Timdal E., Aptroot A., Coppins B., Fletcher A., Sanderson N. & Simkin J. (2023): Lecanorales: Ramalinaceae [revision 1], including the genera Bacidia, Bacidina, Bellicidia, Biatora, Bibbya, Bilimbia, Cliostomum, Kiliasia, Lecania, Megalaria, Mycobilimbia, Phyllopsora, Ramalina, Scutula, Thalloidima, Toninia, Toniniopsis and Tylothallia. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 35: 1–83.
35942Cannon P., Divakar P., Yahr R., Aptroot A., Clerc P., Coppins B., Fryday A., Sanderson N. & Simkin J. (2023): Lecanorales: Parmeliaceae, including the genera Alectoria, Allantoparmelia, Arctoparmelia, Brodoa, Bryoria, Cetraria, Cetrariella, Cetrelia, Cornicularia, Evernia, Flavocetraria, Flavoparmelia, Hypogymnia, Hypotrachyna, Imshaugia, Melanelia, Melanelixia, Melanohalea, Menegazzia, Montanelia, Nesolechia, Parmelia, Parmelina, Parmeliopsis, Parmotrema, Platismatia, Pleurosticta, Protoparmelia, Pseudephebe, Pseudevernia, Punctelia, Raesaenenia, Tucker. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 33: 1–98.
35941Orange A., Cannon P., Prieto M., Coppins B., Sanderson N. & Simkin J. (2023): Verrucariales: Verrucariaceae, including the genera Agonimia, Atla, Bagliettoa, Catapyrenium, Dermatocarpon, Endocarpon, Henrica, Heteroplacidium, Hydropunctaria, Involucropyrenium, Merismatium, Nesothele, Normandina, Parabagliettoa, Placidopsis, Placidium, Placopyrenium, Polyblastia, Psoroglaena, Sporodictyon, Staurothele, Thelidium, Trimmatothele, Verrucaria, Verrucula, Verruculopsis and Wahlenbergiella. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 31: 1–104.
35940Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1893): Lichenes. – In: Scientific results of the Elder exploring expedition. - Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 16(2): 142–149. .
Pyrenopsidium decorticans, Clathrina retipora, Clathrina aggregata, Cladonia alicornis, Siphula caesia, Heterodea Mülleri, Usnea barbata var. scabrida, var. xanthopoga, var. elegans, Theloschistes chrysophthalmus, Xanthoria parietina, Xanthoria controversa, Physcia stellaris, Physcia obscura, var. virella, Parmelia hypoleuca, Parmelia tiliacea, Parmelia rutidota, Parmelia conspersa, Parmelia adpressa, Parmelia congruens, Parmelia amphixantha, Parmelia hypoxantha, Parmelia dendritica, Trib. Pannarieae, Heppia australiensis, Heppia acarosporoides, Amphiloma murorum, var. obliteratum, var. areolatum, Placodium fulgens, Placodium cervinum, Placodiam citrinum, Trib. Psoreae, Psora decipiens, Psora psammophila, Thalloidima australiense, Catolechia glomerulans, Catolechia subcoronata, Catolechia marginulata, Callopisma aurantiacum, var. granulare, Lecanora subfusea, Lecanora casio-rubella, Lecanora sphaerospora, Lecanora calcarea, Lecanora pallescens, Rinodina Bischoffi, Diploschistes scruposus, Blastenia ferruginea, Lecidea planata, Lecidea pruinosa, Buellia tetrapla, Buellia inturgescens, Buellia spuria, Buellia subalbula, Buellia stellulata, Buellia desertorum, Trib. Endopyrenieae, Endocarpon Helmsianum, Endopyrenium hepaticum, Trib. Pyrenuleae, Verrucaria calciseda, Trib. Leprariaceae, Lepra citrina
35939Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1893): Lichenes Chinenses Henryani a cl. Dr. Aug. Henry, anno 1889, in China media lecti, quos in Herbario Kewensi determinavit. - Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, 1: 235–236. .
Leptogium Menziesii, Cladonia rangiferina, Cladonia gracilis, Cladonia ochrochlora, Cladonia Floerkeana, Cladonia coccifera, Cladonia pyxidata, Stereocaulon paschale, Stereocaulon coralloides, Pilophorus acicularis, Thamnolia vermicularis, Usnea trichodea, Gyrophora spodochroa, Peltigera aphthosa, Peltigera canina, Peltigera rufescens, Peltigera polydactyla, Nephromium tropicum, Stictina retigera, Sticta pulmonacea, Sticta Henryana, Sticta platyphylla, Anaptychia speciosa, Anaptychia speciosa, Parmelia hypotrypa
35938Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1893): Lichenes Amboinenses a cl. Dr. Cam. Pictet lecti, quos examinavit. - Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, 1: 132. .
Parmelia tinctorum, Physcia segialita, P. integrata, P. obsessa, Patellaria luteola, Arthonia gregaria, Arthonia Amboinensis, Opegrapha trilocularis, Graphis Sayeri, Graphina insulana
35937Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1893): Lichens Scottiani in Sierra Leone Africae occidentalis a cl. Scott-Elliot lecti et missi, quos enumerat. - Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, 1: 304. .
Parmelia tinctorum, Anaptychia speciosa v. hypoleuca, Physcia picta Nyl., v. sorediata, v. erythrocardia, Lecanora subfusca v. subcrenulata, Lecanora granifera, Glyphis confluens, Arthonia gregaria v. adspersa, Opegrapha humilis, Graphis (s. Eugraphis) Lineola, Graphis (s. Eugraphis) tenella, Graphis (s. Eugraphis) v. flavicans, Graphis (s. Aulacographa) duplicata, Graphina (s. Platygraphopsis) pervarians; Graphis pervarians Nyl., Pyrenula Kunthii, P. pinguis, Verrucaria punctella
35936Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1893): Lichenes. – In: Schweinfurth, G. & Ascherson, P., Primitiae florae Marmaricae. - Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, 1: 678–680. .
Collema pulposulum Nyl. var. pulvinatulum Nyl., Amphiloma murorum, A. Ehrenbergii, Placodium fulgens, P. lentigerum, P. Schleicheri, Psora decipiens, Callopisma aegyptiacum, Lecanora (Aspicilia) calcarea, Rinodina exigua, Urceolaria scruposa, Diplotomma albo-atrum, Opegrapha ssgyptiaca, Arthonia adhaerens
35935Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1893): Lichenes arabici a cl. Dr. Schweinfurth in Arabia Yemensi lecti quos determinavit. - Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, 1: 130–131. .
Roccella Montagnei, Ramalina farinacea, Ramalina evernioides, Theloschistes chrysophthalmus, Xanthoria parietina, Parmelia caperata, Amphiloma ochraceo-fulvum, Placodium fulgens, Placodium concrescens, Thalloidima caeruleo-nigricans, Diploschistes scruposus, Opegrapha chloroconia, Opegrapha vestita, Dictyographa arabica, Endocarpon pusillum
35934Ansil P.A., Rajeshkumar K.C., Lücking R. & Sharma B. (2023): Phylogenetic placement of Phlyctis atomella (Phlyctidaceae) from the Western Ghats, India. - Czech Mycology, 75(2):139–152.
This study examined the phylogenetic status of Phlyctis atomella, known from the Western Ghats, based on an integrative taxonomic approach which included morphology, anatomy, chemistry, and molecular phylogeny. Despite the existence of 26 documented species in Phlyctis worldwide, molecular sequence data is presently accessible solely for five of these species. Analysis based on concate-nated ITS and mtSSU data suggests the placement of P. atomella within Phlyctis either as an early diverging lineage or a delineated poorly supported sister to P. boliviensis. This is the first molecular phylogenetic study of the crustose lichen genus Phlyctis based on fresh collections from India.
35933Joshi Y. & Bansal P. (2023): Knudsenia flavoparmeliarum: A new genus and species of lichenicolous fungus growing on Flavoparmelia caperata and Flavopunctelia flaventior (Parmeliaceae) from India. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 65: 325–335.
A new parasitic lichenicolous fungus Knudsenia, with the type species, K. flavoparmeliarum, growing on the thallus of the corticolous lichen Flavoparmelia caperata in subalpine and alpine regions of Central Himalaya (Uttarakhand, India) is described, illustrated, and compared with other morphologically similar lichenicolous fungi. It is characterised by having inconspicuous galls; stromatic ascomata with sterile brownish black to black tissue which is K+ majenta, N–, I–; hymenial gel K/I–; exciple evident; paraphyses simple to sparsely branched, apically not pigmented; asci bitunicate, elongate, clavate to subcylindrical with an indistinct ocular chamber with a very short stalk, 8-spored, K/I+ reddish brown; ascospores hyaline, spherical to ellipsoid at maturity, simple to rarely 1-pseudoseptate [(9.0–)9.5–10.5–11.5(–12.0) × (1.0–)1.2–1.5–2.0(–2.5) μm], I–, perispore absent. Since the species lacks molecular data, hence, it was tentatively placed in the family Planistromellaceae pending further studies. Key words: fungi, Himalaya, lichens, new taxon, Parmeliaceae.
35932Brunialti G. & Frati L. (2023): Biomonitoring with lichens and mosses in forests. - Forests, 14(11): 2265 [3 p.] .
35931dela Cruz T.E.E., Timbreza L.P., Sangvichien E., Notarte K.I.R. & Santiago K.A.A. (2023): Study on the antimicrobial activities and metabolic profiles of five Usnea species from the Philippines. - Journal of Fungi, 9(11): 1117 [15 p.] .
The rapid emergence of resistant bacteria is occurring worldwide, endangering the efficacy of antibiotics. Hence, there is a need to search for new sources of antibiotics that either exhibit novel structures or express a new mechanism of action. The lichen Usnea, with its wide range of unique, biologically potent secondary metabolites, may solve this problem. In this study, Usnea species were collected in the Northern Philippines, identified through combined morphological and biochemical characterization, and tested for antimicrobial activities against the multidrug-resistant ESKAPE pathogens, i.e., Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae, two standard antibiotic-sensitive test bacteria, and a yeast. A total of 46 lichen specimens were collected and later identified as Usnea baileyi (10), U. diffracta (10), U. glabrata (12), U. longissima (4), and U. rubicunda (10). The results show that the crude extracts of the Usnea species exhibited promising in vitro inhibitory activities against standard antibiotic-sensitive (E. faecalis ATCC 29212) and multidrug-resistant (methicillin-resistant S. aureus and E. faecalis) Gram-positive bacteria. Additionally, lichen compounds of representative specimens per species were identified and profiled using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The detection of lichen acids (LA) via HPLC showed the presence of 24 peaks of lichen acids. TLC-bioautography identified the bioactive lichen acids as alectronic acid, connorstictic acid, consalazinic acid, diffractaic acid, echinocarpic acid, erythrin acid, galbinic acid, hypoconstictic acid, hyposalazinic acid, hypostictic acid, lobaric acid, menegazzaic acid, micareic acid, pannarin, salazinic acid, stictic acid, and usnic acid. Our study highlighted the wide spectrum of opportunities for using lichens for the discovery of potential antimicrobial agents. Keywords: bioactivities; ESKAPE pathogens; fruticose lichens; lichen acids; secondary metabolites.
35930Kison H.-U. [unter Mitwirkung von: Czarnota P., Schiefelbein U., Sipman H.J.M., Stordeur R. & Westermann A.] (2021): The lichen flora of two Selketal nature reserves. - Mitteilungen zur floristischen Kartierung in Sachsen-Anhalt [Halle], 26: 105–142. .
[in German with English abstract: ] The lichen flora including the lichenicolous fungi of the nature reserves ‚Selketal‘ (NSG 73) and ‚Oberes Selketal‘ (NSG 178) is presented. 178 taxa are known in the NSG 73, 40 % of them are recorded in the Red List of Saxony-Anhalt and 60 % are forest species. 289 taxa are communicated for NSG 178. 47 % of them are mentioned in the Red List and 60 % are forest species. All in all only 4 % of species are connected to old natural forests. Montanelia disjuncta, Psilolechia lucida (with the parasitic Microcalicium arenarium), Tephromela grumosa and Umbilicaria hirsuta are characteristic for rocks. Lecanora rupicola subsp. rupicola and Lecanora swartzii are more or less common, too. Rare epilithic species are: Lasallia pustulata, Lecanora sulphurea, Protoparmelia badia, Ramalina capitata, R. pollinaria and Pertusaria pseudocorallina as well as Ophioparma ventosa and Pertusaria corallina in cold air areas. As remarkable epiphyts in oak forests are mentioned among others Alyxoria varia, Bacidia rubella, Calicium adspersum, C. glaucellum, Pertusaria amara, P. flavida. Arthonia atra, A. radiata, Calicium viride, Chaenotheca brachypoda, Graphis scripta, Opegrapha vermicellifera and O. rufescens are typical for old natural forests. Chrysothrix candelaris grows on an ash tree, the only place where it is actually found in the Harz Mountains. Cetraria aculeata, Cladonia cervicornis, C. foliacea, C. mitis, C. verticillata as well as Dibaeis baeomyces grow in heaths adjacent to rock outcrops. New to the area are for example Anisomerdium polypori, Peltigera extenuata, Rinodina aspersa, Ropalospora viridis and Usnea substerilis.
35929Hischier C.M., Frey D., Römer N., Scheidegger C., Stofer S., Vust M. & Fink S. (2023): Die Verhüllende Korallenflechte. Eine geschützte Auenart im Fokus von Naturschutz und Wasserbau. - Merkblatt für die Praxis, 73: 1-8.
Was sind Flechten? Flechten sind Lebensgemeinschaften zwischen einem Pilz und einer Grünalge oder einem Cyanobakterium (Blaualge), die eng aufeinander abgestimmt sind: Der Pilz schützt dabei die Algen beziehungsweise Cyanobakterien durch sein umhüllendes Geflecht vor Frass und Sonneneinstrahlung. Die Algen oder Cyanobakterien produzieren Kohlenhydrate (durch Fotosynthese) und versorgen den Pilzpartner mit Nährstoffen sowie mit aus der Luft fixiertem Stickstoff. Diese Symbiose erlaubt den Flechten, Lebensräume zu besiedeln, in denen die Symbiosepartner allein nicht überleben würden. Flechten bilden sich auf unterschiedlichen Unterlagen – beispielsweise auf Pflanzen oder Gestein – und weisen eine grosse Vielfalt an Wuchsformen auf. Deshalb teilt man sie basierend auf dem Erscheinungsbild des Vegetationskörpers (Thallus) in Krusten, Blatt- und Strauchflechten ein (Wirth et al. 2013)
35928Arup U. & Ligander I. (2023): Phylogeny, ecology and morphology of the two corticolous lichen species Rinodina colobina and R. pityrea in the Nordic countries. - Graphis Scripta, 35(8): 126–143.
Rinodina pityrea and R. colobina are reported as two distinct species with differing ecology and morphological characters. Molecular analysis of their ITS and mrSSU genes show that R. pityrea and R. colobina are two clearly separated species. Furthermore, the two species are morphologically and geographically distinct in the Nordic countries and can usually be recognized with a hand lens rather than by observing spore type which can be very difficult. The differing characteristics of R. pityrea and R. colobina are here described in detail with photographs and a table is given of differing features. Additionally, some defining characteristics to separate sterile specimens from Caloplaca chlorina were discovered and are presented along with the rest of the findings. Finally, an updated distribution map of R. pityrea and R. colobina for Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark is presented. Rinodina pityrea is reported as new to Norway and R. colobina is reinstalled as a Danish lichen.
35927Kärnefelt I. (2023): The great lady of lichen chemistry Chicita F. Culberson (1931–2023) has passed away. - Graphis Scripta, 35(8): 144–147.
35926Chesnokov S.V. & Konoreva L.A. (2023): New records of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from the Franz Josef Land (Russian Arctic). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 57(2): L39–L48.
The study presents data on 24 species of lichens and seven species of lichenicolous fungi that are newly recorded in the Franz Josef Land Archipelago. Among these, Amandinea pelidna, Didymocyrtis bryonthae, and Sclerococcum parasiticum are new discoveries for European Russia, and another 12 species are newly documented for the Arkhangelsk Region. Thus, 301 species of lichens and 50 species of lichenicolous fungi are currently known for the Franz Josef Land Archipelago. Keywords: distribution, lichens, Arctic, Arkhangelsk Region, European Russia.
35925Svensson M. & Moberg R. (2023): Pyxine tiinae (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota), a new lichen species from high elevation in Peru. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 60: 3–12.
Pyxine tiinae, a new foliose lichen species, is described from an alpine locality in Peru. The new species is characterized by convex and radiating, grey lobes, a K– cortex and K– epihymenium, the presence of terpenes, and by comparatively long pycnoconidia. A phylogenetic analysis places P. tiinae as sibling to the genus Culbersonia, although the morphological characters do not fit with either this genus or with Pyxine as currently circumscribed. Keywords: Caliciaceae, Culbersonia, Physciaceae, Pyxine.
35924Stepanchikova I.S., Himelbrant D.E., Prokopiev I.A., Pankova V.V., Zhukova A.A., Gainetdinova I.I. & Zueva A.S. (2023): Leprarioid lichens and associated lichenicolous fungi from the Commander Islands (Kamchatka Territory, Russia) including a new species Lepraria tiinae. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 60: 101–128.
Here, we present new records of leprarioid lichens from the Commander Islands, including one species of Lithocalla and six species of Lepraria. Notably, we describe as new to science Lepraria tiinae, which is quite common in coastal biotopes of the archipelago. The main distinguishing phenotypic features of this new species include large granules of the thallus, a well-developed hypothallus, dark rhizohyphae, and the production of thiophanic acid, arthothelin, and dichlorolichexanthone. Additionally, three species of lichenicolous fungi or fungi associated with leprarioid lichens were found in the studied specimens, all of which are new to the Kamchatka Territory. Keywords: sterile lichens, secondary metabolites, protected areas, Lithocalla, Pacific Ocean, Beringia, the Aleutian Arc.
35923Sipman H.J.M. (2023): Four new Pyrenula species from primary forests in the Guianas, South America, and their ascospore development. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 60: 65–74.
Four new species of the genus Pyrenula (Pyrenulaceae, Pyrenulales, lichenized Ascomycetes) are presented. They originate from primary forests in the Guianas: Pyrenula cubica Sipman, with cubical central lumina in the ascospores; Pyrenula flavida Sipman, with a yellow-pigmented thallus; P. rubromarginata Sipman, with red pigment on the excipulum and not on the thallus; and P. submicromma Sipman, like P. micromma but with submuriform instead of bacillar ascospores. In addition, a description for P. atropurpurea is provided, and P. subvariabilis is reduced to synonymy of P. infrastroidea. Special attention was paid to the development of the ascospores. Two different development types are recognized. The phylogenetic significance of these types is unclear. Keywords: lichen taxonomy, anthraquinones, ascospore ontogeny, primary forest.
35922Pärtel K. & Suija A. (2023): Estonian Mycological Society: 60 years!. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 60: 137–139.
35921Ohmura Y. & Clerc P. (2023): Usnea jezoformosana Y. Ohmura & P. Clerc, sp. nov. (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) from East Asia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 60: 47–55.
Usnea jezoformosana is described as a new species from East Asia. The morphology of this taxon is very similar to Usnea fragilescens but differs by the presence of granular soredia (instead of farinose soredia). It differs furthermore chemically by the presence of protocetraric acid (major) and barbatic acid (major to trace). The monophyly and independence of the newly described species from U. fragilescens and related taxa were inferred by a molecular phylogenetic tree based on ITS rDNA sequences. Usnea jezoformosana was collected in subboreal forests of Hokkaido (Japan) and in Taiwan where it grew on tree barks, building wood or cliffs. Keywords: chemistry, ITS rDNA, lichen, new species, Usnea fragilescens, Japan, Taiwan.
35920Kukwa M. & Ossowska E.A. (2023): Additions to the biota of lichenicolous and lichenized fungi of Poland. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 60: 41–45.
Two lichenicolous fungi, Ceratobasidium bulbillifaciens and Sclerococcum phaeophysciae, and one lichen, Xanthoria aureola, are reported for the first time from Poland. For each species, the descriptions with notes on similar species, habitat preferences and general distribution are provided. Keywords: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, distribution, Poland.
35919Kondratyuk S.Y., Suija A., Kärnefelt I. & Thell A. (2023): Lichenicolous fungi of southern Scandinavia with particular reference to those associated with Xanthoria calcicola s. lat.. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 60: 129–136.
Lichenicolous fungi associated with Xanthoria calcicola s. lat. are studied in southernmost Scandinavia, i.e., Skåne, the southernmost province in Sweden and southern Denmark. Two species, Didymocyrtis slaptoensis and Pyrenochaeta xanthoriae, are reported as new for the Nordic countries, whereas three species, Didymocyrtis cf. consimilis, Erythricium aurantiacum, and Illosporiopsis christiansenii are recorded for the first time from Skåne. New localities for rare lichenicolous fungi from southern Scandinavia and southernmost Denmark are also listed. Notes on the taxonomy and ecology of Telogalla olivieri and Pyrenochaeta xanthoriae are provided. Keywords: Didymocyrtis, lichenicolous fungi, new species, Pyrenochaeta, Telogalla, Xanthoria, Sweden, Denmark.
35918Khodosovtsev O. (2023): The first records of the lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi from Ukraine. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 60: 31–39.
Fifteen species of lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi are reported for the first time from Ukraine. These species are Buellia ocellata, Catillaria fungoides, Cecidonia xenophana, Cladonia subturgida, Celothelium lutescens, Endococcus protoblasteniae, Kuettlingeria areolata, Lahmia kunzei, Lecanora microloba, Lecidea nylanderi, Myriolecis zosterae, Pyrenodesmia helygeoides, Sagedia zonata, Verrucula arnoldaria, Zahlbrucknerella calcarea. The genera Cecidonia, Celothelium, Lahmia, Sagedia, Zahlbrucknerella, familia Celotheliaceae, Lahmiaceae, and orders Lahmiales and Phaemoniliales are also new to the country. Keywords: diversity, taxon occurrences, Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Kherson, Kyiv, Rivne, Ternopil, Europe.
35917Kaasalainen I., Kirika P.M., Mollel N.P., Hemp A. & Rikkinen J. (2023): Two new species of Leptogium (Collemataceae) with transversely septate ascospores from East Africa. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 60: 57–64.
Two epiphytic Leptogium species from East Africa, both with transversely septate ascospores, are here described as new. They produce plicate thalli and have a paraplectenchymatous proper exciple and a one cell layer thick cortex on the thalline exciple. Leptogium bellum has so far only been collected from Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, where it occurs from midmontane forests up to the subalpine zone. Leptogium tiinae occurs in relatively open habitats at lower elevations, with the type specimen collected from the Taita Hills, Kenya. Additionally, details from a Leptogium chloromeloides isotype and a key for Leptogium species with transversely septate ascospores are provided. Keywords: Eastern Arc, Mt. Kilimanjaro, Taita Hills, paleotropics, biodiversity hotspot, afromontane, Leptogium section Leptogiopsis, Peltigerales.
35916Jüriado I., Kaasalainen I., Liira J. & Rikkinen J. (2023): Peltigera (Ascomycota) living in open and shady environments depend on different Nostoc photobionts. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 60: 75–99.
Species of Peltigera (lichen-forming Ascomycota) establish obligate symbioses with several monophyletic groups (phylogroups) of Nostoc cyanobacteria. Some of these fungi are strict specialists and only associate with one Nostoc phylogroup throughout their range, while others are generalists and associate with many different Nostoc phylogroups. We sampled 20 Peltigera taxa, mostly representing the Peltigera section Peltigera, from grassland and forest habitats across Europe. Mycobionts’ identities were confirmed using fungal ITS sequences. The Nostoc cyanobionts were identified and grouped based on single nucleotide differences in the trnL region and on the phylogenetic analysis of the rbcLX region. Our data confirmed that some Peltigera species clearly prefer open habitats, while others are largely confined to shady forest habitats. The two habitat preferences are consistently paired with association with different Nostoc groups. As a specific example, two ecologically versatile species, Peltigera canina and P. didactyla, both growing in open and shady habitats, consistently associated with different groups of Nostoc when growing in different habitats. As associations between specific mycobionts and cyanobionts are influenced by habitat conditions, the diversity of both taxon groups should be considered in the context of habitat management and conservation planning. Keywords: canopy closure, cyanobiont, grassland, ecology, forest, lichen, mycobiont, Peltigerales.
35915Aptroot A., Santos L.A., Oliveira Júnior I. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2023): The saxicolous and terricolous lichens of northeastern Brazil, with special reference to the Vale do Catimbau in Pernambuco. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 60: 21–30.
The saxicolous and terricolous lichen biota of the Vale do Catimbau in Pernambuco state (Brazil) was studied and with 74 species found to be relatively rich. Most species are new to the state and five are new to Brazil, viz. Andreiomyces obtusatica (Tønsberg) B.P. Hodk. & Lendemer, Caloplaca brittonii (Zahlbr.) Aptroot, Candelariella rosulans (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr., Clavascidium antillarum (Breuss) Breuss, and Stromatella bermudana (Riddle) Henssen. In addition, some new state records were found of corticolous and lignicolous lichens. A comparison is made with all other places in northeastern Brazil where saxicolous lichens have been studied. For this, the Serra de Itabaiana in Sergipe state was revisited too, and many additional species were recorded there. All places differ markedly in species composition. This seems to be correlated to altitude, biome, and rock type (sandstone versus granite), with the biome mostly influencing the species composition and the altitude the species richness. Some of the species newly reported from Brazil are so far known from the Antilles and there seems to be some resemblance between these lichen biotas. Keywords: Andreiomyces, Caloplaca, Candelariella, Clavascidium, Cladonia, Stromatella, new records, species list, lichenized fungi.
35914Anonymus [Estonian lichenologists, colleagues & friends] (2023): A tribute to Tiina Randlane on her seventieth birthay!. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 60: 1–2.
editorial, tribute, anniversaty
35913Kovasi A.,, McCune B. & Jovan S. (2023): Evaluating Letharia vulpina transplants for bioindication of nitrogen deposition. - Bryologist, 126(3): 447–456.
The epiphytic lichen Letharia vulpina has been commonly sampled in-situ for nitrogen (N) deposition biomonitoring studies but has never before been transplanted for this purpose. In the high-elevation wilderness areas of southern California Letharia vulpina is generally uncommon, making in-situ sampling difficult. In this study, we compared thallus N accumulation between in-situ Letharia vulpina reference samples from the relatively low N deposition environment of the northern Sierra Nevada mountains and Letharia vulpina transplants that were deployed at nine plots of varying climatic and N deposition regimes in the southern Sierra Nevada mountains for 12 months. Survival of transplants was low (33%) and only occurred at the plots within the current range of Letharia vulpina. Transplant N concentrations became higher than those of the reference samples, while transplants that died had a net loss of N. Transplants that survived had strong relationships of N concentrations to N deposition and approached N concentrations of in-situ Letharia vulpina at the same plots. At the same time, reference plot N concentrations in a relatively clean environment increased substantially from early summer 2020 to 2021, presumably in response to extended exposure to smoke from huge wildfires in summer and fall of 2020. Keywords: Bioindicator, Federal Class 1 areas, nitrogen deposition, Sierra Nevada mountains, transplants, smoke.
35912Nirhamo A., Hämäläinen A., Hämäläinen K. & Kouki J. (2024): The response of epiphytic lichens on living and dead Pinus sylvestris to prescribed fires of varying severity. - Forest Ecology and Management, 551: 121558 [9 p.].
Prescribed burning can be used to restore forest ecosystems degraded by anthropogenic pressures. However, some species such as epiphytic lichens may be vulnerable to fire. We studied the effects of fire on epiphytic lichens on living and dead Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) by surveying lichens up to two meters on the trunks 21 years after experimental and replicated prescribed burnings in pine-dominated boreal forests in Finland. We investigated three types of stands that had faced different levels of fire severity: 1) unburned semi-natural mature stands (i.e., control sites), 2) burned semi-natural mature stands, and 3) burned retention groups on clearcut sites. In the semi-natural mature stands, the fires were low-severity surface fires and induced negligible mortality in P. sylvestris. In the retention groups, the fires induced high tree mortality and made fresh deadwood the dominant substrate type. Low-severity fires reduced the occurrence of several species, but usually did not eliminate them. High-severity fires eliminated some species, but the abundant deadwood frequently hosted some species that were absent or infrequent on the unburned sites. Thus, the fires had only small effects on total species richness. However, fires substantially changed species composition: they reduced the occurrence of species associated with late-successional habitats, while increasing the occurrence of early-successional species. We also found fires to decrease the occurrence of microlichens and increase that of macrolichens. The magnitude of the compositional changes increased with fire severity. Our findings indicate that the high quantities of fresh deadwood in post-disturbance forests provide habitat only to a limited portion of deadwood-associated lichens. Fire can increase landscape-scale variation in epiphytic lichen communities, but we observed negative effects, which increased with fire severity, on lichen flora of conservation concern. Thus, we recommend prescribed burning to be applied primarily in sites with a history of intensive management. Fire should be avoided in sites with substrates that are fire-sensitive and important to lichen diversity. Keywords: Coarse woody debris; Disturbance; Early-successional forests; Fire management; Scots pine; Wildfire.
35911Brackel W. v. & Puntillo D. (2023): Additions to the flora of lichenicolous fungi of Southern Italy . - Borziana, 4: 5-31.
A re-examination of herbarium material together with some new finds from Southern Italy (the regions Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Puglia and Sicilia) resulted in a list of 39 lichenicolous fungi (and 8 species of lichenicolous lichens). Six of them are new to Italy [Arthonia caerulescens (Almq.) R.Sant., Arthonia protoparmeliae Etayo, Arthonia xanthoparmeliarum Etayo, Tremella diploschistina Millanes & al., Verrucoccum coppinsii V. Atienza & al. and Zwackhiomyces polischukii Darmostuk & Khodos.] and 13 new to the respective region. The species Lichenotubeufia calabrica Brackel, Sphaerellothecium nimisii Brackel & Puntillo and Stigmidium hypogymniae Brackel are described as new to science. Key words: Ascomycotina, Lichenotubeufia, Sphaerellothecium, Stigmidium, Mediterranean.
35910Arup U., Bertrand M., Navarro-Rosinés P., Nimis P.L., Roux C. & Søchting U. (2023): Taxonomy and nomenclature of a much misunderstood Mediterranean lichen, Caloplaca subochracea auct. (lichenized Ascomycota, Teloschistaceae). - Borziana, 4: 33-49.
This paper clarifies the taxonomy and nomenclature of a characteristic calcicolous lichen, formerly called Caloplaca subochracea auct., which is widespread in coastal areas of the Mediterranean region. In spite of being easily recognizable, this lichen was often misunderstood, and has a very complicated nomenclatural history. The analysis of the type material of Callopisma marmoratum Bagl., described from Sardinia in 1879, revealed that it is identical to Caloplaca subochracea auct., and has nothing to do with the lichen currently called Xanthocarpia marmorata (Bagl.) Frödén, Arup & Søchting. The results of molecular analysis showed that Caloplaca subochracea auct. belongs to Gyalolechia, and that two closely related species can be recognized; formerly these were treated as varieties with differently pigmented thalli, and are recombined here as Gyalolechia marmorata (Bagl.) Nimis & Arup, and G. luteococcinea (Clauzade & Cl. Roux) Cl. Roux, M. Bertrand & Arup. Finally, the name Xanthocarpia fulva (Harm.) Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Roux, is introduced to replace Xanthocarpia marmorata. Key words: biodiversity, Gyalolechia, PCR, Xanthocarpia.
35909Roux C. & Poumarat S. (2023): Mise à jour (2023/05/18) de la flore des lichens, champignons lichénicoles non lichénisés et champignons corticoles apparentés du massif de la Sainte – Baume (Var, Provence, France). Des Trois – Chênes au N du Saint – Pilon. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 74: 77–92. .
[in French with French, Esperanto and English abstracts] Two excursions in a small part of the Sainte – Baume massif allowed us to find 115 taxa among which 23 had not yet been reported in this massif, including fifourve mentioned for the first time in the department of Var, two in the French Mediterranean region, two in France (Sarcogyne lapponica, Feltgeniomyces luxemburgensis), one in Europe (Monodictys phlyctidis) and a probably new species that we present provisionally, Pyrenidium pertusae ad int.
35908Roux C. & Pinault P. (2023): Lichenostigma epiumbilicariae P. Pinault et Cl. Roux sp. nov. champignon lichénicole non lichénisé (Ascomycota). - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 74: 125–129. .
[bilingual: in French and Esperanto] Description d’une espèce nouvelle de Lichenostigma parasite d’’Umbilicaria crustulosa et U. cylindrica chez lesquels elle ne produit pas d’altération appréciable : L. epiumbilicariae P. Pinault et Cl. Roux sp. nov. Elle est caractérisée par ses cordons d’hyphes superficiels, formés d’une ou deux (rarement trois) épaisseurs de cellules, à surface rugueuse, nombreux et bien développés, à disposition radiaire, par ses ascomes de fusiformes à subglobuleux, bien distincts des cordons, par ses spores d’abord incolores puis devenant rapidement brun sombre, de (9)10 – 11,2 – 13(13,5) × (5)6 – 6,7 – 7,5(8,5) μm, uniseptées, non halonées, à surface lisse, et par l’absence de macroconidies. Comparaison avec les autres espèces du genre.
35907Zhurbenko M.P. (2023): Hidden biodiversity in herbarium collections: experience of searching for lichenicolous fungi in lichen herbaria. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 57(2): F13–F18.
Lichen herbaria contain a large number of parasitic fungi accidentally collected along with lichens. Various aspects of searching for lichenicolous fungi in lichen herbaria are discussed. The productivity of such searches, including the discovery of species new to science, may be higher than when these fungi are searched in nature. In one day’s work, 20–25 specimens of lichenicolous fungi can be found in the herbarium, and 2–15 specimens can be found in field studies. Keywords: lichen parasites, voucher collections.
35906Galanina I.A., Chesnokov S.V., Konoreva L.A., Poryadina L.N., Davydov E.A. & Paukov A.G. (2023): The genus Rinodina (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) with a key to the species. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 57(2): L49–L85.
The lichen genus Rinodina in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is revised on the basis of extensive materials collected by the authors in 1974–2022. Twenty-four species of this genus have been recorded for the lichen biota of Yakutia. Eight species are recorded for the first time: Rinodina cinereovirens, R. confragosa, R. conradii, R. intermedia, R. interpolata, R. metaboliza, R. orculata, R. trevisanii. Five previously reported species were not found: Rinodina archaea, R. exigua, R. exiguella, R. milvina, R. sophodes. A key for identification of Rinodina known in Yakutia is given. For each species, characteristic features, differences from closely related species, and distribution in Russia and the world are discussed. Keywords: Arctic, biodiversity, biogeography, lichens, new records, North-East Asia.
35905Kantvilas G. (2022): A sorediate addition to the genus Megaloblastenia. - Muelleria, 41: 12–16. .
The epiphytic species, Megaloblastenia sorediata Kantvilas sp. nov., is described from the wet forests of Tasmania and New South Wales; its preferred host is the understorey tree Pomaderris apetala. The newly described species is distinguished from the widespread M. marginiflexa (Hook.f. & Taylor) Sipman chiefly on the basis of having soredia, although its apothecia, asci and ascospores are also marginally smaller. A key to the three species of Megaloblastenia is presented, and the application of soredia as a taxonomic character is discussed briefly. Keywords: Australia, lichens, species pairs, Tasmania, taxonomy.
35904Thor G., Arup U., Frisch A., Grube M., Vicente R. & Westberg M. (2023): Padjelanta National Park in Sweden, a lichen diversity heaven. - Graphis Scripta, 35(7): 81–125.
Padjelanta National Park is the largest national park in Sweden (198 400 ha) and one of five large national parks in northern Sweden. It mainly includes bare mountain regions. Lichen excursions to Padjelanta were arranged in 2020 and 2021. An excursion has also been organized by the Swedish Lichen Society to the National Park in 2004. Ten species, Arthonia protoparmeliae, Arthonia subclemens, Athallia saxifragarum, Cercidospora decolorella, Merismatium thamnoliicola, Sarcogyne cyclocarpa, S. urceolata, Tremella nephromatis, Verrucaria othmarbreussii and V. oulankaensis are reported as new to Sweden. Arthonia protoparmeliae is also reported new from Norway and this species together with Arthonia subclemens and Tremella nephromatis are also new to Fennoscandia. A further 98 taxa that are earlier reported from Sweden are new to Lule lappmark. An additional two species (Arthonia sp., Rhizocarpon sp.) might represent new species (“known unknowns”). Only six red-listed species have been found according to the Swedish Red List, Gyalidea roseola, Pannaria hookeri, Pectenia plumbea, Peltigera collina, Pyrenula coryli and Rinodina endophragmia. The low number of red-listed species probably reflects that few lichens occurring in the Swedish mountain regions have been properly assessed. The lichen flora is species rich and includes several species rarely reported from Sweden. The phylogenetic position of A. protoparmeliae in Arthoniaceae is demonstrated through Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood analyses of newly generated mtSSU, nrLSU and RPB2 sequence data. The fungal barcode nrITS has been generated for specimens of A. protoparmeliae from Sweden and Norway.
35903Kotkova V.M., Afonina O.M., Androsova V.I., Belyakov E.A., Bersanova A.N., Biryukova O.V., Butunina E.A., Chesnokov S.V., Davydov D.A., Davydov E.A., Doroshina G.Ya., Dugarova O.D., Filippova N.V., Frolov I.V., Glazunov V.A., Gorbunova I.A., Himelbrant D.E., Ignatova E.A., Iliushin V.A., Kirtsideli I.Yu., Konoreva L.A., Kuznetsova O.I., Makryi T.V., Melekhin A.V., Mongush Ch.B., Nikolaenko S.A., Nikolaev N.S., Notov A.A., Popova N.N., Rodina O.A., Romanov R.E., Rudykina E.A.,Ryzhkova P.Yu., Ryzhova E.M., Sambyla Ch.N., Shestakova A.A., Sonina A.V., Stepanchikova I.S., Stepanova V.A., Storozhenko Yu.V., Tarasova V.N., Tsurykau A.G., Tubanova D.Ya., Tugi E.V.,Vilnet A.A., Vishnyakov V.S., Vlasenko A.V., Vlasenko V.A., Yakovchenko L.S., Zhdanov I.S., Zhuykov K.A., Zibzeev E.G. & Zvyagina E.A. (2023): New cryptogamic records. 12. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 57(2): R1–R58.
First records for Russia of naviculoid diatom from the Yaroslavl Region, and micromycetes from the Republic of North Ossetia — Alania, green alga for the Leningrad Region and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area, fragilarioid diatom for the Kaliningrad Region, red alga for the Nizhny Novgorod Region, cyanoprokaryota for the Leningrad Region and Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, and crustaceous red alga for the Autonomous Republic of Adjara of Georgia, macromycetes for the Leningrad Region, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area — Yugra, Republic of Tuva, Trans-Baikal Territory, myxomycetes for the Trans-Baikal Territory, lichens and allied fungi for the Murmansk and Tver regions, republics of Karelia and Tuva, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area, Altai and Khabarovsk territories, cyanolichen for the Urals and the Orenburg Region, mosses for the Lipetsk Region, republics of Ingushetia and Buryatia, Krasnoyarsk and Trans-Baikal territories are presented. The data on their localities, habitats, distribution are provided. The specimens are kept in the herbaria ALTB, GSU, IBIW, IRK, KPABG, LE, MHA, MW, NNSU, NSK, PZV, TBI, UUH, VU, YSU, and the Diatom collection of the Laboratory for Algology of IBIW RAS. Sequences of 16S, and 16S–23S ITS cyanobacterial RNA regions, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 fungal and ITS1-2 moss nrDNA regions of some specimens have been deposited in the GenBank. Keywords: Agrocybe pediades, Abrothallus suecicus, Arctomia interfixa, Arthonia thoriana, Bacidina pycnidiata, Bacillariophyceae, Biatorella hemisphaerica, Boletinus asiaticus, Bryostigma muscigenum, Cantharellula umbonata, Carbonea vorticosa, Carbonicola myrmecina, Chlorophyta, Clastoderma debaryanum, Clitocella fallax, Clitocybe fragrans, Clitopilus caelatus, Clitopilus scyphoides, Collybiopsis ramealis, Collybiopsis vaillantii, Conocybe brachypodii, Conocybe semiglobata, Conocybe siennophylla, Coprinopsis atramentaria, Coppinsidea sphaerella, Cortinarius croceus, Cortinarius umbrinolens, Cortinarius uraceus, Cribraria cancellata, Cribraria stellifera, Deconica micropora, Deconica montana, Deconica phyllogena, Dermatocarpon leptophyllum, Didymium difforme, Didymium ochroideum, Didymium quitense, Didymium squamulosum, Didymocyrtis melanelixiae, Drouetiella lurida, Echinostelium minutum, Eiglera flavida, Entoloma formosum, Entoloma griseocyaneum, Entoloma poliopus, Entoloma serrulatum, Fontinalis antipyretica, Fuscidea austera, Galerina hypnorum, Gomphidius nigricans, Grimmia hartmanii, Gymnopus hariolorum, Gymnopus ocior, Gymnopilus penetrans, Hemitrichia pardina, Heppia lutosa, Hildenbrandia rivularis, Hildenbrandiaceae, Hyalosira obtusangula, Hygrocybe coccinea, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Infundibulicybe squamulosa, Inocybe asterospora, Inocybe dulcamara, Inocybe godeyi, Inocybe nitidiuscula, Inocybe sindonia, Inocybe tenebrosa, Inocybe whitei, Inoderma byssaceum, Laccaria fraterna, Lactarius glyciosmus, Lactarius pubescens, Lamproderma scintillans, Lecanora salicicola, Lecanora strobilina, Lecania dubitans, Lentinellus sublineolatus, Lepista luscina, Lepraria jackii, Licea operculata, Licea parasitica, Licea testudinacea, Lichenoconium erodens, Lichenoconium lecanorae, Mallocybe leucoblema, Mallocybe terrigena, Marasmius oreades, Meesia minor, Melanoleuca exscissa, Melanoleuca melaleuca, Melanoleuca polioleuca, Metuloidea murashkinskyi, Micarea byssacea, Micarea hedlundii, Micarea laeta, Micarea microareolata, Micarea tomentosa, Microglossum viride, Mycena citrinomarginata, Mycena stipata, Mycena viridimarginata, Myrionora albidula, Omphalina pyxidata, Neocucurbitaria salicis-albae, Neidium eriense, Paludicola turfosa, Panaeolina foenisecii, Paraphaeosphaeria viciae, Perichaena corticalis, Phlegmacium argutum, Pholiota aurivella, Pholiota spumosa, Pholiota squarrosa, Phyllotopsis nidulans, Physarum cinereum, Physarum decipiens, Playisia steerei, Pluteus plautus, Protoblastenia cyclospora, Psathyrella obtusata, Pseudosagedia borreri, Psiloboletinus lariceti, Psoroglaena dictyospora, Pyrenodesmia erodens, Rhodocollybia maculata, Rhodophyceae, Rhodophyta, Rhizocarpon subgeminatum, Russula versicolor, Sarcogyne regularis, Schistidium sibiricum, Scoliciosporum intrusum, Sidera lenis, Subulicystidium perlongisporum, Suillus grevillea, Swinscowia jamesii, Tetraspora lubrica, Thaxterogaster porphyropus, Trichonectria rubefaciens, Tubaria furfuracea, Tubaria minutalis, agaricoid basidiomycetes, aphyllophoroid fungi, crustaceous red algae, cyanolichen, cyanoprokaryota, diatoms, green algae, lichens, lichenicolous fungi, mosses, mycobiota, myxomycetes, red algae, Adjara, Altai Territory, Bolshekhekhtsirsky Nature Reserve, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Chukotka Peninsula, European Russia, Georgia, Kaliningrad Region, Khabarovsk Territory, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area — Yugra, Kivach Nature Reserve, Krasnoyarsk Territory, Leningrad Region, Lipetsk Region, Murmansk Region, Nizhny Novgorod Region, North Caucasus, Orenburg Region, Orenburg State Nature Reserve, Republic of Buryatia, Republic of Ingushetia, Republic of Karelia, Republic of North Ossetia — Alania, Republic of Tuva, Russia, Rybinsk Reservoir, Salair National Park, Siberia, South Caucasus, Taimyr Dolgano-Nenetzky District, Trans-Baikal Territory, Tver Region, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area, Urals, Yaroslavl Region.
35902Davydov E.A. & Yakovchenko L.S. (2023): Ramalina intestiniformis (Ramalinaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) new to Russia. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 57(2): L1–L6. .
The species Ramalina intestiniformis is reported for the first time for Russia from Primorye Territory. The species identity is supported by morphological examination, secondary metabolites and molecular-phylogenetic analyses of nrITS sequences. The morphological peculiarities of Far Eastern material of the species are given and discussed. The Russian locality is the northernmost. The species is known from South Korea and Japan as mostly saxicolous. In Russia, the species was collected as an epiphyte. Keywords: distribution, East Asia, Korea, new records, Primorye Territory, Russian Far East.
35901Исмаилов А.Б. [Ismailov A.B.] (2023): Эпифитная лихенобиота бука (Fagus orientalis) Предгорного Дагестана [Epiphytic lichens on Fagus orientalis in foothill Dagestan]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 57(2): L15–L27. .
[in Russian with English abstract: ] An annotatted list including 116 species of lichenized, lichenicolous and non-lichenized fungi growing on beech in foothill Dagestan is given. Among them 66 species are firstly reported for studied forests of which 31 species have not been previously known from beech in Dagestan. Species Biatora pallens, Bryobilimbia hypnorum, Lithothelium hyalosporum, Myelochroa aurulenta, Scutula circumspecta, Verrucaria breussii and genera Bryobilimbia, Lithothelium, Myelochroa are new for the East Caucasus. The record of Lithothelium hyalosporum is the second for Russia and the Caucasus. These species, and genus Eopyrenula, have not been known in Dagestan. We notice absence of most lichens which are growing in the belt of beech forest within the Caucasus. This is a result of the forest management on study area. A low proportion of foliose and fruticose lichens (36%) and cyanobiont species (5%) indicates a low precipitation and high anthropogenic disturbance of the studied habitats. Keywords: biodiversity, new records, broadleaved forest, East Caucasus, Russia.
35900Konoreva L.A. & Chesnokov S.V. (2023): Addition to the lichen biota of Prins Karls Forland (Svalbard Archipelago). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 57(2): L7–L14. .
Sixty-one species of lichens and four lichenicolous fungi (Catillaria stereocaulorum, Cercidospora stereocaulorum, Endococcus macrosporus, E. propinquus) are reported for the first time for the Prins Karls Forland as a result of the study of lichens collected in 2016. Among them, Xylographa trunciseda is reported for the first time for Arctic, Rhizocarpon cinereonigrum is new to Svalbard. Differences from closely related species and distribution in the Arctic are discussed for the species, which are rare on the Svalbard. In total, 216 species of lichens and 4 lichenicolous fungi are currently known for the Prins Karls Forland. Keywords: new records, Arctic, Norway, Prins Karls Forland.
35899 Патова Е.Н., Шадрин Д.М., Шалыгин С.С. & Новаковская И.В. [Patova E.N., Shadrin D.M., Shalygin S.S. & Novakovskaya I.V.] (2023): Stigonema lichenoides sp. nov. (Nostocales, Сyanobacteria): новый вид, выделенный из лишайника Ephebe lanata [Stigonema lichenoides sp. nov. (Nostocales, Сyanobacteria): a new species isolated from the lichen Ephebe lanata]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 57(2): A15–A31. .
[in Russian with English abstract: ] A new cyanobacterium species Stigonema lichenoides Patova, Novakovskaya, Shalygin et Shadrin, sp. nov., a photobiont of the cyanolichen Ephebe lanata, has been described. The samples were collected from rocky substrates in the mountain tundra of the Northern Urals. A detailed morphological description is given and differences between this species and related taxa of the genus Stigonema are discussed. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the studied samples was performed using 16S–23S rRNA sequences. The correlation of morphological and molecular data, as well as the comparison of the sequences obtained from the samples with data available in the NCBI database, allowed the identification of a new species of the genus Stigonema. Keywords: Cyanobacteriota, Cyanophyta, Stigonema, morphology, phylogeny, cyanobiont, Northern Urals, Russia.
35898Boublík K. (2004): Vegetace primárního nexerotermního bezlesí v Jindřišském údolí u Jindřichova Hradce. - Zprávy České botanické společnosti, 39: 421‒430. .
Vegetation of primary non-forest areas in the non-xerotherm habitats in the Jindřišské údolí valley near the town of Jindřichův Hradec (SE Bohemia) [In Czech with English abstract: ] The paper deals with primary non-forest communities of the Jindřišské údolí valley near the town of Jindřichův Hradec in SE Bohemia (Czech Republic). Eleven communities of rock fissures and terraces screes forest gaps, fringes, and springs belonging to 7 classes (Asplenietea trichomanis, Nardo-Callunetea, Galio-Urticetea, Rhamno-Prunetea, Trifolio-Geranietea sanguinei, Epilobietea angustifolii, Montio-Cardaminetea) were recognized in the area. Some of the communities are reported from the south-eastern Bohemia for the first time ( e.g. Rhodococco-Vaccinietum myrtilli, Calamagrostio arundinaceae-Vaccinietum, Ribeso alpini-Rosetum pendulinae). The position of Calamagrostio arundinaceae-Vaccinietum and communities dominated by Calamagrostis arundinacea in the phytosociological system is discussed. Keywords : Czech Republic, forest openings, fringes, plant communities, primary non-forest areas, rock fissures, rock terraces, screes, springs, south-eastem Bohemia. Few lichens from phytocoenological relevés identified by Z. Palice.
35897Boublík K. (2002): Přirozená lesní vegetace a mapa potenciální přirozené vegetace Jindřišského údolí u Jindřichova Hradce. - Sborník Jihočeského muzea v Českých Budějovicích, Přírodní vědy [Acta Musei Bohemiae meridionalis in České Budějovice - Scientiae naturales], 42: 49–76. .
The natural forest vegetation and map of potential natural vegetation of the Jindřišské údolí valley near the town of Jindřichův Hradec (south-eastem Bohemia). [In Czech] Phytosociology; saxicolous and terricolous lichens from phytocoenological relevés identified by Z. Palice and Š. Bayerová.
35896Tichý L., Chytrý M., Pokorny-Strudl M., Strudl M. & Vicherek J. (1997): Wenig bekannte Trockenrasen-Gesellschaften in den Flußtälern am Südostrand der Böhmischen Masse. - Tuexenia, 17: 223–237. .
Less known dry grassland communities in the river valleys of the south-eastern fringes of the Bohemian Massif [in German with English abstract: ] Three little known Festuco-Brometea communities are described from the valleys of the rivers Krems, Kamp, Thaya/Dyje, Rokytná, Jihlava, Oslava and Svitava (south-eastern edge of the Bohemian Massif, Austria and Czech Republic). These communities are confined partly to natural forest gaps on the south-facing upper portions of cliffs, but also partly to secondary habitats. The Inulo oculi-christi- Stipetum pulcherrimae Vicherek et Chytrý in Chytrý et Vicherek 1996 {Festucion valesiacae) is a dry grassland on basic soils, particularly on marble and Permo-Carboniferous conglomerate in warmer parts of the study area. The Genisto tinctoriae-Stipetum joannis ass. nova {Festucion valesiacae) is a dry grassland vicariating with the Inulo oculi-christi-Stipetum pulcherrimae in cooler and wetter areas. Its localities are concentrated on amphibolite, marble and limestone. The Centaureo stoebes-Allietum montani ass. nova {Alysso-Festucion pallentis) is an open dry grassland on rock ledges affected by soil erosion, confined to different (particularly basic) bedrock types. Keywords: Austria, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic, dry grassland, Festuco-Brometea. Several macrolichens from phytocoenological relevés identified by B. Gruna.
35895Thüs H. & Schüller H. (1999): Zur Bedeutung von Obstbäumen für gefährdete Flechten im nördlichen Rheinhessen. - Fauna Flora Rheinland-Pfalz, 9: 303–327. .
The importance of fruit-trees for endangered species of lichen in the northern part of Rhineland-Palatinate [in German with English abstract: ] 73 species of corticolous lichen have been found up to now in the northern part of Rhinehesse/Rhineland-Palatine is presented with totally 73 species. The lichen flora of forests differs by twelve species being restricted to the forests. Most of those are more or less common species and known to be relatively tolerant to air-pollution. The largest number of endangered lichens (Bryoria fuscescens, Melanelia subaurifera, Usnea hirta, U. subfloridana) prefers the canopies of large regulary pruned plum and cherry trees. In order to prevent the regional extinction of these lichen species in our region, there is an obvious need to protect areas with a well developed corticolous lichen flora.
35894Мучник Е.Э., Конорева Л.А., Чесноков С.В. & Черепенина Д.А. [Muchnik E.E., Konoreva L.A., Chesnokov S.V. & Cherepenina D.A.] (2022): Лихенологические находки новых и редких видов в Центральной России [Lichenological fin­dings of new and rare species in Central Russia]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskii Zhurnal], 107(11): 1106–1114.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Five lichen species: Buellia uberior, Micarea laeta, M. microareolata, Ramonia himelbrantii, Thelocarpon intermediellum are reported for the first time for the territory of Central Russia (the name implies the Central Federal District). Another six lichen species: Biatora chrysantha, Micarea byssacea, M. elachista, M. pusilla, M. soralifera, M. tomentosa, and two lichenicolous fungi: Heterocephalacria physciacearum and Lichenoconium erodens, are rarely mentioned in regional lichenological lists. Our records expand knowledge on the distribution of these species. The voucher specimens are stored in the Herbaria of the Komarov Botanical Institute RAS (LE-L), Tsitsin Main Botanical Garden RAS (MHA), and Bryansk State University (BRSU). Keywords: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, protected natural areas, Eeropean part of Russia.
35893Урбанавичене И.Н. & Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichene I.N. & Urbanavichus G.P.] (2022): Дополнение к лихенофлоре Керженского заповедника [Addition to the lichen flora of Kerzhenskiy Reserve (Nizhny Novgorod Region)]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskii Zhurnal], 107(7): 687–694. DOI: 10.31857/S0006813622070109.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] 78 species new to the lichen flora of the Kerzhenskiy Reserve are recorded based on the authors’ field research in 2020–2021. 65 species are new to the Nizhny Novgorod Region. Among them, Lecanora densa is reported for the first time for Russia; 4 species, namely Gyalecta nigricans, Micarea microareolata, Protoparmelia oleagina, and Stigmidium cerinae, are new to the Central European Russia. The information about the localities, ecology and distribution of mentioned species is provided. Keywords: Lecanora densa, lichens, new findings, distribution.
35892Исмаилов А.Б. [Ismailov A.B.] (2022): Новые находки для лихенобиоты Дагестана [New records for lichen biota of Dagestan]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskii Zhurnal], 107(9): 926–930. DOI: 10.31857/S0006813622090046.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Five species (Biatoridium monasteriense, Lepraria elobata, L. vouauxii, Muellerella hospitans, Ochrolechia parella) are reported as new to the lichen biota of Dagestan. The genus Biatoridium and species Muellerella hospitans were not previously known in the East Caucasus. Information on the distribution of each species in the Caucasus and Russia with data on localities and some comments is given. Keywords: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, floristic records, East Caucasus, Russia
35891Selva S.B., McMullin R.T., Bell-Doyon P., Henderson B. & Lay E. (2023): Calicioid lichens and fungi in North America: Species new to science, reported as new from elsewhere and placed into synonymy. - Bryologist, 126(4): 427–446.
Two resinicolous calicioid fungi, Chaenothecopsis hendersonii and C. minganensis, are described as new to science and three calicioid fungi (Chaenothecopsis formosa, Cryptocalicium blascoi and Microcalicium loraasii) and one calicioid lichen (Calicium episcalaris) are reported as new to North America. In addition, Sphaerophorus tuckermanii is reported as new to eastern North America, Mycocalicium victoriae is reported for the first time in the northwestern United States, and Chaenotheca hygrophila, C. longispora, C. selvae, Chaenothecopsis irregularis, C. perforata, Mycocalicium fuscipes, Phaeocalicium compressulum and Stenocybe major are reported with enhanced North American ranges. Finally, we provide evidence that Microcalicium conversum is a synonym of M. disseminatum and Mycocalicium calicioides is a synonym of M. ravenelii. Keywords: Lichen systematics, new calicioid species, range extensions, resinicolous.
35890Moya P., Chiva S., Catalá M., Garmendia A., Casale M., Gomez J., Pazos T., Giordani P., Calatayud V. & Barreno E. (2023): Lichen biodiversity and near-infrared metabolomic fingerprint as diagnostic and prognostic complementary tools for biomonitoring: A case study in the eastern Iberian Peninsula. - Journal of Fungi, 9(11): 1064 [21 p.].
In the 1990s, a sampling network for the biomonitoring of forests using epiphytic lichen diversity was established in the eastern Iberian Peninsula. This area registered air pollution impacts by winds from the Andorra thermal power plant, as well as from photo-oxidants and nitrogen depositions from local and long-distance transport. In 1997, an assessment of the state of lichen communities was carried out by calculating the Index of Atmospheric Purity. In addition, visible symptoms of morphological injury were recorded in nine macrolichens pre-selected by the speed of symptom evolution and their wide distribution in the territory. The thermal power plant has been closed and inactive since 2020. During 2022, almost 25 years later, seven stations of this previously established biomonitoring were revaluated. To compare the results obtained in 1997 and 2022, the same methodology was used, and data from air quality stations were included. We tested if, by integrating innovative methodologies (NIRS) into biomonitoring tools, it is possible to render an integrated response. The results displayed a general decrease in biodiversity in several of the sampling plots and a generalised increase in damage symptoms in the target lichen species studied in 1997, which seem to be the consequence of a multifactorial response. Keywords: air quality; Maestrazgo-Els Ports; epiphytic lichens; IAP (Index of Atmospheric Purity); DI (Damage Index).
35889Vega-Bello M.J., Moreno M.L., Estellés-Leal R., Hernández-Andreu J.M. & Prieto-Ruiz J.A. (2023): Usnea aurantiaco-atra (Jacq) Bory: metabolites and biological activities. - Molecules, 28(21): 7317 [17 p.] .
Background: Lichens are complex symbiotic associations between a fungus and an alga or cyanobacterium. Due to their great adaptability to the environment, they have managed to colonize many terrestrial habitats, presenting a worldwide distribution from the poles to the tropical regions and from the plains to the highest mountains. In the flora of the Antarctic region, lichens stand out due to their variety and development and are a potential source of new bioactive compounds. Methods: A phytochemical study of the Antarctic lichen Usnea aurantiaco-atra (Jacq) Bory was conducted with the intention of determining the most important metabolites. In addition, the cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of its extracts were determined. Results: Cytotoxicity studies revealed that the hexane extract contains usnic acid as a majority metabolite, in addition to linoleic acid, ergosterols and terpenes, and demonstrates cytotoxic activity against an A375 melanoma cell line. On the other hand, the presence of total phenols in the extracts did not influence their antioxidant activity. Conclusions: U. aurantiaco-atra contains mainly usnic acid, although there are terpenes and ergosta compounds that could be responsible for its cytotoxic activity. The presence of phenols did not confer antioxidant properties. Keywords: antioxidant activity; cytotoxicity; phenolic metabolites; Usnea aurantiaco-atra; usnic acid.
35888Hardman A., Russell M., Stone D., Heinlen E., Villella J. & Beck K. (2023): Calicioid presence in relation to substrate and tree age in forests of northeast Washington, U.S.A.. - Bryologist, 126(3): 367–378.
To further understand calicioid communities and their habitat and substrate requirements, we conducted a study on the Colville National Forest of northeastern Washington State, U.S.A. We hypothesized that calicioid composition would vary depending on age and type of substrate, and that species diversity would be higher on older trees and in older stands, as found by previous research. To test these hypotheses, we searched for calicioids on plots established by the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program. Because individual trees on FIA plots are tagged, we could relate recorded tree species and age to calicioid composition. We investigated calicioid species diversity in relation to host species; live, dead or burnt trees; and dominant forest type. Our analyses show that calicioid abundance and diversity do increase with tree age. Thuja plicata hosted the highest number of calicioid species in our study and also had the highest rate of occupancy with 70% of all investigated boles inhabited. In an analysis of the effect of forest type (series), we found the Thuja plicata series to host the highest number of species while the Pseudotsuga menziesii series had the lowest number of species. Only 3.4% of burnt trees sampled hosted calicioids while 43.6% of unburnt trees did, suggesting that fire does negatively impact calicioid communities. Three species, Chaenotheca obscura, Chaenothecopsis haematopus, and C. nigra and were found only on snags. Of the 17 species of shrubs sampled, only Alnus, Amelanchier, Salix, and Holodiscus hosted calicioid lichen or fungi. Species that have rarely been reported from Washington include Chaenothecopsis haematopus and C. ochroleuca.
35887Давыдов Е.А. [Davydov E.A.] (2011): Лишайники Тигирекского заповедника (аннотированный список видов) [Lichens of the Tigirek Strict Nature Reserve (an annotated check-list)]. - Труды Тигирекского заповедника [Proceedings of the Tigirek State Natural Reserve], 4: 72–89. .
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The annotated list including 350 lichen taxa from 347 species of 112 genera and 38 family, as well as 6 species of lichenicolous fungy from 6 genera and one species of saprophytic micromycet are presented. The data on substrate and ecotope as well as on distriburion within the preserved area are included. Nine species reported previously were re-identified and excluded from the lichen biota list. Key words: lichen, lichenized Ascomycota, lichen flora, Asia, Altai, strict nature reserve.
35886Sanders W.B. (2023): Is lichen symbiont mutualism a myth?. - BioScience, 73(9): 623-634.
Lichens are classic examples of symbiosis, but some biologists have questioned whether the algal partner benefits from the relationship. Among the diverse lichen symbioses, the carbon transfer systems show remarkable convergences. When a compatible fungus is encountered, the alga proactively releases large amounts of carbohydrate, suggesting active participation rather than victimhood. Some lichen-related fungus–alga symbioses appear obligatory for the algal partner. Within true lichens, algal symbionts can persist at microsites where they might not otherwise be competitive, because of improved stress tolerance, reduced photoinhibition, protection from herbivores, and the more efficient moisture management and positioning for light interception that fungal structures provide. Algal clones continually disperse from the lichen thallus by diverse means, allowing the genotype to pioneer aposymbiotic colonies from a stable refuge. Because lichen-forming fungi conserve rather than consume their algal symbionts, the mutual self-interests of both partners substantially align in the stressful microhabitats where lichens are successful.
35885Rudolph E.D. (1988): Lichens in US Introductory Botany Textbooks, 1836-1986. - BioScience, 38(6): 412-416.
35884Oksanen I. (2006): Ecological and biotechnological aspects of lichens. - Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 73(4): 723-734.
Lichens and the partners from three different kingdoms are both taxonomically and physiologically a very diverse group, which makes them interesting from both ecological and biotechnological points of view. A lichen is a mutual ecophysiological innovation in many extreme environments in which symbiosis seems to protect the partners. Lichen’s ability to grow in harsh environments can be advantageous, resulting in important ecological niches, or disadvantageous when lichens occupy and cause biodeterioration of cultural monuments. Recently, new candidate compounds for drugs, UVB protection, and antifreeze proteins for frozen foods were discovered. Lichens were also found to have potential in bioplastic degradation and prevention of desertification. Nevertheless, there is still large potential for further industrial screening and research on lichen products. Due to improved culture techniques of isolated symbionts, increased knowledge of their secondary metabolism and improved methods for solubilizing lichen metabolites, the screening and activity tests can be implemented more easily today than in the past.
35883Margulis L. & Barreno E. (2003): Looking at Lichens. - BioScience, 53(8): 776-778.[0776:LAL]2.0.CO;2.
35882Rigó A., Döme B., Dudáš M., Karikás M., Lőkös L., Pifkó D., Varga N. & Farkas E. (2023): Taxonomical and chorological notes 17 (178–183). - Studia Botanica Hungarica, 54(1): 93–104.
Floristical records of two lichen-forming fungi and four flowering plants are presented from Hungary. The rare lichen-species Gyalecta fagicola now is known from 7 localities in Hungary with 5 new records. Polyblastia philaea a terricolous lichen species is new to Hungary. The first confirmed record (Szentendre) of the annual weed Adonis annua, a new occurrence (Bodrog bank, Sárospatak) of Cyperus michelianus in the upper Tisza region, and a new locality of the alien weed Rapistrum rugosum from Szentendre (Bizottság-liget) are reported. The naturalised weed Polycarpon tetraphyllum has a stable, spreading population in Budapest with several thousands of individuals. Keywords: Orchidaceae, Hungary, lichen-forming fungi, vascular plants, Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cyperaceae, Ranunculaceae.
35881Németh C. (2023): Vezdaea cobria (Vezdaeaceae) a minute bryicolous lichenized ascomycete new to Hungary. - Studia Botanica Hungarica, 54(1): 85–91.
Vezdaea cobria, a lichenized fungus grows on living or moribund gametophyte of various bryophytes, but also on algal fi lms and soil. Because of its extremely minute size V. cobria is an infrequently collected and probably overlooked species, which has hitherto been published only from the United Kingdom, the Czech Republic, Germany, France, and Alaska (USA). In this paper its fi rst observation is reported in Hungary from the Bakony and Bükk Mts, where it was collected on steep, N-facing, nearly vertical, leached banks. Key words: epibryophytic, goniocyst, lichen-forming fungi.
35880Lindblom L., Blom H.H. & Arup U. (2023): Additions to the lichen flora of the Gaupne area – a species hot-spot in Norway. - Graphis Scripta, 35(6): 75–80.
Three lichen species, Fuscopannaria praetermissa, Lepraria borealis and Xanthomendoza fulva, are reported as additions to the biodiversity of the Gaupne area, Sogn og Fjordane, Norway. The fungal universal barcode DNA sequence (nrITS) is provided for Fuscopannaria praetermissa and Lepraria borealis. Results of preliminary molecular analyses indicate the need for a systematic revision of Lepraria borealis and other taxa in the L. neglecta group.
35879Marcinčinová M., Tuptová V., Tkáčiková Ľ., Drábová B., Haring N. & Bačkor M. (2023): An insight into variation of antioxidative and antibacterial activity of extracts from populations of the subalpine and montane lichen Cetraria islandica. - Botanica Serbica, 47(2): 291–300.
Lichens are supra-organismal symbiotic systems found in most environments. Environmental factors, such as temperature, altitude, precipitation, UV irradiation, or pathogens, significantly influence the physiology of lichens, and thus their secondary metabolism. The thalli of the same lichen species from different environments exhibit variation in the production of secondary metabolites and protective pigments. We selected two populations of the lichen Cetraria islandica from habitats differing in altitude, temperature, and precipitation. Then we compared their antioxidative and antibacterial activity. The lichen thalli were divided into two parts: the upper parts were exposed to light and the lower parts hidden from extensive radiation. The results show that the thalli from harsh alpine environments have higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging activity suggesting better tolerance to oxidative stress. On the other hand, the individuals from milder montane environments generally produce more secondary metabolites, leading to increased antibacterial activity of the extracts. The extracts of C. islandica containing fumarprotocetraric and paraconic acids exhibit inhibitory effects against gram-positive bacteria (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus) and some lower activity against gram-negative bacteria (e.g. Escherichia coli). Keywords: agar diffusion method, DPPH assay,montane zone, phenols, secondarymetabolites, subalpine zone.
35878Benaissa F., Bourfis N., Ferhoum F. & Annesi-Measano I. (2023): Biomonitoring of atmospheric PAHs and PMs using Xanthoria parietina and Cupressus sempervirens in Bouira (Algeria). - Sustainability, 15(20): 15174 [14 p.].
Air pollution constitutes a major environmental risk factor for living beings. Protection against such risk needs air pollution monitoring and control. Air pollution monitoring can be obtained in several ways. Amongst them, passive methods assessing cumulative exposure are of particular interest. A passive approach consisting of ambient concentrations biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using lichens and plants was used for assessment of ambient air pollution exposure in the industrial region of Oued El Berdi in Bouira (Algeria). Seven stations were chosen to take samples of lichen thalli of Xanthoria parietina and conifer scales and barks of Cupressus sempervirens in April 2018. The physiological parameters of the chlorophyll and the proline content were measured, and the atmospheric PAHs and particulate matter (PM) concentrations were quantified. The results show a spatial variation between the different stations and directions. The PAH concentrations accumulated in lichen range from 35 ± 3 ng/g dw to 2222 ± 376 ng/g dw and show significant differences (p = 0.017). These concentrations are higher than those found in conifer scales (18.8 ± 7 dw to 1183.5 ± 876 ng/g dw) and that found in conifer barks (7 ± 3 dw to 515.3 ± 19 ng/g dw). Significant difference between the reference stations of Tikjda and Errich and the five industrial stations of Oued El Berdi were also observed. Physiological parameters (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll ab) and proline and air pollutants accumulated (PAHs and PM) were associated. Biomonitoring allowed to show that the industrial area of Oued El Berdi was impacted by PAHs and PM, which are generated mainly by factories located there. Keywords: bioaccumulators; biomonitoring; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); PM; Xanthoria parietina; lichens; Cupressus sempervirens.
35877Halıcı M.G., Bölükbaşı E., Güllü M., Kahraman Yiğit M. & Barták M. (2023): Lendemeriella vaczii, a new lichenized fungal species from Antarctic Peninsula-with a key to the genus Lendemeriella. - Czech Polar Reports, 13(1): 1–9.
Lichens are most dominant elements of Antarctic terrestrial vegetation, however, they are still not well known. In this paper, Lendemerialla vaczii is described as a new lichen species to science from the James Ross Island and Horseshoe Island, Antarctic Peninsula, based on morphology and phylogenetic analysis. The new species is characterized by brownish cream or buff-colored areolate thallus lacking vegetative propagules, black and lecideine apothecia and very thin (up to 1 µm) septa in ascospores. Phylogenetic analysis of nrITS sequence data shows that new species clusters in the genus Lendemeriella with a high bootstrap support. The new species is compared with other Lendemeriella species and other related crustose Teloschistaceae species without anthraquinones and a comprehensive description is provided. An identification key to 10 species of Lendemeriella is also provided. Keywords: Antarctica; biodiversity; Caloplacoidae; James Ross Island; Teloschistaceae.
35876Spribille T., Fryday A.M., Hampton-Miller C.J., Ahti T., Dillman K., Thor G., Tønsberg T. & Schirokauer D. (2023): Compendium of the Lichens and Associated Fungi of Alaska. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 112: 1–522.
Publications on the lichens of Alaska go back 182 years, but a modern, comprehensive review of literature on the diversity of Alaskan lichens has been lacking. The authors present a compendium of 2126 accepted taxa fully referenced with published reports from Alaska and their exact localities. Of these 2126 taxa, 1827 are lichen fungi, 277 are lichen-associated fungi and 22 are putatively saprotrophic fungi usually treated in lichenological studies. Nearly half of all species have been first reported since 1997. A total of 1594 names are treated as synonyms or misapplications, and 140 further taxa are excluded as erroneous or doubtful.
35875Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1894): Conspectus systematicus lichenum Novae Zelandiae quem elaboravit. - Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, 2, Appendix 1: 1–114. .
35874Silva J.R., Aptroot A. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2023): Lichens from dry central Brazil: a checklist of lichenized fungi from Distríto Federal and Goiás. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 44(9): 117–133.
A checklist is presented listing the 191 lichen species currently known from the Brazilian state of Goiás, and 120 lichen species currently known from the Brazilian state of Distríto Federal. As many as 113 species are new reports to the state of Goiás, 49 are new reports from Distríto Federal and one, Chapsa perdissuta Sipman & Lücking, is new to Brazil. The new records are based on identifications of material from our own field trips in this dry Cerrado region. The area, about the size of Germany, is one of the last large regions on Earth from which no comprehensive lists of lichens were ever published. Keywords: Brazil, Cerrado, biodiversity, lichenized fungi, checklist, new records.
35873Glew K. (2023): 2023 ABLS Vagrant Lichens Field Trip Report: Vagrant Lichens and their Unique Arid Habitats July 21-23, led by Steve Leavitt, Utah and Roger Rosentreter, Idaho. - Evansia, 40(3): 110–115.
35872Colbert J.T. & Biederman L.A. (2023): Distribution and substrate frequency of Teloschistes chrysophthalmus (L.) Th. Fr. in Iowa, USA. - Evansia, 40(3): 83–90.
A total of 464 Teloschistes chrysophthalmus (L.) Th. Fr. populations were collected, along with winter twigs from their woody substrates, in 56 of Iowa’s 99 counties. This lichen is more abundant in western Iowa than in eastern Iowa and is least abundant in the northeast most portion of Iowa. T. chrysophthalmus was found on the bark of 31 distinct woody taxa, but was most frequently found on Gleditsia triacanthos. Key words: Teloschistes chrysophthalmus, Gleditsia triacanthos, Prunus americana, Morus alba, Iowa.
35871Noell N. (2023): Lichen artists and artistic lichenologists: Becoming what we attend to. - Evansia, 40(3): 96–109.
Lichen inspired art is explored through interviews with eleven artists, three of whom are scientists. Topics including conservation, lichenological contexts, and decolonialization of imagination are discussed. Key words: art, lichens, conservation, decolonization, art-science.
35870Ravera S., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Brunialti G., Di Nuzzo L., Frati L., Giordani P., Isocrono D., Nascimbene J., Vallese C. & Paoli L. (2023): Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm.: The multifaceted suitability of the lung lichen to monitor forest ecosystems. - Forests, 14(10): 2113 [23 p.] .
Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. is a tripartite, broad-lobed foliose lichen usually found on bark and on epiphytic and epilithic mosses in humid forests. Currently, the species is threatened in most European countries because of its sensitivity to environmental alterations. In this paper, a total of 107 previous studies across more than 50 years were analysed to gain insight into the multiple roles that L. pulmonaria plays in forest habitats, specifically relating to ecosystem services and as environmental bioindicator. Content analysis was employed to systematically characterise and classify the existing papers on the functions performed by L. pulmonaria into several groups mostly based on research topic and scope. Two main types of ecosystem services (N2 fixation and feeding) offered by L. pulmonaria have been identified, with varying research aims and types of parameters measured in the studies. Two aspects of current biomonitoring applications using L. pulmonaria in forest habitats (concerning atmospheric pollution and forest management) were analysed, and it was found that the number of related studies increased significantly in recent years. Finally, the current practices of monitoring using L. pulmonaria as a biological indicator are discussed, and recommendations are provided. Keywords: bioaccumulation; biodiversity; cyanolichen; ecosystem functioning; forestry practices; lichen herbivory; pollution; radioactivity; sensitive species; supporting services.
35869Lendemer J.C. (2023): Recent literature on lichens—270. - Bryologist, 126(3): 417–423.
35868Dart J., Peterson E.B. & Hollinger J. (2020): New and interesting records of lichens from California. - Bulletin of the California Lichen Society, 27(1): 14‒21. .
One lichen species is reported as new to the state of California (Calicium montanum). Two species are presented as unknown, and eight additional species are unusual or interesting for other reasons.
35867Hollinger J., Carlberg T. & Dart J. (2020): Showcasing Palicella schizochromatica in California: a widespread and underappreciated species. - Bulletin of the California Lichen Society, 27(1): 1‒5. .
Although limited to a review of only a handful of collections, we found Palicella schizochromatica in California to be consistent in morphology, anatomy and ecology with published literature and specimens from the Pacific Northwest outside of California, with the exception of one aberrant specimen with unusually small spores. In California, P. schizochromatica is broadly associated with mesic forests in mountainous areas, but its range is still imperfectly known owing to the relatively few specimens reported. The species should be sought in coniferous forests throughout the state, and particularly in coastal Northern and Southern California where records are sparse.
35866Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1893): Lichenes africani in variis territoriis germanicis recenter lecti, quos exponit. – In: Engler A. (ed.), Beiträge zur Flora von Afrika. IV . - Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie, 15: 505–510. .
35865Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1893): Revision der Steinschen Übersicht über die von Dr. Hans Meyer in Ostafrika gesammelten Flechten. - Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie, 15: 511–521. .
35864Pišút I. (1962): Doplňky k poznaniu lišajníkov Slovenska 2. Nachträge zur Kenntnis der Flechten der Slowakei 2. - Zborník Slovenského Národného Múzea / Acta Rerum Naturalium Musei Nationalis Slovaci, Bratislava, 8: 95–100. .
In den nachfolgenden Zeilen sind weitere Funde einiger interessanter oder seltener Flechten aus der Slowakei, besonders von Gebieten der Strazovská hornatina, Liptovské und Nizke Tatry (Liptauer und Niedrige Tatra) angeführt. Dr. A. Jurko, Dr. V. Peciar und prom. Biol. B. Urbánek ermöglichten mir einige ihrer Funde zu veröffentlichen; (bei Arten welche ich selbst sammelte ist der Name des Sammlers nicht ange-führt). Einige Arten haben Doz. Dr. J. Poelt (München, DBR) und Dr. J. Nadvornik (Prag) bestimmt, bzw. revidiert, wofür ich ihnen auch auf dieser Stelle meiner Dank ausspreche
35863Mlambo G., Padayachee T., Nelson D.R. & Syed K. (2023): Genome-wide analysis of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in the lichenized fungi of the class Lecanoromycetes . - Microorganisms, 11: 2590 [16 p.].
Lichens are unique organisms that exhibit a permanent symbiosis between fungi and algae or fungi and photosynthetic bacteria. Lichens have been found to produce biotechnologically valuable secondary metabolites. A handful of studies showed that tailoring enzymes such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs/P450s) play a key role in synthesizing these metabolites. Despite the critical role of P450s in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, the systematic analysis of P450s in lichens has yet to be reported. This study is aimed to address this research gap. A genome-wide analysis of P450s in five lichens from the fungal class Lecanoromycetes revealed the presence of 434 P450s that are grouped into 178 P450 families and 345 P450 subfamilies. The study indicated that none of the P450 families bloomed, and 15 P450 families were conserved in all five Lecanoromycetes. Lecanoromycetes have more P450s and higher P450 family diversity compared to Pezizomycetes. A total of 73 P450s were found to be part of secondary metabolite gene clusters, indicating their potential involvement in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Annotation of P450s revealed that CYP682BG1 and CYP682BG2 from Cladonia grayi and Pseudevernia furfuracea (physodic acid chemotype) are involved in the synthesis of grayanic acid and physodic acid, CYP65FQ2 from Stereocaulon alpinum is involved in the synthesis of atranorin, and CYP6309A2 from Cladonia uncialis is involved in the synthesis of usnic acid. This study serves as a reference for future annotation of P450s in lichens. Keywords: lichens; CYPs; P450s; genome-wide data-mining; phylogenetic analysis; Pezizomycetes; Lecanoromycetes; depside; depsidone; biosynthetic gene clusters.
35862Tyutyunnik Y., Shabatura О. & Blum О. (2023): Biogeochemical lichen-indication study of the state and dynamics of the atmospheric pollution of the arboretum of the Falz-Fein biosphere reserve "Askania nova". - Visnyk of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Geology, 2(101): 94-102.
By the method of biogeochemical lichen indication on the territory of the arboretum of the Falz-Fein Biosphere Reserve "Askania-Nova" (Kherson Region, UKRAINE) the temporal trends (2011-2021) in the concentrations of heavy metals and other micro- and macro-elements in the epiphytic lichens was estimated. The lichens samples of Parmelia sulcata, Xanthoria parietina and Evernia prunastri collected in 2011 (39 sites) and 2021 (44 sites) for the concetrations of 22 chemical elements (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, V and Zn) by the ICP-OES spectroscopy were analysed. In order to correctly compare the concetrations of elements in different species of lichens, their intercalibration to the base species P. sulcata was carried out and the calibration coefficients, the so-called biogeochemical lichen indicies (BGCHL indicies), were calculated. Based on these indicies the arithmetically averaged hypothetical concetrations of elements in lichen samples collected at the sites, where P. sulcata was absent, were calculated and corresponding databases of element concentrations for all three species were created. Factor analysis was applied to identify possible sources of the elements determined in the lichens for the period of 2011 (Fa-1 – Fa-8) – 2021 (Fb-1 – Fb-8). The eight resulting factors represent crust and anthropogenic components. Some of the factors were interpreted as being associated with the agricultural activities, microclimate, pH of atmospheric precipitation and with the higher plants factor (leaching of  еlements and their absorption by lichens). The factor structure of the chemical elements concetrations in the lichens growing on the studied area was formed under regional conditions of the accumulation of Cr, Na, Ti, as well as a decrease in the concetrations of such elements as V, Zn, Mn, Cu, Mg, K, Sr, Ba, Pb, Ni, Ca, S and Se. Moreover, Sb and Ba have spatially heterogeneous dynamics of their concetrations, and Se has very heterogeneous dynamics with a decreasing trend of the concentrations.
35861Mendili M., Jrad T.B. & Khadhri A. (2023): Lichen diversity and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in northern Tunisia: a study to evaluate environmental pollution. - Euro-Mediterranean Journal for Environmental Integration, 2023: 1–16.
This study focused on the diversity of lichens present in selected regions of northern Tunisia and assessed their resistance to atmospheric pollution. Twenty-five species of lichen were identified, divided into 13 families and 17 different genera. The results show that the Cladoniaceae and Parmeliaceae families predominate. Foliose and complex lichens are the most abundant. The main objective of this study was to examine, via atomic absorption spectrometry, the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium) in the lichens Cladonia rangiformis, Flavoparmelia caperata, Parmotrema perlatum, and Evernia prunastri, which were selected due to the presence of similar lichens at the sites. The results showed high accumulations of lead, copper, and zinc at all stations (Nefza, Babouche, Oued Zen) characterized by intense road traffic and/or industrial activity, while cadmium levels were low at all stations. Flavoparmelia caperata proved to be a species tolerant of metal stress, making it a promising candidate for air quality biomonitoring programs aimed at assessing air pollution (17.53 mg/g DW of Pb and 89.8 mg/g DW of Zn in Nefza, and 2.36 mg/g DW of Cd and 10.13 mg/g DW of Cu in Oued Zen). These results highlight the importance of lichens as biological indicators for assessing pollution, the need to carefully monitor heavy metal concentrations in urban environments, and to provide future projects with funding for their potential transplantation to polluted.
35860Lõhmus P., Degtjarenko P., Lotman S., Copoț O., Rosenvald R. & Lõhmus A. (2023): “Ready! Set! Lichen!”: a citizen-science campaign for lichens, against the odds of success. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 2023: 1–13.
Citizen science has successfully contributed lichen records to air pollution assessments and for detecting biodiversity hotspots, while its potential to survey broad lichen distributions and trends in natural ecosystems is less clear. The main issue is whether non-professional observers would be willing to visit remote areas to record inconspicuous organisms. We launched a nationwide citizen science campaign “Ready! Set! Lichen!” in Estonia (Northern Europe) that focused on collecting digital photo-based data on lichen distributions comparatively on live trees in forests versus in cut-over sites. Altogether 1101 trees were surveyed by 362 participants. Of all observations, 86% were acceptable and revealed 86 species plus 33 morphospecies as identified by experts. For a test set of selected 12 common epiphytic species, the campaign expanded their known national distributions on average 13%, independently of their conspicuousness (thallus type). Our results indicated that a mass participation approach of citizen science: (i) can provide significant data to monitoring broad-scale population trends of common forest lichens, but the contributions remained small regarding (ii) the knowledge on rare and sparsely distributed habitat specialists and (iii) ecological factors behind the distributions (due to difficulties in keeping valid sampling design). We conclude that citizen-science projects on inconspicuous highly diverse taxon groups can contribute to conservation research if these projects are specifically designed for feasible goals, and we outline six main areas of application for lichen studies.
35859Favero-Longo S.E., Worland M.R., Convey P., Lewis Smith R.I., Piervittori R., Guglielmin M. & Cannone N. (2012): Primary succession of lichen and bryophyte communities following glacial recession on Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, Maritime Antarctic. - Antarctic Science, 24(4): 323-336.
A directional primary succession with moderate species replacement was quantitatively characterized on Signy Island in zones of a glacial valley corresponding to their age since deglaciation. A continuous increase in diversity and abundance of lichens and bryophytes was observed between terrains deglaciated in the late 20th century, to areas where deglaciation followed the Little Ice Age, and others thought to be ice-free since soon after the Last Glacial Maximum. Classification (UPGMA) and ordination (principal co-ordinate analysis) of vegetation data identified three different stages of development: a) pioneer communities, which rapidly develop in a few decades, b) immature communities developing on three to four century old terrains, and c) a climax stage (Polytrichum strictum-Chorisodontium aciphyllum community) developing on the oldest terrains, but only where local-scale environmental features are more favourable. Multivariate analysis including environmental parameters (canonical correspondence analysis) indicated terrain age as being the dominant controlling factor, with other environmental factors also exhibiting significant conditional effects (duration of snow cover, surface stoniness). These findings not only quantitatively verify reports of the rapid colonization of Maritime Antarctic terrains following recent climate amelioration and associated decrease in glacial extent, but also show how local-scale environmental resistance may slow or even prevent vegetation succession from pioneer to more mature stages in future. chronosequence, climate change, deglaciation, glacier foreland, pioneer colonization, species replacement
35858Adams J.N., Escalona M., Marimuthu M.P.A., Fairbairn C.W., Beraut E., Seligmann W., Nguyen O., Chumchim N. & Stajich J.E. (2023): The reference genome assembly of the bright cobblestone lichen, Acarospora socialis. - Journal of Heredity, 2023: esad052.
Acarospora socialis, the bright cobblestone lichen, is commonly found in southwestern North America. This charismatic yellow lichen is a species of key ecological significance as it is often a pioneer species in new environments. Despite their ecological importance virtually no research has been conducted on the genomics of A. socialis. To address this, we used long-read sequencing to generate the first high-quality draft genome of A. socialis. Lichen thallus tissue was collected from Pinkham Canyon in Joshua Tree National Park, California and deposited in the UC Riverside herbarium under accession #295874. The de novo assembly of the mycobiont partner of the lichen was generated from Pacific Biosciences HiFi long reads and Dovetail Omni-C chromatin capture data. After removing algal and bacterial contigs, the fungal genome was approximately 31.2 Mb consisting of 38 scaffolds with contig and scaffold N50 of 2.4 Mb. The BUSCO completeness score of the assembled genome was 97.5% using the Ascomycota gene set. Information on the genome of A. socialis is important for California conservation purposes given that this lichen is threatened in some places locally by wildfires due to climate change. This reference genome will be used for understanding the genetic diversity, population genomics, and comparative genomics of A. socialis species. Genomic resources for this species will support population and landscape genomics investigations, exploring the use of A. socialis as a bioindicator species for climate change, and in studies of adaptation by comparing populations that occur across aridity gradients in California.
35857Wirth V. (2014): Flechten und Moose der Wutachschlucht. – In: Regierungspräsidium Freiburg und Schwarzwaldverein (eds.): Die Wutach. Wilde Wasser – steile Schluchten. - Ostfildern: Jan Thorbecke Verlag, p. 178–195. .
Zur Ökologie von Flechten und Moosen. Wir sind in unseren Breiten gewohnt, dass sich die Vegetation im Laufe der Jahreszeiten verändert. Die Laubwälder verfärben sich im Herbst und werfen ihr Laub ab, die Kräuter ziehen ein, Pilze erscheinen und vergehen. Selbst in den immergrünen Nadelwäldern erkennt der Wanderer den jahreszeitlichen Wechsel. Flechten und Moose jedoch machen diesen Wandel nicht mit. Ob sie den Boden überziehen, Felsen besiedeln oder Baumstämme manschetten-gleich umhüllen, ihr Erscheinungsbild ist winters wie sommers gleich, äußerlich unbeeinflusst vom Klimawechsel. Flechten und Moose sind die Konstanten im Vegetationsbild, wohl auch einer der Gründe dafür, dass sie den meisten Menschen kaum auffallen
35856Fiorentino J. (2017): A revised appraisal of scientific names used in the 1915 list of lichens of the Maltese islands by S. Sommier and A. Caruana Gatto . - Xjenza Online - Journal of the Malta Chamber of Scientists, 5: 137–147.
In 1915, Stefano Sommier and Alfredo Caruano Gatto published a list of lichens from the Maltese Islands. This author published an appraisal of the scientific names used in their list in 2002. The present work aims to replace the previous work given the important changes which have occurred in lichen nomenclature. Keywords: Maltese Islands, lichens, checklist, endemism.
35855Guida G., Nicosia A., Settanni L. & Ferro V. (2023): A review on effects of biological soil crusts on hydrological processes. - Earth-Science Reviews, 243: 104516 [24 p.].
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are complex consortia of microorganisms able to modify soil physical, chemical, and hydrological characteristics and influence soil erosion resistance. Given their importance, this paper analyses the current knowledge about BSCs reporting the findings of 163 papers about different BSC aspects published from 1990 to 2023. At first, a review of the BSC main detection methods (visual inspection, remote sensing, and morphological characterization) is presented as they represent valuable tools in BSC identification and mapping, revealing some issues related to the adopted classification criteria and the BSC microbial composition. Then, the literature results about their influence on soil characteristics, hydrology, and erosion processes are reported. Although their positive effects on soil characteristics (e.g., stability and fertility) and resistance to soil erosion are widely recognized, conflicting results are reported on their influence on soil hydrology. The analysis of the available literature allowed for providing indications about the choice of which microorganisms are the most suitable to form BSCs, following the required objectives (soil physic-chemical improvements, soil hydrology, erosion processes resistance, cost, and time to produce their effects). In particular, the results showed that i) the BSC effects on the soil physic-chemical characteristics improve along their successional series; ii) bacteria and cyanobacteria can be considered the most valuable BSC in limiting and degraded conditions (sediment concentration in the runoff reduced by 87% in comparison to bare soils, cost of 350 USD ha−1, and a recovery time of 5–10 years); iii) the intrinsic heterogeneity of BSCs does not allow for explaining the divergence of the literature results on soil hydrology; and iv) mosses are the best BSC anti-erosive type as they produce the most similar effects as compared to vegetation. Finally, the main steps required to obtain microbial inoculums, the effects of their application to induce BSC formation, and future prospects of research are reported. Keywords: Biocrusts; Soil hydrology; Soil erosion; Microbiological composition; Microbiological indicators; Microbiological inoculum.
35854Favero-Longo S.E., Matteucci E., Voyron S., Iacomussi P. & Ruggiero M.G. (2023): Lithobiontic recolonization following cleaning and preservative treatments on the rock engravings of Valle Camonica, Italy: A 54-months monitoring. - Science of The Total Environment, 901: 165885 [18 p.].
Both the indirect control of microclimate conditions and the direct application of preservative products to contrast stone bioreceptivity may contribute to limit lithobiontic recolonization of cultural heritage surfaces after cleaning interventions. However, the priority deserved by these different preventive approaches has still been poorly evaluated, particularly in outdoor environments. This work dealt with the engraved sandstone surfaces of the National Park of Rock Engravings of Naquane (Italy, UNESCO WHS), widely colonized by lichens, mosses and a dark cyanobacterial biofilm, and thus requiring frequent cleaning interventions to preserve their legibility for visitors and scholars. In particular, post-cleaning recolonization by the different lithobionts was seasonally monitored along 54 months in different zones of an engraved outcrop, primarily differing in levels of shading, on parcels exposed to nine different conservative treatments. These included (or not) a pre-cleaning devitalization of lithobionts and the post-cleaning application of biocidal (benzalkonium chloride, plant essential oils, usnic acid) and other restoration products (nanocrystalline anatase, polysiloxane-based water repellent, ethyl-silicate-based consolidant). The combination of surface image analyses, fluorimetric and colorimetric measurements showed that mosses and the cyanobacterial biofilm rapidly recolonized all the parcels in the more shaded zone, irrespective of conservative treatments. In the other areas, recolonization significantly differed depending on the treatment. The post-cleaning application of biocides determined the best results through two vegetative seasons, but only nanocrystalline anatase and the polysiloxane-based water repellent maintained the surfaces lighter than uncleaned controls along the whole monitoring period. Recolonization primarily proceeded by the uncleaned surfaces surrounding the parcels and, at least in the examined case of lichens, did not show substantial shifts in community composition, although some nitrophytic species increased their frequency. In conclusion, the effectiveness of preservative treatments to prevent a rapid recolonization of heritage stone surfaces appeared subordinate to the presence of microenvironmental conditions less favourable to lithobionts. Keywords: Biocides; Cyanobacterial biofilms; Lichens; Preventive conservation; Restoration products; Stone bioreceptivity.
35853Furmanek Ł. & Seaward M.R.D. (2023): Anti-yeast potential of lichen-extracted substances – An analytical review. - South African Journal of Botany, 161: 720–779.
A meta-analysis of literature data with statistical analysis concerning the effect of lichen substances on the inhibition of 10 yeast species (Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. sake, C. tropicalis, Colacogloea diffluens, Cryptococcus neoformans, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is provided. Lichen extracts were obtained using 16 solvents from 100 epiphytic, 51 epigeic and 37 epilithic lichen species. The most studied lichen taxa at the generic level belonged to the family Parmeliaceae. 67 individual secondary metabolites belonging to 12 biochemical classes were subjected to experiments. The MIC was used most frequently. Candida albicans was the most commonly tested species; other fungal species remain relatively less or very poorly tested. Against C. albicans, a stronger antifungal potential is demonstrated by extracts from numerous lichen species, including Evernia prunastri, Hypotrachyna vexans, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Ramalina pollinaria, R. polymorpha, Cladonia foliacea, C. pocillum, C. rangiformis and Umbilicaria cylindrica, which generated secondary compounds such as atranorin, α-collatolic acid, ethyl everninate, lecanoric acid, methyl 2,6-dihydroxy-4-methylbenzoate, protolichesterinic acid, retigeric acid A and B, scrobiculin and usnic acid. The potential of the extracts and secondary metabolites makes it possible to replace several commercial antibiotics in the future, in particular clotrimazole and fenticonazole. For the purpose of future experiments, this review stresses the need to standardizse research methodology, especially for the simultaneous determination of MIC and IZ and, if possible, MFC. There is a need for greater use of water as a solvent to extract lichen substances as a safe and feasible method for phytopharmaceutical and cosmetic purposes. The conclusions drawn highlight the prospective use of lichen extracts and secondary metabolites against yeast in the medical, phytopharmaceutical and cosmetic fields and as preservatives. Keywords: Antibiotics; Yeast infections; Novel drugs; Lichen extracts; Lichen secondary metabolites; Green chemistry.
35852Li Q., Wu C., He J. & Zhang B. (2023): Unraveling the microbiotas and key genetic contexts identified on stone heritage using illumina and nanopore sequencing platforms. - International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 185: 105688 [12 p.].
The application of metagenomics uncovering stone-dwelling microbiotas and its functional capabilities are of great significance for early warning of stone monuments deterioration and screening of antimicrobial agents. Here, by harnessing the combination of Nanopore and Illumina sequencing, we investigated the microbial community compositions and potential risks resulting from elemental nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) metabolism and environmental resistomes. Taxonomic profiling showed that lichenized Ascomycota and Actinobacteria dominate the microbial population in the biofilm, followed by Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Acidobacteria. Certain microbial groups and gene families were responsible for the biogeochemical N/S cycling, probably contributing to the succession and expansion of stone biodeterioration. High abundant and diverse antibacterial biocide and metal resistance genes were retrieved from assembled genome contigs, including those encoding resistance to copper (copR and copS), zinc (znuC/yebM and zraR/hydH), and quaternary ammonium compounds (gale and vcaM). Conversely, antibiotic resistance genes conferring resistance to multiple-antibiotic, aminoglycoside, and glycopeptide accounted for the relatively low percentage of total microbial metagenome. Binned genomes have further confirmed that bacterial species contained diverse antimicrobial resistance genes and mobile genetic elements, implying the possibility of horizontal gene transfer between bacterial lineages. Overall, our findings expand our knowledge of stone-dwelling microbiome and suggest appropriate treatment for stone biodeterioration. Keywords: Stone-dwelling microbiome; Metagenomic sequencing; Biogeochemical cycling; Antimicrobial resistance; Horizontal gene transfer.
35851Marshall A.J., Blanchon D.J., de Lange P.J., Wells S.J., Fryday A.M., Tang T. & Knight A. (2023): Megalaria crispisulcans, a new isidiate species of Megalaria (Ramalinaceae) from Aotearoa / New Zealand. - Perspectives in Biodiversity, 1(1): 25–42. .
Megalaria crispisulcans A.J. Marshall, Blanchon & de Lange (Ramalinaceae) is described as a new species from populations in Te Ika a Māui / North Island of Aotearoa / New Zealand, and on Rēkohu / Wharekauri / Chatham Island, Aotearoa / New Zealand. The new species is morphologically closely allied to Megalaria orokonuiana, from which it is distinguished by its nrDNA ITS sequence and morphologically by the usual presence of a white prothallus, bright green (when fresh) isidiate thallus and dark black apothecia, whose rims are usually crinkled / undulose at maturity. A phylogeny based on nrDNA ITS sequences is presented that recovers Megalaria crispisulcans as sister to M. orokonuiana. The ecology, habitats and conservation status of M. crispisulcans is provided and an update on the conservation status of M. orokonuiana provided. A revised key to the Aotearoa / New Zealand species of Megalaria is provided. Keywords: Megalaria; M. orokonuiana Fryday & A.Knight; M. crispisulcans A.J. Marshall, Blanchon & de Lange; Ramalinaceae; Aotearoa / New Zealand lichenised mycobiota.
35850Tenwolde K.J. & Wiersma Y.F. (2023): Drivers of lichen diversity and abundance on trailside benches in the City of St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. - Evansia, 40(2): 54–70.
We explored the drivers of lichen taxonomic diversity and lichen abundance on wooden trailside benches within the city of St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, to better understand lichen colonization of wooden structures. We examined three variables including the age of each bench, the distance of each bench from the nearest tree with lichens, and the distance of each bench from the nearest road. Multivariate analyses and model selection using AIC revealed that bench age and distance from the nearest tree with lichens together was best at explaining the sample data. Age of the benches was of greatest significance for predicting both lichen diversity and abundance. Understanding factors that drive the distribution and colonization of species across urbanized landscapes is important for conservation efforts and for preserving biodiversity in the future. Key words: colonization time, urban substrate, wood, microclimate, air quality, park, substrate age, source population.
35849Wierzgoń M., Ivanets V., Prekrasna‑Kviatkovska Ye., Plášek V. & Parnikoza I. (2023): Moss bank composition on Galindez Island (Argentine Islands, maritime Antarctic). - Polar Biology, 46: 1235–1249.
Tall moss turf subformation, the developed form of which is known as moss banks (MBs), play an important role in maritime Antarctic terrestrial communities. In this study, the thickness, area, species richness, correlation between these parameters, ratio of brown- and black- Polytrichum strictum, and species composition of 44 alive MBs on Galindez Island, the Argentine Islands, Graham Coast, during 2013–2022, were investigated. Furthermore, the key parameters of the largest Smith MB in Galindez were compared with measurements recorded in 1976. All the MBs tended to grow on the northern slopes. MB`s thicknesses were variated from 7 to 75 cm exhibiting a moderate correlation between thickness and area. The MB bryophyte fora included 13 moss species and four liverwort species. No correlation was observed between species richness and the area of MB; however, species richness was positively correlated with MB’s thickness. The MBs species richness was possibly dependent on their age and local micro-conditions. The abundance of some bryophytes was also correlated with MB’s thickness. A comparison of the results of this study and those obtained in 1976 revealed an increase in the ratio of brown- and black- P. strictum class, no signifcant changes in the ratio of Chorisodontium aciphyllum, and a decrease in lichen incrustation. These results showed that the ratio of P. strictum’s colour classes, C. aciphyllum, and liverworts’ abundance can be used to evaluate the condition of the MB. The fndings of this study can greatly contribute to the long-term monitoring of moss communities as indicators of global change. Keywords: Bryophytes · Diversity · Global change monitoring · Vegetation · Polytrichum strictum · Chorisodontium aciphyllum.
35848Miyazawa K. & Ohmura Y. (2023): Racoleus japonicus sp. nov. (Teratosphaeriaceae, Ascomycota), a new sterile filamentous lichen collected from Japan. - Taiwania, 68(4): 417‒424. DOI: 10.6165/tai.2023.68.417.
Racoleus japonicus is described as a new species. It is characterized by a blackish brown minutely filamentous thallus with lateral spines, vertical arrangement of hyphae with uneven and undulate to corrugated hyphal walls, and a Trentepohlia photobiont. In this genus, only R. trichophorus was known before the present study. Racoleus japonicus is distinguished from that species by having broader filaments (10–15 μm wide), larger hyphal cells (10–20 × 3–7 μm), and lateral sinuous spines. It was collected on shady rocks from northern to southern Japan at elevations between 290 and 1700 m. A molecular phylogeny based on nuSSU, nuLSU and mtSSU inferred that R. japonicus has a close relationship with unidentified fungi of Capnodiales, and that is not related to Cystocoleus and Racodium which have similar filamentous thalli. Based on the molecular phylogenetic analyses, R. japonicus is classified within Teratosphaeriaceae. Key words: Capnodiales, Cystocoleus, lichenized fungi, mtSSU, nuLSU, nuSSU, Racodium, Trentepohlia.
35847Knudsen K., Kocourková J., Hodková E., Dart J., Huereca A. & Malíček J. (2023): Three new species of Trimmatothelopsis (Acarosporales, Acarosporaceae) from southwestern North America . - MycoKeys, 99: 251–268.
The discovery and study of three new species of Trimmatothelopsis from Southwestern North America, T. californica, T. mexicana, and T. novomexicana, adds not only to the diversity of the genus and family but generated new insights into the occurrence of two ascus types in the genus and the variety of conidiogenous cells and conidia. Trimmatothelopsis now includes 15 species with a mainly Holarctic distribution (Asia, Europe, North America) and one species in Australia. A key is supplied to the genus. An overview of the genus Trimmatothelopsis is given, including differentiation from other genera of Acarosporaceae. The monotypic genus Thelocarpella is considered to be a synonym of Trimmatothelopsis. The new combination Trimmatothelopsis wirthii is proposed. The ascus type is shown to be variable in the genus with species with two types being intermixed with each other in our phylogeny. Key words: Ascus stains, California, Chihuahuan Desert, conidia, conidiogenous cells, Mexico, New Mexico, pycnidia, rare species.
35846Uhlík P. (2023): Dvě nové zajímavé lokality lišejníků v okolí Kraslic. - Arnika, 1/2023: 9–13. .
[in Czech] a popular paper with a rich photodocumentation; saxicolous and terricolous lichens; Czech Republic, Western Bohemia, Krušné hory (Erzgebirge/Ore Mountains)
35845Sipman H.J.M. & Ramírez Ordaya Á. (2023): An ITS sequence of a specimen from the probable locus classicus of Ramalina peruviana and its consequences. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 437-440.
35844Gheza G., Di Nuzzo L., Giordani P., Chiarucci A., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Canali G., Francesconi L., Vallese C. & Nascimbene J. (2023): Species–area relationship in lichens tested in protected areas across Italy. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 431-436.
The species–area relationship (SAR) states that species richness increases with the increase of the sampled area, although other factors can influence the pattern. SARs have been tested on many different organisms, but only rarely on lichens. We aimed to test the SAR, across a wide range of area sizes, for three main substratum-related guilds of lichens, namely epiphytic, epilithic and epigaeic. The test was performed using data from lichen inventories carried out in 44 protected areas of various sizes across Italy. We found a positive correlation of species richness with area size for all three guilds, better fitted by the logarithmic function for epilithic lichens and by the power function for epiphytic and epigaeic lichens. Our results support the fundamental role of area size as the main driver for lichen diversity, suggesting that in an area-based conservation framework, larger protected areas are fundamental to support high lichen species richness. However, finer scale investigations are also required to better elucidate whether and how other environmental factors could interact with area size and modify SAR patterns. Exhaustive lichen inventories could be useful information sources to more robustly test such relationships, and therefore better inform conservation practices. biodiversity, conservation, ecology, lichen inventories, species richness
35843Frati L. & Brunialti G. (2023): Natura 2000 network enhances the protection of rare epiphytic lichens: evidence from forest sites of Central Italy. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 423-429.
Although epiphytic lichens are widely adopted as environmental indicators, they are not yet included among the target species listed in Annex II of the Habitats Directive, to which the system of protected areas of the Natura 2000 network refers. In this work, we aim to test the effectiveness of this system, mainly designed for the conservation of other groups of species, in protecting lichen species richness. For this purpose, we considered a case study (Central Italy) with half of the territory included in protected areas. Statistical differences in species richness and lichen communities were tested between sites located in 16 Protected Areas (PA) and 11 Non-Protected Areas (NPA) using non-parametric tests, multi-response permutation procedures (MRPP), non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) and Indicator Species Analysis (ISA). Despite the broad overlap between epiphytic lichen communities of NPAs and PAs and a similar number of total and common species, PAs contain a significantly higher number of nationally rare and extremely rare species, including cyanolichens. These results are also confirmed by the indicator analysis. Although the Natura 2000 network does not explicitly address the conservation of lichens, the protected areas in our study can play a role in protecting the diversity of epiphytic lichens, especially nationally rare and endangered species. However, the future inclusion of red-listed epiphytic lichens among the target species of Annex II of the Habitats Directive would be welcome to better protect these organisms on a European level. Habitats Directive, protected areas, red-listed species, species conservation
35842Favero-Longo S.E., Matteucci E., Castelli D., Iacomussi P., Martire L., Ruggiero M.G. & Segimiro A. (2023): An ecological investigation on lichens and other lithobionts colonizing rock art in Valle Camonica (UNESCO WHS n. 94) addresses preventive conservation strategies. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 409-422.
Environmental control strategies are commonly practised to limit biodeterioration issues threatening indoor cultural heritage objects, while they are still poorly exploited for the conservation of outdoor stone heritage surfaces, including rock art. In this study, we evaluated the environmental factors driving the diversity and abundance of lithobiontic communities in the Rock Engravings National Park of Naquane (UNESCO WHS n. 94, Italy). The survey considered 23 rocks that had been cleaned in the last three (3YC) or twelve (12YC) years or more than 40 years ago (NRC). A cyanobacteria-dominated biofilm and lichens (37 taxa) were the most widespread and abundant lithobiontic components, prevailing on 3YC–12YC and NRC rocks, respectively. On the latter, a turnover of xerophytic and meso-hygrophytic lichen communities was observed. On 3YC–12YC rocks lichen colonization, if present, was limited to nitrophytic species, including common epiphytes from surrounding trees and a small number of meso-hygrophytic species, with a prevalence of asexual reproductive strategies. Multivariate analyses including environmental parameters (canonical correspondence analyses) indicated that tree cover and the presence of bare or vegetated ground upstream of the rocks, probably prolonging wetness and providing nutrients by water transport, are the factors mostly related to the microbial and lichen recolonization of 3YC–12YC surfaces. On this basis, an experiment on preventive conservation was conducted, consisting of a new cleaning of a strongly recolonized 3YC surface combined with the building of a small wall to protect part of the rock from prolonged water fluxes. The fluorimetric and colorimetric monitoring of the rock surface, carried out 40 months after this new cleaning intervention, displayed recolonization on the unprotected area only, indicating the potential of preventive conservation strategies in outdoor environments. biodeterioration, biofilm, cultural heritage, nitrophytic community, recolonization
35841Chinnery E.V. & Ellis C.J. (2023): Growth-dependent acclimation constrains climatic response for the lichen epiphyte Lobaria pulmonaria. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 401-408.
Species can respond to climate change by migrating to track their suitable climate space, and/or through adaptation (across generations) or acclimation (by individuals) to a changed in situ environment. Lichens provide an excellent model for studying acclimation; being poikilohydric, there is strong evidence that their phenotype presents an adaptation to different moisture regimes, and that key aspects of the phenotype, notably specific thallus mass (STM), have plasticity towards effective acclimation that maximizes water storage in drier environments. In this study we quantified acclimation of STM for Lobaria pulmonaria across a regional climatic gradient, and within sites for different microclimates, using a one-year common garden growth experiment. We found that STM tended to increase with thallus growth; however, when accounting for growth, STM shifted to be lower than average in wetter environments, higher than average in intermediate environments, and failed to respond in the driest environment where growth was compromised. The possibility of phenotypic acclimation in Lobaria pulmonaria appears to be functionally linked to the propensity for growth, and we present a scheme coupling growth with STM to define the limits of the species realized niche. climate change, common garden experiment, dry matter growth, phenotypic plasticity, specific thallus mass
35840Garrido-Benavent I., Mora-Rodríguez M.R., Chiva S., Fos S. & Barreno E. (2023): Punctelia borreri and P. subrudecta (Parmeliaceae) associate with a partially overlapping pool of Trebouxia gelatinosa lineages. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 389-399.
An increasing number of studies are describing the diversity of lichen phycobionts, which is leading to a better understanding of how lichen communities are assembled at different taxonomic, evolutionary and geographical scales. The present study explores the identity and genetic diversity of the microalgal partners of Punctelia borreri and P. subrudecta, two tropical and temperate parmelioid lichen fungi that often grow in temperate and Mediterranean forest ecosystems in Europe. Based on a specimen sampling distributed in two climatically divergent regions in the Iberian Peninsula, we found that these mycobionts are associated with Trebouxia gelatinosa, whose identity was also confirmed by an ultrastructural study of the pyrenoid. The bipartite network analysis indicated that each Punctelia species was associated with a different set of low frequency T. gelatinosa infraspecific lineages, whereas the two most abundant phycobiont lineages were shared between both mycobionts. Based on the current sampling, these two algal lineages occur exclusively in one of the two studied regions, which might point towards climate-driven, fine-tuned fungal-algal interactions. Finally, we documented visible symptoms of injury on the thalli in areas likely to have been impacted by air pollution. bioindication, bipartite network, lichen, Mediterranean region, microalgae, phylogeography, symbiosis
35839Søchting U., Sancho L.G. & Arup U. (2023): Marchantiana pyramus, M. ramulicola and Austroplaca thisbe (Teloschistaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) – three new twig lichens from southern Patagonia. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 377-387.
Three twig-growing lichen species belonging to the family Teloschistaceae from southern Patagonia are described as new to science: Marchantiana pyramus sp. nov., with minute apothecia, orange due to dominant content of emodin, M. ramulicola sp. nov., with minute olive apothecia with dominant parietin and Austroplaca thisbe sp. nov., with clear yellow apothecia also with dominant parietin. Marchantiana subpyracea, M. epibrya and M. queenslandica are new combinations for species which, so far, are known only from New Zealand and Australia. Blastenia circumpolaris is shown to be very common in Patagonia and Marchantiana asserigena is documented for the first time from the Southern Hemisphere, viz. the Falkland Islands. The genus Marchantiana is analyzed here using three genes and is shown to be closely related to Yoshimuria; although appearing as paraphyletic, a monophyletic origin cannot be ruled out. Morphology, ecology and distribution support a monophyletic treatment and Marchantiana is therefore treated as such. biogeography, Blastenia, Chile, Falkland Islands, molecular taxonomy, Tierra del Fuego, Yoshimuria
35838Sohrabi M., Leavitt S.D., Obermayer W. & Mayrhofer H. (2023): Circinaria nimisii (Megasporaceae, lichenized Ascomycota), a new manna lichen from Greece. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 367-376.
The manna lichens, a group of vagrant species with subfruticose and subfoliose thalli in the genus Circinaria Link, have received attention for millennia. Here, a new manna lichen species, Circinaria nimisii sp. nov. (Megasporaceae), is described and illustrated. This vagrant lichen is found on Mount Olympus in Greece and is the fourth known manna lichen in Europe. The new taxon is characterized by its subfruticose, densely-branched thallus with a muddy, earthy colour, whitish pseudocyphellae on tips of branches, mature apothecia distinctly adnate to stipitate, and paraplectenchymatous cortex tissue. Molecular sequence data from the standard barcoding marker (nrITS) also corroborate the distinction of this species from closely related congeners. Finally, Agrestia zerovii, previously known only from its type locality in Ukraine, is proposed as a new synonym of Circinaria hispida. Circinaria hispida, phylogeny, taxonomy, terricolous, vagrant lichens
35837Sanders W., De Carolis R., Ertz D., de los Ríos A. & Muggia L. (2023): Independent, structurally distinct transitions to microfruticose growth in the crustose genus Porina (Ostropales, Lecanoromycetes): new isidioid species from south-western Florida. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 347-365.
Porina is a widely distributed, species-rich genus of crustose, lichen-forming fungi, some with thalline outgrowths that have been recognized as isidia. We studied three taxa with thalli consisting chiefly of ascending isidioid structures occurring on trunks and branches of Taxodium in southwestern Florida, and provide details of their structure with light and electron microscopy. Two of these taxa we describe as new species: P. microcoralloides and P. nanoarbuscula. Genetic sequences (mtSSU) suggest that they are closely related to each other, yet they differ markedly in the size, morphology and anatomical organization of their isidioid branches as well as in the length of their ascospores. In the three Floridian taxa studied, the crustose portion of the thallus is partly endophloeodic and partly superficial, the latter often patchy, evanescent or inconspicuous, and completely lacks the differentiated anatomical organization characteristic of the isidioid structures arising from it. In Porina microcoralloides, the ascendant thallus consists of branched, coralloid inflated structures with phycobiont (Trentepohlia) unicells arranged at the periphery of a loose central medulla. Sparse fungal cells are interspersed and overlie the algal layer in places, but no differentiated cortex is present, leaving phycobiont cells more or less exposed at the surface. In the closely related Porina nanoarbuscula, the isidioid structures are much finer, more densely branched, and composed of a single, central file of roughly spherical Trentepohlia cells surrounded by a jacket of subglobose fungal cells. The ascospores of P. microcoralloides are more than twice the length of those of P. nanoarbuscula. Although thalli of these two Porina species occur in the same habitats and are sometimes found growing alongside each other, phylogenetic analysis of rbcL sequences suggest that they partner with distinct clades of Trentepohlia phycobionts. A third taxon examined, Porina cf. scabrida, is morphologically rather similar to P. microcoralloides, but the ascendant branches are bright yellow-orange, more cylindrical, and corticated by a thin layer of agglutinated fungal hyphae; perithecia were not seen. Analysis of mtSSU sequences places it distant from P. microcoralloides and P. nanoarbuscula phylogenetically. None of the Floridian taxa studied was particularly close to the European isidiate species Porina hibernica and P. pseudohibernica, which appeared as sister to each other in the analysis. While a particular type of isidiose structure may be reliably characteristic of specific taxa, similarities or differences in these structures do not seem to be useful indicators of phylogenetic proximity or distances among taxa. The morphological trends evident in Porina suggest that multiple transitions from crustose to isidioid or microfruticose growth have arisen repeatedly and in quite different ways within this single genus. At least some of the diverse structures treated within the broad concept of isidia may be representative of the developmental pathways by which fruticose growth forms may arise. epiphytic, isidia, lichens, mycobiont, phylogeny, Trentepohlia
35836Pérez-Ortega S., Turégano Y., Svensson M. & Zamora J.C. (2023): Nimisora (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota), a new genus for a common lecideoid epiphytic species from the central Iberian Peninsula. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 335-345.
The new genus Nimisora Pérez-Ort., M. Svenss. & J. C. Zamora is introduced to accommodate a puzzling lecideoid epiphyte common in the central Iberian Peninsula. Nimisora is characterized by the following combination of characters: lecideoid apothecia, excipulum composed of sparingly branched radiating hyphae with narrow lumina, thick walls and swollen terminal cells, the presence of a brown K+ olivaceous green pigment in the epihymenium, an ascus tip similar to the Bacidia-type, and the presence of simple ellipsoid ascospores. Molecular analyses based on nrITS, nrLSU and mtSSU sequences unequivocally place the new genus within the Lecanoraceae; however, its phylogenetic affinities with other genera of the family remain largely unresolved. Comparisons with the morphologically closest genera are provided. The single species of the genus, Nimisora iberica Pérez-Ort., Turégano, M. Svenss. & J. C. Zamora sp. nov., is also described as new to science. Ascomycota, Bacidia-type ascus, lichen systematics, Spain
35835Palice Z., Malíček J., Vondrák J. & Printzen C. (2023): A distinctive new species of Biatora (Ramalinaceae, Lecanorales) described from native European forests. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 325-334.
A unique crustose lichen species was recently documented from various types of preserved forests across boreal and temperate Europe (Norway, Ukraine, the Czech Republic) and the Caucasus (Russia). It is formally described here as the new species Biatora amylacea. A phylogeny based on ITS and mtSSU sequences demonstrates that it belongs to an isolated group within the core of Biatora s. lat., together with the recently described B. radicicola. It is a distinctive taxon within the genus on account of its amyloid exciple, otherwise known only from members of the Biatora rufidula group. The new species is also characterized by amyloid thalline hyphae and the production of soredia with a blue-green pigment. This microlichen may serve as a bioindicator species of old-growth forests. bioindicators, lichen pigments, old-growth forests, taxonomy
35834Miadlikowska J., Magain N., Medeiros I.D., Pardo-De la Hoz C.J., Carbone I., LaGreca S., Barlow T., Myllys L., Schmull M. & Lutzoni F. (2023): Towards a nomenclatural clarification of the Peltigera ponojensis/monticola clade including metagenomic sequencing of type material and the introduction of P. globulata Miadl. & Magain sp. nov. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 315-324.
Peltigera globulata Miadl. & Magain, a new species in the P. ponojensis/monticola species complex of section Peltigera, is formally described. This clade was previously given the interim designation Peltigera sp. 17. It is found in sun-exposed and xeric habitats at high altitudes in Peru and Ecuador. Peltigera globulata can be easily recognized by its irregularly globulated margins covered mostly by thick, white pruina, somewhat resembling the sorediate thallus margins of P. soredians, another South American species from section Peltigera. The hypervariable region of ITS1 (ITS1-HR), which is in general highly variable among species of section Peltigera, does not have diagnostic value for species identification within the P. ponojensis/monticola complex. Nevertheless, no significant level of gene flow was detected among eight lineages representing a clade of putative species (including P. globulata) within this complex. ITS sequences from the holotype specimens of P. monticola Vitik. (collected in 1979) and P. soredians Vitik. (collected in 1981) and lectotype specimens of P. antarctica C. W. Dodge (collected in 1941) and P. aubertii C. W. Dodge (collected in 1952) were successfully obtained through Sanger and Illumina metagenomic sequencing. BLAST results of these sequences revealed that the type specimen of P. monticola falls within the P. monticola/ponojensis 7 clade, which represents P. monticola s. str., and confirmed that the type specimen of P. aubertii falls within a clade identified previously as P. aubertii based on morphology. The ITS sequence from the type specimen of P. soredians, which superficially resembles P. globulata, confirms its placement in the P. rufescens clade. Finally, we discovered that the name P. antarctica was erroneously applied to a lineage in the P. ponojensis/monticola clade. The ITS sequence from the type specimen of P. antarctica represents a lineage within the P. rufescens clade, which is sister to the P. ponojensis/monticola clade. Andean lichens, cyanolichens, new species, species complex, taxonomy
35833Malíček J., Coppins B., Palice Z., Vančurová L., Vondrák J. & Sanderson N. (2023): Coenogonium nimisii – a new isidiate epiphytic lichen similar to Porina rosei. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 305-313.
Our floristic work in British ancient forests resulted in a description of a frequently reported but misidentified species, Coenogonium nimisii. Its thallus is very similar to Porina rosei, but the apothecia and pycnidia correspond with C. luteum. Sterile collections are not easy to distinguish but the new species differs from P. rosei in several microscopic characters of the isidia. Coenogonium nimisii is so far known from bark and epiphytic bryophytes, rarely mossy rocks, in ancient humid forests of Great Britain and Ireland. The genus Coenogonium is poorly represented by molecular data in the GenBank database. Our preliminary results revealed distinct genetic lineages within two traditionally circumscribed species, C. luteum and C. pineti, which may represent cryptic species. ancient forests, cryptic species, Great Britain, phylogeny, taxonomy, Trentepohliaceae
35832Kantvilas G. (2023): The genus Schaereria Körb. in Australia. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 297-303.
Five species of Schaereria Körb. are known to occur in Australia (including Tasmania). The new species S. australis Kantvilas is described from alpine Tasmania and New South Wales; it is characterized by a thallus lacking lichen substances, apothecia with only brown pigments, and ellipsoid, uniseriate ascospores, 10−17 × 6−9 μm. Also treated are: S. bullata Kantvilas, endemic to Tasmania; S. dolodes (Nyl. ex Hasse) Schmull & T. Sprib., first described from North America and recorded here for the first time from the Southern Hemisphere (Tasmania); the bipolar S. fuscocinerea (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux and the Australian endemic S. xerophila Rambold & H. Mayrhofer, both recorded for the first time from Tasmania. The species are illustrated and an identification key is provided. Ascomycetes, biodiversity, lichens, new species, Tasmania, taxonomy
35831Gerasimova J.V., Otte V., Urbanavichene I.N., Urbanavichus G.P. & Beck A. (2023): High diversity of Bacidia (Ramalinaceae, Lecanorales) species in the Caucasus as revealed by molecular and morphological analyses. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 275-296.
During a study of the incompletely known lichen flora of the Caucasus, we analyzed 237 specimens of corticolous Bacidia s. str. collected in the Northern and Southern Caucasus, including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Russia. Of these, 54 specimens belonging to 11 species of Bacidia s. str. were selected for molecular studies, representing the observed morphological variability of the genus. We obtained 142 sequences from three RNA-coding genes (nrITS, nrLSU, and mtSSU) and two protein-coding genes (RPB1 and RPB2). The single and concatenated datasets were complemented with Bacidia s. str. sequences from GenBank and subjected to Bayesian inference and two maximum likelihood analyses (RAxML and IQ-TREE). The resulting trees yielded highly concordant topologies of the groups and corresponded with previous results, supporting two main clades correlating with apothecia pigmentation. Our analyses are the first to reveal the presence of Bacidia heterochroa in the Caucasus. An exceptionally high degree of morphological plasticity was found in the Rubella and Suffusa groups. As a result of morphological examination and phylogenetic results, B. caucasica (Suffusa group) was described as new to science. Furthermore, two putative taxa in the Rubella group, Bacidia inconspicua ined. and B. maritima ined., were introduced. This study furthers our understanding and documentation of the understudied lichen flora of the Caucasus, bringing the total number of Bacidia species for the region to 13. Bacidia s. str., crustose lichens, new species, phylogeny, taxonomy
35830Barcenas-Peña A., Sipman H.J.M., Wirth V., Grewe F. & Lumbsch H.T. (2023): Using morphological, chemical, and molecular data to study the diversity of Xanthoparmelia species from South Africa (Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae). - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 265-273.
There is still a high diversity of lichen-forming fungi that remains undescribed, especially cryptic lineages at the species level. Integrating morphological, chemical, and DNA sequence data has proved useful in corroborating species descriptions and delimitations. Here we reviewed morphological features, secondary metabolites and the DNA sequences of ITS, mtSSU and nuLSU markers to study the diversity of Xanthoparmelia in southern Africa. A total of 37 species were recorded. Three of these appear undescribed, and we therefore describe them here as new: Xanthoparmelia nimisii, with a sorediate thallus and broad lobes, is well supported as a clade separate from X. annexa; X. pseudochalybaeizans with a white medulla is phylogenetically distinct from the otherwise similar X. chalybaeizans; and X. sipmaniana, well supported as a separate clade from the similar X. hypoprocetrarica. In addition, the separation of Xanthoparmelia capensis and X. tinctina requires further studies. cryptic species, lichens, new species, phylogeny, Southern Hemisphere, species delimitation
35829Anantaprayoon N., Hollinger J., Robison A., Kraichak E., Root H. & Leavitt S.D. (2023): Phylogenetic insight into the Lecidea atrobrunnea complex – evidence of narrow geographic endemics and the pressing need for integrative taxonomic revisions. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 253-264.
Species of lichen-forming fungi (LFF) display an array of geographical distribution patterns. Among the broadly distributed lichen-forming fungal species, the degree of reproductive isolation and genetic substructure among populations varies widely, in some cases masking unrecognized diversity or meaningful biogeographical patterns. Lecidea atrobrunnea (Raymond ex Lam. & DC.) Schaer. s. lat. (Lecideaceae) is a widespread species complex that has been studied for over two centuries since its initial description. The diversity of the L. atrobrunnea group is highest in western North America, where a dizzying array of morphologies and chemistry can occur at local scales. Here we investigate whether the assumed cosmopolitan distribution of L. atrobrunnea s. lat. is an artifact of taxonomic limitations and masks biogeographical patterns in this species complex. To address these questions, we compiled sequence data from the standard fungal barcoding marker (ITS) for over 100 specimens within this complex, in addition to genome-scale data from a subset of these representing over 1600 single-copy nuclear genes spanning over 3 Mb of the genome. Our study corroborates the perspective that the morphologically and chemically variable Lecidea atrobrunnea group reflects a complex of distinct species-level lineages, with 42–83 candidate species inferred from the ITS region and high levels of diversity inferred from a subset of specimens using genome-scale data. However, both phenotype- and molecular-based species boundaries remained unsettled, with the most common nominal taxa recovered as highly polyphyletic and with conflict among different molecular species delimitation approaches. Our study also highlights the potential for geographically restricted species, with fascinating biogeographical patterns, challenging, in part, the assumed cosmopolitan distribution of L. atrobrunnea s. lat. This study provides valuable direction for future research that will be crucial in understanding diversification and establishing a robust taxonomy for this well-known species complex. cosmopolitan, genome skimming, integrative taxonomy, lichen, secondary metabolites, species delimitation
35828Hafellner J. & Grube M. (2023): Arthonia epipolytropa and Arthonia subclemens, two new lichenicolous species on Lecanora polytropa, with a key to the microfungi known on this common species. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 241-251.
Arthonia epipolytropa Hafellner & Grube and Arthonia subclemens Hafellner, Grube & Muggia are described as new to science. Both are specific parasites of Lecanora polytropa s. lat., but of differing pathogenicity and of very different appearance. Whereas the clearly parasitic Arthonia epipolytropa with its agglomerated ascomata is presently known with certainty from a number of localities along the arch of the Alps (Austria, Italy, Switzerland), other parts of Europe (Norway, Albania) and northern America (USA), the less harmful A. subclemens with its isolated sunken ascomata is currently known only from a small number of localities in the Eastern Alps (Austria, Italy) and various mountain ranges in southern Europe (Spain, North Macedonia, Greece). The species are compared with other Arthonia species known from Lecanora or one of its recently segregated genera. A key to the fungi regularly found on Lecanora polytropa s. lat. is presented. Arthoniales, Ascomycota, fungi, host-specificity, lichens
35827Freire-Rallo S., Diederich P., Millanes A.M. & Wedin M. (2023): Five new species in the Tremella caloplacae complex. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 223-239.
Tremella caloplacae (Zahlbr.) Diederich is a species complex including at least nine different species. Here, we formally describe the new species Tremella elegantis, T. nimisiana, T. parietinae, T. pusillae and T. sorediatae. Tremella elegantis induces galls in the hymenium of Rusavskia elegans and forms 2-celled basidia, where cells rarely elongate and sometimes give the appearance of two immature, independent basidia. Tremella nimisiana has small basidiomata (less than 1 mm diam.), narrowly ellipsoid to pyriform 2-celled, occasionally clavate to subcylindrical 3-celled basidia, and grows in the hymenium of Xanthocarpia species. Tremella parietinae is characterized by the exclusive growth in the hymenium of Xanthoria parietina, the broadly fusiform to ellipsoid probasidia, and the subspherical, pyriform or ellipsoid 2(–3)-celled basidia. Tremella pusillae has ellipsoidal probasidia, 2(–3)-celled pyriform or ellipsoidal basidia that sometimes are constricted at the septum, and grows only on Calogaya pusilla. Tremella sorediatae is characterized by inducing galls on the thallus of Rusavskia sorediata and by pyriform to ellipsoid basidia that sometimes are constricted at the septum. Three species are not formally described and are left unnamed as Tremella sp. 13 on Calogaya biatorina, Tremella sp. 14 on Calogaya decipiens and Tremella sp. 15 on Polycauliona sp. Tremella caloplacae in the strict sense is re-circumscribed as a species confined to Variospora species. basidiomycetes, lichenicolous fungi, molecular phylogeny, species complex, taxonomy, Tremellales
35826Yánez-Ayabaca A., Benítez Á., Molina R.B., Naranjo D., Etayo J., Prieto M., Cevallos G., Caicedo E., Scharnagl K., McNerlin B., Swanson S., Aragón G., Fernández-Prado N., Martínez I., Burgaz A.R., González Y., Déleg J., Vega M., van den Boom P., Magain N., Nugra F., Oña T., Díaz P.J., Villalba-Alemán J., Moncada B., Hernández J., Gilbert E.E. & Bungartz F. (2023): Towards a dynamic checklist of lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi of Ecuador – using the Consortium of Lichen Herbaria to manage fungal biodiversity in a megadiverse country. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 203-222.
A checklist of Lichen-forming, Lichenicolous and Allied Fungi of Ecuador is presented with a total of 2599 species, of which 39 are reported for the first time from the country. The names of three species, Hypotrachyna montufariensis, H. subpartita and Sticta hypoglabra, previously not validly published, are validated. Pertusaria oahuensis, originally introduced by Magnusson as ‘ad interim’, is validated as Lepra oahuensis. The form Leucodermia leucomelos f. albociliata is validated. Two new combinations, Fissurina tectigera and F. timida, are made, and Physcia mobergii is introduced as a replacement name for the illegitimate P. lobulata Moberg non (Flörke) Arnold. In an initial step, the checklist was compiled by reviewing literature records of Ecuadorian lichen biota spanning from the late 19th century to the present day. Subsequently, records were added based on vouchers from 56 collections participating in the Consortium of Lichen Herbaria, a Symbiota-based biodiversity platform with particular focus on, but not exclusive to, North and South America. Symbiota provides sophisticated tools to manage biodiversity data, such as occurrence records, a taxonomic thesaurus, and checklists. The thesaurus keeps track of frequently changing names, distinguishing taxa currently accepted from ones considered synonyms. The software also provides tools to create and manage checklists, with an emphasis on selecting vouchers based on occurrence records that can be verified for identification accuracy. Advantages and limitations of creating checklists in Symbiota versus traditional ways of compiling these lists are discussed. Traditional checklists are well suited to document current knowledge as a ‘snapshot in time’. They are important baselines, frequently used by ecologists and conservation scientists as an established naming convention for citing species reported from a country. Compiling these lists, however, requires an immense effort, only to inadequately address the dynamic nature of scientific discovery. Traditional checklists are thus quickly out of date, particularly in groups with rapidly changing taxonomy, such as lichenized fungi. Especially in megadiverse countries, where new species and new occurrences continue to be discovered, traditional checklists are not easily updated; these lists necessarily fall short of efficiently managing immense data sets, and they rely primarily on secondary evidence (i.e. literature records rather than specimens). Ideally, best practices make use of dynamic database platforms such as Symbiota to assess occurrence records based both on literature citations and voucher specimens. Using modern data management tools comes with a learning curve. Systems like Symbiota are not necessarily intuitive and their functionality can still be improved, especially when handling literature records. However, online biodiversity data platforms have much potential in more efficiently managing and assessing large biodiversity data sets, particularly when investigating the lichen biota of megadiverse countries such as Ecuador. biodiversity inventories, Galapagos, new combinations, new names, new species, species lists, Symbiota
35825Munzi S., Isocrono D. & Ravera S. (2023): Can we trust iNaturalist in lichenology? Evaluating the effectiveness and reliability of artificial intelligence in lichen identification. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 193-201.
iNaturalist is a widely-utilized platform for data collection and sharing among non-professional volunteers and is widely employed in citizen science. This platform's data are also used in scientific studies for a wide range of purposes, including tracking changes in species distribution, monitoring the spread of alien-invasive species, and assessing the impacts of urbanization and land-use change on biodiversity. Lichens, due to their year-round presence on trees, soil and rocks, and their diverse shapes and colours, have captured the attention of iNaturalist users, and lichen records are widely represented on the platform. However, due to the complexity of lichen identification, the use of data collected by untrained, or poorly trained volunteers in scientific investigation poses concerns among lichenologists. To address these concerns, this study assessed the reliability of lichen identification by iNaturalist users by comparing records on the platform with identifications carried out by experts (experienced lichenologists) in three cities where citizen science projects were developed. Results of this study caution against the use of unchecked data obtained from the platform in lichenology, demonstrating substantial inconsistency between results gathered by iNaturalist users and experts. algorithm, biodiversity, citizen science, plant blindness, species identification, taxonomy
35824Lücking R., Moncada B. & Dal Forno M. (2023): PhyloKey: a novel method to rapidly and reliably identify species in complex, species-rich genera, and an opportunity for ‘non-molecular museomics’. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 181-192.
We present a novel identification tool called PhyloKey, based on the method of morphology-based, phylogenetic binning developed within the software package RAxML. This method takes a reference data set of species for which both molecular and morphological data are available, computes a molecular reference tree, maps the morphological characters on the tree, and computes weights based on their level of consistency versus homoplasy using maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP). Additional units for which only morphological data are known are then binned onto the reference tree, calculating bootstrap support values for alternative placements. This approach is modified here to work as an identification tool which uses the same character coding approach as interactive keys. However, rather than identifying individual samples through a progressive filtering process when entering or selecting characters, query samples are binned in batch mode to all possible alternative species in the tree, with each placement receiving a bootstrap support adding to 100% for all alternative placements. In addition to the fact that, after scoring a character matrix, a large number of specimens can be identified at once in short time, all possible alternative identifications are immediately apparent and can be evaluated based on their bootstrap support values. We illustrate this approach using the basidiolichen genus Cora, which was recently shown to contain hundreds of species. We also demonstrate how the PhyloKey approach can aid the restudying of herbarium samples, adding further value to these collections and contributing with large quantitative data matrices to ‘non-molecular museomics’. Our analysis showed that PhyloKey identifies species correctly with as low as 50% of the characters sampled, depending on the nature of the reference tree and the character weighting scheme. Overall, a molecular reference tree worked best, but a randomized reference tree gave more consistent results, whereas a morphological reference tree performed less well. Surprisingly, even character weighting gave the best results, followed by parsimony weighting and then maximum likelihood weighting. biodiversity, integrative taxonomy, lichens, multi-access key, RAxML
35823Kinge T.R., Jefwa J.M., Houdanon R.D., Kamalebo H.M., Abdel-Azeem A.M., Gryzenhout M., Triebel D., Weibulat T. & Rambold G. (2023): Management and publication of scientific data on traditional mycological and lichenological knowledge in Africa. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 169-179.
Africa is an important global reservoir for biological, cultural and traditional knowledge about fungi and lichens, which are used as food, medicine and in mythology, among other things. African human populations are undergoing highly significant changes and adaptation processes, which are accompanied by rapid urbanization, meeting with western civilization, high rural migration and the loss of natural ecosystems. Indigenous knowledge is being lost, including that concerning fungi and lichens. Ethnomycology and ethnolichenology provide a diversity of knowledge about beneficial and poisonous fungi and lichens, and give insights into their sociological impact on human behaviour and use. Here we present a working and publishing environment established with the Diversity Workbench software in line with national and international initiatives for FAIR guided provision of research data. The database application called ‘EthnoMycAfrica’ contains published ethnomycological and ethnolichenological information from Africa. The content is created and curated by team partners from Central, East, West, North and Southern Africa. Data entry is performed both online and offline, optionally via a mobile device. Currently, the system with the tools DiversityDescriptions and DiversityNaviKey contains a total of 1350 well-structured and freely and openly accessible data records. EthnoMycAfrica is the first database with a data schema, standard descriptors and data content created mainly by African scholars. The data can be useful for researchers, students, conservationists, policy makers, and others. It will also provide a basis for facilitating hypothesis generation and meta-analysis. Diversity Workbench, ethnolichenology, ethnomycology, traditional knowledge
35822Zedda L. (2023): The importance of a transformative biodiversity education for perceiving, appreciating and supporting lichen diversity in German urban environments. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 161-168.
Urban green spaces are indispensable for the conservation of biodiversity in Germany. In addition, the availability of green areas often provides citizens with the only opportunity to experience nature. Lichens are an important component of urban environments in terms of both species diversity, and ecosystem functions and services. However, they are rarely the subject of biodiversity education. To bolster awareness on their diversity and appreciation, a transformative biodiversity education in both the formal and informal sectors is necessary. This transformative biodiversity education should not only provide knowledge about species and habitats, but also on all dimensions of biodiversity, viz., the three levels of biodiversity, drivers of biodiversity loss, and ecosystem services. For this reason, the design of biodiversity education may be particularly challenging for educators and teachers. This paper shows how biodiversity education projects on urban lichens can be developed in accordance with the principles of transformative education, supporting nature experience, knowledge transfer (species knowledge in a broad sense and interdisciplinary aspects), participation and cooperation, as well as the use of digital media. Two best-case projects, tested in Germany, are presented as examples for the design and implementation of a transformative lichen education in urban areas. A similar approach can be easily applied in other education systems beyond national boundaries. awareness raising, cities, ecosystem services, nature conservation, sustainability
35821Tretiach M. (2023): Pier Luigi Nimis: a life for lichens. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 153-159.
There are people who leave their mark in their field. Without doubt, Pier Luigi Nimis (for the registry office, Pierluigi; for friends, Pier; for family members, Pil; for me and a few colleagues, PL) is such a person. On the threshold of retirement but no less active than ever, Pier Luigi is about to begin a new phase of his life, a life dedicated entirely to science and, in particular, to lichenology.
35820Muggia L., Martello S. & Tretiach M. (2023): A Special Issue dedicated to Professor Pier Luigi Nimis. - The Lichenologist, 55(5): 151-151.
This Special Issue is dedicated to Professor Pier Luigi Nimis on the occasion of his 70th birthday and retirement. It was our aim to publish papers addressing the three major research fields that Pier Luigi dealt with during his career: systematics and taxonomy, biomonitoring and ecology, and data resources and digitization. The papers in this Special Issue provide a vivid overview of the state of the art in the three research fields, and they reflect on Pier Luigi's outstanding contribution to lichenology. They offer a wide array of different methodologies, from the traditional approaches investigating lichen diversity and taxonomy by means of morpho-anatomical analyses, culture isolations and phylogenetic systematics, to the most modern sequencing techniques, and to the development of computer-aided tools and databases for facilitating lichen identification.
35819Mahaney W.C. (2023): Polybius: decipherer of Hannibal’s alpine route and ancient stratigrapher. - International Journal of Earth Sciences, 112: 1989–1995.
After interviewing surviving soldiers of Hannibal’s alpine invasion of Italia and sketching out the Punic Army route, Polybius, a Greek general serving as advisor to Scipio Aemilianus, retraced the Hannibalic invasion of 218 BC, in or about 150 BC. Polybius later recounted Hannibal’s route from Cartagena through the Pyrénées and Gaul (France) to the Rhône River, crossing near Arles, north to Orange, Drôme River to the Durance, diversion to the Guil River, and on to the Col de la Traversette. At ~ 3000 m asl, the Traversette provides a vantage point overlooking the Po River and the vaunted, much discussed rockfall, a ~ 250 m wide rubble mass that blocked passage of Hannibal’s elephants and horses. Soldiers could pass, but clearing a path for animals took three days to allow the army to recover in the wide valley plain below, prior to exfil onto the lower Po River plains. Polybius probably spent scant time at the rockfall but noted it was a two-stage event, older rock largely eroded, partly superposed by younger rock. This brilliant observation and assessment qualify Polybius as probably the first stratigrapher in history. His separation of rockfall lobes on lichen cover and weathering/tonal contrasts, marked a seminal event in earth science history. Keywords: Polybius · Hannibal’s alpine invasion of Italia · Landslide/rockfall identifcation · Deposit relative age identification.
35818Kłos A., Wierzba S., Świsłowski P., Cygan A., Gruss Ł., Wiatkowski M., Pulikowski K., Ziembik Z., Dołhańczuk‑Śródka A., Rajfur M., Jerz D., Piechaczek‑Wereszczyńska M., Rosik‑Dulewska C. & Wieczorek P. (2023): The significance of heterophasic ion exchange in active biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution of surface waters. - Scientific Reports, 13: 16500 [12 p.].
We have carried out studies to examine the possibility of using biosorbents: the epigeic mosses Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid.) Mitt., and the epiphytic lichens Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. in active biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution of surface waters. The dried sea algae Palmaria palmata (L.) Weber & Mohr were used as the third biosorbent. The studies were conducted in the waters of the Turawa Reservoir, a dam reservoir with a significant level of eutrophication in south-western Poland. Incremental concentrations of Mn, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb were determined in the exposed samples. It was shown that a 2-h exposure period increases the concentration of some metals in the exposed samples, even by as much as several hundred percent. High increments of nickel concentrations in the algae Palmaria palmata (mean: 0.0040 mg/g, with the initial concentration of c0
35817Voigt C., Virkkala A.-M., Gosselin G.H., Bennett K.A., Black T.A., Detto M., Chevrier-Dion C., Guggenberger G., Hashmi W., Kohl L., Kou D., Marquis C., Marsh P., Marushchak M.E., Nesic Z., Nykänen H., Saarela T., Sauheitl L., Walker B., Weiss N., Wilcox E.J. & Sonnentag O. (2023): Arctic soil methane sink increases with drier conditions and higher ecosystem respiration. - Nature Climate Change, 13: 1095–1104.
Arctic wetlands are known methane (CH4) emitters but recent studies suggest that the Arctic CH4 sink strength may be underestimated. Here we explore the capacity of well-drained Arctic soils to consume atmospheric CH4 using >40,000 hourly flux observations and spatially distributed flux measurements from 4 sites and 14 surface types. While consumption of atmospheric CH4 occurred at all sites at rates of 0.092 ± 0.011 mgCH4 m−2 h−1 (mean ± s.e.), CH4 uptake displayed distinct diel and seasonal patterns reflecting ecosystem respiration. Combining in situ flux data with laboratory investigations and a machine learning approach, we find biotic drivers to be highly important. Soil moisture outweighed temperature as an abiotic control and higher CH4 uptake was linked to increased availability of labile carbon. Our findings imply that soil drying and enhanced nutrient supply will promote CH4 uptake by Arctic soils, providing a negative feedback to global climate change.
35816del Campo E.M., Gasulla F., Hell A.F., González‑Hourcade M. & Casano L.M. (2023): Comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses provide new insights into the tolerance to cyclic dehydration in a lichen phycobiont. - Microbial Ecology , 86: 1725–1739.
Desiccation tolerance (DT) is relatively frequent in non-vascular plants and green algae. However, it is poorly understood how successive dehydration/rehydration (D/R) cycles shape their transcriptomes and proteomes. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of adjustments on both transcript and protein profiles in response to successive D/R cycles in Coccomyxa simplex (Csol), isolated from the lichen Solorina saccata. A total of 1833 transcripts and 2332 proteins were differentially abundant as a consequence of D/R; however, only 315 of these transcripts/proteins showed similar trends. Variations in both transcriptomes and proteomes along D/R cycles together with functional analyses revealed an extensive decrease in transcript and protein levels during dehydration, most of them involved in gene expression, metabolism, substance transport, signalling and folding catalysis, among other cellular functions. At the same time, a series of protective transcripts/proteins, such as those related to antioxidant defence, polyol metabolism and autophagy, was upregulated during dehydration. Overall, our results show a transient decrease in most cellular functions as a result of drying and a gradual reactivation of specific cell processes to accommodate the hydration status along successive D/R cycles. This study provides new insights into key mechanisms involved in the DT of Csol and probably other dehydration-tolerant microalgae. In addition, functionally characterising the high number of genes/proteins of unknown functions found in this study may lead to the discovery of new DT mechanisms. Keywords: Dehydration · Rehydration · Microalgae · Coccomyxa simplex · Proteome · Transcriptome.
35815Kurbatov A.A. & Sonina A.V. (2023): Growth of epilithic lichen under the conditions of South Karelia. - Biology Bulletin, 50: 850–859.
[Russina original published in Izvestiya Akademii Nauk, Seriya Biologicheskaya, 2023, No. 5, pp. 477–486] On the territory of the Kivach State Nature Reserve (Northwestern Russia, Republic of Karelia) in the supralittoral conditions of the banks of the Suna River, the growth characteristics of three epilithic lichen species, Bellemerea alpina, Lecidea lapicida, and Protoparmeliopsis muralis, were studied. Data were analyzed over an 11-year follow-up period. For each thallus studied, a growth model was created using regression analysis, which reflects the dependence of the area of the thallus on the year of measurement and makes it possible to estimate the age of the thalli. Data were obtained on the size (cm2), growth rate (cm2/year), and age (years) of thalli. For these signs, the confidence interval of the means and the confidence interval of possible values were estimated at a probability of P = 95%. Keywords: epilithic lichens, growth model, growth rate, thallus size, thallus age.
35814Yang J., Woo J.-J., Oh S.-Y., Kim W. & Hur J.-S. (2023): Fungal community inside lichen: a curious case of sparse diversity and high modularity. - Environmental Microbiome, 18: 73 [11 p.].
Background Lichens represent not only the mutualism of fungal and photosynthetic partners but also are com‑ posed of microbial consortium harboring diverse fungi known as endolichenic fungi. While endolichenic fungi are known to exert a remarkable infuence on lichen ecology through their crucial roles in nutrient cycling, bioprospect‑ ing and biodiversity, the enigmatic community structures of these fungal inhabitants remain shrouded in mystery, awaiting further exploration and discovery. To address knowledge gap, we conducted metabarcoding on two lichens using 18S gene amplifcation, Dirinara applanta and Parmotrema tinctorum, and compared their microbial communi‑ ties to those found in the pine bark to which the lichens were attached. Our hypothesis was that the endolichenic communities would exhibit distinct diversity patterns, community structures, network structures, and specialist com‑ position compared to the surrounding epiphytic community. Results Our investigation has shed light on the clear demarcation between the endolichenic and epiphytic fungal communities, as they exhibit markedly diferent characteristics that set them apart from each other. This research demonstrated that the endolichenic communities are less diverse as compared to the epiphytic communities. Through community similarity analysis, we observed that two endolichenic communities are more similar to each other in terms of community composition than with the adjacent epiphytic communities. Moreover, we unveiled a striking contrast in the network structures between the endolichenic and epiphytic communities, as the former displayed a more modular and less nested features that is evocative of a potent host-fltration mechanism. Conclusions Through our investigation, we have discovered that lichens harbor less intricate and interconnected fungal communities compared to the neighboring epiphytic environment. These observations provide valuable insights into the metagenomic architecture of lichens and ofer a tantalizing glimpse into the unique mycobiome. Keywords: Lichen, Endolichenic fungi, Community structure, Diversity, Network.
35813Asghar H.S., Fayyaz I., Iqbal M.S., Afshan N.S. & Khalid A.N. (2023): Two new records of genus Diploschistes (lichenized Ascomycota, Thelotremataceae) from Pakistan. - Biology Bulletin, 50(5): 870–875. .
In this study, a number of specimens of the genus Diploschistes were collected from different areas of Pakistan and characterized using morpho-anatomical and molecular techniques. The present work revealed that collected specimens belong to two species of genus Diploschistes i.e. Diploschistes gypsaceus and D. neutrophilus which are additions to the lichen biota of Pakistan. Complete morpho-anatomical descriptions, ecology and distribution, along with ITS-based molecular analysis are provided. Keywords: Darel, Garhi dupatta, Lichenized fungi, western South Asia.
35812Ortiz‑Rivero J., Garrido‑Benavent I., Heiðmarsson S. & de los Ríos A. (2023): Moss and liverwort covers structure soil bacterial and fungal communities differently in the Icelandic highlands. - Microbial Ecology , 86: 1893–1908.
Cryptogamic covers extend over vast polar tundra regions and their main components, e.g., bryophytes and lichens, are frequently the first visible colonizers of deglaciated areas. To understand their role in polar soil development, we analyzed how cryptogamic covers dominated by different bryophyte lineages (mosses and liverworts) influence the diversity and composition of edaphic bacterial and fungal communities as well as the abiotic attributes of underlying soils in the southern part of the Highlands of Iceland. For comparison, the same traits were examined in soils devoid of bryophyte covers. We measured an increase in soil C, N, and organic matter contents coupled with a lower pH in association with bryophyte cover establishment. However, liverwort covers showed noticeably higher C and N contents than moss covers. Significant changes in diversity and composition of bacterial and fungal communities were revealed between (a) bare and bryophyte-covered soils, (b) bryophyte covers and the underlying soils, and (c) moss and liverworts covers. These differences were more obvious for fungi than bacteria, and involved different lineages of saprotrophic and symbiotic fungi, which suggests a certain specificity of microbial taxa to particular bryophyte groups. In addition, differences observed in the spatial structure of the two bryophyte covers may be also responsible for the detected differences in microbial community diversity and composition. Altogether, our findings indicate that soil microbial communities and abiotic attributes are ultimately affected by the composition of the most conspicuous elements of cryptogamic covers in polar regions, which is of great value to predict the biotic responses of these ecosystems to future climate change. Keywords: Cryptogamic cover · Bryophyte · Iceland · Metabarcoding · Microbial ecology · Polar areas.
35811Koopaie M., Karimi H., Sohrabi M. & Norouzi H. (2023): Cytotoxic, anti‑proliferative, and apoptotic evaluation of Ramalina sinensis (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes), lichenized fungus on oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line; in‑vitro study. - BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, 23: 296 [15 p.].
Background: Scientists and medical professionals are actively striving to improve the efficacy of treatment methods for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the most frequently occurring cancer within the oral cavity, by exploring the potential of natural products. The active pharmacological compounds found in lichenized fungi have shown potential for aiding in cancer treatment. Recent research aims to evaluate the impact of the lichenized fungus Ramalina sinensis (R. sinensis) on the cell viability and apoptosis of OSCC cell lines, considering the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer capabilities of lichens. Methods: Ramalina sinensis (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes) was selected for investigation of its effects on a human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line. Acetone and methanol extracts of R. sinensis on an OSCC cell line (KB cell line, NCBI Code: C152) were investigated. Viability was assessed by MTT assay analysis, and apoptotic cells were measured using flow cytometry analysis. Scratch assay was used to assess cell migration. The chemical composition and metabolic profiling of R. sinensis were investigated. Results: The growth and multiplication of KB cells were observed to undergo a gradual but remarkable inhibition when exposed to various concentrations. Specifically, concentrations of 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL exhibited a significant suppressive effect on the proliferation of KB cells. The inhibition of cell proliferation exhibited a statistically significant difference between the extracts obtained from acetone and methanol. Flow cytometry results show an increase in apoptosis of OSCC cells by acetone extract. R. sinensis exerted a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the migration of OSCC cells. The chemical composition of R. sinensis was investigated using liquid chromatography positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC–ESI–MS/MS), and 33 compounds in the acetone and methanol extracts of R. sinensis were detected. Conclusion: The findings provide evidence supporting the beneficial effects of R. sinensis extract on inducing apoptosis in OSCC cells and exerting anti-cancer properties. Keywords: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), Cell viability, Apoptosis, Ramalina sinensis.
35810Hernández J.M., García R.A., Filippini E.R., Estrabou C., Cañas M.S. & Rodríguez J.M. (2023): Saxicolous lichen communities in three basins associated with mining activity in northwestern Argentina. - Journal of Arid Land, 15(8): 989–1005.
Mining activity affects the vegetation and soils of the ecosystems. However, the effects of mining activity on saxicolous lichen communities are less concerned. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize saxicolous lichen communities in three basins (Vis-Vis River basin, Poteros River basin, and Capillitas River basin) surrounding metalliferous mining projects of different types of operation and at different stages of exploitation. A large-scale mine (Bajo de la Alumbrera) with more than 25 a of open-pit mining located in the Vis-Vis River basin (CRV). A pre-exploitation mine (Agua Rica) located in the Poteros River basin (CRP), and a small-scale mine (Minas Capillitas) with more than 160 a of underground mining located in the Capillitas River basin (CAC). In each basin, species richness, cover, and frequency of lichen communities were measured on 40 rock outcrops. Also, explanatory variables were recorded, i.e., altitude, slope, aspect, vegetation cover, rock, and soil cover around the rocky area sampled. Richness and total cover of lichen communities were analysed using linear models, and species composition was explored using multivariate ordination analysis. Results showed that a total of 118 lichen species were identified. The species richness differed among basins and the lichen composition present in areas close to mining sites responded mainly to basins, altitude, and microsite variables. The lichen cover showed no difference among basins, but it changed under different rock and vegetation cover. It was not possible to quantify the effects of mining activity on species richness and composition. However, the low richness values found in the downstream of Minera Alumbrera could be associated with the negative impact of open-pit mining. Moreover, the effects of large-scale mining activity on lichen communities needs more investigation. Keywords: lichen community; altitude; microsite; metalliferous mining; vegetation.
35809Borah D., Mishra V., Debnath R., Ghosh K., Gogoi D., Rout J., Pandey P., Ghosh N.N. & Bhattacharjee C.R. (2023): Facile green synthesis of highly stable, water dispersible carbohydrate conjugated Ag, Au and Ag-Au biocompatible nanoparticles: Catalytic and antimicrobial activity. - Materials Today Communications, 37: 107096 [17 p.].
Highly stable carbohydrate conjugated silver, gold and bimetallic silver-gold alloy biocompatible and nearly monodisperse nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized through bio-reduction of aqueous solution of corresponding metal salt precursors mediated by aqueous extracts of a high altitude lichen, Lobaria retigera. The biomolecule accountable for the reduction, stabilization and capping of the metal nanoparticles is identified to be carbohydrates. The as-synthesized carbohydrate conjugated nanoparticles have excellent dispersibilty in water, phosphate, phosphate-buffered saline, and serum media. The resulting nanoparticles were completely stable for several months in water. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV–visible spectroscopy, TEM, EDX, FT-IR, powder XRD, DLS and CV study. Though mostly spherical in shapes, occasionally truncated triangular and rod shapes were also noted. The average particle sizes of Ag, Au and Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles as determined from TEM analysis are 14.5 nm, 11.7 nm and 16.3 nm, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry pointed to a relatively high electrode potential barrier for the synthesized nanomaterials. The prepared Ag, Au and Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles served as efficient catalysts for the degradation of hazardous pollutant dye, methyl orange (MO) with rate constat of 0.1496 min−1, 0.1049 min−1, and 0.1882 min−1. The bimetallic Ag-Au nanoparticles exhibited the most accelerated reduction with 90.6% degradation efficiency. The reduction kinetics for the reactions followed a pseudo-first order, kAu
35808Cicardi M., Bernasconi D., Martire L., Pastero L., Caneva G. & Favero-Longo S.E. (2024): Centimetric circular areas uncolonized by microbial biofilms (CUMBs) on marble surfaces and insights on a lichen-related origin. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 186: 105681 [13 p.].
This study investigated the poorly known phenomenon of Centimetric circular areas Uncolonized by Microbial Biofilms (CUMBs) which is frequently observed on natural and heritage stone surfaces displaying widespread lithobiontic colonization. In order to unveil a possible relationship with past lichen colonization, analyses were carried out on the distribution, morphometry, physical and mineralogical properties, and microscopic features of CUMBs on the marble surfaces of a balustrade in the Garden of a Savoy residence in Torino (Italy; UNESCO-WHS 823bis) and in its original quarry site in the W-Alps. Image analyses of CUMBs displayed a distributional and dimensional compatibility with lichen thalli (re-)colonizing surfaces in their vicinity. Invasive analyses on quarry materials displayed similar microscopic modifications in marble layers beneath CUMBs and lichens, associated to a higher stabilization of the calcite {01–12} form, which is favoured by the presence of organic substances. These findings support the hypothesis of a lichen origin for some CUMBs, which may derive from the modification of physical stone properties and/or a long-lasting allelopathic effect affecting surface bioreceptivity. Keywords: Allelopathy; Bioreceptivity; Calcite reprecipitation; Discolourations; Lichen secondary metabolites; Stone cultural heritage.
35807Žatková L., Milovský R., Bechtel A., Starek D., Pipík R. & Šurka J. (2023): n-Alkane and terpenoid fingerprints of modern biomass producers unveil floral changes recorded in postglacial alpine lake sediments, Tatra Mountains, Slovakia. - Organic Geochemistry, 184: 104672 [16 p.].
Highlights: • Lipid fingerprinting of modern biota helps reconstructing past environments. • Dry climate in YD recorded by Sphagnum retreat. • Pluvial episode suggested around 5,000 B.P. • Upper limit of Pinus mugo zone never passed over 1880 m.a.s.l. in Tatra Mts. • Lithophytic lichen biomass deposits with millenial delay. Sediments of two alpine lakes in Tatra Mts., Slovakia, record the environmental history of their catchments from deglaciation in Late Glacial warming up to the Subboreal period. We present a biomarker-based reconstruction of changes in the surrounding biota of two contrasting lakes – a relic lake in open fen Trojrohé pleso (TROJ) and a tarn lake Batizovské pleso (BAT). Taking advantage of young unaltered sediments, well-known source area, and main biomass producers, we used an actualistic approach and interpreted sedimentary lipid distributions using fingerprints of modern plant groups. Four chemostratigraphic units were defined in TROJ lake and five units in BAT lake, with boundaries and environmental changes roughly conforming to paleoclimatic intervals of the Holocene. The dry climate was recorded in the period 13,200 BP–11,500 BP, coincident with Younger Dryas stadial. In the sediment of TROJ lake at ca. 5,200 BP a sharp spike in the abundance of the aromatic terpenoid retene, decoupled from the trend of other abietane-type diterpenoids, may best be explained by episodic flooding due to the rise of the water table. Diploptene as a biomarker for bacterial activity is suggested to indicate the development of soil cover at the end of the B/A interstadial and its gradual increase in abundance in the Holocene most reflecting an extension of vegetated area and more complex development of soil cover. Based on the absence of conifer biomarkers in the sediments of BAT lake, the upper limit of the continuous Pinus mugo scrub never reached the altitude of 1880 m a.s.l. between 16,247 and 4,420 BP, whereas conifer canopy was permanently present around TROJ lake at 1611 m a.s.l. between 10,439 and 3,113 BP.
35806Qiu D., Bowker M.A., Xiao B., Zhao Y., Zhou X. & Li X. (2023): Mapping biocrust distribution in China's drylands under changing climate . - Science of The Total Environment, 905: 167211 [12 p.].
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are widely distributed in global drylands and have multiple significant roles in regulating dryland soil and ecosystem multifunctionality. However, maps of their distribution over large spatial scales are uncommon and sometimes unreliable, because our current remote sensing technology is unable to efficiently discriminate between biocrusts and vascular plants or even bare soil across different ecosystem and soil types. The lack of biocrust spatial data may limit our ability to detect risks to dryland function or key tipping points. Here, we indirectly mapped biocrust distribution in China's drylands using spatial prediction modeling, based on a set of occurrences of biocrusts (379 in total) and high-resolution soil and environmental data. The results showed that biocrusts currently cover 13.9 % of China's drylands (or 5.7 % of China's total area), with moss-, lichen-, and cyanobacterial-dominated biocrusts each occupying 5.7 % to 10.7 % of the region. Biocrust distribution is mainly determined by soil properties (soil type and contents of gravel and nitrogen), aridity stress, and altitude. Their most favorable habitat is arenosols with low contents of gravel and nitrogen, in climate with a drought index of 0.54 and an altitude of about 500 m. By 2050, climate change will lead to a 5.5 %–9.0 % reduction in biocrust cover. Lichen biocrusts exhibit a high vulnerability to climate change, with potential reductions of up to 19.0 % in coverage. Biocrust cover loss is primarily caused by the combined effects of the elevated temperature and increased precipitation. Our study provides the first high-resolution (250 × 250 m) map of biocrust distribution in China's drylands and offers a reliable approach for mapping regional or global biocrust colonization. We suggest incorporating biocrusts into Earth system models to identify their significant impact on global or regional-scale processes under climate change. Keywords: Biological soil crust; Spatial prediction modeling; Spatial distribution; Climate change;Dryland.
35805Medison R.G., Jiang J., Medison M.B., Tan L.-T., Kayange C.D.M., Sun Z. & Zhou Y. (2023): Evaluating the potential of Bacillus licheniformis YZCUO202005 isolated from lichens in maize growth promotion and biocontrol. - Heliyon, 9(10): e20204 [14 p.].
Lichens exist in an organismal organization of mycobiont, photobiont, and non-photoautotrophic bacteria. These organisms contribute to the growth of lichens even in poor nutrition substrates. However, studies on the isolation and application of non-photoautotrophic bacteria in plant growth and biocontrol are scanty. Therefore, a study was conducted to isolate and evaluate the potential of non-photoautotrophic bacteria from lichen tissues in maize plant growth promotion and biocontrol of plant pathogens (fungi and bacteria). Five bacterial strains were isolated and tested for their ability to produce indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA). One bacterium named YZCUO202005 produced IAA, siderophores and biofilms, solubilized phosphate and potassium and exhibited extracellular enzymes (cellulases, proteases, amylase, and β −1,3-Glucanase). Based on the 16S rRNA sequence analysis results, YZCUO202005 was identified as Bacillus licheniformis. The strain inhibited the growth of five pathogenic fungi with an inhibition percent of between 58.7% and 71.7% and two pathogenic bacteria. Under greenhouse conditions, YZCUO202005 was tested for its abilities to enhance maize seed germination, and vegetative growth. Compared with the control treatment, the strain significantly enhanced the growth of stem length (i.e. 18 ± 0.64 cm, 78 ± 0.92 cm), leaf length (i.e. 10 ± 0.36 cm, 57 ± 1.42 cm), leaf chlorophyll levels (i.e., 13 ± 0.40, 40 ± 0.43 SPAD), and root length (i.e, 9.8 ± 2.25 cm, 22.5 ± 6.59 cm). Our results demonstrated that B. licheniformis YZCUO202005 from lichens has the potential to promote plant growth and reduce fungal and bacterial pathogens’ growth. Furthermore, the results suggest that lichens are naturally rich sources of plant growth promotion and biocontrol agents that would be used in agriculture. Keywords: Bacillus licheniformis; YZCUO202005; Biological control; Growth promotion; Lichens; Maize.
35804Randriamananjara M.A., Fenton N.J. & DesRochers A. (2023): How does understory vegetation diversity and composition differ between monocultures and mixed plantations of hybrid poplar and spruce?. - Forest Ecology and Management, 549: 121434 [14 p.].
Although monocultures are important for timber production, they are often associated with lower biological diversity than mixtures. Thus, mixed plantations have been suggested as a way to enhance biodiversity because of their inherent compositional diversity. However, the effects of monocultures versus mixtures on understory diversity and composition can vary in different ecosystems. The objective of this study was to assess how monocultures and mixed plantations influence understory vegetation diversity and composition in the boreal forest region of southern Quebec. We sampled plantations established with deciduous Populus trichocarpa Torrey & A. Gray × balsamifera L. and P. maximowiczii Henry × balsamifera L. and coniferous Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Picea glauca (Moench) species planted in monocultures and in mixed plantations on abandoned farmlands and a forest site. We assessed understory vegetation diversity and composition in each canopy type (coniferous, deciduous, mixed) and in each plantation type. We evaluated bryophyte and lichen diversity and composition specifically in tree microhabitats: soil, tree bases, and tree trunks. We found that vascular plant and lichen species richness was similar in all plantation types, while bryophyte species richness was higher in spruce monocultures and in mixed plantations compared to poplar monocultures. Our results also highlight how land-use history influenced vascular plant composition as abandoned farmland sites were composed of more ruderal vascular plants, while the previously forested site was composed of species found in natural forests. In the context of reforestation and plantations, our study suggests mixing spruce with poplars to maximize understory vegetation diversity as the addition of spruce in mixed plantations promoted the establishment of terrestrial bryophytes, while poplars favored the establishment of epiphytic lichens. Keywords: Plantation; Understory vegetation; Diversity; Composition.
35803Su T.-H., Zhou C.-Y., Sun W., Jia T., Hu T., Li Z.-F., Pu X.-Y., Lu Z.-Y. & Li S. (2023): Greater differentiation in nitrogen sources is essential for co-occurring epiphytes under low-nitrogen canopy conditions. - Environmental and Experimental Botany, 215: 105509 [12 p.].
Acquiring enough nitrogen (N) to support their life processes in nutrient-poor canopies is a crucial challenge for epiphytes. When different epiphytes coexist in the same environment, they may use different strategies to acquire N. In this study, we employed stable isotope analysis to explore N acquisition and differentiation among co-occurring epiphytes in a subtropical forest in Southwest China. We found that functional group was the most important factor influencing N and 15N natural abundance (δ15N) of epiphytes, and that different epiphyte groups used different N acquisition, uptake, and utilization pathways. Our analysis of the enrichment factors suggested that biological nitrogen fixation, phorophytes, canopy soil and ground soil could participate in N acquisition of epiphyte groups to varying degrees. However, epiphytes were more affected by precipitation and other canopy N sources than soil. Our structural equation models (SEMs) further showed that the potential N sources of plants and substrates affected throughfall and stemflow, thereby influenced N acquisition and preference of N forms in epiphytes. Overall, our findings indicate that there is differentiation in N sources among co-occurring epiphytes. Keywords: Epiphyte; δ15N; Precipitation; Nitrogen source; Subtropical forest.
35802Copeland S.M., Condon L.A., Rosentreter R., Miller J.E.D. & Kahn-Abrams M. (2023): Biocrusts Indicators of Livestock Grazing Effects on Soil Stability in Sagebrush Steppe: A Case Study from a Long-Term Experiment in the Northern Great Basin. - Rangeland Ecology and Management, 91: 82–86.
Biocrusts are sensitive to changes in livestock grazing intensity in arid rangelands and may be useful indicators of ecosystem functions, particularly soil properties like soil stability, which may suggest the potential for soil erosion. We compared biocrust community composition and surface soil stability in a big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) steppe rangeland in the northwestern Great Basin in several paired sites, with or without long-term cattle grazing exclusion, and similar soils (mostly sandy loams), climate, and vegetation composition. We found that livestock grazing was associated with both lower surface soil stability and cover of several biocrust morphogroups, especially lichens, compared with sites with long-term livestock exclusion. Surface soil stability did not modify the effects of grazing on most biocrust components via interactive effects. Livestock grazing effects on total biocrust cover were partially mediated by changes in surface soil stability. Though lichens were more sensitive to grazing disturbance, our results suggest that moss (mostly Tortula ruralis in this site) might be a more readily observable indicator of grazing-related soil stability change in this area due to their relatively higher abundance compared with lichens (moss: mean, 8.5% cover, maximum, 96.1%, lichens: mean, 1.0% cover, maximum, 14.1%). These results highlight the potential for biocrust components as sensitive indicators of change in soil-related ecosystem functions in sagebrush steppe rangelands. However, further research is needed to identify relevant indicator groups across the wide range of biocrust community composition associated with site environmental characteristics, variable grazing systems, other rangeland health metrics, and other disturbance types such as wildfire. Keywords: lichen; morphogroup; moss; Tortula ruralis.
35801Bačkor M., Goga M., Ručová D., Urminská D., Bačkorová M. & Klejdus B. (2023): Allelopathic effects of three lichen secondary metabolites on cultures of aposymbiotically grown lichen photobionts and free-living alga Scenedesmus quadricauda. - South African Journal of Botany, 162: 688–693.
In the present work, we studied the influence of lichen secondary metabolites (evernic acid, orcinol, usnic acid) on selected species of algae: Trebouxia erici, photobiont of lichen Cladonia cristatella producing typical lichen secondary metabolites, Coccomyxa solorinae-saccatae, photobiont of lichen Solorina saccata which does not produce typical secondary metabolites of lichens, and free-living alga Scenedesmus quadricauda. For the determination of the cytotoxic effects of these compounds, algae were cultivated on the surface of disks composed of glass microfibers, in quantities of 0.1 mg/disk for each metabolite. After 14-days prolonged cultivation, we analysed selected physiological parameters: growth of algae, chlorophyll a fluorescence, the content of ascorbic acid, content of reduced and oxidized glutathione and contents of selected organic acids. The presence of secondary compounds typically inhibited the growth of tested algae and chlorophyll a fluorescence. In the presence of evernic acid and usnic acid, we observed a decrease of ascorbic acid, glutathione, and significant changes in the composition of organic acids. Lichen metabolites, except for their other biological and ecological roles, may act as phytotoxic substances, causing oxidative stress in photobiont cells. These metabolites may play an important role in the “controlled parasitism” of fungal partner on algal/cyanobacterial partner of symbiosis. Differences in the sensitivity of algal cells from different habitats to lichen compounds are, however, not understood sufficiently. Keywords: Allelopathy; Algae; Antioxidants; Glutathione; Lichens; Organic acids; Phenolic compounds; Secondary metabolites.
35800Ossowska E.A. (2023): Notes on sorediate Parmelia species in North America with the first records of P. asiatica and P. barrenoae. - Phytotaxa, 619(2): 152–160.
The first record of Parmelia asiatica from North America is presented. The species differs from other sorediate Parmelia taxa in having narrow, sublinear lobes with circular or semicircular, terminal or marginal soralia. New records and earlier data together suggest that P. asiatica may be a more common taxon in the Northern Hemisphere than previously reported. Additionally, the first record of P. barrenoae from Canada and the central states of the USA is presented. Notes on similar sorediate species of the genus Parmelia are provided with information about secondary chemistry checked by thin-layer chromatography methods in solvents A and C. Key words: Lecanoromycetes, lichenized Ascomycota, distribution, rare species, morphology, taxonomy.
35799Jaśkiewicz M. & Fałtynowicz W. (2023): Evernia divaricata i inne porosty rekolonizują Góry Izerskie [Evernia divaricata and other lichens are recolonizing the Jizera Mountains]. - Przyroda Sudetów, 25: 27–36. .
[in Polish with English summary: ] The article describes five new localities of Evernia divaricata, a very rare epiphytic lichen species thought to be on the brink of extinction in Poland. Information is also provided on accompanying lichen species, some equally rare, protected and threatened, e.g. of the genera Bryoria and Usnea. Tree stands in the Jizera Mts were destroyed as a result of the environmentally disastrous levels of air pollution in the 20th century, which led to the extinction of the majority of epiphytic lichens and even some epilithic ones. The article records the recent appearance of numerous epiphytic species, which is evidence of accelerating recolonization and thus of the very marked improvement in air quality.
35798Guttová A. & Lisická E. (2023): Lichenizované huby (lišajníky). - In: Kliment J. & Hegedüšová Vantarová K. (eds), Lišajníky, machorasty a cievnaté rastliny Národného parku Veľká Fatra, p. 65–112, Veda, Bratislava. .
[in Slovak with English summary]; Slovakia, Western Carpathians; chapter in book
35797Vondrák J., Svoboda S., Košnar J., Malíček J., Šoun J., Frolov I., Svensson M., Novotný P. & Palice Z. (2023): Martin7: a reference database of DNA barcodes for European epiphytic lichens and its taxonomic implications. - Preslia, 95: 311–345.
Molecular identification of organisms is now a common practice and, increasingly, species are identified from environmental samples. However, for most organisms, we still lack comprehensive reference databases of DNA barcodes to identify the sequences produced. We present a near-complete database of ITS and mtSSU barcodes, named Martin7, for accurate molecular identification of epiphytic lichens (mycobionts) of central Europe. New data were obtained by Sanger and PacBio sequencing. We obtained 907 ITS sequences from 603 species and 844 mtSSU sequences from 546 species and supplemented our dataset with sequences from other reliable sources. In total, 1,172 species are included in the database, 1,004 for the ITS barcode and 906 for mtSSU. ITS was newly sequenced for 224 species and mtSSU for 234 species. For 45 genera these are the first ITS or mtSSU (or both) barcodes ever obtained. In most cases, these barcodes distinguish species as currently circumscribed, but we detected 82 groups or pairs of species where at least one of the barcodes (mostly mtSSU) does not clearly discriminate between species. We revealed diverging genotypes, possibly representing cryptic taxa, within 37 traditionally conceived species. By sequencing phenotypically unidentifiable lichens, we detected numerous “known-unknowns” (presumed undescribed species), especially in the genera Bacidina and Micarea. Five species of sorediate crustose lichens are newly described in the genera Bacidina (two species), Chrysothrix, Japewia and Lecanora. We provide a number of taxonomic novelties, for example that Lecidea betulicola and L. coriacea are teleomorphs of Cheiromycina, and Dictyocatenulata is an anamorph of Thelenella. Keywords: fungi, ITS barcode, mtSSU, PacBio, taxonomy.
35796Castañeta G., Villagomez R., Salamanca E., Canaviri-Paz P., Bravo J.A., Vila J.L., Bárcenas-Pérez D., Cheel J., Sepúlveda B., Giménez A. & Areche C. (2023): Microwave-assisted semisynthesis and leishmanicidal activity of some phenolic constituents from lichens. - Separations, 10(10): 524 [15 p.] .
Leishmaniasis is considered one of the most untreated tropical diseases in the world. In this study, we investigated the in vitro leishmanicidal activity and cytotoxicity of various isolated lichen substances, including atranorin (1), usnic acid (2), gyrophoric acid (3), salazinic acid (4), galbinic acid (5), and parietin (6), and some semi-synthetic imine derivatives of usnic acid (7, 8, 9) and atranorin (10, 11, 12, 13). Imine condensation reactions with hydrazine and several amines were assisted by microwave heating, an efficient and eco-friendly energy source. The most interesting result was obtained for compound 2, which has high leishmanicidal activity but also high cytotoxicity. This cytotoxicity was mitigated in its derivative, 9, with better selectivity and high antileishmanic activity. This result may indicate that the usnic acid derivative (9) obtained using condensation with two cyclohexylamine groups is a promising lead compound for the discovery of new semisynthetic antiparasitic drugs. Keywords: atranorin derivatives; cytotoxicity; green chemistry; imine; leishmania; pyrazoline; usnic acid derivatives.
35795Khan M.S., Yang K., Liu Z., Zhou L., Liu W., Lin S., Wang X. & Shang C. (2023): Microorganisms involved in the biodegradation and microbiological corrosion of structural materials. - Coatings, 13(10): 1683 [14 p.] .
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is the process of material degradation in the presence of microorganisms and their biofilms. This is an environmentally assisted type of corrosion, which is highly complex and challenging to fully understand. Different metallic materials, such as steel alloys, magnesium alloys, aluminium alloys, and titanium alloys, have been reported to have adverse effects of MIC on their applications. Though many researchers have reported bacteria as the primary culprit of microbial corrosion, several other microorganisms, including fungi, algae, archaea, and lichen, have been found to cause MIC on metal and non-metal surfaces. However, less attention is given to the MIC caused by fungi, algae, archaea, and lichens. In this review paper, the effects of different microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, algae, archaea, and lichens, on the corrosion properties of engineering materials have been discussed in detail. This review aims to summarize all of the corrosive microorganisms that directly or indirectly cause the degradation of structural materials. Accusing bacteria of every MIC case without a proper investigation of the corrosion site and an in-depth study of the biofilm and secreted metabolites can create problems in understanding the real cause of the materials’ failure. To identify the real corrosion agent in any environment, it is highly important to study all kinds of microorganisms that exist in that specific environment. Keywords: microorganisms; microbial degradation; microbiologically influenced corrosion and biofilms; structural materials.
35794Capozzi F., Sorrentino M.C., Granata A., Vergara A., Alberico M., Rossi M., Spagnuolo V. & Giordano S. (2023): Optimizing moss and lichen transplants as biomonitors of airborne anthropogenic microfibers. - Biology, 12(10): 1278 [13 p.] .
Anthropogenic microfibers (mfs) are synthetic particles composed of cellulose (cotton, rayon, acetate, etc.) or petrochemical-based polymers (i.e., microplastics—MPs) that are less than 5 mm in length. The accumulation of mfs, including MPs, in the moss Hypnum cupressiforme and the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea was compared in a transplant experiment lasting 6 weeks. We also tested the effects of the bag used for transplants on the accumulation of mfs. Anthropogenic particles trapped by both biomonitors were mostly filamentous (99% mfs), and their number was overall higher in the moss (mean ± s.d. 102 ± 24) than in the lichen (mean ± s.d. 87 ± 17), at parity of sample weight. On average, mfs found in lichen were significantly longer than those found in moss bags, suggesting that lichens are less efficient at retaining smaller mfs. Exposure without the net yielded a higher mfs number accumulation in both species, indicating that “naked” transplants provide greater sensitivity. The calculation of daily fluxes evidenced a loss of mfs in the lichen, suggesting the presence of more stable bonds between moss and mfs. Raman microspectroscopy carried out on about 100 debris confirms the anthropogenic nature of mfs, of which 20% were MPs. Overall results indicate that moss is preferable to lichen in the biomonitoring of airborne mfs especially when exposed naked. Keywords: Hypnum cupressiforme; Pseudevernia furfuracea; Raman microspectroscopy; microplastics; biomonitoring.
35793Moncada B., Rincón-Murillo D. & Lücking R. (2023): Three new lobarioid lichens (lichenized Ascomycota: Peltigeraceae) from Colombia in memory of Enrique Forero. - Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, 47(184): 619–640.
We describe three new species of lobarioid Peltigeraceae from Colombia in memory of our mentor, colleague, and friend, Enrique Forero González, who recently passed away. Enrique was an outstanding Colombian scientist known for his contributions to botany, plant conservation, and the design of science policy. The three new species belong to Lobariella, Sticta, and Yoshimuriella, the country’s three most species-rich genera of lobarioid Peltigeraceae. Lobariella foreroana sp. nov., from the department of Nariño, is similar to L. reticulata in overall morphology, including the loosely attached thallus, but more delicate, with much narrower apically partly dissected lobes and methylgyrophorate as additional secondary substance. Sticta henrici sp. nov., from Tolima, is similar to S. granatensis but deviates in the distinctly pilose apothecial margins. Finally, Yoshimuriella enfogoa sp. nov., from Cundinamarca, is similar to Y. subcorrosa but differs in the continuous lower tomentum and the phylogeny. The distinctiveness of these new species is based on the diagnostic morphological features supported by molecular data of the fungal ITS barcoding marker. Keywords: Lobariella; New species; Sticta; Yoshimuriella.
35792Wilk K. (2023): New species of Tayloriellina (lichenized Ascomycota, Teloschistaceae) from Bolivia. - Phytotaxa, 616(2): 183–188.
A new species is described in the genus Tayloriellina from the Bolivian dry Inter-Andean Valleys. Tayloriellina malmeana sp. nov. is characterized by an orange-yellow to creamy/gray, areolate-subsquamulose to granulose thallus, numerous apothecia with intensive orange discs, which dominate the thallus, and the presence of scarce globose isidia, concolorous with the thallus. The new species forms a sister lineage with T. microphyllina, reflecting their geographic origins in the Americas. Both taxa are easily distinguished by morphology because T. microphyllina produces a well-developed, dark orange thallus, distinct orange soralia, and smaller ascospores. The newly described species is discussed in reference to the poorly known South American species, “Caloplaca” byrsonimae s. lat. and “C.” trabicola. Key words: Caloplaca s. lat., phylogeny, South America, taxonomy, Teloschistoideae, Villophora.
35791Andersen H.L. & Tønsberg T. (2023): (2968) Proposal to conserve the name Fuscidea against Maronea (lichenized Ascomycota). - Taxon, 72(4): 925–926.
35790Crous P., Osieck E., Shivas R., Tan Y., Bishop-Hurley S., Esteve-Raventós F., Larsson E., Luangsa-ard J.J., Pancorbo F., Balashov S., Baseia I.G., Boekhout T., Chandranayaka S., Cowan D.A., Cruz R.H.S.F., Czachura P., De la Peña-Lastra S., Dovana F., Drury B., Fell J., Flakus A., Fotedar R., Jurjević Ž., Kolecka A., Mack J., Maggs-Kölling G., Mahadevakumar S., Mateos A., Mongkolsamrit S., Noisripoom W., Plaza M., Overy D.P., Pitek M., Sandoval-Denis M., Vauras J., Wingfield M.J., Abell S.E., Ahmadpour A., Akulov A., Alavi F., Alavi Z., Altés A., Alvarado P., Anand G., Ashtekar N., Assyov B., Banc-Prandi G., Barbosa K.D., Barreto G.G., Bellanger J.M., Bezerra J.L., Bhat D.J., Bilański P., Bose T., Bozok F., Chaves J., Costa-Rezende D.H., Danteswari C., Darmostuk V., Delgado G., Denman S., Eichmeier A., Etayo J., Eyssartier G., Faulwetter S., Ganga K.G.G., Ghosta Y., Goh J., Góis J.S., Gramaje D., Granit L., Groenewald M., Gulden G., Gusmão L.F.P., Hammerbacher A., Heidarian Z., Hywel-Jones N., Jankowiak R., Kaliyaperumal M., Kaygusuz O., Kezo K., Khonsanit A., Kumar S., Kuo C.H., Laessøe T., Latha K.P.D., Loizides M., Luo S.M., Maciá-Vicente J.G., Manimohan P., Marbach P.A.S., Marinho P., Marney T.S., Marques G., Martín M.P., Miller A.N., Mondello F., Moreno G., Mufeeda K.T., Mun H.Y., Nau T., Nkomo T., Okrasińska A., Oliveira J.P.A.F., Oliveira R.L., Ortiz D.A., Pawłowska J., Pérez-De-Gregorio M.À., Podile A.R., Portugal A., Privitera N., Rajeshkumar K.C., Rauf I., Rian B., Rigueiro-Rodríguez A., Rivas-Torres G.F., Rodriguez-Flakus P., Romero-Gordillo M., Saar I., Saba M., Santos C.D., Sarma P.V.S.R.N., Siquier J.L., Sleiman S., Spetik M., Sridhar K.R., Stryjak-Bogacka M., Szczepańska K., Taşikn H., Tennakoon D.S., Thanakitpipattana D., Trovão J., Türkekul A., van Iperen A.L., van 't Hof P., Vasquez G., Visagie C.M., Wingfield B.D., Wong P.T.W., Yang W.X., Yarar M., Yarden O., Yilmaz N., Zhang N., Zhu Y.N. & Groenewald J.Z. (2023): Fungal Planet Description Sheets: 1478–1549. - Persoonia, 50: 158–310.
Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia, Aschersonia mackerrasiae on whitefly, Cladosporium corticola on bark of Melaleuca quinquenervia, Penicillium nudgee from soil under Melaleuca quinquenervia, Pseudocercospora blackwoodiae on leaf spot of Persoonia falcata, and Pseudocercospora dalyelliae on leaf spot of Senna alata. Bolivia, Aspicilia lutzoniana on fully submersed siliceous schist in high-mountain streams, and Niesslia parviseta on the lower part and apothecial discs of Erioderma barbellatum onatwig. Brazil, Cyathus bonsai on decaying wood, Geastrum albofibrosum from moist soil with leaf litter, Laetiporus pratigiensis on a trunk of a living unknown hardwood tree species, and Scytalidium synnematicum on dead twigs of unidentified plant. Bulgaria, Amanita abscondita on sandy soil in a plantation of Quercus suber. Canada, Penicillium acericola on dead bark of Acer saccharum, and Penicillium corticola on dead bark of Acer saccharum. China, Colletotrichum qingyuanense on fruit lesion of Capsicum annuum. Denmark, Helminthosphaeria leptospora on corticioid Neohypochnicium cremicolor. Ecuador (Galapagos), Phaeosphaeria scalesiae on Scalesia sp. Finland, Inocybe jacobssonii on calcareouss oils in dry forests and park habitats. France, Cortinarius rufomyrrheus on sandy soil under Pinus pinaster, and Periconia neominutissima on leaves of Poaceae. India, Coprinopsis fragilis on decaying bark of logs, Filoboletus keralensis on unidentified woody substrate, Penicillium sankaranii from soil, Physisporinus tamilnaduensis on the trunk of Azadirachta indica, and Poronia nagaraholensis on elephant dung. Iran, Neosetophoma fic on infected leaves of Ficus elastica. Israel, Cnidariophoma eilatica (incl. Cnidariophoma gen. nov.) from Stylophora pistillata. Italy, Lyophyllum obscurum on acidic soil. Namibia, Aureobasidium faidherbiae on dead leaf of Faidherbia albida, and Aureobasidium welwitschiae on dead leaves of Welwitschia mirabilis. Netherlands, Gaeumannomycella caricigena on dead culms of Carex elongata, Houtenomyces caricicola (incl. Houtenomyces gen. nov.) on culms of Carex disticha, Neodacampia ulmea (incl. Neodacampia gen. nov.) on branch of Ulmus laevis, Niesslia phragmiticola on dead standing culms of Phragmites australis, Pseudopyricularia caricicola on culms of Carex disticha, and Rhodoveronaea nieuwwulvenica on dead bamboo sticks. Norway, Arrhenia similis half-buried and moss-covered pieces of rotting wood in grass-grownpath. Pakistan, Mallocybe ahmadii on soil. Poland, Beskidomyces laricis (incl. Beskidomyces gen. nov.) from resin of Larix decidua ssp. polonica, Lapidomyces epipinicola from sooty mould community on Pinus nigra, and Leptographium granulatum from a gallery of Dendroctonus micans on Picea abies. Portugal, Geoglossum azoricum on mossy areas of laurel forest areas planted with Cryptomeria japonica, and Lunasporangiospora lusitanica from a biofilm covering a bio deteriorated limestone wall. Qatar, Alternaria halotolerans from hypersaline sea water, and Alternaria qatarensis from water sample collected from hypersaline lagoon. South Africa, Alfaria thamnochorti on culm of Thamnochortus fraternus, Knufia aloeicola on Aloe gariepensis, Muriseptatomyces restionacearum (incl.Muriseptatomyces gen. nov.) on culms of Restionaceae, Neocladosporium arctotis on nest of cases of bagworm moths(Lepidoptera, Psychidae) on Arctotis auriculata, Neodevriesia scadoxi on leaves of Scadoxus puniceus, Paraloratospora schoenoplecti on stems of Schoenoplectus lacustris, Tulasnella epidendrea from the roots of Epidendrum × obrienianum, and Xenoidriella cinnamomi (incl. Xenoidriella gen. nov.) on leaf of Cinnamomum camphora. South Korea, Lemonniera fraxinea on decaying leaves of Fraxinus sp. frompond. Spain, Atheniella lauri on the bark of fallen trees of Laurus nobilis, Halocryptovalsa endophytica from surface-sterilised, asymptomatic roots of Salicornia patula, Inocybe amygdaliolens on soil in mixed forest, Inocybe pityusarum on calcareous soil in mixed forest, Inocybe roseobulbipes on acidic soils, Neonectria borealis from roots of Vitis berlandieri × Vitis rupestris, Sympoventuria eucalyptorum on leaves of Eucalyptus sp., and Tuber conchae fromsoil. Sweden, Inocybe bidumensis on calcareous soil. Thailand, Cordyceps sandindaengensis on Lepidoptera pupa, buried in soil, Ophiocordyceps kuchinaraiensis on Coleoptera larva, buried in soil, and Samsoniella winandae on Lepidoptera pupa, buriedinsoil. Taiwan region (China), Neophaeosphaeria livistonae on dead leaf of Livistona rotundifolia. Türkiye, Melanogaster anatolicus on clay loamy soils. UK, Basingstokeomyces allii (incl. Basingstokeomyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Allium schoenoprasum. Ukraine, Xenosphaeropsis corni on recently dead stem of Cornus alba. USA, Nothotrichosporon aquaticum (incl. Nothotrichosporon gen. nov.) from water, and Periconia philadelphiana from swab of coil surface. Morphological and culture characteristics for these new taxa are supported by DNA barcodes. Keywords: ITS nrDNA barcodes; LSU; new taxa; systematics.
35789Käffer M.I., Port R.K. & Schmitt J.L. (2023): Distinct lichen community in riparian forests along an anthropogenic disturbance gradient in Southern Brazil. - Rodriguésia, 74: e01332021 [11 p.].
The riparian forest sustains an expressive richness and diversity of species and anthropogenic impacts in certain sites have caused changes in the structure of the communities. This study aimed to analyze the composition and structural parameters of the lichen community in riparian forests. The study was carried out in seven sites surrounded by different matrices: rural, urban and industrial. The lichens were mapped using the acetate method and the composition and phytosociological parameters were analyzed. A total of 208 species were identified. The riparian forest sites of the rural matrix differed from the others by the dominance of the morphological forms crustose and squamulose, as well as the predominance of species from humid and shaded environments. Phyllopsora lividocarpa, Phyllopsora parvifolia and Herpothallon minimum presented the highest importance values in the forest sites. The lichen community presented greater homogeneity in riparian forest sites of the urban-industrial matrix. Modifications in the species’ composition and structural parameters of the lichen community demonstrated a gradient of disturbances in the different matrices. Preservation actions of riparian forests are essential for the conservation of the species and landscape connectivity since they act as an important reservoir of biodiversity in sites of subtropical watersheds. Key words: Atlantic Forest; lichenized fungi; rare species; urbanization.
35788Fraga Junior C.A.V., Gumboski E.L., Feuerstein S.C., Cáceres M.E.S., Aptroot A. & Magnago A.C. (2023): Funga Capixaba: Ascomycota and lichen-forming fungi. - Rodriguésia, 74: e00692022 [6 p.].
The “Funga Capixaba” have been overlooked for a very long time, leading to a gap in the local mycological knowledge. In order to create a preliminary and updated list of Ascomycetes and lichen-forming fungi from Espírito Santo state, Brazil we reviewed all specimens deposited in the VIES Herbarium and key references of former mycological studies. In our list, we report a total of 528 species belonging to 173 genera and 65 families. 422 are new records for Espírito Santo state, six species, Mazaediothecium uniseptatum, Cratiriachloraceus, Lecanoraglaucoidea, Pyrenula montocensis, and P. oleosa, are new records both for the neotropics and Brazil, and Lobariella pseudocrenulata is also new to Brazil. We have increased the number of accepted macrofungi species names from 85 to 528, which makes the Espírito Santo state the 10th highest in terms of known fungal diversity among Brazilian states. An updated and preliminary list of macroscopic Ascomycota including lichen-forming fungi from Espírito Santo, comments, and a brief overview about the local mycology are provided. Key words: Atlantic forest, diversity, Espírito Santo, lichen, Southeast Brazil.
35787Diekmann M., Heinken T., Becker T., Dörfler I., Heinrichs S., Leuschner C., Peppler-Lisbach C., Osthaus M., Schmidt W., Strubelt I. & Wagner E.-R. (2023): Resurvey studies of terricolous bryophytes and lichens indicate a widespread nutrient enrichment in German forests. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 34: e13201 [12 p.].
Questions: Vegetation resurveys, both single studies and meta-analyses, have predominantly been based on vascular plant data while bryophytes and lichens have largely been neglected. Our study aims to fill this gap and addresses the following research questions: has the overall species richness of terricolous bryophytes and lichens in forests changed over time? Which are the winners and losers among single species and ecological species groups? Do the results give a signal of the impact of nutrient enrichment, of changes in the light regime and of climate change? Location: Deciduous and coniferous forests in Germany. Methods: We compiled 35 single resurvey data sets, including 1096 plots in total (each sampled twice). The time interval between initial surveys and resurveys ranged from 10 to 65 years. The differences between old and new plots were analysed with respect to the frequency of single species, total species richness, and the absolute and relative numbers of taxa in the species groups. Trend scores of species were related to ecological indicator values to identify the main environmental drivers behind the observed changes. Results: Total species richness did not systematically change, while pleurocarpous mosses had increased at the expense of acrocarpous mosses and, in coniferous forests, of lichens. Weak changes were generally observed in deciduous forests on base-rich soils. In coniferous forests and in deciduous forests on acid soils, species with high nitrogen demand and high shade tolerance had increased, whereas those being typical for more infertile and open forest sites had decreased. There were trends towards a larger share of taxa with a more oceanic distribution. Conclusions: The changes in the vegetation of terricolous bryophytes and lichens in the studied forests indicate nutrient enrichment and increasingly shady conditions in forests on acid soils, likely caused by nitrogen deposition and shrub layer closure. Keywords: acrocarpous mosses, bryophytes, Ellenberg indicator values, lichens, liverworts, nitrogen deposition, pleurocarpous mosses, shrub layer, species trend scores, tree layer.
35786Buyens I.P.R., Raath-Krüger M.J., Haddad W.A. & le Roux P.C. (2023): Fine-scale variation in the effect of the cushion plant Azorella selago on vascular plants, mosses, hepatics and lichens in the sub-Antarctic . - Journal of Vegetation Science, 34: e13200 [16 p.].
Question: Plant–plant interactions can strongly influence community structure and composition. The outcome of these interactions can vary considerably across space and is often linked to environmental conditions, with, for example, a higher prevalence of facilitative interactions typically being observed under greater environmental severity. To date, most studies have documented shifts from competitive to facilitative (or neutral) plant–plant and plant–lichen interactions along gradients of increasing environmental severity from pairwise interspecific interactions. However, few studies have examined if the outcome of these interactions for different taxonomic groups is dependent on environmental conditions across multiple environmental stress gradients. Location: Sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Methods: We examine community-level variation in the response of four taxa (i.e., vascular plants, hepatics, mosses, and lichens) to an interaction with a long-lived cushion plant species (Azorella selago) that ameliorates microenvironmental conditions, testing how the effect of the cushion plant on the taxa varies along multiple stress gradients at the scale of a landform. Results: Contrary to expectations, even when considering multiple proximate predictor variables, fine-scale spatial variation in the effect of A. selago on the taxa could not be explained. However, the outcome of the interaction with A. selago differed between taxonomic groups, with vascular plants benefitting and the non-vascular taxa experiencing neutral or negative impacts. Conclusions: This study highlights that the impacts of biotic interactions cannot always be generalized across plant groups, and that it is necessary to consider taxonspecific responses when predicting community-level impacts of biotic interactions. More generally, we demonstrate how complex spatial variation in environmental stressors can be explicitly considered when modelling variation in the outcome of plant–plant interactions. Keywords: cushion plant, facilitation, fine-scale variation, plant–lichen communities, plant–lichen interactions, plant–plant interactions, proximal variables, stress gradient, sub-Antarctic.
35785Zulfiqar R., Asghar H.S. & Khalid A.N. (2023): New species of genus Oxneriaria S.Y.Kondr. & Lőkös (lichenized Ascomycota, Megasporaceae) from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 44(8): 109–116.
Oxneriaria immersa H.S.Asghar, R.Zulfiqar & Khalid, sp. nov. and O. insignis R.Zulfiqar & Khalid, sp. nov. (Megasporaceae) are described here as new to science, both characterized by their elongating/spreading marginal areoles. The distinguishing features of O. immersa H.S.Asghar, R.Zulfiqar & Khalid, sp. nov. are poriform-aspicilioid apothecial discs, a smaller hymenium and hypothecium (90-100 and 50-70 µm, respectively) and larger ascospores (20-25×10-15 µm). The key characters of O. insignis R.Zulfiqar & Khalid, sp. nov. are distinctly lecanorine apothecial discs, a taller hymenium and hypothecium (190-230 and 100-160 µm, respectively) and smaller ascospores (15-21×9-13 µm). Detailed morpho-anatomical descriptions and a nrITS phylogeny of both species along with a worldwide key to the genus Oxneriaria S.Y.Kondr. & Lőkös are provided. Key words: Pakistan, Kohistan, Swat Valley, Oxneriaria, phylogeny, new species.
35784Marasinghe D.S., Hongsanan S., Zeng X.Y., Jones E.B.G., Chomnunti P., Boonmee S. & Hyde K.D. (2023): Taxonomic monograph of epifoliar fungi. - Fungal Diversity, 121: 139–334.
Epifoliar fungi are one of the significant fungal groups typically living on the surface of leaves. They are usually recorded as saprobes, obligate parasites and commensals and are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Numerous genera within this group remain inadequately understood, primarily attributed to limited taxonomic knowledge and insufficient molecular data. Furthermore, the taxonomic delineation of epifoliar fungi remained uncertain, with scattered and literature-based data often intermixed with other foliicolous fungi. Herein, a comprehensive taxonomic monograph of 124 genera in (32) Asterinales, (18) Capnodiales, (15) Chaetothyriales, (8) Meliolales, (8) Micropeltidales, (10) Microthyriales, (32) Parmulariales and (1) Zeloasperisporiales was provided re-describing with illustrations and line drawings. Notes on ecological and economic importance of the families are also provided. Representatives type herbarium materials of Campoa pulcherrima, Cycloschizon brachylaenae, Ferrarisia philippina, Hysterostomella guaranitica, Palawaniella orbiculata and Pseudolembosia orbicularis of Parmulariaceae were re-examined and provided updated illustrations with descriptions. A backbone phylogenetic tree and divergence estimation analysis for epifoliar fungi based on LSU and 5.8s ITS sequence data are provided. Keywords: Divergence · Follicolous · Obligate · Parmulariaceae · Tropical.
35783Paoli L., Bandoni E. & Sanità di Toppi L. (2023): Lichens and mosses as biomonitors of indoor pollution. - Biology, 12(9): 1248 [20 p.] .
Biomonitoring in indoor environments is a recent application, and so far, indoor air quality (IAQ) has been investigated only in a few cases using photosynthesising biomonitors. On the whole, 22 studies have been selected and reviewed, being specifically focused on the assessment of IAQ using biomonitors, such as lichens (9 papers), mosses (10), or their combination (3). In general, indoor samples face an altered light regime, ventilation, and a reduced hydration, which should be taken into consideration during the design and implementation of indoor monitoring. This review highlights critical issues (and some solutions) related to sample devitalisation (moss), hydration during exposure, preparation of the exposure device (mostly lichen and moss bags), duration of the exposure, post-exposure treatments, assessment of the vitality of the samples, as well as data elaboration and interpretation. This review evidences the feasibility and usefulness of lichen/moss monitoring in indoor environments and the need to develop standardised protocols. Keywords: biomonitoring; heavy metals; indoor air quality; indoor air pollution; lichen bags; moss bags.
35782Neubner E. (1893): Untersuchungen über den Thallus und die Fruchtanfänge der Calycieen. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der krustig-staubartigen Flechten. - Wissenschaftliche Beilage zu dem IV. Jahresberichte des Königlichen Gymnasiums zu Plauen i. V., Ostern, 1893: 1–12. . .
[mit einer kolorierten Tafel]; study on thallus morphology and ontogeny of leprose lichens, on example of the genus Chaenotheca (as Cyphelium)
35781Norouzi H., Sohrabi M., Yousefi M & Boustie J. (2023): Tridepsides as potential bioactives: a review on their chemistry and the global distribution of their lichenic and non-lichenic natural sources. - Frontiers in Fungal Biology, 4: 1088966 [18 p.].
Tridepsides, as fully oxidized polyketides, have been known to exist in lichens for more than a century. Recent studies have showed that these possible defensive lichenochemicals possess various biological activities. Also, a candidate biosynthetic gene cluster was recently reported for gyrophoric acid (GA), an important tridepside. The present study focused on biosynthesis, natural sources, biological activities, and bioanalytical methods of tridepside molecules. Our survey shows that, so far, lichenic tridepsides have been reported from 37 families, 111 genera, and 526 species of lichen. Because many of their species contain tridepsides, the families Parmeliaceae, Lobariaceae, and Peltigeraceae can be considered critical lichenic sources of tridepsides. Furthermore, several species of Hypotrachyna in Parmeliaceae family showed lichenic tridepsides, suggesting that this genus is a viable source of tridepsides. This research also explored tridepsides from non-lichenic sources, such as non-lichenized fungi, lichenicolous fungi, endophytes, parasites, and liverworts, which offer substantial potential as biotechnological sources to produce tridepsides, which are produced in small amounts in lichen thalli. Two lichenic tridepsides have also been detected in non-lichenic sources: GA and tenuiorin (TE). Additionally, no significant correlation was found between tridepside biosynthesis and geographical distribution patterns for several potentially tridepside-producing lichens. We further showed that GA is the most studied tridepside with various reported biological activities, including anticancer, wound healing, photoprotection, anti-aging, antioxidant, cardiovascular effect, DNA interaction, anti-diabetes, anti-Alzheimer’s, anti-bacterial, and antifungal. Last but not least, this study provides an overview of some bioanalytical methods used to analyze tridepsides over the past few years. Keywords: lichenic tridepsides, non-lichenic tridepsides, biome-based distribution, global distribution, lichenochemicals, gyrophoric acid.
35780Melie T., Pirro S., Miller A.N., Smith S.D., Schutz K.S. & Quandt C.A. (2023): Comparative genomics and phylogenomic investigation of the class Geoglossomycetes provide insights into ecological specialization and the systematics of Pezizomycotina. - Mycologia, 115(4): 499‒512.
Despite their global presence and ubiquity, members of the class Geoglossomycetes (Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota) are understudied systematically and ecologically. These fungi have long been presumed saprobic due to their occurrence in or near leaf litter and soils. Additionally, they lack an apparent association with other organisms, reinforcing this perception. However, observations of sporocarps near ericaceous shrubs have given rise to an alternative hypothesis that members of Geoglossomycetes may form ericoid mycorrhizae or ectomycorrhizae. This claim, however, has yet to be confirmed via microscopy or amplicon-based studies examining root communities. As a result, our current understanding of their ecology is based on cursory observations. This study presents a comparative analysis of genomic signatures related to ecological niche to investigate the hypothesis of an ericoid mycorrhizal or ectomycorrhizal ecology in the class. We compared the carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) and secondary metabolite contents of six newly sequenced Geoglossomycetes genomes with those of fungi representing specific ecologies across Pezizomycotina. Our analysis reveals CAZyme and secondary metabolite content patterns consistent with ectomycorrhizal (EcM) members of Pezizomycotina. Specifically, we found a reduction in CAZyme-encoding genes and secondary metabolite clusters that suggests a mutualistic ecology. Our work includes the broadest taxon sampling for a phylogenomic study of Pezizomycotina to date. It represents the first functional genomic and genome-scale phylogenetic study of the class Geoglossomycetes and improves the foundational knowledge of the ecology and evolution of these understudied fungi. Keywords: Ascomycota; concordance; gene tree conflict; Geoglossaceae; metagenome; mutualism; mycorrhizae. p. 503: "All relationships within the classes were resolved with high support. Lichinomycetes plus Coniocybomycetes were recovered as the sister group of Geoglossomycetes, with Xylonomycetes closely related to these three (FIG. 1)."; "Hierarchical clustering resulted in Geoglossomycetes grouping with both EcM and lichenized fungi due to shared contractions in many CAZyme families (FIG. 3)."
35779Aartsma P., Odland A., Reinhardt S. & Renssen H. (2023): Drivers of soil temperature variation in alpine lichen heaths and shrub vegetation during the summer. - Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 55(1): 2209397 [13 p.].
Lichen heaths are decreasing in abundance in alpine and Arctic areas because of an increased competition with shrubs. This shift in vegetation might have important consequences for the soil temperature. The aim of this study is to find the drivers of the variation in soil temperature below lichen heaths and shrubs. Moreover, we want to gain more insight in the variability of the soil temperature below lichen heaths. We measured the soil temperature in thirty lichen plots and fifteen shrub plots in an alpine area in southern Norway during July and August 2019. We applied several treatments to study the drivers behind the variation in soil temperature between lichen heaths and shrub vegetation. We found that the average soil temperature was 1.45°C higher below lichen heaths than below shrub vegetation. Moreover, we measured a difference in soil temperature of 1.66°C between north- and south-facing lichen heaths, which contributes to the small-scale spatial variability in soil temperature below lichen heaths. Based on our experiments, we conclude that the buffering capacity of the litter layer below shrubs and shading of the soil by the shrub canopy lead to a lower soil temperature below shrubs compared to lichen heaths during the summer. Keywords: Lichen; shrub; soil temperature; alpine; treatments.
35778Park J.S., Kwag Y.-N., Han S.-K. & Oh S.-O. (2023): Two new species of the family Acarosporaceae from South Korea. - Mycobiology, 51(4): 216–229.
Acarosporaceae is a crustose lichen and is known as a species that has more than 50 multispores, and has hyaline spores. Those taxa are often found in rock and soil in mountain areas or coastal regions in Korea, and very diverse forms and species are known. However, after an overall genetic phylogenetic analysis of carbonized ascomata in 2015, species consisting only of the morphological base are newly divided, and several species of Acarosporaceae in Korea are also being discovered in this situation. As a result of analysis using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and nuLSU gene analysis, Korean species belonged to Acarospora and Sarcogyne clade, and Acarospora classified as the Acarospora clade was mixed with the Polysporina group and the Sarcogyne clade is mixed with the Acarospora. We identified two new species (Acarospora beangnokdamensis J. S. Park & S. O. Oh, sp. nov., Sarcogyne jejuensis J. S. Park & S. O. Oh, sp. nov.) through morphological, molecular, and secondary metabolite substance and found one new record (Sarcogyne oceanica K. Knudsen & Kocourk). We have made a classification key for Acarospora and Sarcogyne in Korea and reported all information together here. Keywords: Lichenized Ascomycota; carbonized ascomata; phylogenetic; taxonomy.
35777Tokgoz E., Emsen B. & Dogan M. (2023): Allelopathic effects of some lichens on growth and antioxidant activities of in vitro propagated Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. - Journal of Taibah University for Science, 17(1): 2229595 [10 p.].
The effects of Dermatocarpon miniatum and Parmelia saxatilis lichens on growth, total phenolic, total flavonoid contents and antioxidant potentials of in vitro medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri were investigated. B. monnieri was treated with different concentrations of methanolic and aqueous extracts of D. miniatum and P. saxatilis lichens. Total phenolic, total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of B. monnieri that showed the best growth with lichen application and control plant were investigated. Methanolic extract of allelopathic plants showed strongest DPPH scavenging (IC50: 27.60 mg/L) and metal chelating activities (IC50: 120.29 mg/mL) compared to the control. Also the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of allelopathic samples for both extracts had significantly (p
35776Pišút I. (2008): Nachträge zur Kenntnis der Flechten der Slowakei 20. - Acta Rerum Naturalium Musei Nationalis Slovaci / Zborník Slovenského Národného Múzea, Prírodné Vedy, 54: 29-32.
Addition to the knowledge of lichens of Slovakia. Publication of further noteworthy lichen findings from Slovakia is continued. Slovakia, lichens Die Veröffentlichung weiterer Funde interessanterer Flechtenarten aus der Slowakei wird fortgesetzt (siehe PIŠÚT 2006). Alle Belege sind vom Verfasser gesammelt worden und im Slowakischen Nationalmuseum (BRA) oder im Botanischen Institut der Slowa- kischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (SAV) in Bratislava aufbewahrt
35775Lisická E., Pišút I. & Kliment J. (2008): Lišajníky (Lichens). In: Kliment J., Lisická E., Šoltés R., Bernátová D., Dítě D., Janišová M., Jarolímek I., Kochjarová J., Kubinská A., Kučera P., Mišíková K., Obuch J., Pišút I., Topercer J., Uhlířová J. & Zaliberová M. (2008): Príroda Veľkej Fatry. Lišajníky, machorasty, cievnaté rastliny. - Vydavateľstvo Univerzity Komenského, Bratislava, 408 pp. .
An annotated checklist of lichens recorded from the National Park Velká Fatra is presented. For each taxon the following information is provided: vernacular name, IUCN category of threat and rareness within Slovakia, legal protection status, presence in the Red book of threatened and rare species of the Slovak and Czech Republics, synonyms), substrate/habitat preferences, localities, unpublished herbarium data and references. In Velká Fatra Mts 406 species of lichens (ca one quarter of all species known from Slovakia) were recorded; 162 (ca 40 %) are red-listed: EX - 1 ca 0.2 %), CR -53 (ca 13 %), EN - 13 (ca 3.2 %), VU - 52 (ca 13 %), LRint - 40 (ca 10 %), DD - 3 (ca 0.7 %). Four species of lichenicolous fungi were recorded too. The Index of Ecological Continuity is 33 and indicates an outstanding quality of the territory from the environmental aspect._x000D_lichens, Velká Fatra Mts, Slovakia.
35774Lamacraft D. & Chambers S.P. (2023): Lichen survey of three coastal SSSIs on the Llŷn Peninsula, Gwynedd. - Natural Resources Wales Evidence Report, 675(1): 1-79. .
Work was completed by a combination of site survey in the autumn-winter 2022 and collation of records made by the author in recent years. 151 taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi were recorded on all three SSSIs: 115 in Glannau Aberdaron, 53 in Mynydd Penarfynydd and 89 in Porth Ceiriad (see Appendix 1). 51 of these are notable including: • Heterodermia leucomelos; extensive population in Glannau Aberdaron SSSI. • Caloplaca aractina; one of only three British localities outside of the Lizard, at Glannau Aberdaron SSSI. • Teloschistes flavicans; populations in all three SSSIs. • Heterodermia obscurata; known from two localities in Glannau Aberdaron SSSI and at Mynydd Penarfynydd SSSI. • Physcia clementei; on a picrite outcrop at Mynydd Penarfynydd SSSI, the only North Wales locality. • Rinodina roboris var. armeriicola; possibly new to Wales, on soil terraces in Glannau Aberdaron SSSI. • Endocarpon pusillum var. pallidum; new to North Wales and the first British record this century of this variety (awaiting confirmation), on soil terraces in Mynydd Penarfynydd SSSI. • Protoparmelia montagnei; new to North Wales, found in Glannau Aberdaron SSSI and Porth Ceiriad, Porth Neigwl ac Ynysoedd Sant Tudwal SSSI. Only Glannau Aberdaron SSSI meets the qualification threshold of the MRCSI, the others falling short. All SSSIs have other qualifying features based on the presence of Red List species. Viewed together the three SSSIs form a meta-site of significant maritime lichen interest. There are no immediate threats to the lichen interest. The main management issues relate to grazing management of the coastal heath and grassland habitats. Wales, United Kingdom, Europe
35773Yakovchenko L.S., Davydov E.A. & Ryzhkova P.Yu. (2023): The genus Placolecis (Catillariaceae, Lichenized Ascomycota) in Russia. - Turczaninowia, 26(2): 128–139.
A review of the lichen genus Placolecis in Russia is presented. Localities in the Primorye Territory of Placolecis loekoesiana, a new to Russia species, and P. opaca, a new to the Russian Far East species, are reported. ForP. opaca, this is a second locality in Russia after Trans-Baikal Territory (South Siberia). Placolecis loekoesiana was previ-ously known exclusively from the “locus classicus” in South Korea. New localities in South Korea are also reported. The description and localities of the new to Russia lichen species Placolecis loekoesiana in the Primorye Territory are repor- ted and results of the phylogenetic analysis (nrITS/5.8S) of Placolecis species are presented, confirming the distinctness of P. loekoesiana and indicating conspecifity of Far Eastern specimens with specimens from South Korea. The studied specimens of P. loekoesiana from Russia and South Korea differ from the protologue by hyaline hymenium smaller in size, exclusively ellipsoid ascospores smaller in size and thallus bigger in size. The verified diagnostic traits of P. loe-koesiana based on studied specimens from Russia and South Korea are given. Besides, the data on pycnidia and conidia for P. loekoesiana are presented for the first time. Thus, the species is characterized by its placodioid, yellow-brown or yellow-olivaceous thallus, lecideine apothecia with glossy permanent proper margin, yellow to orange-yellow medulla, hyaline hymenium, pale brownish to hyaline hypothecium, 8-spored Catillaria-type asci with simple, hyaline, ellipsoid ascospores. New data on ecology of the species are reported: so far P. loekoesiana was known occurring on calcareous rocks in habitats with periodically flowing water, while wherevers in the Russian Far East, it grows on open, dry sur-faces of calcareous rocks at the elevation 290 to 480 m. Keywords: biogeography, East Asia, lichens, Placolecis loekoesiana, Placolecis opaca, Primorye Territory, South Korea.
35772Aptroot A., dos Santos L.A., Fraga Junior C.A.V. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2023): Ramalea and the new genus Appressodiscus belong in the Ramalinaceae. - Bryologist, 126(3): 360–366.
A species of the genus Ramalea, R. coilophylla, was recollected at the type locality and an additional large population was found in another state, Espı´rito Santo, in Brazil. This enabled a morphological study showing that the podetia arise from the margins of primary squamules. Sequencing showed the species and, because it is very similar to the type species, the genus, which was lastly cited as incertae sedis, to belong to the Ramalinaceae. A new species from the Amazon was also shown to belong to the Ramalinaceae and the new genus Appressodiscus is erected to accommodate this species, as well as a species that was recently described in the genus Ramboldia. New lichen species are Appressodiscus isidiobadius and Lecania variocolorata, and Appressodiscus badius is a new combination. Keywords: Lichen, Brazil, topotype, Lecania.
35771Ohmura Y. & Kashiwadani H. (2018): Checklist of lichens and allied fungi of Japan. - National Museum of Nature and Science Monographs [Tokyo], 49: 1–140. .
35770Eufemio R.J., Ribeiro I.A., Sformo T.L., Laursen G.A. , Molinero V. , Fröhlich-Nowoisky J., Bonn M. & Meister K. (2023): Lichen species across Alaska produce highly active and stable ice nucleators. - Biogeosciences, 20: 2805–2812.
Forty years ago, lichens were identified as extraordinary biological ice nucleators (INs) that enable ice formation at temperatures close to 0 ◦C. By employing INs, lichens thrive in freezing environments that surpass the physiological limits of other vegetation, thus making them the majority of vegetative biomass in northern ecosystems. Aerosolized lichen INs might further impact cloud glaciation and have the potential to alter atmospheric processes in a warming Arctic. Despite the ecological importance and formidable ice nucleation activities, the abundance, diversity, sources, and role of ice nucleation in lichens remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the ice nucleation capabilities of lichens collected from various ecosystems across Alaska. We find ice nucleating activity in lichen to be widespread, particularly in the coastal rainforest of southeast Alaska. Across 29 investigated lichen, all species show ice nucleation temperatures above −15 ◦C, and ∼ 30 % initiate freezing at temperatures above −6 ◦C. Concentration series of lichen ice nucleation assays in combination with statistical analysis reveal that the lichens contain two subpopulations of INs, similar to previous observations in bacteria. However, unlike the bacterial INs, the lichen INs appear as independent subpopulations resistant to freeze–thaw cycles and against temperature treatment. The ubiquity and high stability of the lichen INs suggest that they can impact local atmospheric processes and that ice nucleation activity is an essential trait for their survival in cold environments.
35769Vynokurov D., Lysenko T., Dutova Z., Shylnikov D., Doroshina G., Urbanavichene I., Urbanavichus G. & Tsepkova N. (2021): The dry grasslands (Festuco-Brometea) of the North Caucasus: first data on numerical classification and biodiversity patterns. - Tuexenia, 41: 175–201.
The North Caucasus is still one of the least studied regions in Europe regarding syntaxonomy. We investigated dry grasslands in the central part of the North Caucasus, namely in the Stavropol Kray region of Russia. We sampled 47 vegetation plots (relevés) of 10 m2 size (3.16 × 3.16 m) at elevations from 470 to 1150 m a.s.l. To determine the scale-dependent species richness patterns, we recorded five nested-plot series of 0.0001 to 100 m² in different dry grassland types (one in xero-mesic, one in xeric, two in rocky grasslands on limestones, one in rocky grasslands on chalk outcrops). To obtain a more comprehensive understanding of higher-level syntaxa, we collected other available data from published sources from the Stavropol Kray and the Northern Caucasus. In total, we collected 392 additional relevés from the Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia, Stavropol Kray, Krasnodar Kray, Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria, Republic of North Ossetia-Alania and Dagestan Republic regions. We analyzed the dataset using Modified TWINSPAN with different settings until we received ecologically meaningful units. This yielded in five main cluster that correspond to the major steppe vegetation types: 1) desert steppes; 2) true steppes; 3) mountain steppes of Dagestan and the intermontane basins of the Central Caucasus; 4) rocky grasslands; 5) semi-dry and dry grasslands on deep soils. Considering that these vegetation types are quite unique and different from those described in previous literature, we describe here a new order of Caucasian and Crimean xerophilous rocky grasslands on calcareous outcrops (Asphodelino tauricae-Euphorbietalia petrophilae), three new alliances (Artemisio chamaemelifoliae-Bromopsion variegatae, Helianthemo buschii-Cephalarion coriaceae, Onosmo caucasicae-Asphodelinion tauricae) and nine new associations.
35768Pišút I. (2006): Nachträge zur Kenntnis der Flechten der Slowakei 19. - Acta Rerum Naturalium Musei Nationalis Slovaci / Zborník Slovenského Národného Múzea, Prírodné Vedy, 52: 6–11. .
Publication of further noteworthy author´s lichen findings from Slovakia is continued. Sarcogyne distinguenda is recorded for the first, Clauzadea metzleri and Ochrolechia subviridis for the second time in the country. New finding places of overlooked species Caloplaca conversa and Rhizocarpon disporum are presented.
35767Voitk A., Thorn G. & Saar I. (2023): Lichenomphalia umbellifera: fungible and infungible epithets and species concepts. - Mycotaxon, 137(4): 629–667.
Comparison of the protologue of Agaricus umbellifer L. with specimens and descriptions of the basidiolichen Lichenomphalia umbellifera (L.) Redhead & al. revealed that the epithet umbellifera was misapplied to the Lichenomphalia species, causing several major conflicts with Linnaeus’s species concept. A felicitous match for Linnaeus’s species concept was found with a species of Marasmius sect. Epiphylli. Because A. umbellifer falls in a group that arises from an evolutionary pathway divergent from that leading to Marasmius s. str., we erected a new genus, Owingsia, to accommodate it, and recombined the type species as Owingsia umbellifera. Molecular studies demonstrated that it is a widely distributed circumpolar species, prevalent in Lapland and islands of the Baltic Sea, where Linnaeus encountered it. The earliest legitimate description of the basidiolichen L. umbellifera is A. pseudoandrosaceus Bull., a name superseded by the sanctioned later synonym, A. ericetorum Pers. We recombined this basionym as L. ericetorum, and epitypified O. umbellifera and L. ericetorum with modern sequenced specimens. Key words—nomenclature, taxonomy.
35766Ai M., Wang X.-Y., Worthy F.R. & Wang L.-S. (2023): Buellia parmigera sp. nov. from China. - Mycotaxon, 137(4): 619–628.
A new species, Buellia parmigera, was discovered from the Tibetan plateau, characterized by a crustose-subsquamulose thallus, immersed and lecanorine apothecia, a hyaline hypothecium, and Buellia-type ascospores. The new species is described, and compared with the other Buellia species with lecanorine apothecia. Key words—lichenized fungi, Ascomycota, taxonomy, Caliciaceae.
35765Coca L.F., Gómez Gómez S., Guzmán Guillermo J., Trujillo Trujillo E., Clavijo L., Zuluaga A., Dal Forno M. & Lumbsch H.T. (2023): Erratum: Coca, L.F., Gómez Gómez, S., Guzmán Guillermo, J., Trujillo Trujillo, E., Clavijo, L., Zuluaga, A., Dal Forno, M. & Lumbsch, H.T. (2023) Sulzbacheromyces leucodontium (Basidiomycota, Lepidostromataceae), a new species of basidiolichen widely distributed in the Neotropics. Phytotaxa 597 (2): 153–164.. - Phytotaxa, 612(2): 250. .
validation of the new species because an invalid mycobank number was used in the original paper
35764Zuo Y.-B., Han D.-Y., Wang Y.-Y., Yang Q.-X., Ren Q., Liu X.-Z. & Wei X.-L. (2023): Fungal–algal association drives lichens’ mutualistic symbiosis: A case study with Trebouxia-related lichens. - Plants, 12(17): 3172 [17 p.] .
Biotic and abiotic factors influence the formation of fungal–algal pairings in lichen symbiosis. However, the specific determinants of these associations, particularly when distantly related fungi are involved, remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the impact of different drivers on the association patterns between taxonomically diverse lichenized fungi and their trebouxioid symbiotic partners. We collected 200 samples from four biomes and identified 41 species of lichenized fungi, associating them with 16 species of trebouxioid green algae, of which 62% were previously unreported. The species identity of both the fungal and algal partners had the most significant effect on the outcome of the symbiosis, compared to abiotic factors like climatic variables and geographic distance. Some obviously specific associations were observed in the temperate zone; however, the nestedness value was lower in arid regions than in cold, polar, and temperate regions according to interaction network analysis. Cophylogenetic analyses revealed congruent phylogenies between trebouxioid algae and associated fungi, indicating a tendency to reject random associations. The main evolutionary mechanisms contributing to the observed phylogenetic patterns were “loss” and “failure to diverge” of the algal partners. This study broadens our knowledge of fungal–algal symbiotic patterns in view of Trebouxia-associated fungi. Keywords: Trebouxia; lichen; symbiosis; association; coevolution.
35763Desmarets L., Millot M., Chollet-Krugler M., Boustie J., Camuzet C., François N., Rouillé Y., Belouzard S., Tomasi S., Mambu L. & Séron K. (2023): Lichen or associated micro-organism compounds are active against human coronaviruses. . - Viruses, 15(9): 1859 [15 p.] .
(1) Background: Since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, efforts have been made to identify antiviral compounds against human coronaviruses. With the aim of increasing the diversity of molecule scaffolds, 42 natural compounds, of which 28 were isolated from lichens and 14 from their associated microorganisms (bacteria and fungi), were screened against human coronavirus HCoV-229E. (2) Methods: Antiviral assays were performed using HCoV-229E in Huh-7 and Huh-7/TMPRSS2 cells and SARS-CoV-2 in a Vero-81-derived clone with a GFP reporter probe. (3) Results: Four lichen compounds, including chloroatranol, emodin, perlatolic acid and vulpinic acid, displayed high activities against HCoV-229E (IC50 = 68.86, 59.25, 16.42 and 14.58 μM, respectively) and no toxicity at active concentrations. Kinetics studies were performed to determine their mode of action. The four compounds were active when added at the replication step. Due to their significant activity, they were further tested on SARS-CoV-2. Perlatolic acid was shown to be active against SARS-CoV-2. (4) Conclusions: Taken together, these results show that lichens are a source of interesting antiviral agents against human coronaviruses. Moreover, perlatolic acid might be further studied for its pan-coronavirus antiviral activity. Keywords: antiviral; natural product; coronavirus; HCoV-229E; SARS-CoV-2; lichen compounds.
35762Soto-Medina E., Aptroot A. & Lücking R. (2023): New species of lichen for Colombia tropical dry forest. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 44(7): 103–107.
Three new species of lichen are described from Colombia. Astrothelium caucavallense Soto-Medina & Aptroot, sp. nov. is characterized by larger ascospores than A. megaeneum Flakus & Aptroot; Pyrenula gigaspora Soto-Medina, Aptroot & Lücking, sp. nov. has the largest 3-septate ascospores known in the genus; and Ocelullaria vallensis Soto-Medina & Lücking, sp. nov. is similar to O. buckii Lücking, but differs in the larger ascospores and fewer septae.
35761Wijayawardene N.N., Dai D.-Q., Premarathne B.M., Wimalasena M.K., Jayalal R.G.U., Wickramanayake K.D., Dangalla H., Jayathunga W.H., Brahmanage R.S., Karunarathna S.C., Weerakoon G., Ariyawansa K.G.S.U., Yapa P.N., Madawala S., Nanayakkara C.M., Fan X.-L., Kirk P.M., Zhang G.-Q., Ediriweera A., Bhat D.J., Dawoud T.M., Tibpromma S. & Wijesundara D.S.A. (2023): Checklist, typification details, and nomenclature status of ascomycetous fungi originally described in Sri Lanka. - Phytotaxa, 611(1): 1–105.
Despite being a biodiversity-rich country, Sri Lanka’s fungal diversity remains largely unexplored. In the 19th century, British mycologists conducted extensive research, leading to the identification of more than 1,800 fungal taxa, including ascomycetous and basidiomycetous species. However, the majority of these taxa have not been revisited since their initial description, and molecular evidence is lacking. Moreover, a significant number of fungal taxa have been deemed invalid or illegitimate, indicating the need for a nomenclatural revision. To address this knowledge gap, this review provides a comprehensive list of ascomycetous taxa (including both lichen-forming and non-lichenized) that were originally described in Sri Lanka. Names are listed according to the original names which were included in the protologue. In the cases where species have been transferred to other genera, the current names and new classifications are provided. The typification details, nomenclature status, and classification are also presented. This checklist will serve as a valuable resource for the future epitypification of old taxa, as much of the existing information is poorly documented and scattered. Key words: British mycologists, fungaria, holotype, morphology, voucher specimens.
35760Torres J.M., Torres V.O., Rodrigues A.S., Gianini A.S., Micheletti A.C., Honda N.K., Spielmann A.A. & Lorenz A.P. (2023): Lineages of the lichen‑forming fungus Stereocaulon alpinum and their photobionts in southern South America and maritime Antarctica. - Polar Biology, 46: 865–879.
Stereocaulon alpinum is a lichenized fungus commonly found in the Antarctic, circumarctic, alpine, and in mountainous areas of temperate regions. It forms a tripartite lichen symbiosis together with trebouxioid green microalgae, as its primary photobiont, and cyanobacteria of the genus Nostoc inside delimited cephalodia. Previous DNA-based analyses revealed two lineages for this fungus. This research discusses the morphological and chemical circumscription of S. alpinum and its geographic distribution and, to this end, we included new DNA data from the mycobiont and its photosynthetic partners. Phylogenetic reconstructions rejected infraspecific categories and revealed that specimens from the southern hemisphere (maritime Antarctica and South America) formed a well-supported “bipolar clade” with specimens from Finland, Greenland, and Canada. In addition, S. alpinum also formed a “northern clade” with sequences from Europe and North Atlantic islands. In specimens from the southern hemisphere, the identified lineages of phyco- and cyanobionts were already known to be associated with other lichenized fungi. The phycobiont was identified as Asterochloris pseudoirregularis and the cyanobiont as a member of the genus Nostoc. The phenotypic differences among the southern hemisphere specimens examined in this study pointed towards a broad morphological circumscription of S. alpinum. Simultaneously, the available descriptions of S. alpinum collected in the northern hemisphere, including the type specimen, do not provide characters distinguishing them from the southern specimens. These two clades likely represent cryptic species, one new and potentially only recognized using genetic data. Additional integrative studies, including a comprehensive analysis of specimens from the northern hemisphere, are necessary to know the diversity contained in the lichens identified as Stereocaulon alpinum worldwide. Keywords: Ascomycota · bipolar species · Lichen phylogeography · Stereocaulaceae · Taxonomy.
35759Malíček J. (2023): Aleš Müller oslavil sedmdesát!. - Bryonora, 71: 71–72.
35758Šoun J., Svoboda D. & Kovář P. (2023): Jiří Liška – 70. - Bryonora, 71: 70–71.
35757Palice Z. (2023): Česká a slovenská lichenologická bibliografie XXXV [Czech and Slovak lichenological bibliography, XXXV]. - Bryonora, 71: 58–62.
35756Bouda F., Ghlimová H., Hlisnikovský D., Jerhot Š., Syrovátková L., Uhlík P. & Malíček J. (2023): Lišejníky zaznamenané během 34. bryologicko-lichenologických dní na Drahanské vrchovině [Lichens recorded during the 34th Bryological and Lichenological Days in the Drahanská vrchovina Highlands]. - Bryonora, 71: 42–53.
This contribution presents records of 172 lichenised fungi observed during a number of excursions to the Drahanská vrchovina Highlands, including Moravský kras (Moravian Karst) in Moravia. We studied mostly limestone localities and rock substrates. The area is rich in several species absent or very rare elsewhere in the Czech Republic, such as Caloplaca fiumana, C. xantholyta and Lecanora rouxii. The oceanic species Gyalecta nidarosiensis is reported here for the first time in the Czech Republic. We also highlight other interesting records of rarely reported species, such as Acarospora oligospora, Bagliettoa parmigera, Catapyrenium cinereum, Dirina massiliensis, Enchylium coccophorum, Endocarpon pallidum, Heteroplacidium compactum, Involucropyrenium romeanum, Lepraria diffusa, Opegrapha rupestris, Placynthium subradiatum, Protoblastenia lilacina, Rinodina immersa and Thelenella muscorum. Identifications of four specimens are supported by molecular ITS and/or mtSSU data. One collected lichen, Bacidina aff. arnoldiana, characterised by conspicuous sessile white pycnidia, probably represents an undescribed species. Keywords: biodiversity, limestones, Moravian Karst.
35755Malíček J. (2023): Lišejníky NPR Velká Pleš na Křivoklátsku [Lichens of Velká Pleš National Nature Reserve (Křivoklát region)]. - Bryonora, 71: 1–27.
Velká Pleš National Nature Reserve (94.8 ha; alt. 248–500 m) belongs to the most valuable localities in the Křivoklátsko Protected Landscape Area. It is covered mainly by natural beech, oak and ravine forests up to ±150 years old, but the highest biodiversity is concentrated in local xerothermic steppe grasslands with andesite outcrops and in the surrounding parkland with a high tree diversity and wild mouflon grazing. In a survey between 2021 and 2023, a total of 290 lichen species, 7 lichenicolous fungi and 12 nonlichenised fungi were recorded in the reserve. Another 21 lichen species were reported in previous floristic studies but have not been confirmed recently. Presently, Velká Pleš is the fifth most lichen species-rich locality known in the Czech Republic. The corticolous fungus Morrisographium ulmi is reported here as new to the Czech Republic. Ionaspis ceracea had hitherto only been known from historical records from the country. Dermatocarpon meiophyllizum, Everhartia lignatilis (non-lichenised species) and Verrucaria substerilis are reported from their second (recent) localities in the Czech Republic. The species Bacidia vermifera, Buellia leptocline, Cladonia parasitica, Inoderma byssaceum, Multiclavula mucida, Peltigera neocanina, Pertusaria aspergilla, P. leucosora, Phaeophyscia pusilloides, Porina byssophila, Pyrenula nitidella, Rinodina moziana and Strigula affinis represent other valuable records. Identifications of 20 specimens are supported by molecular ITS and/or mtSSU data. Key words: andesite rock, biodiversity, natural lowland forests.
35754Fernández-Pastor I., González-Menéndez V., Martínez Andrade K., Serrano R., Mackenzie T.A., Benítez G., Casares-Porcel M., Genilloud O. & Reyes F. (2023): Xerophytic lichens from gypsiferous outcrops of arid areas of Andalusia as a source of anti-phytopathogenic depsides. - Journal of Fungi, 9(9): 887 [13 p.] .
In a survey to evaluate the potential of lichens associated with gypsum areas as sources of new antifungal metabolites, six species of lichens were collected in the gypsum outcrops of the Sorbas Desert (Diploschistes ocellatus and Seirophora lacunosa) and the Tabernas Desert (Cladonia foliacea, Acarospora placodiformis, Squamarina lentigera and Xanthoparmelia pokornyi) in southern Spain. Raw lichen acetone extracts were tested against a panel of seven phytopathogenic fungi, including Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum acutatum, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp cubense TR4, Fusarium ploriferaum, Magnaporthe grisea, Verticillium dahliae and Zymoseptoria tritici. Active extracts of Cladonia foliacea, Xanthoparmelia pokornyi and Squamarina lentigera were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS and Molecular Networking to identify possible metabolites responsible for the antifungal activity. A total of ten depside-like metabolites were identified by MS/MS dereplication and NMR experiments, of which one was a new derivative of fumaroprotocetraric acid. The compounds without previously described biological activity were purified and tested against the panel of fungal phytopathogens. Herein, the antifungal activity against fungal phytopathogens of 4′-O-methylpaludosic acid, divaricatic acid and stenosporic acid is reported for the first time. Stenosporic and divaricatic acids displayed a broad antifungal spectrum against seven relevant fungal phytopathogens in a micromolar range, including the extremely resistant fungus F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 (TR4). 4′-O-methylpaludosic acid exhibited specific antifungal activity against the wheat pathogen Z. tritici, with an IC50 of 38.87 µg/mL (87.1 µM) in the absorbance-based assay and 24.88 µg/mL (55.52 µM) in the fluorescence-based assay. Keywords: xerophytic lichens; antifungal activity; biopesticides; fungal phytopathogens; dereplication; MS/MS molecular networking; depsides.
35753Shi K., Jia Z. & Zhao X. (2023): A new species and two new records of the lichen genus Fissurina from China. - Diversity, 15(9): 959 [13 p.] .
The lichenized fungal genus Fissurina with mostly slit-like lirellae, belongs to Graphidaceae and is mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. A total of 17 Fissurina species have been reported from China. During a survey of the lichen diversity of southern China, a new species Fissurina wuyinensis K.J. Shi, Z.F. Jia and X. Zhao, sp. nov. was found, which is characterized by a corticolous thallus without detected secondary substances, uncarbonized lirellae, and an exposed disc with pruina, muriform and amyloid ascospores. Furthermore, two new records of F. pseudostromatica, F. subcomparimuralis have been identified by morphological, anatomical, chemical and molecular studies. Phylogenetic analyses of three loci (ITS, nuLSU and mtSSU) supported the position of these species within Fissurina. Detailed morphological descriptions as well as high-resolution photographs of the morphology and anatomy of the three species are provided, as well as a comparison and discussion of the characteristics of similar species. The studied specimens were deposited in the Fungarium of the College of Life Sciences, Liaocheng University (LCUF). Keywords: lichenized fungi; Ascomycota; Ostropales; taxonomy.
35752Curtis T., Waters D.P. & Lendemer J.C. (2023): Bilimbia fuscoviridis (≡ Bacidia fuscoviridis), another overlooked sorediate crustose lichen widely distributed in temperate eastern North America. - Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 150(3): 385–397.
Bilimbia fuscoviridis (≡ Bacidia fuscoviridis) is newly reported from North America where it is shown to be widespread in the temperate eastern United States and adjacent Canada, frequently occurring on shaded calcareous rocks and siliceous rocks in humid habitats near waterways. A detailed description on the basis of North American material is provided, the distribution is mapped, and color photographs are provided. The species is likely common but overlooked because of its inconspicuous appearance and the absence of diagnostic secondary metabolites. Key words: asexual reproduction, biodiversity, floristics, limestone, soredia, sterile sorediate crust.
35751Gill H., Sorensen J.L. & Collemare J. (2023): Lichen fungal secondary metabolites: Progress in the genomic era toward ecological roles in the interaction. - In: Scott B. & Mesarich C. (eds), Plant Relationships, The Mycota 5, p. 185–208, Springer, Cham.
35750Lebreton E., Carriconde F., Brouste D., Lespagnol A., Stenger P.-L., Sérusiaux E. & Ertz D. (2023): Enterographa ducouretiana sp. nov. (lichenized Ascomycota, Roccellaceae), a new foliicolous species from New Caledonia. - Phytotaxa, 609(3): 247–252.
Enterographa ducouretiana is described as new to science from New Caledonia. It is characterized by a foliicolous habit, ascomata immersed in a pseudostroma, a dark purple hypothecium, and (3–)5-septate ascospores of (16–)20.5(–24) × (2.5–)2.9(–3.5) µm with a distinct gelatinous sheath of 1.5(–2) μm. Key words: Arthoniales, Australasia, Lichen, Taxonomy.
35749Jurciņš D., Mežaka A., Strazdiņa L., Gerra-Inohosa L., Perševica G. & Piterāns A. (2014): Refound of extinct lichen Lobaria amplissima (Scop.) Forssell in Latvia. - Acta Biologica Universitatis Daugavpiliensis , 14(1): 59–65. .
Lobaria amplissima is rare lichen in many European countries, including Latvia, where it is listed as extinct species with last known record in 1870 from Slitere, North – West Latvia. This species was refound in a spring of 2014 in North Vidzeme Biosphere Reserve on East from the past record in broad-leaved forest and black alder forest. The distribution of Lobaria amplissima in Latvia was discussed. Key words: Lobaria amplissima, distribution, deciduous trees.
35748Ganesan A., Thangapandian M., Ponnusamy P., Sundararaj J.P. & Nayaka S. (2015): Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of parmeliod lichens from Shevaroy hills of Eastern Ghats, India. - International Journal of PharmTech Research, 8(9): 13–23. .
In recent decades, the occurrence of new diseases associated with pathogens in humans has become very common and has spurred efforts to exert control over various diseases. Lichen species such as Parmotrema austrosinense, P. hababianum, and P. tinctorum were collected from the Eastern Ghats of India, covering the Shevaroy hills in Tamil Nadu. The extracts were obtained by using various solvents; they were then subjected to antibacterial and various antioxidants assays, such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and hydrogen peroxide. Benzene extract of P. tinctorum, showed an inhibition zone of 13.77 mm against Salmonella typhimurium, whereas in case of P. hababianum and P. austrosinense inhibition zones were 8.2 and 12.23 mm, respectively. Total antioxidant activity of acetone extract (IC50 18.41 μg/mL) of P. tinctorum was higher than that of other species. Methanol and benzene extracts of P. hababianum and P. austrosinense showed significant effects on free radical scavenging activity. Keywords: Lichen, Antibacterial, Antioxidant activity, DPPH assay, FRAP assay, IC50.
35747Nimis P.L. & de Faveri R. (1981): Numerical classification of Xanthorion communities in north eastern Italy. - Gortania, 2: 91‒110. .
A numerical classification of 250 releves of epiphytic vegetation belonging to the Xanthorion parietinae in North-eastern Italy led to the distinction of 9 communitytypes. Distribution and ecology of each type are briefly discussed. Key words: Xanthorion parietinae, Lichens, Epiphytes, North-eastern Italy, Numerical classification.
35746Otte V. (2020): Bericht vom 14. brandenburgischen Flechtenkartierungstreffen vom 20. bis zum 22. Oktober 2017 in Altkünkendorf. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins Berlin Brandenburg, 151[2019]: 201–205.
Report on a lichen mapping meeting (Brandenburg, Germany).
35745Otte V. (2020): Bericht vom 13. brandenburgischen Flechtenkartierungstreffen vom 12. bis 14. Mai 2017 in Reetz bei Wiesenburg/Fläming. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins Berlin Brandenburg, 151[2019]: 197–199.
Report on a lichen mapping meeting (Brandenburg, Germany).
35744Otte V. (2020): Bericht vom 12. brandenburgischen Flechtenkartierungstreffen vom 28. bis zum 31. Oktober 2016 in Lugau/Niederlausitz . - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins Berlin Brandenburg, 151[2019]: 191–195.
Report on a lichen mapping meeting (Lower Lusatia, Germany).
35743Otte V. (2020): Bericht über das 11. brandenburgische Flechtenkartierungstreffen vom 1. bis zum 3. April 2016 in Altkünkendorf. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins Berlin Brandenburg, 151[2019]: 185–190.
Report on a lichen mapping meeting (Brandenburg, Germany).
35742Fürstenow J. & Linder W. (2020): Die Moos- und Flechtenflora im FFH-Gebiet Wittstock-Ruppiner Heide. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins Berlin Brandenburg, 151[2019]: 63–82.
The "Wittstock-Ruppiner Heide", a protection area under EU-Habitat Directive, comprises the largest coherent heathland in Germany. In the course of biotope mapping 2013/2014 within the heaths, dry grasslands and the surrounding fore forest stages 63 bryophyte and 124 lichen taxa were found. Among them, 18 (= 29%) bryophytes and 49 (= 40%) lichens belong to highly endangered, endangered or declining species. Overall, the long list of remarkable finds from many rare species confirms the area's importance and high conservation value for bryophytes and lichens. Since the particular habitats for the bryophytes and lichens are threatened by succession and eutrophication, the preservation of their habitats requires large-scale conservation efforts.
35741de Bruyn U. & Dethlefs B. (2008): Bemerkenswerte neue Nachweise von Bartflechten in der Südheide. - Floristische Notizen aus der Lüneburger Heide, 16: 31–35.
35740Aszalósné Balogh R., Farkas E., Tüdősné Budai J., Lőkös L. & Matus G. (2023): Cryptogamic biomass in Pannonic acidic sand steppes subject to changing land-use. - Plants, 12(16): 2972 [25 p.].
Cryptogams, often neglected in vegetation dynamics studies, compose a large part of biomass and contribute to the biodiversity of sandy grasslands. Since the work of Verseghy (1970s), their productivity has not been analyzed in Hungary. We studied the lichen and bryophyte dynamics (hereinafter called cryptogams) at two Eastern Hungarian dry sandy grassland sites. The sites of Corynephorus canescens and of Festuca vaginata dominance, respectively, belonging to the community Festuco vaginatae–Corynephoretum have been monitored. We aimed at (1) quantifying the diversity and biomass of the cryptogamic communities; (2) exploring the cryptogamic response to management changes; and (3) studying the effect of experimental management (fencing) on the cryptogamic assemblages. The sites have been compared in 2013 and 2018, respectively. Forty microplots per site per management have been analyzed in both years. Samples of lichens and bryophytes were hand-sorted, dried and then measured. Fencing has led to increased biomass of cryptogams within a few years. Lichens in general benefited comparatively more from exclosure than bryophytes. The increase in lichen biomass (especially that of Cladonia rangiformis) is clearly due to the over 10-year absence of grazing. The only lichen favored by moderate grazing is the legally protected C. magyarica. Short spells of low-intensity grazing can promote the species richness of cryptogams in the community. Keywords: biomass; bryophytes; cryptogams; dry grassland; lichens.
35739Poncet R., Paradis A.-H. & Dupré R. (2023): Additions to the lichenized and non-lichenized fungi from the Aude department (Occitanie Region, France). - The Lichen Survey Journal, 1(1): 1–15.
The department of Aude (Occitanie region, France) is one of the most biodiverse in mainland France, yet its land remains largely unexplored, leaving numerous lichen-forming fungi species undocumented. Herein, we document the discovery of 40 previously unrecorded species within the Aude department: Coniocarpon cinnabarinum, Alyxoria variiformis, Pseudoschismatomma rufescens, Acarospora glaucocarpa, Cladonia cervicornis, C. humilis, C. portentosa, C. squamosa var. subsquamosa, C. subulata, Squamarina gypsacea, S. periculosa, Stereocaulon evolutum, Parmelia omphalodes, Pleurosticta acetabulum, Usnea cornuta, U. esperantiana, U. flammea, U. glabrescens, U. rubicunda, Xanthoparmelia verruculifera, Psora testacea, Ramalina fraxinea, Thalloidima opuntioides, Sphaerophorus globosus, Romjularia lurida, Leprocaulon quisquiliare, Diploschistes scruposus, Graphis betulina, G. elegans, Scytinium lichenoides, Fuscopannaria ignobilis, Nephroma tangeriense, Peltigera canina, Peltigera hymenina, Rhizocarpon lecanorinum, Calogaya decipiens subsp. decipiens, Kuettlingeria teicholyta, Polycauliona polycarpa, Umbilicaria polyphylla, Rhytidhysteron hysterinum. Additionally, we report the first occurrence of Usnea fulvoreagens in the Lot department (Occitanie region, France). These findings contribute to our understanding of the remarkable lichen diversity within the Aude department, emphasizing the need for further exploration and conservation efforts in this region. Key words: Lichen survey, ZNIEFF, new records.
35738Morris C. & Stone D. (2023): Chaenotheca subroscida and C. phaeocephala in the Pacific Northwest of North America. - Evansia, 40(1): 3–10. .
Morphological identification of Chaenotheca phaeocephala and Chaenotheca subroscida in the Pacific Northwest is difficult. Both have stalked mazaediate ascomata with yellow pruina and ascospores that are relatively large for the genus. In Scandinavia, their thalli are distinguishable and they occur in different habitats. We used thin-layer chromatography to examine the secondary metabolites in thalli of 36 specimens from Oregon and Washington identified as C. phaeocephala or C. subroscida. Nine specimens contained pseudoplacodiolic acid, which places them in C. subroscida. The thalli of six of these had dense whitish granules and no verrucae; other specimens had a mixture of verrucae and white granules. The rest of the specimens did not have pseudoplacodiolic acid and were therefore C. phaeocephala; their thalli had varying amounts of verrucae and granules. Our results suggest that identification of these two species in the Pacific Northwest is not possible without TLC. Key words: Lichens, calicioids, TLC, pseudoplacodiolic acid.
35737McCune B. (2023): A rare lichen, Umbilicaria hirsuta, pioneers an old trailer in Montana. - Evansia, 40(1): 11–14. .
Umbilicaria hirsuta colonized an old travel trailer parked in a pasture in western Montana, U.S.A. Although the species has been reported several times from Montana, beginning with Llano (1950), all of the previous reports were based on the same initial record from Glacier County on the east side of the Continental Divide in Glacier National Park (McCune et al. 2014).
35736Villella J., Calabria L.M., McCune B., Miller J.E.D., Sharrett S.T. & Restrepo A. (2023): An annotated list of lichens and allied fungi in Oregon’s Opal Creek Wilderness and adjacent areas: pre-fire baseline. - Evansia, 40(1): 15–36. .
In 2020 the Beachie Creek Fire burned a large, forested area in the northern Oregon Cascade Range that included public and private land and much of the Opal Creek Wilderness. We compiled a pre-fire baseline data set from various sources of the lichens and allied fungi known to occur before the fire within the fire perimeter. These data are presented as an annotated species list documenting two hundred and eighty-three species. Euopsis pulvinata, Lepraria elobata, Miriquidica instrata, Plectocarpon nephromeum, Porpidia flavicunda, and Rhizocarpon distinctum are reported as new for Oregon based on an online search of herbarium records and relevant literature. Near the wilderness area, where populations of listed rare species are known, their occurrences are mapped against a fire severity gradient. Drone-generated images of selected locations before and after the fire are included to help gauge the fire effects on lichen communities. Increased fire activity in the area is potentially causing landscape-level changes in biodiversity, and the data we present represent a historical baseline for future analyses of the effects of the Beachie Creek fire on lichen diversity. Key words: Fire severity, Willamette National Forest, megafire, climate change, species inventory.
35735Cernat Popa M.M. & Rusănescu C.O. (2023): The efficiency of lichens in air biomonitoring in Teleorman county. - Atmosphere, 14: 1287 [10 p.].
In this work, we collected samples of lichens from the oaks of Pădurea Troianul, in the area of Teleorman county, to analyze the air quality, using the lichen biodiversity index and its determining factor. We transplanted them to the points to be monitored and analyzed them to detect and quantify the concentration of heavy metals or other toxic substances accumulated in the lichen biomass. This research was conducted at transplant sites, where five sample sites were chosen. We investigated the concentrations of the heavy metals Cd, Pb and Hg, making a comparison between the concentrations indicated by lichens and conventional measurements. The sampling, observation and analysis of lichens, we carried out in the months of September, October and November 2021, because in September the temperatures are higher and the degree of precipitation is lower than in November, so we followed a development of lichens covering different periods in terms of temperature and humidity. The comparison was made starting from the contamination factors obtained and measured in the sampling station. The application of the biomonitoring method allows obtaining an exact index of the purity of the atmosphere based on the tolerance of the transplanted lichens, the results being obtained quickly. Keywords: bioindicators; lichens; heavy metals; transplantation; pollution sources.
35734Carrasco Baquero J.C., Caballero Serrano V.L., Romero Cañizares F., Carrasco López D.C., León Gualán D.A., Vieira Lanero R. & Cobo-Gradín F. (2023): Water quality determination using soil and vegetation communities in the wetlands of the Andes of Ecuador. - Land, 12(8): 1586 [18 p.].
The bofedales are high Andean ecosystems of great socioeconomic and ecological importance. The Chimborazo Fauna Production Reserve has 15 bofedales in its jurisdiction, located in the provinces of Chimborazo, Bolívar, and Tungurahua. The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between plant species composition and the physicochemical characteristics of water and soil. To determine the floristic composition, destructive sampling of species was applied, and three sampling points of 1 m2 were established every 100 m per wetland. At each sampling point, physical-chemical variables were recorded in situ and in the laboratory for water and soil. The floristic analysis identified 78 riparian species of riparian plants (63 vascular, 12 bryophytes, 4 pteridophytes) and 1 lichen. In the aquatic environment, seven vascular plants, recognized as macrophytes, were recorded. The results show great heterogeneity in the soil, water, and vegetation characters because they respond to a mineralization gradient (as indicated by the high values of electrical conductivity and dissolved ions). Additionally, it was observed that the total amount of soluble solids that characterizes the Los Hieleros wetland (W11) is independent of hardness and chemical oxygen demand, which correlate with each other and, in turn, better describe the Pachancho wetland (W12). The highest degree of turbidity corresponds to the Cóndor Samana (W9) and Portal Andino (W10) wetlands. The Culebrillas (W6), Puente Ayora ANI (W14), and Pampas Salasacas (W1) wetlands are characterized by the presence of dissolved oxygen, so it is assumed that these are the wetlands with the best water quality. Consequently, it is imperative to double efforts to describe the ecology and status of these high Andean wetlands in order to promote their conservation. Keywords: floristic inventory; HJ-Biplot; soil sampling; vegetation communities; water quality.
35733Magain N., Miadlikowska J., Goffinet B., Goward T., Pardo-De la Hoz C.J., Jüriado I., Simon A., Mercado-Díaz J.A., Barlow T., Moncada B., Lücking R., Spielmann A., Canez L., Wang L.S., Nelson P., Wheeler T., Lutzoni F. & Sérusiaux E. (2023): High species richness in the lichen genus Peltigera (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes): 34 species in the dolichorhizoid and scabrosoid clades of section Polydactylon, including 24 new to science. - Persoonia, 51: 1–88.
Applying molecular methods to fungi establishing lichenized associations with green algae or cyanobacteria has repeatedly revealed the existence of numerous phylogenetic taxa overlooked by classical taxonomic approaches. Here, we report taxonomical conclusions based on multiple species delimitation and validation analyses performed on an eight-locus dataset that includes world-wide representatives of the dolichorhizoid and scabrosoid clades in section Polydactylon of the genus Peltigera. Following the recommendations resulting from a consensus species delimitation approach and additional species validation analysis (BPP) performed in this study, we present a total of 25 species in the dolichorhizoid clade and nine in the scabrosoid clade, including respectively 18 and six species that are new to science and formally described. Additionally, one combination and three varieties (including two new to science) are proposed in the dolichorhizoid clade. The following 24 new species are described: P. appalachiensis, P. asiatica, P. borealis, P. borinquensis, P. chabanenkoae, P. clathrata, P. elixii, P. esslingeri, P. flabellae, P. gallowayi, P. hawaiiensis, P. holtanhartwigii, P. itatiaiae, P. hokkaidoensis, P. kukwae, P. massonii, P. mikado, P. nigriventris, P. orientalis, P. rangiferina, P. sipmanii, P. stanleyensis, P. vitikainenii and P. willdenowii; the following new varieties are introduced: P. kukwae var. phyllidiata and P. truculenta var. austroscabrosa; and the following new combination is introduced: P. hymenina var. dissecta. Each species from the dolichorhizoid and scabrosoid clades is morphologically and chemically described, illustrated, and characterised with ITS sequences. Identification keys are provided for the main biogeographic regions where species from the two clades occur. Morphological and chemical characters that are commonly used for species identification in the genus Peltigera cannot be applied to unambiguously recognise most molecularly circumscribed species, due to high variation of thalli formed by individuals within a fungal species, including the presence of distinct morphs in some cases, or low interspecific variation in others. The four commonly recognised morphospecies: P. dolichorhiza, P. neopolydactyla, P. pulverulenta and P. scabrosa in the dolichorhizoid and scabrosoid clades represent species complexes spread across multiple and often phylogenetically distantly related lineages. Geographic origin of specimens is often helpful for species recognition; however, ITS sequences are frequently required for a reliable identification. Key words: cryptic species; identification key; new taxa; Peltigerales; species delimitation.
35732Davydov E.A., Ryzhkova P.Yu., Frolov I.V., Galanina I.A. & Yakovchenko L.S. (2023): New records of lichens from the Russian Far East. IV. The lichens of limestone outcrops of the southern part of the Russian Far East. - Acta Biologica Sibirica, 9: 451–477.
The new records of the lichens of limestone outcrops in the southern part of the Russian Far East (Primorye Territory and Sakhalin Region) are presented. Among them, Catillaria detractula, Gyalecta jenensis, Myriolecis semipallida, Physconia jacutica, Sarcogyne regularis, Thyrea confusa, Verrucaria caerulela, V. viridula and Xanthoria calcicola are newly reported for the Russian Far East; Acarospora glaucocarpa, A. macrospora, Lecanora valesiaca, Protoblastenia calva and Thelidium decipiens are newly reported for the southern part of the Russian Far East. Xanthocarpia crenulatella is a new species for Sakhalin Region. Diagnostic traits of the species, peculiarities of the material from the Russian Far East, distribution, ecology and comparison with the closest species are given. Keywords: Sikhote-Alin’ Range, lichenized fungus, calciphile species, floristic findings, biodiversity, flora, Sakhalin Region, Primorye Territory, temperate East Asia.
35731Yin A.C., Zhong Q.Y., Scheidegger C., Jin J.Z., Worthy F.R., Wang L.S. & Wang X.Y. (2023): The phylogeny and taxonomy of Glypholecia (Acarosporaceae lichenized Ascomycota), including a new species from northwestern China. - Mycokeys, (98): 153-165.
Glypholecia qinghaiensis An C. Yin, Q. Y. Zhong & Li S. Wang is described as new to science. It is characterized by its squamulose thallus, compound apothecia, ellipsoid asco -spores, and the presence of rhizines on the lower surface of the thallus. A phylogenetic tree of Glypholecia species was constructed based on nrITS and mtSSU sequences. Two species G. qinghaiensis and G. scabra are confirmed in China. cosmopolitan, lichenized fungi, morphological diversity, phylogenetic anal-yses, Tibetan Plateau, FUNGI, EVOLUTION, PRIMERS
35730Yanan X., Qiuxia Y. & Zefeng J. (2023): Preliminary study on lichen genus Phlyctis from China. - Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany, 30(3): 407-412.
Lichen species Phlyctis subhimalayensis is reported as new to China. Its morphological and molecular data are provided. All species of the genus Phlyctis in China have been briefly described, and similar species are discussed, and a key to the known species of Phlyctis in China is also provided, that would provide basic data for the further study of Phlyctis.
35729Biting L., Shouyu G., Mamuti Reyimu & Xinli W. (2023): Four Species of Lichen Genera Lecanora and Cladonia New to China. - Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany, 31(4): 573-584.
Based on combined morphological and chemical data with phylogenetic analysis using nrDNA ITS sequences, four species in the lichenized genus Lecanora Ach. and Cladonia P. Browne., including L. layana Lendemer, L. baekdudaeganensis B. G. Lee & Hur, L. pseudargentata Lumbsch and C. caespiticia (Pers.) P. Gaertn., B. Mey & Scherb. from Dabie Mountains, are reported as new record to China. The taxonomic characteristics of these species are described in detail and compared with similar species, and the geographic distribution and morphological photos are provided. These will provide information for the species diversity of Lecanora and Cladonia in China. Lichenized fungi, Lecanorales, Dabie Mountains, New record
35728Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1894): Lichenes Eckfeldtiani a cl. Dr. J. W. Eckfeldt Philadelphensi, praesertim in Mexico lecti, quos enumerat. - Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, 2: 89–93. .
35727Jung P., Werner L., Briegel-Williams L., Emrich D. & Lakatos M. (2023): Roccellinastrum, Cenozosia and Heterodermia: Ecology and phylogeny of fog lichens and their photobionts from the coastal Atacama Desert. - MycoKeys, 98: 317–348.
Some deserts on Earth such as the Namib or the Atacama are influenced by fog which can lead to the formation of local fog oases - unique environments hosting a great diversity of specialized plants and lichens. Lichens of the genera Ramalina, Niebla or Heterodermia have taxonomically been investigated from fog oases around the globe but not from the Atacama Desert, one of the oldest and driest deserts. Conditioned by its topography and the presence of orographic fog, the National Park Pan de Azúcar in the Atacama Desert is considered to be such a lichen hotspot. Applying multi-gen loci involving phylogenetic analyses combined with intense morphological and chemical characterization, we determined the taxonomic position of five of the most abundant epiphytic lichens of this area. We evaluated Roccellinastrum spongoideum and Heterodermia follmannii which were both described from the area but also finally showed that the genus Cenozosia is the endemic sister genus to Ramalina, Vermilacinia, Namibialina and Niebla. As a result, we have described the species Heterodermia adunca, C. cava and C. excorticata as new lichen species. This work provides a comprehensive dataset for common fog lichen genera of the Coastal Range of the Atacama Desert that can be used as a baseline for monitoring programs and environmental health assessments. Key words: Chlorolichens, Heterodermia, Niebla, Pan de Azucar, Symbiochloris, Trebouxia.
35726Li L., Zhang Y. & Printzen C. (2023): Phylogeny, morphology and chemistry reveal two new multispored species in the Lecanora subfusca group (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota). - MycoKeys, 99: 25–43.
Two new multispored species from China, Lecanora anhuiensis Li J. Li & Printzen, sp. nov. and Lecanora pseudojaponica Li J. Li & Printzen, sp. nov. are described and illustrated here, based on morphological, chemical and molecular evidence. Lecanora anhuiensis is characterised by an epruinose, yellowish-brown to deep brown apothecial disc, an epihymenium with fine crystals, an amphithecium with small crystals, 16-spored asci and the presence of zeorin, in addition to atranorin. Lecanora pseudojaponica is characterised by an epruinose, red-brown apothecial disc, an epihymenium without crystals, an amphithecium with small crystals, 8 or 16- spored asci and the presence of zeorin and the stictic acid complex, in addition to atranorin. Phylogenetic reconstructions, based on mtSSU, nrITS and nrLSU suggest that these two species are members of the Lecanora subfusca group. They are compared with morphologically similar and phylogenetically related species, based on a nrITS dataset. Phylogenetic results show that the multispored taxa of Lecanora are polyphyletic. The number of ascospores per ascus appears to be a taxonomic character of minor importance. Detailed descriptions, discussions and figures for the two new species from China and a key for the multispored species of Lecanora worldwide are provided. Key words: Ascospores, China, identification key, Lecanora, lichen, taxonomy.
35725Müller (Argoviensis) J. (1894): Arthoniae et Arthothelii species Wrightianae in insula Cuba lectae. - Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, 2: 725–736. .
Arthonia, Arthothelium, Cuba
35724Prieto M., Montané N., Aragón G., Martínez I. & Rodríguez-Arribas C. (2023): Cyanobacterial variability in lichen cephalodia. - Journal of Fungi, 9(8): 826 [11 p.].
The ecological success of lichens is related to both myco- and photobionts which condition the physiological limits of the lichen symbioses and thus affect their ecological niches and geographic ranges. A particular type of lichen, called cephalolichen, is characterized by housing both green algal and cyanobacterial symbionts—the latter is restricted to special structures called cephalodia. In this type of lichen, questions related to specialization within species or within individuals are still unsolved as different patterns have previously been observed. In order to study the variability at the intrathalline, intraspecific, and interspecific level, cyanobionts from different cephalodia within the same thalli and from different thalli were genetically analysed in three cephalolichen species at two different forests (18 thalli, 90 cephalodia). The results showed variability in the cephalodial Nostoc OTUs in all the studied species, both at the intrathalline and intraspecific levels. The variability of Nostoc OTUs found in different cephalodia of the same thallus suggests low specialization in this relationship. Additionally, differences in OTU diversity in the three studied species and in the two forests were found. The variability observed may confer an increased ecological plasticity and an advantage to colonize or persist under additional or novel habitats or conditions. Keywords: cyanolichens; intrathalline; rbcLX; Nephroma antarcticum; Nostoc; Pannaria farinosa; Pseudocyphellaria granulata; specialization; symbiosis.
35723Wagner H.-G. unter Mithilfe von Eichler M., Cezanne R., Raabe U., Schmidt C., Jagel A., Wirth V., Lumbsch H.T., Schumm F., Stapper N. et al. (2023): Im Gedenken an Dieter Gregor Zimmermann (1942–2022). - Herzogia, 36(1): 5–11. .
[in German], a tribute to Gregor Zimmermann; necrolog; bibliography
35722Weber L., Arup U. & Schiefelbein U. (2023): Lecanora sublivescens, a little-known lichen species in Germany. - Herzogia, 36(1): 12–28. .
New records of the lichenized fungus Lecanora sublivescens are reported from northern Germany. Here the species was previously known from four, mainly historical, localities and is considered highly endangered. Because of its variability and similarity to other Lecanora species it might however also be underreported. We present an analysis of the taxon’s phylogenetic position within Lecanora sensu lato as well as a detailed description of its morphology, ecology and geographic distribution. Key words: rediscovery, northern Germany, distribution, habitat.
35721Neumann P., Brackel W. v., Dolnik C., Cezanne R., Eichler M., Schiefelbein U. & Schultz M. (2023): Additional records of lichenised and lichenicolous fungi from Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania . - Herzogia, 36(1): 29–51. .
Records of a total of 91 taxa are reported, among these 51 lichens, 39 lichenicolous fungi and one lichen-allied fungus. Diplotomma parasiticum, Inoderma subabietinum, Lepraria sylvicola, Lichenochora aprica, L. collematum, Lichenoconium aeruginosum, Rhagadostoma collematum and Taeniolella trapeliopseos are new to Germany. Bactrospora corticola, Calicium notarisii and Lecidea diducens, thought to be lost throughout Germany, were rediscovered. Arthonia mediella, Micarea tomentosa, Parmotrema pseudoreticulatum as well as the lichenicolous fungi Abrothallus caerulescens, Cercidospora macrospora, Chaenothecopsis debilis, Cladosporium licheniphilum, Corynespora laevistipitata, Phaeospora lecanorae, Phoma peltigerae, Taeniolella cladinicola and Xenonectriella physciacearum are recorded for northern Germany for the first time. For Schleswig-Holstein 51 species are added to the lichen flora, 21 previously extinct taxa were rediscovered. Twenty-two taxa are new to Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Key words: Germany, lichen diversity.
35720Knudsen K., van Zon S., Tsurykau A., Kocourková J., Hodková E., Huereca A. & Malíček J. (2023): Sarcogyne (Acarosporaceae) on calcareous rock in Europe and North America . - Herzogia, 36(1): 52–71. .
Sarcogyne pruinosa and S. regularis are revised and lectotypes selected. Sarcogyne pruinosa is recognized as oldest name for the species and S. regularis as a synonym. The description of the species is revised. Sarcogyne pruinosa does not occur in North America. Two new species are described, Sarcogyne nimisii from Italy and Sarcogyne belarusensis from Belarus, Germany and Italy. Sarcogyne platycarpoides is lectotypified and S. melaniza is recognized as its synonym. New records are reported of S. distinguenda and S. nivea from the Czech Republic and Italy and S. fallax from the Czech Republic. A key is supplied for 14 species of Sarcogyne on calcareous rock in Europe. Key words: Carbonized margins, convex apothecia, lecideine apothecia, nomenclature, Sarcogyne coeruleonigrans.
35719Mouedden R., Ayache A., Khedim R., Motiejūnaitė J. & Ayad N. (2023): Records of new and overlooked lichens from the Saïda province (Western Algeria). - Herzogia, 36(1): 72–83. .
Eighty five lichens are reported for the first time from Doui-Thabet forest, Saïda province, Algeria, four of them (Acarospora aeginaica, Acarospora calcivora, Acarospora pitardii, Acarospora xanthophana) are new to Algeria. Of them Acarospora aeginaica is reported for the first time to north Africa. Ten of the recorded species are protected under the Algerian endangered species legislation. For all newly recorded species descriptions of morphology, anatomy, ecology and distribution are provided. Keywords: lichenized fungi, diversity, Doui-Thabet forest, northern Africa.
35718Zhurbenko M.P. (2023): Contributions to the knowledge of lichenicolous fungi growing on Pannariaceae, including four new species and an identification key. - Herzogia, 36(1): 131–160. .
Four species of lichenicolous fungi are described as new to science: Capronia marginalis (on Psoroma pallidum), with large perithecia, up to 250 μm diam., short and inconspicuous setae, a hemiamyloid hymenial gel, and light greyish orange, (0 –)3-septate ascospores with rather acute ends; Cladophialophora novozhilovii (on Psoroma hypnorum), with loose, light grey sporodochia, up to 530 μm diam., and light grey-brown, often slightly angular, 0(–1)-septate conidia; Lichenochora alaskana (on Fuscopannaria viridescens and Psoroma hypnorum), with 2(– 4)-spored asci, and (0 –)1(–2)-septate, long ascospores; and Zwackhiomyces errinundrensis (on Pannaria microphyllizans), with small perithecia, 70 –150 μm diam., without radial fissures around the ostiole, 4 -spored asci, and ascospores without a distinct perispore. The morphological differences between genera Lichenochora and Rhagadostoma are discussed. Perforations in the excipular cell walls of Lichenochora species are illustrated and compared to Munk pores. Two potentially new species, Capronia sp. 1 (on Psoroma paleaceum) and Ovicuculispora cf. parmeliae (on Psoroma pallidum) are characterised and discussed. Broader species concepts for Lichenochora coppinsii s. lat. and L. lepidiotae s. lat. are proposed. Fuscopannaria is a new host genus for Lichenochora coppinsii s. lat., Psoroma is a new host genus for L. lepidiotae s. lat. and Xenonectriella protopannariae. The possible synonymy of Xenonectriella protopannariae and X. rosea is discussed. Dacampia leptogiicola is newly reported for Macaronesia on a new host (Pectenia), and Opegrapha invadens is newly reported for New Zealand on a new host (Psoroma). A key to 80 species of lichenicolous fungi and three species of lichenicolous lichens known to occur on Pannariaceae is provided. Key words: biogeography, ecology, lichen-dwelling fungi, taxonomy.
35717Joshi Y. & Bansal P. (2023): A new species of Stigmidium (Mycosphaerellaceae) on Bulbothrix setschwanensis (Parmeliaceae) from India. - Herzogia, 36(1): 161–168. .
Stigmidium bulbothricis, parasiting the thallus of Bulbothrix setschwanensis is described as new to science from India. This is the twelfth species of Stigmidium growing on members of the family Parmeliaceae, and the first species on Bulbothrix. It is characterized by stromatic wart formations on the thallus of the host, a compound of multilocular ascomata in a sterile stromatic tissue between and over the loculi, hamathecium of “type b” pseudoparaphyses, and hyaline, 1-septate narrow ascospores with rounded ends. The species is compared with other gall-inducing Stigmidium species and a key to all known Stigmidium species colonizing members of the lichen family Parmeliaceae is provided. Keywords: Himalaya, lichenicolous fungi, parmelioid.
35716Brackel W. v. & Wirth V. (2023): Flechtenbewohnende Pilze im Naturraum Schwarzwald (südwestliches Deutschland). - Herzogia, 36(1): 84–130. .
Lichenicolous fungi known from the natural region Black Forest are listed, mainly based on recent finds. On the whole, 197 taxa are mentioned, including 183 described obligately lichenicolous fungi. Lichenosticta wirthii (on Loxospora cismonica) and Tremella altimontana (on Caloplaca cerina) are described as new to science. Further 17 species are new to Germany: Carbonea aggregantula, Clypeococcum cladonema, Didymocyrtis melanelixiae, Endococcus sardous, Lichenostigma rupicolae, Minutophoma chrysophthalmae, Neobarya peltigerae, Polycoccum versisporum, Rhymbocarpus neglectus, Roselliniopsis groedensis, Sclerococcum pertusariicola, Sphaerellothecium araneosum, S. stereocaulorum, Stigmidium leprariae, Taeniolella chrysothricis, Tremella tuckerae, Trimmatostroma vandenboomii and Weddellomyces turcicus. Another 42 species are new to Baden-Württemberg. Putative new species from the genera Endococcus, Lichenochora, Lichenothelia, Muellerella, Phaeoseptoria, Sphaerellothecium, Stigmidium and Trimmatostroma are sketched but not formally described. The distribution, rarity and endangerment of lichenicolous fungi and the possibility to evaluate these factors are discussed. Key words: Lichenicolous fungi, SW Germany, Black Forest, new records, ecology, endangerment.
35715Knudsen K., Kocourková J., Hodková E., Malíček J. & Wang Y. (2023): Acarosporaceae of New Mexico: eight new species of Acarospora and Sarcogyne. - Western North American Naturalist, 83(1): 51–88.
Eight new species are described from the Chihuahuan Desert in southern New Mexico: Acarospora agostiniana, A. divisa, A. fissurata, A. ryanii, Sarcogyne brouardiana, S. coeruleonigricans, S. malpaiensis, and S. nogalensis. Three species, Acarospora coloradiana, A. peltastica, and A. utahensis are not treated as synonyms of A. strigata, a South American endemic. Thirty-four species of Acarosporaceae are reported from the Chihuahuan Desert in southern New Mexico. Fifty-six species of Acarosporaceae are reported from New Mexico. It is estimated that 416 species of described Acarosporales occur worldwide, most in need of revisions. Including species described or taken out of synonymy in this paper, there are 120 species of Acarosporaceae reported from North America north of Mexico. Caeruleum heppii is not a member of the Acarosporales. A key is supplied for 93 species of Acarosporaceae in the southwestern United States (Arizona, southern and central California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and western Texas), which covers 77.5% of the described species in North America.
35714Ohmaki A., Okane I., Crous P.W. & Verkley G.J.M. (2023): Cylindromonium dirinariae sp. nov. (Ascomycota, Hypocreales), a new nectrioid lichenicolous species on Dirinaria applanata in Japan. - Fungal Systematics and Evolution, 11: 1–10.
A nectrioid fungus forming a pinkish colony with mainly solitary phialides producing ellipsoid, aseptate conidia in mucoid packets was isolated from Dirinaria applanata. Our taxonomic study based on morphology and phylogenetic analysis using ITS rDNA sequences revealed that the isolates represented a member of the genus Cylindromonium. Based on further morphological examination, nucleotide sequence comparison, and phylogenetic analysis based on LSU rDNA, tef1, and rpb2 in addition to the phylogenetic analysis using the ITS rDNA sequences, the fungus from Dirinaria represents a new species, which is described here as Cylindromonium dirinariae sp. nov. Furthermore, inoculation experiments revealed that this species can also produce perithecia when inoculated on the host lichen in laboratory environments. Key words: culture; inoculation; lichenicolous fungi; Nectriaceae; new taxon; phylogeny.
35713Toksoz O., Turkmenoglu I., Berber D., Caglayan P., Birbir M. & Sesal N.C. (2023): Evaluation of antibacterial potencies of eight lichen extracts against gram-positive moderately halophilic bacteria : ecological materials to control moderately halophilic bacteria for leather preservation. - Johnson Matthey Technol. Rev., 67(1): 85–96.
The leather sector has global economic importance. Overcoming microbiological problems, especially arising from halophilic bacteria, will greatly reduce product losses. In this study, lichen species including Usnea sp., Platismatia glauca, Ramalina farinacea, Evernia divaricata, Bryoria capillaris, Hypogymnia tubulosa, Pseudevernia furfuracea and Lobaria pulmonaria were examined for their antibacterial efficacies against Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus (TR5) and Salinicoccus roseus (KV3) which are proteolytic and lipolytic Gram-positive moderately halophilic bacteria. The extracts of P. glauca, B. capillaris, P. furfuracea and L. pulmonaria had no antibacterial efficacy against the test bacteria. On the other hand, the extracts of H. tubulosa, R. farinacea, Usnea sp. and E. divaricata had considerable antibacterial effect with varying percentages of inhibition. The maximum inhibition ratios at the tested concentrations of 15–240 μg ml–1 for lichen samples of H. tubulosa, R. farinacea, Usnea sp. and E. divaricata were detected as 94.72 ± 0.75%, 76.10 ± 1.85%, 99.36 ± 0.04%, 89.49 ± 2.26% for TR5 and 97.44 ± 0.14%, 95.92 ± 0.29%, 97.97 ± 0.39%, 97.58 ± 0.53% for KV3, respectively. The most remarkable suppression was obtained with Usnea sp. extracts against KV3. These results indicate the need for further studies investigating the applicability of these natural resources to control moderately halophilic bacteria in the preservation of raw hides and skins.
35712Sepulveda B., Benites D., Albornoz L., Simirgiotis M., Castro O., Garcia-Beltran O. & Areche C. (2023): Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of lichen substances from Hypotrachyna cirrhata. Ethyl lactate, a better extracting agent than methanol toxic organic solvent?. - Natural Product Research, 37(1): 159‒163.
For the first time, we report a green extraction of lichen substances assisted by high power ultrasounds from Hypotrachyna cirrhata using ethyl lactate. This sustainable alternative was comparable, both in isolation and detection of lichen substances, to methanol. In the metabolomic analysis, a total of 77 lichen substances were detected comprising depsides, depsidones, dibenzofurans, organic acids, and lipids. Although the UHPLC/ESI/ MS profiles were similar, the antioxidant activity was higher for the ethyl lactate extract. Ethyl lactate can replace toxic organic solvents, such as methanol, in order to provide more sustainable green chemistry methods. Keywords: alternative solvents; antioxidants; green chemistry; Hypotrachyna; LC/MS; lichens; ultrasound.
35711Nguyen T.-Q.-T., Pham N.-K.-T., Trung N.T., An T.N., Mai D.-T., Sichaem J., Huynh B.-L.-C., Anh N.T.H., Nguyen N.-H. & Duong T.-H. (2023): Indicuen, a new hopane from Parmotrema indicum Hale growing in Vietnam. - Natural Product Research, 37(8): 1284‒1291.
One new hopane-type triterpene, indicuen (1), along with eight known compounds (2–9) were isolated from the n-hexane extract of the lichen Parmotrema indicum Hale. The chemical structures of isolated compounds were identified by interpretation of their spectroscopic data (1D, 2D NMR and HRESIMS) combined with DFT-NMR chemical shift calculations and subsequent assignment of DP4+ probabilities and by comparison with the literature. Indicuen represents for a rare hopane bearing a 1-carboxyethyl substituent at C-21 in lichens. Compounds 1–3 and 5–8 were evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibition and cytotoxicity against K562 and HepG2 cancer cell lines. Compounds 1, 5 and 7 exhibited moderate α-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 values of 201.1, 156.3 and 187.4 µM, respectively. Compound 1 also showed weak cytotoxicity toward K562 cell line while others showed no activity. Keywords: Lichen; Parmotrema indicum Hale; indicuen; triterpene; α-glucosidase inhibition; cytotoxicity.
35710Nguyen V.-K., Nguyen-Si H.-V., Devi A.P., Poonsukkho P., Sangvichien E., Tran T.-N., Yusuke H., Mitsunaga T. & Chavasiri W. (2023): Eumitrins F-H: three new xanthone dimers from the lichen Usnea baileyi and their biological activities. - Natural Product Research, 37(9): 1480‒1490.
The lichen Usnea baileyi is a fruticose lichen belonging to the Usnea genus. It is well known as a rich source of natural xanthone dimers and possesses various bioactivities. Nevertheless, the chemical investigation on this type of lichen is still rare as most of researches reported its components without structural elucidation. Herein, in the continuous study on this type of lichen, we further isolate xanthone dimers from the dichloromethane extract and explore three new xanthone dimers, eumitrins F − H (1 − 3). Their structures were elucidated unambiguously by spectroscopic analyses, including high resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HRESIMS), 1 D and 2 D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 D and 2 D NMR), and DP4 probability. All compounds were evaluated for their enzyme inhibition against α-glucosidase, tyrosinase, and antibacterial activity. They revealed moderate antimicrobial and weak tyrosinase inhibition. For α-glucosidase inhibition, compound 3 displayed the most significant inhibitory against α-glucosidase possessing an IC50 value of 64.2 µM. Keywords: Lichen; Usnea baileyi; dimeric xanthone; α-glucosidase; enzyme inhibitory; antibacteria.
35709Nguyen H.-H., Duong T.-H., Nguyen T.V.A., Do T.-H., Pham D.-D., Nguyen N.-H. & Truong Nguyen H. (2023): α-Glucosidase inhibitory derivatives of protocetraric acid. - Natural Product Research, 37(12): 1935‒1946.
Lichen-derived depsidones have been a successful source for alpha-glucosidase inhibitory agents with numerous advantages. In this article, derivatives of protocetraric acids were designed and synthesised. Diels-Alder reaction, esterification, and Friedel-Crafts alkylation of protocetraric acid with different reagents under Lewis acid were performed. Eleven products were prepared, including 10 new compounds and parmosidone A. Among them, compounds 2–4 and 6 had the novel skeletons. The newly synthetic products were evaluated for alpha-glucosidase inhibition. Among tested compounds, 9 showed the strongest activity, with an IC50 value of 5.9 mM. The molecular docking model indicated the consistency between in vitro and in silico data of alpha-glucosidase inhibition. Keywords: Alpha-glucosidase; depsidone; molecular docking; protocetraric acid.
35708Castañeta G., Sepulveda B., Vargas R., Garcia-Beltran O., Simirgiotis M. & Areche C. (2023): A sustainable application for the extraction of lichen metabolites from Usnea cornuta: nontargeted metabolomics and antioxidant activity. - Natural Product Research, 37(12): 2076‒2082.
In this study, isolation and purification of lichen substances from Usnea cornuta were performed using conventional solvents, green solvents and green technologies. In addition, several lichen compounds were tentatively identified by UHPLC/ESI/MS/MS and usnic acid, diffractaic and galbinic acids were quantified as well. Limonene, ethyl lactate and methanol, were compared regarding their extraction properties and antioxidant capacities, determined by DPPH, ORAC, and FRAP assays. In the ethyl lactate, methanol and limonene extracts, 28 compounds in all, were detected for the first time by high resolution UHPLC-MS/MS fingerprinting. Untargeted metabolomics tentatively identified 14 compounds from the methanolic extract, 4 from limonene extract, and 20 metabolites from ethyl lactate extract. The green extract of ethyl lactate showed a similar antioxidant capacity to toxic methanol extract, except at ORAC assay where it was higher. Therefore, ethyl lactate can replace methanol, to provide more sustainable green chemistry methods. Keywords: Alternative solvents; antioxidants; green chemistry; Usnea; LC/MS; lichens.
35707Burt S.R., Harper J.K. & Cool L.G. (2023): A new depsidone from the neotricone-rich chemotype of the lichenised fungus Usnea fulvoreagens. - Natural Product Research, 37(13): 2248‒2254.
Individuals of Usnea fulvoreagens (Parmeliaceae, lichenised Ascomycota), a shrubby corticolous species that is widespread in Europe, East Asia and North America, produce medullary lichen acids in several distinct chemotypic patterns. One such chemotype reportedly contains an unidentified substance as the major secondary metabolite. We isolated this compound from Californian specimens of U. fulvoreagens and identified it as the rare depsidone neotricone. A co-occurring compound, conneotricone, was identified as 4,10-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-8- methyl-3,7-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-7H-isobenzofuro[4,5-b][1,4]benzodioxepine- 11-carboxylic acid by NMR and HPLC-UV-MSn comparison with the material synthesised from salazinic acid. Keywords: chemotype; conneotricone; lichen; LC-MS; NMR; perisalazinic acid.
35706Goyette S., Spirin V. & Spribille T. (2023): Systemic infection of Bryoria (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota) by Athelia (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) in western North America. - Mycologia, 115(3): 299‒316.
The present contribution is motivated by the frequent occurrence of traces generated by lichens on the fossil record, the usual and erroneous attribution of them to plant roots, and the scarce information published about bioerosive damage caused by lichens. As a result, two different patterns were identified on the surface and inside the fossil bones and teeth. The first one is characterised by the presence of lines clearer than the rest of the surface, produced by the hyphae and interrupted by small pits corresponding to the apothecia. These traces are often confused with Corrossichnia and Sphenoichnia, a situation that leads to taphonomic and palaeoecological misinterpretation. The second pattern, more unnoticed among other visible traces, consists of isolated pits without any other surficial trace distributed in the fossil surface. These pits can be confused with perforations made by many organisms. However, the presence of apothecia and, in some cases, also hyphae on the fossil remains, allows the accurate identification of the causal agent and the mechanism of action by which it occurs. Keywords: Bioerosion; taphonomy; South America; Antarctica; Cenozoic.
35705Acosta Hospitaleche C., García R., Pérez L.M. & Márquez G. (2023): Neoichnology of endolithic lichens: an update on the traces produced in fossil bones and teeth. - Historical Biology, 35(7): 1175‒1185.
The present contribution is motivated by the frequent occurrence of traces generated by lichens on the fossil record, the usual and erroneous attribution of them to plant roots, and the scarce information published about bioerosive damage caused by lichens. As a result, two different patterns were identified on the surface and inside the fossil bones and teeth. The first one is characterised by the presence of lines clearer than the rest of the surface, produced by the hyphae and interrupted by small pits corresponding to the apothecia. These traces are often confused with Corrossichnia and Sphenoichnia, a situation that leads to taphonomic and palaeoecological misinterpretation. The second pattern, more unnoticed among other visible traces, consists of isolated pits without any other surficial trace distributed in the fossil surface. These pits can be confused with perforations made by many organisms. However, the presence of apothecia and, in some cases, also hyphae on the fossil remains, allows the accurate identification of the causal agent and the mechanism of action by which it occurs. Keywords: Bioerosion; taphonomy; South America; Antarctica; Cenozoic.
35704Crous P.W., Akulov A., Balashov S., Boers J., Braun U., Castillo J., Delgado M.A., Denman S., Erhard A., Gusella G., Jurjević Ž., Kruse J., Malloch D.W., Osieck E.R., Polizzi G., Schumacher R.K., Slootweg E., Starink-Willemse M., van Iperen A.L., Verkley G.J.M. & Groenewald J.Z. (2023): New and Interesting Fungi. 6. - Fungal Systematics and Evolution, 11: 109–156. doi: 10.3114/fuse.2023.11.09.
Three new genera, six new species, three combinations, six epitypes, and 25 interesting new host and / or geographical records are introduced in this study. New genera: Neoleptodontidium (based on Neoleptodontidium aquaticum), and Nothoramularia (based on Nothoramularia ragnhildianicola). New species: Acremonium aquaticum (from cooling pad water, USA, Cladophialophora laricicola (on dead wood of Larix sp., Netherlands), Cyphellophora neerlandica (on lichen on brick wall, Netherlands), Geonectria muralis (on moss growing on a wall, Netherlands), Harposporium illinoisense (from rockwool, USA), and Neoleptodontidium aquaticum (from hydroponic water, USA). New combinations: Cyphellophora deltoidea (based on Anthopsis deltoidea), Neoleptodontidium aciculare (based on Leptodontidium aciculare), and Nothoramularia ragnhildianicola (based on Ramularia ragnhildianicola). Epitypes: Cephaliophora tropica (from water, USA), Miricatena prunicola (on leaves of Prunus serotina, Netherlands), Nothoramularia ragnhildianicola (on Ragnhildiana ferruginea, parasitic on Artemisia vulgaris, Germany), Phyllosticta multicorniculata (on needles of Abietis balsamea, Canada), Thyronectria caraganae (on twigs of Caragana arborescens, Ukraine), and Trichosphaeria pilosa (on decayed Salix branch, Netherlands). Furthermore, the higher order phylogeny of three genera regarded as incertae sedis is resolved, namely Cephaliophora (Ascodesmidaceae, Pezizales), Miricatena (Helotiales, Leotiomycetes), and Trichosphaeria (Trichosphaeriaceae, Trichosphaeriales), with Trichosphaeriaceae being an older name for Plectosphaerellaceae. Key words: biodiversity; ITS barcodes; multi-gene phylogeny; new taxa; systematics; typification.
35703Müller (Argoviensis), J. (1895): Graphideae eckfeldtianae in Louisiana et Florida lecte, additis observationibus in Graphideas calkinsianas ejusdem regionis. - Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, 3(2): 41–50. .
Platygrapha subattingens, Sclerophyton inscriptum, Opegrapha candida, Opegrapha Bonplandi, Opegrapha vulgata, Opegrapha leucoplaca, Opegrapha varia, Opegrapha astraea, Opegrapha (s. Pleurothecium) longissima, Opegraphella filicina, Melaspilea (s. Holographa) octomera, Melaspilea (s. Eumelaspilea) maculosa, Melaspilea (s. Melaspileopsis) cupularis, Graphis (s. Aulacographa) duplicata, Graphis (s. Aulacographa) striatula, Graphis (s. Aulacogramma) rimulosa, Graphis (s. Solenographa) assimilis, Graphis (s. Eugraphis) scripta v. limitata, Graphis (s. Anomothecium) Celtidis, Graphis (s. Ghlorographa) intertexta, Graphis (s. Ghlorographa) poitaeoides, Graphis (s. Diplographis) rufula, Graphis (s. Leucographis) Afzelii, Graphis (s. Fissurina) Beaumontii, Graphis (s.Anomomorpha) turbulenta, Graphina (s. Aulacographina) sophistica, Graphina (s. Schizographina) acrophaea, Graphina (s. Chlorographina) abaphoides, Graphina (s. Chlorographina) adscribens, Graphina (s. Platygrammina) mendax, Graphina (s. Platygrammina) subvirginalis, v. fulvescens, Graphina (s. Thalloloma) virginalis, Graphina (s. Thalloloma) Cypressi, Graphina (s. Thalloloma) glaueoderma, Graphina (s. Thalloloma) incrustans, Phseographis (s. Platygramma) dendritica, Phseographis (s. Hemithecium) inusta, Phseographina (s. Eleutheroloma) esesiopruinosa, Arthonia gregaria ß obscura, v. opegraphina, Arthonia Eckfeldtii, Arthonia rubella, Arthonia epipastoides, Arthonia quintaria, Arthonia polymorpha, Arthonia asteriscus, Arthothelium interveniens, Arthothelium macrotheca, Helminthocarpon Le Prevostii, Sarcographa (s. Eusarcographa) tricosa, Chiodecton heterotropoides, Glyphis favulosa v. confluens
35702Rotter P., Purchart L. (eds.) (2023): Ekologie lesa. Jak se les mění a funguje. - Brno: Mendelova univerzita v Brně, 647 p.
Kniha představuje čtenáři les jako komplexní adaptivní systém. Oproti tradičnímu ekosystémovému pohledu jsou více zdůrazněny biotické interakce mezi členy této složité sítě. To se neobejde bez vysvětlení některých základních pojmů a fenoménů sítí vztahů v lesních ekosystémech. V těchto sítích vynikají některé druhy, či skupiny druhů, jako druhy klíčové nebo jako tzv. ekosystémoví inženýři. Tyto druhy, skupiny druhů, či dokonce celé fragmenty sítě vztahů jsou představovány na konkrétní úrovni prostřednictvím poznatků osvětlujících fungování lesa jako celku. Publikace rovněž vyniká důrazem na funkční pohled a na pochopení toho, které druhy, místa či procesy představují základ existence lesa jako celku. Cílem knihy je zasadit všechny prezentované informace z ekologie lesa do rámce, který je nanejvýš aktuální a pro středoevropský prostor klíčový, a ukázat, jak mohou tyto znalosti přispět k lepšímu hospodaření v lesích a k jejich adaptaci na klimatickou změnu. Při následování takto vytyčené cesty za poznáním lesa je čtenář nejdříve seznámen s tím, jak odlišné pohledy na les utvářely různé způsoby jeho využívání a proč je ještě více než kdy v minulosti nezbytné, aby hospodaření člověka s lesem vycházelo z ekologických základů. Vývoj lesa jako časoprostorové struktury je ná- sledně představen pomocí poznatků o vývoji lesů v holocénu, o dynamice přirozených temperátních lesů a o vlivu jednoho z hlavních hybatelů této dynamiky – disturbancí – na strukturu i biodiverzitu lesa. Od tohoto základu se pozornost upírá k sítím – trofickým sítím a kaskádám – i k fyzickému propojení v mykorhizních sítích jako k základním fenoménům utvářejícím lesní ekosystém. Tato širší perspektiva přechází do zevrubného představování rolí jednotlivých skupin organismů, klíčových druhů a ekosystémových inženýrů pro fungování celku. Z těchto detailů se na úrovni celku, či jeho výrazných subsystémů, vynořují emergentní ekosystémové vlastnosti – koloběh živin a stabilita ekosystému. Protože žijeme v době bouřlivých změn, jež jsou důsledkem globální klimatické změny, pochopení podstaty ekologické stability a dalších aspektů adaptace se stává nezbytným pro udržení hospodářských lesů a jejich – pro společnost klíčových – ekosystémových služeb. Tato problematika je čtenáři předkládána téměř v závěru knihy. Publikaci uzavírá syntézní kapitola, která shrnuje představenou koncepci pojetí ekologie lesa a možnosti využití jejich poznatků. adaptace lesa, biodiverzita, disturbance, ekologická stabilita, klimatická změna, koloběh živin, trofické vztahy, lišejníky
35701Vieira C., Hespanhol H., Portela A., Marques J. & Vila-Viçosa C. (2019): The Mediterranean in a Closet: Botany collections at the Herbarium of the Natural history and Science Museum of the University of Porto. - Museu di Scientia Natural Porto, 2023: 1-1.
The Herbarium of the Natural History and Science Museum of the University of Porto (MHNC-UP) (registered in the Index Herbariorum as PO Herbarium) is an active collection in continuous growth that contains about 100,000 herbarium specimens of fungi, lichens, algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes and vascular plants. The history of botany at Porto University is inseparable from the origins of the first specimens of bryophytes and lichens collected by Isaac Newton in 1848, in mainland Portugal. The majority of specimens of PO Herbarium were collected in Portugal, but this collection also includes a General Herbarium with specimens from countries worldwide obtained through a versatile exchange policy during the last three centuries.
35700Vieira C. & Costa R. (2019): Wild African Cryptogams: more than one thousand specimens understudied at the Natural History and Science Museum at Porto University (PO) Herbarium. - Museu di Scientia Natural Porto, 2023: 1-1.
The herbarium of the Natural History and Science Museum at Porto University (PO) is a reference collection of Portuguese flora, comprising collections since the 19th century including former Portuguese colonies. All specimens deposited in this herbarium are readily accessible with meta-data (location and date of collection and name of collector). But some of the cryptogamic collections generated as secondary or opportunistic specimens in field surveys end up as unnamed or unpublished. This worsens when no documentation refers to these collections or when collections resulted from personal or casual collections made by botanists focused on vascular plants. PO African cryptogams comprise a total number of 3308 specimens (algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes). Some of these were the basis of new species to science or the first records for some countries, but 1484 are clearly understudied, being potentially interesting discoveries awaiting at the shelves. The main objective of this work was to recognize, repackage, numerate, and database these irreplaceable specimens. In this way, we hope to ensure their accessibility to staff and researchers. By presenting these collections, from a curatorship perspective, the associated missions, protagonists, and meta-data we hope to promote their study and application. We would like to acknowledge the support of the Portuguese Infrastructure of Scientific Collections - POCI-01-0145FEDER-022168 (
35699Cerrejón C., Valeria O. & Fenton N. (2023): Estimating lichen α-and β-diversity using satellite data at different spatial resolutions. - Ecological Indicators, 149: 110173.
Understanding biodiversity patterns and its environmental drivers is crucial to meet conservation targets and develop effective monitoring tools. Inconspicuous species such as lichens require special attention since they are ecologically important but sensitive species that are often overlooked in conservation planning. Remote sensing (RS) can be particularly beneficial for these species as in combination with modelling techniques it allows planners to assess and better understand biodiversity patterns. This study aims to model the lichen α-diversity (species richness) and β-diversity (species turnover) biodiversity components using high resolution RS variables across a subarctic region in Northern Quebec (~190.25 km 2). Two sensors, one commercial (WorldView-3, WV3) and another freely accessible (Sentinel-2, S2), at different resolutions (1.2 m and 10 m, respectively) were tested separately to develop our variables and feed the models. Lichens were sampled in 45 plots across different habitat types, ranging from forested habitats (coniferous, deciduous) to wetlands (bogs, fens) and rocky outcrops. Two sets of uncorrelated variables (Red and NIR; EVI2) from each sensor were parallelly used to build the α-and β-diversity models (8 models in total) through Poisson regressions and generalized dissimilarity modelling (GDM), respectively. Red and NIR variables were useful for modeling the two biodiversity components at both resolutions, providing information on stand canopy closure and structure, respectively. EVI2, especially from WV3, was only informative for assessing β-diversity, providing similar information than Red. Poisson models explained up to 32 % of the variation in lichen α-diversity, with Red, NIR and EVI2, either from WV3 or S2, showing negative relationships with lichen richness. GDMs described well the relationship between β-diversity and spectral dissimilarity (R 2 from 0.25 to 0.30), except for the S2 EVI2 model (R 2 = 0.07), confirming that more spectrally and thus environmentally different areas tend to harbor different lichen communities. While WV3 often outperformed the S2 sensor, the latter still provides a powerful tool for the study of lichens and their conservation. This study contributes to improve our knowledge and to inform on the use of RS to understand biodiversity patterns of inconspicuous species, which we consider to be an essential step to enhance their representation in conservation planning.
35698Cannon P., Aptroot A., Coppins B., Ertz D., Sanderson N., Simkin J., Benfield B. & Wolseley P. (2023): Arthoniales: Roccellaceae [revision 1] including the genera Cresponea, Dendrographa, Dirina, Enterographa, Gyrographa, Lecanactis, Ocellomma, Pseudoschismatomma, Psoronactis, Roccella, Schismatomma and Syncesia. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 32: 1-22.
35697Brinker S.R. (2023): Further contributions to the Ontario flora of lichens and allied fungi, with emphasis on the Great Lakes Basin. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 22: 41‒80.
Noteworthy records of forty-three lichens and allied fungi are presented based on recent collections from Ontario, Canada. Three species, Agonimia borysthenica, Arthonia subconveniens (on Ricasolia quercizans) and Lecanographa abscondita are reported for the first time from North America. Eleven species, Erythricium aurantiacum (on Physcia millegrana), Hypotrachyna showmanii, Leptogium arsenei, Opegrapha rupestris (on Bagliettoa), Pronectria tibellii (on Cladonia pocillum), Punctelia missouriensis, Thelidium zwackhii, Tremella imshaugiae (on Imshaugia aleurites), Verrucaria bryoctona, Vezdaea schuyleriana and Vouauxiella lichenicola (on Lecanora) are reported for the first time from Canada. Eleven species, Absconditella sphagnorum, Agonimia gelatinosa, Didymocyrtis xanthomendozae (on Xanthomendoza hasseana), Distopyrenis americana, Lichenochora obscuroides (on Phaeophyscia pusilloides and P. sciastra), Paranectria oropensis (on Lecanora and P. rubropulchra), Pertusaria sommerfeltii, Raesaenenia huuskonenii (on Bryoria fuscescens), Stereocaulon depreaultii, Thrombium epigaeum and Trichonectria rubefaciens (on Aspicilia) are reported as new to Ontario. Details on 18 additional rare or otherwise rarely collected species new to various counties and districts of the province are also provided. These include: Abrothallus microspermus (on Flavoparmelia caperata), Ahtiana aurescens, Athelia arachnoidea (on Physcia millegrana), Blennothallia crispa, Chaenothecopsis brevipes (on Inoderma byssaceum), C. rubescens (on I. byssaceum), Cladonia dimorphoclada, Corticifraga fuckelii (on Peltigera evansiana), Didymocyrtis cladoniicola (on Cladonia), Hypotrachyna revoluta, Lepra panyrga, Marchandiomyces corallinus (on Parmelia squarrosa and Physcia thomsoniana), Muellerella hospitans (on Bacidia rubella), Refractohilum peltigerae (on Peltigera evansiana), Reichlingia leopoldii, Sarcosagium campestre, Steinia geophana and Vezdaea acicularis. Keywords. – Appalachian-Great Lakes Region, biogeography, florsitics, North America, range extensions, rare species.
35696Bjorå C.S., Bendiksby M., Løfall B.P., Johannesen L.E. & Timdal E. (2023): Collections of Arctic Plants, Lichens, and Fungi in the Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norway. - Collections, 2023: 1-17.
The Arctic has been, and is, an area of focus for the botanical and fungal (lichenized fungi included) collections at the Natural History Museum of Oslo. These collections house more than 233,000 unique Arctic specimens, the oldest dating back more than two centuries. The vascular plants account for 63 percent, lichens 30 percent, and fungi 7 percent. The Arctic collections have a circumpolar representation with emphasis on mainland Norway (48 percent) and Svalbard (13 percent), followed by Arctic America (10 percent), Greenland (9 percent), and Arctic Russia (8 percent). The Oslo herbarium and fungarium house collections from important polar expeditions like Fram-2, Gj?a, and Maud, but also of many expeditions where collecting biological specimens was the main purpose. The number of new collections was highest in the decades 1930 to 1939 and 2000 to 2009 with each around 35,000 new specimens. In the 1990s, a DNA Bank was established for DNA extracts and tissue samples, and it houses today 22,879 Arctic accessions of fungi, lichens, and plants. In times of climatic change and a tense geopolitical situation, the herbarium and fungarium at NHM-Oslo represent an invaluable source for biological information about the Arctic. We welcome the use of our collections for research-, nature management-, and teaching purposes.
35695Audibert C. & Neyton L. (2019): Note sur quelques collections cryptogamiques au musée des Confluences (Lyon). - Colligo, 2(2): 3-8.
This note deals with four cryptogamic collections held at the Confluences Museum in Lyon. As part of their inventory, research was undertaken on the collectors and acquisition by the museum. Present among these collections is a fascicle of a century of algae collected in Brittany by Lelièvre de la Morinière & Prouhet in 1841. Also two specimens of dried lichens of lichens made during the expeditions of Ernest Chantre (1890-1894) in the Caucasus and Gaston Buchet (1892-1895) in the Canary Islands and Iceland. Among the Chantre collection are two syntypes of species described by J. Müller Argoviensis on the basis of specimens collected by Ms. Chantre, an unknown botanist: Lecidea araratica and Lecidea chantriana. Finally, unexpectedly, a series of mosses of Hilarion Borel, which has been published by Octave Meyran in 1912, is included in the Vermorel collection. Algae, Mosses Lichens, musée des Confluences Victor Vermorel Hilarion Borel, Octave Meyran Lelièvre de la Morinière Prouhet, Gaston Buchet, Ernest Chantre Jeanne Bellonie Chantre XIXth century - XXth century
35694Simijaca D., Ocampo G., Escoto-Moreno J. & Pérez-Pérez R.E. (2023): Lichen community assemblages and functional traits as indicators of vegetation types in Central Mexico, based on herbarium specimens . - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 44(6): 83–102.
Despite the growing interest in the lichen communities of Mexico, little is known about the assemblages from the central part of the country. For that reason, we defined the following research objectives: 1) to compare species richness, composition, and dissimilarity of lichen communities among three vegetation types; 2) to explore the incidence of environmental variables on lichen community species composition; and 3) to identify species and functional traits indicative of each vegetation type. Based on lichens’ collection of Aguascalientes (HUAA herbarium), the relationships between species, traits, and environmental variables were represented through beta diversity components, non-metric multidimensional scales, Indicator Species Analysis, and Fourth Corner Analysis. In total, 218 lichen species were found, 132 in Quercus L. forests, 90 in subtropical shrubland, and 85 in xerophytic shrubland. Vegetation types had beta diversity total values higher than 0.8, although paired comparisons revealed variations in species replacement and richness. The indicator species identified for Quercus forests were Parmotrema acutatum Kurok., while for subtropical shrubland Phaeophyscia nashii Essl. and Physcia biziana (A.Massal.) Zahlbr. No indicator species were identified for xerophytic shrubland. Functional traits indicative of xerophytic shrubland were crustose lichens and the saxicolous substrate. Subtropical shrubland indicators comprised soredia and foliose narrow lobes, whereas indicators of Quercus forest consisted of foliose wide lobes and the epiphyte substrate. The functional trait approach used in the study of Mexican lichen communities is highly recommended given the observed similarities between taxonomical and functional community assemblages and the ease with which the functional traits approach links species composition to environmental variables. Key words: Bioindicators, community assemblages, diversity, response traits, shrublands.
35693Wang H.X., Xuan M., Diao J.J., Xu N., Li M.L., Huang C. & Wang C.H. (2023): Metabolism and toxicity of usnic acid and barbatic acid based on microsomes, S9 fraction, and 3T3 fibroblasts in vitro combined with a UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method. - Frontiers in Pharmacology, 14: 1207928.
Introduction: Usnic acid (UA) and barbatic acid (BA), two typical dibenzofurans and depsides in lichen, have a wide range of pharmacological activities and hepatotoxicity concerns. This study aimed to clarify the metabolic pathway of UA and BA and illuminate the relationship between metabolism and toxicity. Methods: An UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method was developed for metabolite identification of UA and BA in human liver microsomes (HLMs), rat liver microsomes (RLMs), and S9 fraction (RS9). The key metabolic enzymes responsible for UA and BA were identified by enzyme inhibitors combined with recombinant human cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes. The cytotoxicity and metabolic toxicity mechanism of UA and BA were determined by the combination model of human primary hepatocytes and mouse 3T3 fibroblasts. Results: The hydroxylation, methylation, and glucuronidation reactions were involved in the metabolic profiles of UA and BA in RLMs, HLMs, and RS9. CYP2C9, CYP3A4, CYP2C8, and UGT1A1 are key metabolic enzymes responsible for metabolites of UA and CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP1A1, UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, and UGT1A10 for metabolites of BA. UA and BA did not display evident cytotoxicity in human primary hepatocytes at concentrations of 0.01-25 and 0.01-100 mu M, respectively, but showed potential cytotoxicity to mouse 3T3 fibroblasts with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 7.40 and 60.2 mu M. Discussion: In conclusion, the attenuated cytotoxicity of BA is associated with metabolism, and UGTs may be the key metabolic detoxification enzymes. The cytotoxicity of UA may be associated with chronic toxicity. The present results provide important insights into the understanding of the biotransformation behavior and metabolic detoxification of UA and BA. usnic acid, barbatic acid, metabolism, metabolic pathway, detoxification, UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS, ANTIMYCOBACTERIAL ACTIVITY, DIETARY-SUPPLEMENT, LIVER-FAILURE, HEPATOTOXICITY, LICHEN, HEPATOCYTES, INHIBITION, INDOMETHACIN, CYTOTOXICITY, IRRADIATION
35692Nayaka S. & Debnath A. (2023): Cyphellostereum indicum (Hygrophoraceae), a new species of basidiolichen from India. - Phytotaxa, 603(3): 271–279.
Cyphellostereum indicum, an interesting basidiolichen is described as a new species. The species was collected from Arunachal Pradesh, an Indian state located within the Eastern Himalayas. The species is characterized by a terricolous habitat, the cyanobacteria Rhizonema as the photobiont that is loosely wrapped by fungus hyphae, white to cream-coloured, flabellate, solitary hymenophores, and thin-walled, smooth, simple, irregular to pip-shaped basidiospores 3.18–4.9 × 2.06– 2.9 μm. The phylogenetic analysis clearly shows its position in a separate branch within the genus Cyphellostereum making it a species distinct from any previously reported species. Cyphellostereum indicum is the third basidiolichen reported from India. Keywords: Asia, biodiversity hotspot, lichenized fungi, Lichenomphalinoideae, mycobiota.
35691Bell-Doyon P. (2023): Checklist of lichens and associated fungi from Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve, Québec, Canada. - Northeastern Naturalist, 30(3): 304‒328.
This first annotated checklist of the lichens and associated fungi from Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve (Québec, Canada) was compiled with the aim of enhancing the ecological knowledge from this regional biodiversity hotspot. I collected specimens in 2021 and 2022 and reviewed previous records based on vouchers deposited at the Louis‑Marie Herbarium. A total of 257 species belonging to 96 genera are reported for the protected area, 3 of which represent the first published occurrence with an associated, digitized voucher for the province of Québec: Lecanactis abietina, Opegrapha vulgata, and Usnea diplotypus. This work highlights that Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve has the potential to be recognized as an area of high lichen diversity in northeastern North America.
35690Li M., Ju Y. & Jia Z. (2023): Chaenothecopsis xishuiensis sp. nov. to Science and Lecanora pseudargentata Newly Reported from China. - Diversity, 15(8): 893 [13 p.].
In order to provide data for lichenologists studying taxonomy, Chaenothecopsis xishuiensis is supported and proposed as a new species from China based on phenotypic, molecular, and metabolite data. It is characterised by leprose thallus, single, conical to hemispherical apothecia, nonbranching stipe, cylindrical, eight-spored asci, and nonseptate and brown spores, and this lichenised fungus contains atranorin and zeorin in the thallus. In addition, Lecanora pseudargentata is reported for the first time as a new record from China. This species is characterised by red-brown to dark brown apothecial discs, eight-spored asci, nonseptate, hyaline spores, and the presence of atranorin and gangaleoidin. The biological activity of its lichen substances is discussed. Keywords: lichenised fungi; Mycocaliciaceae; Lecanoraceae; taxonomy.
35689Khodosovtsev A., Vasylyuk O. & Marushchak O. (2023): Awardee report of the EDGG Fund for Ukrainian Scientists: Dataset for threatened terricolous lichens with arid ecology from Ukraine. - Palaearctic Grasslands, 57: 33–35. .
35688Zuo Q., Wang L. & Zhang L. (2023): One new species and three new records in the genus Porpidia from China. - The Lichenologist, 55(3-4):139-150.
Four species of Porpidia are newly reported from China, including one species new to science (Porpidia crystallina) and three records (Porpidia umbonifera, P. seakensis and P. cf. contraponenda) new to China. Porpidia crystallina is characterized by a macrocarpa-type exciple containing crystals, a Cinereorufa-green epihymenium, large ascospores and a lack of secondary metabolites. Morpho-anatomical, chemical and phylogenetic analyses were carried out to elucidate the placement of the species and to support the delimitation of the new taxon. Detailed taxonomic descriptions, ecological and chemical characters, and illustrations are provided for each species. A key to all known Chinese Porpidia species is also provided. ITS, Lecideaceae, lichens, phylogeny, taxonomy
35687Zhang Y., Wang L., Wang X., Printzen C., Timdal E. & Wang L. (2023): Squamarina subcetrarioides comb. & stat. nov. (Stereocaulaceae), a separate species from the type species of Squamarina. - The Lichenologist, 55(3-4):133-137.
The type species of Squamarina has two varieties, S. gypsacea var. gypsacea and S. gypsacea var. subcetrarioides. In this study, a phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis of these two varieties shows that S. var. subcetrarioides merits treatment as a species separate from S. gypsacea. Therefore, we raise this variety to species level as S. subcetrarioides (Zahlbr.) Y. Y. Zhang. Squamarina subcetrarioides is phylogenetically not closely related to S. gypsacea and differs from that species in the thallus forming rosettes when young, later becoming cracked and irregular in outline, and consisting of numerous small squamules. alpine lichen, Mediterranean, Squamarinoideae, taxonomy
35686Wolseley P., Woods R., Douglass J., Coppins B.J. & Peterken G. (2023): Alan Orange – an appreciation, 19th June 1955–5th February 2023. - The Lichenologist, 55(3-4):103-106.
35685Usman M., Firdous Q., Dyer P.S. & Khalid A.N. (2023): A new species of the genus Anamylopsora (Baeomycetaceae; Ascomycota) from Deosai National Park, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. - The Lichenologist, 55(3-4):125-132.
A novel lichen species occurring on rocks was collected from three different localities within Deosai National Park, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. Phylogenetic analyses of the nrDNA ITS and nuLSU regions revealed that it clustered within the genus Anamylopsora. Further chemical and morpho-anatomical analyses confirmed its uniqueness, and it is described here as a new species under the name A. pakistanica. The distinguishing characters are: an irregularly squamulose appressed thallus on rocks without rhizines; an epinecral layer up to 25 μm thick; ascospores that are hyaline, simple, thick-walled with a smooth surface; septate paraphyses with a pigmented apical cell in a gel-like matrix; globose to subglobose pycnidia with hyaline and bacilliform pycnidiospores. In particular, the species is distinguished from other members of the genus by morpho-anatomical features including the coloration of the thalli, the presence of a thick lower cortex (up to 100 μm), and the presence of simple, thick-walled ascospores. Specimens were found at altitudes up to 4587 m, the highest elevation yet reported for Anamylopsora. A key and comparison to all existing species of the genus Anamylopsora is also given. Anamylopsoraceae, arctic-alpine, Asia, lichens, systematics
35684Li L., Wang L. & Printzen C. (2023): A new species and new combination of Lecanora s. str. (Lecanoraceae) from China. - The Lichenologist, 55(3-4):115-124.
A new lichen species, Lecanora zeorina Li J. Li & Printzen is described here from the south-west of China. Lecanora zeorina is characterized by its somewhat areolate-squamulose thallus, zeorine to lecanorine apothecia, an epihymenium without crystals around expanded paraphyses tips, an amphithecium with large calcium oxalate crystals and the production of atranorin. A new combination, Lecanora crystalliniformis (B.G. Lee & Hur) Li J. Li & Printzen, is based on Protoparmeliopsis crystalliniformis B.G. Lee & Hur, which was described as a new species from South Korea. Collections from China are almost identical in morphology and chemistry, and are phylogenetically closely related. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on ITS and mtSSU suggest that these two lecanoroid species belong in Lecanora s. str. where they form a sister group to sorediate species such as L. barkmaniana Aptroot & Herk and L. variolascens Nyl. Detailed descriptions, discussions, distributions and phylogenetic trees, based on multiple collections, are presented. chemistry, Lecanora subfusca group, lichens, phylogeny, taxonomy
35683Arup U., Holien H. & Coppins B.J. (2023): Lecanora caledonica – a new species in the Lecanora intumescens group (Lecanoraceae) from north-western Europe. - The Lichenologist, 55(3-4):107-114.
Lecanora caledonica is described as new to science. Molecular analyses show that it belongs to the L. intumescens group. It is also rather similar in appearance to L. intumescens, but differs mainly chemically in containing only atranorin and an unknown UV+ ice blue substance. There are also anatomical and morphological differences to the other species of the group. The new species has a pronounced oceanic distribution and is so far known only from western Norway and Scotland. corticolous, DNA, Lecanora albella, lichen, molecular, Norway, oceanic, Scotland
35682Moycho M., Gubański M. & Rennert A. (1959): Wyciąg z porostu Cetraria islandica inhibitorem wirusa mozaiki tytoniowej [An extract from the lichen Cetraria islandica as an inhibitor of TMV]. - Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 28(1): 185–193. .
35681Honegger R. (1985): Ascus structure and ascospore formation in the lichen-forming Chaenotheca chrysocephala (Caliciales). - Sydowia, 38: 146–157.
In the thin-walled pre-meiotic asci of Chaenotheca chrysocephala a peripheral ascospore delimiting membrane cylinder was formed by transformation of membrane material generated by the proliferating plasma membrane. The ascus wall broke in parts and was degraded soon after the onset of secondary ascospore wall formation. Numerous lysosomes were observed prior to ascus deliquescence. The ascospores grew and their secondary wall layer became melanized after their release into the mazaedium.
35680Morales-Sánchez J.Á., Mark K., Talts E., Rasulov B. & Niinemets Ü. (2023): Improved monitoring of cryptogam gas-exchange and volatile emissions during desiccation-rehydration cycles with a within-chamber hydration method. - Plant Science, 333: 111745 [14 p.].
Desiccation-rehydration studies in cryptogams constitute an important tool to understand the relation of key physiological traits with species stress tolerance and environmental adaptability. Real-time monitoring of responses has been limited by the design of commercial or custom measuring cuvettes and difficulties in experimental manipulation. We developed a within-chamber rehydration method that allows to rewater the samples rapidly, without the need to open the chamber and take out the sample for manual rehydration by the investigator. Data is collected in real-time and simultaneously with an infrared gas-analyzer (LICOR-7000), a chlorophyll fluorometer (Maxi Imaging-PAM) and a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass-spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) for volatile organic compound emissions. The system was tested on four cryptogam species with contrasting ecological distributions. No major errors or kinetics disruptions were found during system testing and measurements. Our within-chamber rehydration method improved accuracy, as measurement periods were not lacking, and repeatability of the protocol by reducing error variance in sample manipulation. This method provides an improved technique to conduct desiccation-rehydration measurements, contributing to the standardization and accuracy of current existing methodologies. A close real-time and simultaneous monitoring of photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and volatile organic compound emission data, offers a novel perspective in the analysis of the cryptogam stress responses that is yet to be fully explored. Keywords: Bryophytes; Chlorophyll; fluorescence; Desiccation; Lichens; Photosynthesis; Rehydration; Volatile organic compounds.
35679Döbbeler P. & Triebel D. (1985): Hepaticole Vertreter der Gattungen Muellerella und Dactylospora (Ascomycetes) [Hepaticolous representatives of the genera Muellerella and Dactylospora (Ascomycetes)]. - Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie, 107(1-4): 503-519. .
Both genera include lichenicolous members as well. Muellerella frullaniae sp. nov., M. rubescens sp. nov., Dactylospora heimerlii (Zukal) comb. nov., Dactylospora, Hepaticolous, Lichenicolous, Muellerella
35678Manninen S., Jääskeläinen K., Stephens A., Iwanicka A., Tang S. & van Dijk N. (2023): NH3 concentrations below the current critical level affect the epiphytic macrolichen communities – Evidence from a Northern European City. - Science of the Total Environment, 877: 162877 [11 p.].
Acidophytic, oligotrophic lichens on tree trunks are widely considered to be the most sensitive biota to elevated concentrations of atmospheric ammonia (NH3). We studied the relationships between measured NH3 concentrations and the composition of macrolichen communities on the acidic bark of Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur and the base-rich bark of Acer platanoides and Ulmus glabra at ten roadside and ten non-roadside sites in Helsinki, Finland. NH3 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were higher at the roadside than non-roadside sites indicating traffic as the main source of NH3 and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The diversity of oligotrophs on Quercus was lower at the roadside than non-roadside sites, while that of eutrophs was higher. The abundance and presence of oligotrophic acidophytes (e.g., Hypogymnia physodes) decreased with increasing NH3 concentration (2-year means = 0.15–1.03 μg m−3) especially on Q. robur, while those of eutrophic/nitrophilous species (e.g., Melanohalea exasperatula, Physcia tenella) increased. The abundance of some nitrophytes seemed to depend only on bark pH, i.e., their abundances were highest on Ulmus, which had the highest average bark pH. Overall, the results of lichen bioindicator studies may depend on tree species (bark pH) and lichen species used in calculating indices describing the air quality impact. Nevertheless, Quercus is recommended to be used to study the impact of NH3 alone and in combination with NOx on lichen communities, because the responses of both oligotrophic acidophytes and eutrophic species can already be observed at NH3 concentrations below the current critical level. Keywords: Ammonia; Acidophytes; Nitrophytes; Nitrogen dioxide; Bark pH; Roadside.