33953Węgrzyn M.H., Fałowska P., Alzayany K., Waszkiewicz K., Dziurowicz P. & Wietrzyk‐Pełka P. (2021): Seasonal changes in the photosynthetic activity of terrestrial lichens and mosses in the lichen Scots pine forest habitat. - Diversity, 13: 642 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13120642.
Photosynthetic activity is one of the most important metabolic processes that can be quickly and easily studied in the field. It can be used for identifying the environmental factors affecting ecosystem balance, as any stressor influencing metabolic and physiological processes will have a measurable effect on photosynthesis. The aim of this study was to measure the photosynthetic activity of selected lichens and mosses and investigate its changes resulted from diurnal and seasonal variability. We studied two lichens (Cladonia mitis Sandst and Cladonia uncialis (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg.) and two mosses (Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid.) Mitt. and Dicranum scoparium (L.) Hedw.). Samples were collected in the area of lichen Scots pine forest of the “Bory Tucholskie” National Park. Our study revealed that the photosynthetic activity of cryptogams depended on species, season, time of the day, and water availability. Cladonia species, which are the main component of lichen Scots pine forests, have higher photosynthetic activity than Pleurozium schreberi, which represents species of fresh coniferous forests. Photosynthetic activity increased from spring through summer and reached the highest values in autumn. It was also higher in soaked samples collected in the morning and afternoon compared to noon. Despite the water access, noon samples still showed the lowest activity. This can result from natural changes in humidity during the day to which cryptogams are well‐adapted. Keywords: Cladonio‐Pinetum community; chlorophyll a; Tuchola forest; 91T0; fluorescence; habitat conservation.
33952Tarasova V.N., Androsova V.I. & Sonina A.V. (2021): New and rare lichens and allied fungi from Arkhangelsk Region, North-West Russia. II. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 58: 121–133. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2021.58.15.
Information about 38 species of lichens is presented. In total, 18 species are newly recorded for Arkhangelsk Region, 11 species are new for its mainland area. New localities for 9 rare species are presented. Th alloidima physaroides is new for the territory of Northwest Russia. The species Calicium pinicola is reported for the second time in the territory of European Russia, Sclerophora peronella and Rhizocarpon simillimum – in Northwest Russia. For Vezdaea rheocarpa and Pilophorus robustus the westernmost localities in Russia are reported. The new localities of 9 species included in the Red Data Book of Arkhangelsk Region are presented. Six species are added to the list of lichens of Vodlozersky National Park. Keywords: Leshukonsky District, limestone outcrops, old-growth forest, rocky forest, Timan ridge.
33951Kyriatzi A., Tzivras G., Pirintsos S. & Kotzabasis K. (2021): Biotechnology under extreme conditions: Lichens after extreme UVB radiation and extreme temperatures produce large amounts of hydrogen. - Journal of Biotechnology, 342: 128–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2021.10.011.
The present study demonstrates biotechnological applications of the lichen Pleurosticta acetabulum, specifically the production of large amounts of hydrogen even after the lichen exposure to extreme conditions such as a) extreme UVB radiation (1.7 mW/cm2 = 1000 J m−2 min−1) over different time periods (4, 20 & 70 h) and b) combined exposure of the lichen to high intensity UVB radiation and extreme low (−196 °C) or extreme high temperatures (+70 °C). The results highlight that the extremophilic and polyextremophilic behavior of lichens both in dehydrated and in regenerated form, under extreme conditions not necessarily recorded on earth, is compatible with their biotechnological uses. The lichen viability was measured using fluorescence induction techniques (OJIP-test), which record changes in the molecular structure and function of the photosynthetic mechanism, while its ability to produce molecular hydrogen was measured through thermal conductivity gas chromatography (GC-TCD) analysis. Hydrogen is a promising fuel for the future. The exciting result of a lichen micro-ecosystem is its ability to expel its moisture and remain in an inactive state, protecting itself from extreme conditions and maintaining its ability to high yield hydrogen production in a closed system, with the sole addition of water and without the need for additional energy. Our results expand the potential use of lichens for future biotechnological applications in extreme Earth environments, but also in environments on other planets, such as Mars, thus paving the way for astrobiotechnological applications.
33950Tullus T., Lutter R., Randlane T., Saag A., Tullus A., Oja E., Degtjarenko P., Pärtel M. & Tullus H. (2022): The effect of stand age on biodiversity in a 130-year chronosequence of Populus tremula stands. - Forest Ecology and Management, 504: 119833 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2021.119833.
The effect of stand age on biodiversity in the stands of Populus tremula, a keystone tree species in boreal forests, has been insufficiently studied, although this knowledge is crucial for maintaining biodiversity in managed forests. We studied the assemblages of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens from a chronosequence of aspen stands (n = 20) with an age from 8 to 131 years, aiming to identify the main patterns in species richness and composition. Altogether, 72 vascular plant species were found in the field layer and 17 species in the shrub layer. The total numbers of bryophyte and lichen species were 92 and 104, respectively. Overall, 2 vascular plant, 12 bryophyte and 9 lichen species were the taxa with a high conservation value. Sixteen lichens were regarded as managementsensitive or focal species based on earlier studies, and 10 vascular plant species were hemeraphobic (severely disturbed by human activities). The effect of stand age on average species richness estimates depended on the studied species groups. Stand age had a negative effect on the average number of vascular plants, field layer species, apophytic vascular plants and epixylic lichens and a positive effect on the number of lichens, the number of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens and on bryophytes and lichens with a high conservation value. The compositional patterns of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens strongly correlated with stand age. In addition, stand characteristics, soil properties and light conditions influenced the assemblages, although the direct effects were variable for different groups. The largest differences could be observed in vascular plant, bryophyte and lichen communities between young and old stands; for lichens, also mature and old stands differed significantly. Our results indicate that more than 60 years are required for the recovery of some species groups after clearcutting. At the same time, other species groups were either not negatively affected by clear-cutting or showed a higher richness in younger stands. Therefore, we conclude that the management of aspen stands should involve the combination of different management regimes on the landscape scale (variation from short to long rotations in different stands, maintaining retention trees and ceasing of clear-cutting in some stands). Our results also show that as second-storey Tilia cordata played an important role in maintaining biodiversity in the studied stands, this tree species needs to be preserved in forests where lime trees naturally grow as co-dominants. Keywords: European aspen; Vascular plants; Bryophytes; Lichens; Tilia cordata; Clear-cutting.
33949Ellis C.J., Steadman C.E., Vieno M., Chatterjee S., Jones M.R., Negi S., Pandey B.P., Rai H., Tshering D., Weerakoonm G., Wolseley P., Reay D., Sharma S. & Sutton M. (2022): Estimating nitrogen risk to Himalayan forests using thresholds for lichen bioindicators. - Biological Conservation, 265: 109401 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2021.109401.
Himalayan forests are biodiverse and support the cultural and economic livelihoods of their human communities. They are bounded to the south by the Indo-Gangetic Plain, which has among the highest concentrations of atmospheric ammonia globally. This source of excess nitrogen pushes northwards into the Himalaya, generating concern that Himalayan forests will be impacted. To estimate the extent to which atmospheric nitrogen is impacting Himalayan forests we focussed on lichen epiphytes, which are a well-established bioindicator for atmospheric nitrogen pollution. First, we reviewed published literature describing nitrogen thresholds (critical levels and loads) at which lichen epiphytes are affected, identifying a mean and confidence intervals based on previous research conducted across a diverse set of biogeographic and ecological settings. Second, we used estimates from previously published atmospheric chemistry models (EMEP-WRF and UKCA-CLASSIC) projected to the Himalaya with contrasting spatial resolution and timescales to characterise model variability. Comparing the lichen epiphyte critical levels and loads with the atmospheric chemistry model projections, we created preliminary estimates of the extent to which Himalayan forests are impacted by excess nitrogen; this equated to c. 80–85% and c. 95–98% with respect to ammonia and total nitrogen deposition, respectively. Recognising that lichens are one of the most sensitive bioindicators for atmospheric nitrogen pollution, our new synthesis of previous studies on this topic generated concern that most Himalayan forests are at risk from excess nitrogen. This is a desk-based study that now requires verification through biological surveillance, for which we provide key recommendations. Keywords: Ammonia; Critical level; Critical load; Himalayan forests; Lichen; Nitrogen pollution.
33948Trevisan V. (1853): Spighe e paglie. - Fasc. primo, Padova, 1–64 pp. https://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/RLL/PDF1/M33128.pdf.
33947Fadeeva M.A., Manninen O. & Syrjänen K. (2015): List of lichens and allied fungi collected on Zaonezhye Peninsula. - In: Lindholm T., Jakovlev J. & Kravchenko A. (eds), Biogeography, landscapes, ecosystems and species of Zaonezhye Peninsula, in Lake Onega, Russian Karelia. Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 40/2014, p. 207–222, Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki. .
33946Syrjänen K., Manninen O. & Fadeeva M.A. (2015): Red-listed and indicator lichens of Zaonezhye Peninsula. - In: Lindholm T., Jakovlev J. & Kravchenko A. (eds), Biogeography, landscapes, ecosystems and species of Zaonezhye Peninsula, in Lake Onega, Russian Karelia. Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 40/2014, p. 223–231, Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki. .
33945Lee B.G. & Hur J.-S. (2021): Two new lecanoroid lichen species from the forested wetlands of South Korea, with a key for Korean Protoparmeliopsis species. - Mycokeys, 84: 163–183. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.84.70798.
Lecanora parasymmicta Lee & Hur and Protoparmeliopsis crystalliniformis Lee & Hur are described as new lichen species to science from the forested wetlands in southern South Korea. Molecular analyses employing internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) sequences strongly support the two lecanoroid species to be distinct in their genera. Lecanora parasymmicta is included in the Lecanora symmicta group. It is morphologically distinguished from Lecanora symmicta (Ach.) Ach., its most similar species, by areolate-rimose thallus, blackish hypothallus, larger apothecia, absence of thalline excipulum from the beginning, narrower paraphyses, larger ascospores, smaller pycnoconidia, and the presence of placodiolic acid. The second new species Protoparmeliopsis crystalliniformis is included in a clade with Protoparmeliopsis bipruinosa (Fink) S.Y. Kondr. and P. nashii (B.D. Ryan) S.Y. Kondr., differs from Protoparmeliopsis ertzii Bungartz & Elix, its most morphologically similar species, by whitish thallus, flat to concave and paler disc, longer ascospores, thallus K+ yellow reaction, presence of atranorin and rhizocarpic acid, and the substrate preference to sandstone or basalt. A key is provided to assist in the identification of Protoparmeliopsis species in Korea. Keywords: Biodiversity, hygrophyte, Lecanoraceae, phylogeny, taxonomy.
33944Наумович Г.О., Дармостук В.В., Мельник Р.П., Дідух Я.П. & Ходосовцев О.Є. [Naumovych G.O., Darmostuk V.V., Melnik R.P., Didukh Ya.P. & Khodosovtsev O.Ye.] (2017): Перша знахідка рідкісного лишайника Agrestia hispida (Megasporaceae) у континентальній частині України [The first record of the Red Data Book lichen Agrestia hispida (Megasporaceae) for the continental part of Ukraine]. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 74(6): 556–561. https://doi.org/10.15407/ukrbotj74.06.556.
[in Ukrainian with English abstract: ] Agrestia hispida was found for the first time in the plain part of Ukraine in the valley of the Ingulets River (Kherson Region). The lichen is listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine with the status Vulnerable. It grows between limestone pebbles on southwestern slope exposition together with other terricolous lichens, such as Scytinium schraderi, Cetraria aculeata s. l. and Xanthoparmelia camtschadales (all species listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine), Enchylium tenax, Xanthoparmelia pokornyi, Placidium squamulosum, Toninia sedifolia, Cladonia furcata, C. convoluta, C. rangiformis. Steppe vegetation belongs to the Potentillo arenariae-Linion czernjaevii alliance (Festuco-Brometea class) and is identified as habitat 6190 – Rupicolous pannonic grasslands (Stipo pulcherimae-Festucetalia pallentis), which we propose to call PonticPannonian and which is in need of conservation. A list of all known localities and distribution map of Agrestia hispida in Ukraine are provided. Keywords: Festuco-Brometea, Psoretea decipientis, Verrucarietea nigrescentis, Ingulets, conservation, habitats.
33943Ponsero A.J., Hurwitz B.L., Magain N., Miadlikowska J., Lutzoni F. & U’Ren J.M. (2021): Cyanolichen microbiome contains novel viruses that encode genes to promote microbial metabolism. - ISME Communications, 1: 56 [4 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s43705-021-00060-w.
Lichen thalli are formed through the symbiotic association of a filamentous fungus and photosynthetic green alga and/or cyanobacterium. Recent studies have revealed lichens also host highly diverse communities of secondary fungal and bacterial symbionts, yet few studies have examined the viral component within these complex symbioses. Here, we describe viral biodiversity and functions in cyanolichens collected from across North America and Europe. As current machine-learning viraldetection tools are not trained on complex eukaryotic metagenomes, we first developed efficient methods to remove eukaryotic reads prior to viral detection and a custom pipeline to validate viral contigs predicted with three machine-learning methods. Our resulting high-quality viral data illustrate that every cyanolichen thallus contains diverse viruses that are distinct from viruses in other terrestrial ecosystems. In addition to cyanobacteria, predicted viral hosts include other lichen-associated bacterial lineages and algae, although a large fraction of viral contigs had no host prediction. Functional annotation of cyanolichen viral sequences predicts numerous viral-encoded auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs) involved in amino acid, nucleotide, and carbohydrate metabolism, including AMGs for secondary metabolism (antibiotics and antimicrobials) and fatty acid biosynthesis. Overall, the diversity of cyanolichen AMGs suggests that viruses may alter microbial interactions within these complex symbiotic assemblages.
33942Penesyan A., Paulsen I.T., Kjelleberg S. & Gillings M.R. (2021): Three faces of biofilms: a microbial lifestyle, a nascent multicellular organism, and an incubator for diversity. - npj Biofilms and Microbiomes, 7: 80 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41522-021-00251-2.
Biofilms are organised heterogeneous assemblages of microbial cells that are encased within a self-produced matrix. Current estimates suggest that up to 80% of bacterial and archaeal cells reside in biofilms. Since biofilms are the main mode of microbial life, understanding their biology and functions is critical, especially as controlling biofilm growth is essential in industrial, infrastructure and medical contexts. Here we discuss biofilms both as collections of individual cells, and as multicellular biological individuals, and introduce the concept of biofilms as unique incubators of diversity for the microbial world. Biofilms and lichens are compared on a schematic figure entitled as: The life cycle of biofilms (panel a), and key stages involved in the vegetative reproduction of lichens (panel b).
33941Головенко Є.О. & Коршиков І.І. [Holovenko Ye.O. & Korshykov I.I.] (2018): Видове різноманіття та особливості поширення лишайників у кар'єрно-відвальних комплексах Криворіжжя [Species diversity and distribution of lichens in Kryvyi Rih quarry dump complexes]. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 75(1): 50–58. https://doi.org/10.15407/ukrbotj75.01.050.
[in Ukrainian with English abstract: ] The aim of our research was to clarify the peculiarities of epilithic and epigeous lichen species composition of granite and iron ore dump quarry complexes of the Kryvyi Rih area (Dnipropetrovsk Region). We investigated the lichens in a granite quarry and overburden dumps, at four dumps of working quarries and two dumps where waste rock storage has stopped (one of them is over 100 year-old); in total, in 9 technogenically disturbed territories. The lichens were gathered from the quartzite (blocks, boulders) and shale rubbles (boulders), from iron-rich ore residues (small rock rubbles), as well as from granite and limestone pebbles and sandstones. Altogether, on the drastically changed technogenous sites we found 65 lichen species (54 epilithic and 11 epigeous ones). Epilithic lichens mostly occupy rock blocks and slow-movable stones of smaller sizes. The iron ore dump quarry complexes are colonized by lichens more quickly than the granite ones. If waste rock storage stops, lichenobiota species diversity of dumps increases. 33 lichen species occur only in one of the dumps, due to significant heterogeneity of dump surface defining microedaphic and hydrologic conditions. At the time of our research, species of the genera Cladonia (10 species), Lecanora (5) and Physcia (4 species) were prevalent in the lichenobiota of the dump quarry complexes of the Kryvyi Rih area. It is possible to attribute 41% of lichens to typical ones for technogenic substrates. Two species, Haematomma ochroleucum and Trapelia obtegens, are rare for the steppe zone of Ukraine. The crustose lichens are most widespread (60.6%) in the dump quarry complexes and in the natural communities of the Kryvyi Rih area. It is resulted from the steppe zone climate conditions and greater resistance of crustose ones to the anthropogenic pressure. The foliose (24.6%) and fruticose (18.5%) lichens are represented by smaller number of species; they occur in older quarries and dumps only. The most widespread lichen species which occur in most of the investigated territories are epilithic Aspicilia cinerea, Candelariella aurella, Myriolecis dispersa and Protoparmeliopsis muralis, and epigeous Cladonia pyxidata. Keywords: epilithic and epigeous lichens, technogenically transformed landscapes, Kryvyi Rih.
33940Darmostuk V.V. & Khodosovtsev A.Ye. (2021): Old artifiсial parks as a key spot of corticolous lichen diversity in Southern Ukraine. - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 17(2): 148–163. doi: 10.32999/ksu1990-553X/2021-17-2-5.
Old artificial parks are an important component of the cultural heritage in Southern Ukraine which represents a significant variety of specific habitats for lichen diversity. The aim of our research was to analyze the total lichen diversity in parks as well as the representation of rare and protected species. Most of the data were collected by the authors during expeditions in Southern Ukraine during 2017–2020 in Kherson and Mykolaiv regions. Overall, we identified 108 lichen species and 21 lichenicolous fungi within 17 old parks. The highest lichen diversity was recorded in parks “Labirynt” (66 species) and “Nedogirskyi Forest” (61 species). We found 18 lichen species (16.6 %) included in the Red List of Kherson and Mykolaiv regions and 25 (23.8%) rare forest-dwelling species. We concluded that old artificial parks are very important habitats for lichen diversity in the steppe zone of Ukraine as well as the unique localities for such species as Graphis scripta, Hyperphyscia adglutinata, Sclerophora pallida in Southern Ukraine. The total diversity of lichens did nоt have a significant correlation with the total number of tree species due to the dominance of several tree species (Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robur), while most other phorophytes are young and represented singly. All old parks should become local reserves to preserve the overall biological diversity in their territories, protect against illegal logging, and regulate potential recreational activities. Keywords: biodiversity, Graphis, Hyperphyscia, Sclerophora, Mykolaiv, Kherson, rare species.
33939Merges D., Dal Grande F., Greve C., Otte J. & Schmitt I. (2021): Virus diversity in metagenomes of a lichen symbiosis (Umbilicaria phaea): complete viral genomes, putative hosts and elevational distributions. - Environmental Microbiology, 23(11): 6637–6650. https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15802.
Viruses can play critical roles in symbioses by initiating horizontal gene transfer, affecting host phenotypes, or expanding their host's ecological niche. However, knowledge of viral diversity and distribution in symbiotic organisms remains elusive. Here we use deep‐sequenced metagenomic DNA (PacBio Sequel II; two individuals), paired with a population genomics approach (Pool‐seq; 11 populations, 550 individuals) to understand viral distributions in the lichen Umbilicaria phaea. We assess (i) viral diversity in lichen thalli, (ii) putative viral hosts (fungi, algae, bacteria) and (iii) viral distributions along two replicated elevation gradients. We identified five novel viruses, showing 28%–40% amino acid identity to known viruses. They tentatively belong to the families Caulimoviridae, Myoviridae, Podoviridae and Siphoviridae. Our analysis suggests that the Caulimovirus is associated with green algal photobionts (Trebouxia) of the lichen, and the remaining viruses with bacterial hosts. We did not detect viral sequences in the mycobiont. Caulimovirus abundance decreased with increasing elevation, a pattern reflected by a specific algal lineage hosting this virus. Bacteriophages showed population‐specific patterns. Our work provides the first comprehensive insights into viruses associated with a lichen holobiont and suggests an interplay of viral hosts and environment in structuring viral distributions.
33938Rajeshwari N., Mesta A.R. & Vinayaka K.S. (2020): Lichen genus Usnea in Karnataka. - International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy, 11(1): 72–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.7897/2277-4343.110114.
Usnea is a well-known genus of lichen for its medicinal uses all over the world. The lichen genus Usnea has fruticose morphology with pendulous or erect thallus and characterized by the presence of usnic acid. The present study aims to know the diversity of Usnea in Karnataka. The genus Usnea is identified up to species level based on its morphological, anatomical and chemical characters. The different forests types in Karnataka were surveyed for the work. We recorded 6 species of Usnea from the different parts of Karnataka. The higher altitudinal regions of the temperate forests harbours rich source of Usnea. Keywords: Karnataka, Usnea, Usnic acid, fruticose thallus.
33937Rashmi S. & Rajkumar H.G. (2015): First report of foliicolous lichen biota in South Karnataka-India. - International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 4(6): 250–256. .
Lichens that colonize on live leaves are called foliicolous lichens. India has a rich collection of foliicolous lichens with 116 species from Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Palni and Nilgiri Hills and Northeast India. Whereas, foliicolous lichens in Karnataka is not reported. In the present study 18 species, belonging to 16 genera and 12 families are recorded. Family Gomphillaceae dominated with 4 species Aulaxina quadrangular, Echinoplaca epiphylla, Tricharia allostrigasa and Tricharia triseptate. Sporopodium xantholeucum (Mull. Arg.) Zahlbr and Strigula subelegans Vainio are universally distributed in all reported regions in India. These findings will lead to further research on foliicolous lichens and provide a better understanding of their distribution within the Southern Karnataka region. This is the first detailed report on foliicolous lichens and their distribution in South Karnataka. Key words: Foliicolous, Karnataka, Kodagu, Western Ghats.
33936Piterāns A., Žeiviniece A. & Berga I. (2006): LU Botānikas un ekoloģijas katedras ķērpju herbārijs [Lichenological Herbarium of the department of Botany and Ecology, University of Latvia]. - Latvijas Universitātes raksti [Scientific papers University of Latvia], 693: 249–252. .
[in Latvian with English summary: ] In the publication the Lichenological herbarium of the Department of Botany and Ecology is described. The oldest lichen specimens stored in our herbarium were collected by K. A. Heigel in 1845. Important lichenological materials for the Baltic region were collected by A. Brutāns from 1861 till 1890. Most of the lichenological material was collected after the second World war, but the herbarium includes specimens collected before by J. Mikutovičs, K. R. Kupfer, H. Skuja, N. Malta and other botanists who worked during the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. There are about 30000 samples in the lichenological herbarium of which 25000 are from the theritory of Latvia.
33935Stojanović G., Zlatanović I., Zrnzević I., Stanković M., Stankov Jovanović V. & Zlatković B. (2018): Hypogymnia tubulosa extracts: chemical profile and biological activities. - Natural Product Research, 32(22): 2735–2739. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2017.1375926.
This study reports for the first time in the chemical composition of acetone, ether, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts of Hypogymnia tubulosa determined by HPLC-UV, GC-FID and GC-MS as well as effect of H. tubulosa acetone extract on micronucleus distribution on human lymphocytes and on cholinesterase activity. Additionally, antioxidant (estimated via DPPH, ABTS, TRP, CUPRAC and TPC assays) and antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria were also determined. The HPLC-UV analysis revealed the presence of depsidones, 3-hydroxyphysodic, 4-O-methyl physodic acid, physodic and physodalic acid together with two depsides, atranorin and chloroatranorin. GC-FID and GC-MS analyses enabled the identification of atranol, chloroatranol, atraric acid, olivetol, olivetonide and 3-hydroxyolivetonide as the main components. The results of present study show that H. tubulosa acetone extract is a promising candidate for in vivo experiments considering antioxidant activity.
33934Saha S., Pal A. & Paul S. (2021): A review on pharmacological, anti-oxidant activities and phytochemical constituents of a novel lichen Parmotrema species. - Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature, 11(3): 190–203. https://doi.org/10.1080/22311866.2021.1916596.
Increased resistance and side effects of synthetic pharmaceutical drugs have led to the exploration of bioactive compounds from alternative sources. Therefore, research on drug development from members of natural sources has gained much importance. Lichens are a unique association of fungi and algae, producing a wide array of secondary metabolites which has immense pharmacological activities. Lichen extracts have been used in traditional systems of medicines and are known to cure several diseases. Parmotrema is a large genus of foliose lichen belonging to the family Parmeliaceae. Parmeloid lichens are a diverse and ubiquitous group of lichens. Members of the Parmeliaceae family have been used in several traditional systems of medicines. One hundred and nine articles have been reported till date regarding pharmacological activities of Parmotrema species. Studies reveal that Parmotrema exhibits numerous biological activities ranging from anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-oxidative, and anti-proliferative properties. These properties can be attributed to the presence of pharmacologically active compounds like depsides, depsidones, phenolics, polysaccharides, lipids, diphenyl ethers, and dibenzofurans. The free radical scavenging activity and cytotoxicity specifically towards cancer cells infer that this lichen genus can have potential anti-cancer properties and should be extensively investigated for pharmaceutical purposes. This review dealt with the in-depth potentiality of this novel lichen Parmotrema species and its role in pharmacology.
33933Puy-Alquiza M.J., Ordaz Zubia V.Y., Miranda Aviles R. & Salazar-Hernández M.C. (2021): Damage detection historical building using mapping method in music school of the University of Guanajuato, Mexico. - Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures, 28(10): 1049–1060. https://doi.org/10.1080/15376494.2019.1629049.
This study describes monument-mapping method for detected damages, and verify in qualitative and quantitative way the decay of stone on historical building. Proposes a methodology that would allow quick and easy way to identify during the processing of digital images five weathering forms; fractures, salts, oxides, scaling, and lichen. The aim of the present work were (i) to identify the various stones used in decorating the music school of the University of Guanajuato; (ii) to undertake a basic mineralogical and petrophysic characterizations of the less known stones; (iii) quantify the extension of the weathering and the damage degree of the music school using the monument mapping method. The monument mapping method was used to identify damages over green sandstone used in the construction and restoration of buildings of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Guanajuato city. The output data were classified images showing the different kind of damages that affect the green sandstone. The analyses of these data allow obtaining maps with the size and position of damages.
33932Patnana D.P., Biswal R.P., Dandamudi R.B., Chandra S. & Pandey M. (2021): Simple HPLC-DAD-based method for determination of ergosterol content in lichens and mushrooms. - Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, 44: 229–234. https://doi.org/10.1080/10826076.2021.1891932.
A novel yet simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with diode array detector has been developed and validated for the quantification of ergosterol (Pro-vitamin D2) in commercially available lichens and cultivated edible mushrooms as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The extraction of ergosterol in the lichens and mushrooms was carried out with alcoholic KOH via reflux, and the extracts were processed for HPLC analysis. The chromatographic identification of ergosterol from the extracts was achieved using C18 column (5 µm, 4.6 × 250 mm) thermostatted at 30 °C using an isocratic elution of 100% methanol at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The elution was monitored at 280 nm using a diode array detector. In this method, ergosterol was separated from the extract within a short interval of time (7.0 (±0.1) min). The developed method exhibited good linearity (r2>0.9998), limit of detection (0.03 µg/mL), limit of quantification (0.095 µg/mL), interday and intraday precision and accuracy. A total of five lichen samples and three mushroom samples were analyzed using this method to quantify the amount of ergosterol present in them. This work, thus, highlights the possible use of lichens as an excellent source of ergosterol.
33931Strazdiņa L., Kluša J., Leimanis I., Laime S., Birziņa L., Oļehnoviča E. & Opmanis A. (2021): Latvijas kriptogāmu taksonu sarakstu papildinājumi (2017.–2019. gada atradumi) [Additions to checklists of cryptogams in Latvia (records from 2017–2019)]. - Latvijas Veģetācija, 31: 41–60. .
[in Latvian with English summary: ] In this paper detailed information is given about 33 newfound species or new localities of rare taxa in Latvia representing cryptogams – bryophytes, lichens, fungi and myxomycetes. These were found in time period from 2017 to 2019 by experts and amateurs. A short locality overview, taxa recognition traits and occurrence in Latvia and other countries are also provided. Key words: bryophytes, lichens, fungi, myxomycetes, new localities, rare species. Among lichens only single species (Peltigera collina) included.
33930Gerra-Inohosa L. & Laiviņš M. (2016): Ķērpji un sūnas meža ekosistēmā [Lichens and mosses in forest ecosystems]. - Latvijas Veģetācija, 25: 5–22. .
[in Latvian with English summary: ] This paper provides an overview of the importance of bryophytes and lichens in forest ecosystem, functioning and dynamics, representing the most of the investigations in Latvia. The following topics were examined: characteristics of lichen and bryophyte nutrition and productivity, ecology (soil moisture, substrate acidity), indication of environmental conditions, phytosociology and biological diversity. The bryophyte and lichen role in restoration processes of forest, calcareous species biology, ecology and geographical aspects as well as importance of woodland key habitats in preserving the diversity of bryophytes and lichens are mentioned as potential research fields for Latvia. Key words: lichen and bryophyte ecology, phytosociology, diversity, Latvia.
33929Piterāns A. (2001): Latvijas ķērpju konspekts [Checklist of the lichens of Latvia]. - Latvijas Veģetācija, 3: 5–46. .
[in Latvian with English summary: ] The first reports on lichen in Latvia were made by Fischer (1778, 1784, 1791) in the 18th century. These records provide a general overview of the lichens in Latvia. Wider studies were carried out by K. Heugel (1855, 1857, 1869) and K. Heugel and Müller (1847). Even more records are available from the reports of A. Bruttan (1863, 1869, 1870. 1889) on the Baltic region, including Latvia. According to A. Bruttan, 362 lichen species were then known (utilising present-day systematics). In later years, from 1900 to 1945, lichens were given less attention. K. Kupffer’s (1924, 1931) wide botanical records also mention lichens. In 1924, K. Kupffer described the soil lichen Stereonema chthonoblastes (at present Placyntiella uliginosa) from sand dunes near Rīga. The survey of vegetation (including lichens) of Moricsala Island by K. Kupffer is also important. The publications of N. Malta (1925, 1926) on spore plant flora of sandstone habitats also mention lichens. H. Skuja and M. Ore (1935) investigated the biology and ecology of Coenogonium nigrum (at present Cystocoleus ebeneus), and in 1936, published a review of the lichens of Latvia. In 1939, K. Miške (1939) defended a Candidate of Science dissertation on the Cladonia flora of the Rīga area. Since 1945, studies on lichens were carried out by researchers at the Department of Botany and Ecology, University of Latvia. In 1959, A. Āboliņa and E. Vimba published a handbook on forest lichens and mosses. Wide studies were begun later by A. Piterāns, A. Žeiviniece, I. Berga, and others, who have published work on lichens in protected and other areas, and have made major contributions to the lichen herbarium. Keywords: lichens, flora, habitats, Latvia.
33928Strazdiņa L. (2018): Epifītiskās sūnas un ķērpji parastā skābarža Carpinus betulus mežos Latvijā [Epiphytic bryophytes and lichens in the European hornbeam Carpinus betulus L. forests in Latvia]. - Latvijas Veģetācija, 28: 59–74. .
[in Latvian with English summary: ] In Latvia, species richness of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens in the European hornbeam Carpinus betulus L. forests has been studied insufficiently. In the future, importance of Carpinus betulus as a structural element in the broadleaved forests in Latvia might increase, as the species benefits from climate warming in the region. To understand the significance of the presence of Carpinus betulus in forest in relation to epiphytic cryptogam diversity, four study plots were established in south-west Latvia. In total, 28 bryophyte and 10 lichen species were found including eight bryophytes and three lichen species that are rare, red-listed and protected by law. The highest species richness was found on Carpinus betulus, Tilia cordata, and Fraxinus excelsior. All the measured tree parameters (stem diameter, age, and crown projection) positively correlated with epiphytic cryptogam diversity. Epiphytic flora was compared among three different broadleaved forest types (dominant species in tree layer Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, or Ulmus laevis). From all 39 bryophyte species, seven were found solely in &arSinus betulus forests, including rare and protected species Frullania tamarisci and Neckera complanata. Whereas lichen species preferred studied Ulmus laevis forests, and from all 18 lichen species, none were found uniquely in Carpinus betulus forests. Also all three rare and protected lichen species, Arthonia spp., Graphis scripta and Pertusaria pertusa, were common in different forest types. Key words: ecology, cryoptogams, broadleaved forests.
33927Piterāns A. & Žeiveniece A. (2021): Slīteres nacionāla parka ķērpju konspekts [Synopsis of the lichenflora of Slītere National Park]. - Latvijas Veģetācija, 31: 61–79. .
[in Latvian with English summary: ] There are 360 lichen species found in Slitere National park. These include Lobaria amplissima, Cladonia foliacea, C. polydactyla, Xanthoparmelia mougeotii, Stereocaulon condensatum, Umbilicaria polyphylla, Zwackia viridis and other very rare species in Latvia. 20 of species are included in the Red Data book of Latvia. 28 species are found for the first time in Slitere National park. Several of the species found in the area are rare in the whole Baltic region – Parmelia serana, P. submontana, Caloplca duplicata, Polycauliona phlogina, Thelocarpon superellum. One species Athallia alnetorum is found for the first time in northen Europe. Key words: lichens synopsis, biotopes, Slītere National parks, Latvia.
33926Balabanova B., Stafilov T., Bačeva K. & Šajn R. (2009): Atmospheric pollution with copper around the copper mine and flotation, "Bučim", Republic of Macedonia, using biomonitoring moss and lichen technique. - Geologica Macedonica, 23: 35–41. .
This paper has studied the atmospheric pollution with copper due to copper mining and flotation “Bučim” near Radoviš, Republic of Macedonia. The copper ore and ore tailings continually are exposed to open air, which occur winds carry out the fine particles in to atmosphere. Moss (Hyloconium splendens and Pleurozium schrebery) and lichen (Hypogymnia physodes and Parmelia sulcata) samples were used for biomonitoring the possible atmospheric pollution with copper in the mine vicinity. Moss and lichen samples were digested by using of microwave digestion system and copper was analyzed by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICPAES). The obtained values for the content of copper in moss and lichen samples were statistically processed using the nonparametric and parametric analysis. Maps of areal deposition of copper show an increase content of copper in the vicinity of mine, but long distance distribution of this element is not established yet. Key words: air pollution; copper; copper minе; biomonitoring; Bučim; Macedonia.
33925Stafilov T. (2014): Environmental pollution with heavy metals in the Republic of Macedonia. - Прилози, Одделение за природно-математички и биотехнички науки, МАНУ [Contributions, Section of Natural, Mathematical and Biotechnical Sciences, MASA], 35(2): 81–119. .
An overview to the results from the application of various spectrometric (atomic absorption spectrometry, AAS; inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectrometry, ICP-AES; and inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry, ICP-MS) and radioanalytical (neutron activation analysis, NAA) techniques in environmental pollution studies in the Republic of Macedonia are presented. The results from the surveys of the pollution with heavy metals of soil, air and food are reported. The pollution with heavy metals in the particular regions was additionally investi-gated using moss, lichens, attic dust, soil, water and sediment samples. The results from the study of the pollution in the cities of Veles (lead and zinc smelter plant), Kavadarci (ferronickel smelter plant), Radoviš (copper mine and flo-tation), Probištip, Makedonska Kamenica and Kriva Palanka (lead and zinc mines and flotation plants) and Bitola and Kičevo (thermoelectric power plants) are presented. Key word: heavy metals; pollution; air; soil; water; sediments; moss; attic dust; lichens; Republic of Macedonia.
33924Mâșu S. (2017): The accumulation of metals in lichens. - Scientific Papers: Animal Science and Biotechnologies, 50(1): 147–151. .
The capacity to accumulate metal in the lichen communities has been used to identify the level of air pollution due road traffic. Several analyses have been conducted in the study, on tissue from lichens collected from six areas: the park of a town, various sites on the town’s freeway and on a county road segment with moderate traffic. The analyzed lichens were from the Parmelia spp. species which grow naturally on trees found in borderline lanes of motorways. Based on the degree of heavy metal accumulation such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe Mn, Pb, Ni and Zn in the Parmelia spp. lichens, a correlation has been made, with the road traffic. According to the metal bioaccumulation degree in lichens tissue, it has been established that the sources such as traffic from the outskirts of cities, from the perimeter of gas stations and of county roads continuously spread products which contain these elements, into the atmosphere. The fast information regarding the quality of the air in the environment allows the use of lichens as organism which can indicate environmental conditions and their modification by accumulating substances. Keywords: lichen, metal bioaccumulation, Parmelia spp., traffic.
33923Masu S., Uruioc S., Lixandru B. & Bogatu C. (2006): Heavy metals biomonitoring from atmosphere by use of Lichenes. - Annals of West University of Timişoara, ser. Biology, 9: 73–80. .
33922Yavuz M. & Çobanoğlu G. (2021): Biomonitoring of Ca, Mg and Na accumulation in lichens as evidence of air pollution stress in Isparta, Turkey. - Annals of West University of Timişoara, ser. Biology, 24(1): 11–28. .
This study is a part of project on biomonitoring the air quality of Isparta province (Turkey) through lichens, and has aimed to assess relation between the amounts of Ca, Mg and Na elements deposited in lichen thalli and the air quality in the area. Lichen samples of Physcia aipolia (Ehrh. ex Humb.) Fürnr. and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th.Fr. collected from 18 localities in and around Gölcük Nature Park have been investigated in ICP-MS for Ca, Mg and Na. In addition, selected samples of both lichen species from the polluted and non-polluted sites for these three elements were observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) micrographs and Energy Dispersion X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The ratio for elemental contents in the lichen thalli resulted as Mg>Ca>Na for both species, with multiple times higher in X. parietina than P. aipolia. The concentrations of Ca and Mg in the samples were found reversely proportional to the altitude of the localities. Also, it has been observed that some thalline and apothecial samples of both lichens from intensely polluted localities contained crystal blocks of high Ca concentration, which are most likely calcium-oxalate (CaC2O4) forms. It was concluded that high amounts of Ca and Mg in lichen samples were associated with air pollution and may be demonstration of environmental stress in Isparta. Key words: Air quality, Ca-rich particles, Physcia aipolia, Xanthoria parietina, airborne elements.
33921任梅蓉, 杨秋霞, 魏鑫丽 [Ren M., Yang Q. & Wei X.] (2019): 东北大小兴安岭地区梅衣科岛衣类和 袋衣类地衣物种多样性 [Species diversity of Cetrarioid and Hypogymnioid lichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) from the Greater and Lesser Khinggan Mountains in Northeast China]. - 生物多样性学 [Biodiversity Science], 27(8): 833–841. https://www.biodiversity-science.net/EN/10.17520/biods.2019168.
[in Chinese with English abstract: ] The Greater and Lesser Khinggan Mountains of Northeast China is one of the important distribution areas of lichens in China, where is rich in lichen biodiversity. 259 lichen specimens deposited in herbariums and freshly-collected from 31 nature reserves, were examined comprehensively considering morphology, anatomy, chemistry and DNA sequences. We identified and reported 31 species belonging to 11 cetrarioid and hypogymnioid genera of Parmeliaceae in this paper, including 13 species of circumpolar element, 11 species endemic to East Asia, three cosmopolitan species, three species endemic to China, and one species of Eurasian element. A comparison with the previous records of distribution for lichens in the region shows that six species belonging to two genera were not rediscovered in current study, implying a great reduction or even a possible retreat of distribution for these lichens, especially two species endemic to Asia, i.e. Hypogymnia farinacea and H. nikkoensis, no additional specimen information has been added for more than 30 years since they were initially reported from the Greater and Lesser Khinggan Mountains as new record to China, and H. nikkoensis has been estimated to be Vulnerable (VU) in the recent red list assessment of Chinese macrofungi. Key words: the Greater and Lesser Khinggan Mountains, cetrarioid, hypogymnioid, lichen, distribution.
33920刘大乐, 魏鑫丽, 李翠新 [Liu D.-L., Wei X.-L. & Li C.-X.] (2018): 中国地衣一新记录种——卷叶袋衣 [Hypogymnia incurvoides, a new record of lichen species in China]. - 山 东 科 学 [Shandong Science], 31(3): 110–112. http://www.sdkx.net/EN/10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.03.017.
[in Chinese with English abstract: ] In order to recognize the species diversity of lichen genus Hypogymnia in China, and to explore its chemical and genetic resources in the near future, systematic taxonomic study on this group based on morphological and chemical methods was carried out. A lichen species, Hypogymnia incurvoides, widely distributed in China, was reported and described in the present paper. It was characterized by hollow and pinnate-branched lobes with lipshaped soralia, few holes at lower surface and containing physodalic acid in medulla. Previously, this species has only been found and recorded in Russia. Therefore, this report confirmed its distribution in China for the first time, increased the records of Chinese lichen species, and updated the world distribution information of Hypogymnia incurvoides. The voucher specimens in this study are deposited in the Lichen Section, Herbarium of Mycology, Academia Sinica (HMAS-L). Key words: lichen, new record, Parmeliaceae, Hypogymnia.
33919Anonymus (2021): Recent literature on Australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 89: 62. .
33918Elvebakk A. & Elix J.A. (2021): Psoroma nigropunctatum sp. nov., an alpine lichen in south-eastern Australia related to P. buchananii. - Australasian Lichenology, 89: 54–61. .
Psoroma nigropunctatum is described as new to science, based on collections from alpine and subalpine areas of the Australian Capital Territory, Victoria and New South Wales. It grows on soil or mosses on rock outcrops and in tussock grasslands. It had previously been misidentified as Psoroma hypnorum, but it is more closely related to P. buchananii. The two species have large pycnidia and non-verrucose perispores with large, pulvinate apical extensions, but they differ in habit, and the spores of P. nigropunctatum are longer and have a perispore that lacks latitudinal gibbae.
33917Elvebakk A. (2021): Psoroma inflatum, a new alpine lichen from New Zealand. - Australasian Lichenology, 89: 49–53. .
Psoroma inflatum sp. nov. is described from mountains in Canterbury and Otago in New Zealand’s South Island. It is related to P. hypnorum, but differs in having a strongly inflated and glossy thallus. The squamules are prostrate, ascending or erect, and form brown, coarsely coralloid patches. They lack a dorsiventral morphology and anatomy, in contrast to other Psoroma species, except that the lower sides of ascending lobes are less pigmented and have a white tomentum on the cortex, which is less pigmented, thicker and with elongated lumina. The genus Psoroma is currently considered to include 11 species in New Zealand, but it is poorly known and very likely includes even more undescribed taxa.
33916Elix J.A., Mayrhofer H. & Wetschnig W. (2021): Two new species of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from South Africa. - Australasian Lichenology, 89: 44–48. .
Buellia magaliesbergensis Elix & H.Mayrhofer and B. subeffigurata Elix, H.Mayrhofer & Wetschnig, from South Africa, are described as new to science.
33915Elix J.A. (2021): Two new records and a revised key to the saxicolous species of Rinodina in Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 89: 38–43. .
Rinodina herteliana Kaschik and R. teichophiloides (Stizenb.) Zahlbr. are reported for the first time from Australia, while R. argopsina Elix & P.M.McCarthy is shown to be a synonym of R. thiomela Müll.Arg. An updated key to the saxicolous Australian species of Rinodina is provided.
33914Elix J.A. & Knight A. (2021): A new species of buellioid lichen (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from Otago, South Island, New Zealand. - Australasian Lichenology, 89: 35–37. .
Buellia springvalensis Elix & A.Knight is described as new to science. It occurs on quartz pebbles in the saline Springvale Scientific Reserve in Central Otago, South Island, New Zealand, and is characterized by small, Buellia-type ascospores, an aeruginose epihymenium and the presence of psoromic acid.
33913McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2021): A new species of Sarcogyne (Acarosporaceae) on soil in South Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 89: 30–34. .
Sarcogyne humicola P.M.McCarthy & Elix sp. nov. (Acarosporaceae) is described from siliceous soil in south-eastern South Australia. It has a brown, areolate to subsquamulose thallus with a 3-layered cortex and a thick, continuous algal layer; also dark, adnate, thinmargined apothecia anchored by a thick, colourless stipe growing down from the basal excipulum, and asci containing 50–100(–150) ascospores measuring 3–7 × 2.5–4 μm. An updated key is provided to the 14 species of Sarcogyne known from Australia.
33912McCarthy P.M. (2021): Verrucaria ewersii, a new calcicolous lichen from South Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 89: 26–29. .
Verrucaria ewersii P.M.McCarthy (lichenized Ascomycota, Verrucariaceae) is described from mortar in the Adelaide Plains, South Australia. It has a blackish, areolate or subsquamulose thallus with minute, non-involucrellate perithecia, (0.11–)0.17(–0.23) mm wide, a uniformly blackish excipulum and small ascospores (9–15 × 5.5–7 μm).
33911Elix J.A. & Mayrhofer H. (2021): Two new species and four new records of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 89: 16–25. .
Amandinea montanensis Elix & H.Mayrhofer and Buellia tropica Elix & H.Mayrhofer are described as new to science. The new combination Amandinea manamiana (Diederich) Elix & H.Mayrhofer, is made. It and Buellia macularis Zahlbr., Gassicurtia elizae (Tuck.) Marbach and G. rufofuscescens (Vain.) Marbach are reported for the first time from Australia. Amandinea montanensis also occurs in the South Island of New Zealand.
33910McCarthy P.M. (2021): Three new lichen species from Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. - Australasian Lichenology, 89: 3–15. .
Anisomeridium calcivorum sp. nov. (Monoblastiaceae), Gyalidea incolorata sp. nov. (Asterothyriaceae) and Thelidium insulare sp. nov. (Verrucariaceae) are described from limestone in and adjacent to rainforest in the Australian external territory of Christmas Island, north-eastern Indian Ocean.
33909Shelyakin M.A., Zakhozhiy I.G., Dalke I.V., Dymova O.V., Malyshev R.V. & Golovko T.K. (2021): Photosynthetic and respiratory capacity of foliose lichen Lobaria pulmonaria throughout the annual cycle. - Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 68(6): 1048–1058. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1021443721060182.
[Russian Text published in Fiziologiya Rastenii, 2021, Vol. 68, No. 6, pp. 600–611] Lichens are unique phototrophic organisms whose physiology of stress tolerance attracts much attention. Parameters of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the epiphytic large-leaved lichen Lobaria pulmonaria were investigated with an aim to reveal physiological responses to seasonal changes in environmental conditions. The highest accumulation of chlorophylls in thalli (2.3 mg/g dry wt) was noted in autumn (October); the amount of green pigments decreased 2.5 times in spring (April). The chlorophyll/carotenoid ratio varied from 3.1 to 4.4. The extent of deepoxidation of xanthophyll cycle pigments equaled 34% in winter but it was two times as low in summer. When L. pulmonaria thalli were hydrated and acclimated shortly under standard laboratory conditions, they exhibited a relatively high photochemical activity and were able to assimilate CO2 throughout the entire annual cycle. The rate of net CO2 uptake by thalli under optimal irradiance and temperature ranged from 3 to 5 μmol CO2/m2 s and the highest values were recorded in spring. No significant seasonal changes were observed in the total respiration rate of thalli. The proportions of various respiratory pathways were altered in spring and autumn, and metabolic heat production was accelerated due to the activation of an energetically low-efficient alternative respiratory pathway. The results provide evidence that the functional adaptation of photo- and mycobionts in the lichen is implicated in resistance of this complete system to seasonal changes in environmental conditions. Keywords: Lobaria pulmonaria, photosynthetic pigments, xanthophyll cycle, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosystems, CO2 exchange, respiration, respiratory pathways, heat release, stress tolerance, lichen.
33908Schroeter B., Green T.G.A., Pintado A., Türk R. & Sancho L.G. (2021): Summer activity patterns for a moss and lichen in the maritime Antarctic with respect to altitude. - Polar Biology, 44: 2117–2137. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-021-02939-9.
There is considerable scientifc interest as to how terrestrial biodiversity in Antarctica might respond, or be expected to respond, to climate change. The two species of vascular plant confned to the Antarctic Peninsula have shown clear gains in density and range extension. However, little information exists for the dominant components of the fora, lichens and bryophytes. One approach has been to look at change in biodiversity using altitude as a proxy for temperature change and previous results for Livingston Island suggested that temperature was the controlling factor. We have extended this study at the same site by using chlorophyll fuorometers to monitor activity and microclimate of the lichen, Usnea aurantiaco-atra, and the moss, Hymenoloma crispulum. We confrmed the same lapse rate in temperature but show that changes in water relations with altitude is probably the main driver. There were diferences in water source with U. aurantiaco-atra beneftting from water droplet harvesting and the species performed substantially better at the summit. In contrast, activity duration, chlorophyll fuorescence and photosynthetic modelling all show desiccation to have a large negative impact on the species at the lowest site. We conclude that water relations are the main drivers of biodiversity change along the altitudinal gradient with nutrients, not measured here, as another possible contributor. Keywords: Chlorophyll fuorescence · Microclimate · Photosynthesis · Poikilohydric · PSII activity · Altitudinal gradient.
33907Lin L.-Q., Lu H.-Y., Pi J.-L., Liou T.-S., Chen W.-F. & Hsieh P.-S. (2021): A comparison of atmospheric geochemistry through lichens from volcanic and non-volcanic areas, north Taiwan. - Journal of Earth System Science, 130: 228 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12040-021-01724-w.
Lichens are abundant with functional groups that are capable of adsorbing dissolved metals in moisture and intercepting suspended particles in the atmosphere. Using lichen chemistry as an indicator is a prominent method of assessing a long-term baseline of atmospheric quality. This study collected foliose lichens, Parmelia sp., from an area with intensive post-volcanic activity (Tatun Volcano Group) and a deep mountain trail (Nan-ao Trail) in northern Taiwan. The geochemical results show that the lichens from Nan-ao have much higher enrichment factors (EFs) for most metals than those from the Tatun Volcano Group, which revealed that the geochemistry of Nan-ao lichens is dominated by interception of suspended particles rather than absorption of lichen surface. In addition, the fact that no Eu-negative anomaly (Eu/Eu∗ ≈ 1.0) can be observed in the normalized patterns of rare earth elements of lichens from Nan-ao reconfirms the derivation. In contrast, lichens from the Tatun Volcano Group are characterized by lower enrichment factors of metals, evident from Ce-negative and Eu-positive anomalies (Ce/Ce∗ < 0.6 and Eu/Eu∗ > 1.0), which implies that the lichen chemistry may be principally established by the chemical adsorption of functional groups on the lichen surface. In addition, the extraordinary enrichment factors of Ca, Mg, Na, and K of lichens near the northern coast (EF > 10) prove the involvement of seawater aerosol on the atmospheric chemistry. The lead isotopic compositions reveal that unleaded gasoline could be the dominant source of lead for Nan-ao lichens (207Pb/206Pb > 0.86 and 208Pb/206Pb < 2.105), while the local andesite provides the lead to lichens from the Tatun Volcano Group. However, the Tatun Volcano Group is very close to Taipei City, with all kinds of anthropogenic activities, which also contribute a considerable amount of lead to the atmosphere. Keywords: Northern Taiwan; lichens as bioindicators; rare earth elements; lead isotopes.
33906Cansaran‑Duman D., Yangın S. & Çolak B. (2021): The role of vulpinic acid as a natural compound in the regulation of breast cancer‑associated miRNAs. - Biological Research, 54: 37 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40659-021-00360-4.
Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer, and no efective treatment solution has yet been found. The number of studies based on the research of novel natural compounds in the treatment of breast cancer has been increasing in recent years. The anticancer properties of natural compounds are related to the regula‑ tion of microRNA (miRNA) expression. Therefore, changing the profle of miRNAs with the use of natural products is very important in cancer treatment. However, the role of vulpinic acid and related miRNAs in breast cancer progres‑ sion remains unknown. Vulpinic acid, methyl (as2E)-2-(3-hydroxy-5-oxo-4-phenylfuran-2-ylidene)-2 phenylacetate, is a natural product extracted from the lichen species and shows an anticancer efect on diferent cancer cells. Methods: This study examines the efects of vulpinic acid on the miRNA levels of breast cancer (MCF-7) cells and its relationship with cell proliferation and apoptosis levels. The antiproliferative efect of vulpinic acid was screened against MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-12A breast epithelial cells using the xCELLigence real-time cell analysis system. We analyzed the altered miRNA expression profle in MCF-7 breast cancer cells versus MCF-12A cells following their response to vulpinic acid through microarray analysis. The microarray analysis results were confrmed through quantitative real-time PCR and bioinformatics analysis. Results: The results of the miRNA array and bioinformatic analyses demonstrated that 12 miRNAs were specifcally responsive to vulpinic acid in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. This is the frst study to reveal that vulpinic acid inhibits the expression of 12 miRNAs and suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation. The study also revealed that vulpinic acid may downregulate the expression of 12 miRNAs by repressing the FOXO-3 gene. The miRNA targets were mainly found to play a role in the apoptosis, cell cycle and MAPK pathways. Moreover, Bcl-2, Bax, procaspase-3 and procas‑ pase-9 protein levels were assessed by western blot analysis for validation of apoptosis at the protein level. Conclusion: This study revealed the molecular mechanisms of vulpinic acid on breast cancer and showed that vulpinic acid regulates apoptosis signaling pathways by decreasing the expression of miRNAs. The miRNA expression patterns illuminate the underlying efect of vulpinic acid in breast cancer treatment. Keywords: Vulpinic acid, microRNA analysis, Breast cancer.
33905Gratia Z.K., Nandhakumar R., Mahanty B., Murugan S., Muthusamy P. & Vinayak K.S. (2021): Biosorption of nickel from metal finishing effluent using lichen Parmotrema tinctorum biomass. - Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 232: 478 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-021-05431-6.
Presence of heavy metals in industrial discharge warrants the adoption of efficient and cost-effective treatment technologies. In this work, lichen Parmotrema tinctorum biomass was utilized as biosorbent for removal of Ni (II) from metal finishing industry effluents. Optimal adsorption was observed at pH 7, stirring speed of 300 rpm, 120 min incubation from independent batch experiments. Adsorption isotherm at optimal conditions followed Langmuir model (R2 > 0.974) with a maximum adsorption capacity of 33.92 mg g−1. Adsorption kinetics could be described with pseudo-first-order model (R2 > 0.98). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of pristine and metal loaded P. tinctorum biomass indicated electrostatics and ionic interaction in the adsorption process. Biosorbent treated water showed no inhibition against agriculturally important microorganisms like Phosphobacter sp. and Azospirillum sp. in microbial toxicity assay. Similarly, biosorbent treated water offered better germination and growth for Vigna radiata than the untreated water in greenhouse phytotoxicity assessment. Though the result suggests detoxification of industrial effluents following P. tinctorum biosorption, reusability of treated wastewater in agricultural practice warrants multi-tiered ecotoxicity assessment, and long-term environmental impact analysis. Keywords: Biosorption · Isotherm · Kinetics · Nickel · Parmotrema tinctorum · Phytotoxicity.
33904da Silva B.F., Pereira I.M.C., de Melo J.C., Martins M.C.B., Barbosa M.O., Silva A.K.O., de Siqueira W.N., da Silva N.H., de Oliveira A.F.M., Vicente C., Legaz M.E. & Pereira E.C. (2021): Cladonia verticillaris (lichen) indicates negative impacts derived from the combustion of biodiesel blends: an alert for the environmental management for biofuels use. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 193: 809 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-09610-0.
The use of biodiesel blends with petroleum diesel in vehicular engines demands the evaluation of the possible impacts and efects of the gases emitted from their combustion on the environment. Among studies on these questions, biomonitoring using lichens is a viable alternative, given their interactions with the elements dispersed in the atmosphere, as well as its sensitivity and capacity to retain contaminants. In this study, we analyzed the efects of gas emissions from the combustion of biodiesel mixture with petroleum diesel on Cladonia verticillaris thalli. Samples of the lichen (10 g) were expos to the gases emitted by the exhaust of the generator engine during the combustion process of biodiesel mixtures to petroleum diesel (7% (B7), 10% (B10), 40% (B40), 50% (B50), and 70% (B70)). At 90 days after exposure, samples were analyzed for n-alkane profiles, thallus morphology, photosynthetic pigment contents, and secondary lichen metabolites (protocetraric and fumarprotocetraric acids). Sets B7 and B10 showed better resistance of the lichen to pollutants. Set B40 showed a high stress evidenced by the chain elongation of n-alkanes structure and high chlorophyll production, presenting high morphological damages when compared to the control sets, B7 and B10. The results showed signifcant reductions of n-alkanes profles for mixtures with high concentrations of biodiesel (B50 and B70), as well as decreases in the chlorophyll content. These groups showed an increase in the synthesis of secondary metabolites, corroborating the hypothesis that high concentrations of biodiesel in the mixture with petroleum diesel have greater impacts on the lichen. Keywords Atmospheric pollutants · Biomonitoring · Cladoniaceae · Cotton blends · Environmental impacts.
33903Lendemer J.C. (2021): Recent literature on lichens—263. - Bryologist, 124(4): 631–637. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.4.631.
33902Cezanne R. & Eichler M. (2015): Verbreitungsatlas der Flechten von Darmstadt – einschließlich flechtenbewohnender Pilze. - Botanik und Naturschutz in Hessen, Beiheft, 12: 1–239. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Botanik-Naturschutz-Hessen_BH_12_0001-0239.pdf.
Distribution atlas of lichens in Darmstadt Summary: We document the current and former distribution of lichens and lichenicolous fungi in the city of Darmstadt/Germany by grid maps (1/64 of 1:25000 ordnance survey map). As a result of over two decades of research we have mapped 491 currently existing and 53 extinct taxa. We discuss distribution and abundance with regard to species numbers on different substrates, former occurrences and nature-protection aspect. We present a list of taxa for the city of Darmstadt. Six taxa – Epicoccum nigrum, Epigloea bactrospora, Karschia cezannei, Lichenochora coarctatae, Trichonectria hirta, Xanthoparmelia plittii – are new for the State of Hesse; one taxon – Karschia cezannei – is new for Germany.
33901Acharius E. (1816): Afhandling om de cryptogamiske Vexter, som komma under namn af Calicioidea, Andra Stycket. Fortsättning. - Kongliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar / Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae [ser. 3], 4: 260–291, tab. VIII. .
Calicium parietinum, C. leucothallum, C. albo-atrum, C. lenticulare, C. cinereum, C. chlorellum, C. hispidulum, C. chrysocephallum, C. trabinellum, C. saepiculare, C. trachellinum, C. hypetrellum, C. roseidum, C. melanophoreum, C. trichiale, C. stemoneum, C. brunneolum, C. physarellum, C. albidum, C. adspersum, C. arcyriaeforme, C. fagineum, C. corylinum, Coniocybe stilbea, C. brachypoda, C. furfuracea, C. acicularis, C. gracilenta, figures
33900Acharius E. (1815): Afhandling om de cryptogamiske Vexter, som komma under namn af Calicioidea; Första stycket. Beskrifning på tvenne nya slägten: Limboria och Cyphelium. - Kongliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar / Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae [ser. 3], 3: 246–271, tab. VI.. .
Limboria fimbrata, L. constellata, L. saepincola, L. flexella, L. corrugata, L. regularis, Cyphelium tympanellum, C. leucomelas, C. picastrum, C. adspersum, C. scabrosulum, C. tigilare, C. cembrinum, C. stigonellum, C. turbinatum, C. sticticum, figures
33899Acharius E. (1812): Anmärkningar vid Lafslaget Thelotrema med nogare bestämmande af dess arter. - Kongl. Vetenskaps Akademiens Nya Handlingar Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [ser. 2]he, 33: 79–95. .
Thelotrema hematomma, T. bahianum, T. terebratum, T. lepadinum, T. urceolare, T. fumosum, T. cavatum, T. obturatum, T. exanthematicum, T. discoideum
33898Acharius E. (1817d): Species novae e Trypethelii genere. - Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou, 5: 174–178, tab. .
Trypethelium variolosum, T. lageniferum, T. papillosum, figures
33897Acharius E. (1817c): Trypethelium. Genus Lichenum monographice descriptum, adjectis iconibus omnium hactenus detectarum specierum. - Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou, 5: 162–173, tab. .
Trypethelium sprengelii, T. mastoideum, T. anomalum, T. conglobatum, T. paradoxum, T. porosum, figures
33896Acharius E. (1826): Glyphis et Chiodecton, genera duo nova Lichenum. - Jsis von Oken, 1826: 30–[37]. .
Glyphis, Chiodecton, Opegrapha
33895Acharius E. (1817a): Afhandling om de cryptogamiske vexter, som komma under namn af Calicioidea, Tredje Stycket. - Kongliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar (Acta Reg. Acad. Scient. Holm.) [ser. 3], 5: 220–244, tab. VII[!]. .
Limboria, Cyphelium, Calicium, Coniocybe, figures
33894Kumar V., Sharma Y.P., Joseph S., Ngangom R. & Nayaka S. (2021): Additons to the lichenized and lichenicolous fungi of Jammu & Kashmir from Kishtwar High Alttude Natonal Park. - Journal of Threatened Taxa, 13(12): 19799–19807. https://doi.org/10.11609/jot.7312.13.12.19799-19807.
The present study reports 14 lichenized and two lichenicolous fungi new to the mycota of Jammu & Kashmir. The lichenized fungi are Buellia aeruginascens (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca pachycheila Poelt & Hinter., Cladonia cervicornis ssp. vertcillata (Hofm.) Aht, Hafellia curatellae (Malme) Marbach, Hafellia subnexa Marbach, Hafellia tetrapla (Nyl.) Pusswald, Leptogium askotense D.D.Awasthi, Nephromopsis laii (A. Thell & Randlane) Saag & A.Thell, Polycauliona phlogina (Ach.) Arup, Frödén & Søchtng, Pyxine cognata Strt., Rinodina conradii Körb., Rinodina intermedia Bagl., Rinodina oxydata (A.Massal.) A.Massal., and Squamulea squamosa (B.deLesd.) Arup, Søchtng & Frödén. The lichenicolous fungi include Abrothallus microspermus Tul. and Lichenoconium lecanorae (Jaap) D.Hawksw. The species are enumerated along with their present distributon. Keywords: Ascomycota, biodiversity, northern India, taxonomy, the Himalaya, union territory.
33893Fałtynowicz W. (2021): Jaka ma być ochrona gatunkowa? Część II. Porosty – studium przypadku. - Wiadomości Botaniczne, 65: 654 [16 p.]. https://orcid.org/0000-0001- 6511-8403.
What Is the Species Protection? Part II. Lichens – A Case Study [in Polish with English abstract: ] The article contains a diagnosis of the current status of lichen species protection in Poland. Te current regulation contains a lot of errors and inaccuracies and needs to be changed. Te text presents suggestions to change the species protection system in the country and introduce short regional lists, in addition to an equally very limited national list. Proposals for new lists of protected species for the country and for selected provinces were also included. Keywords: lichens; species protection; lists of protected species; proposed changes to the protection system; Poland.
33892Ohmura Y., Sugimoto M., Aung M.M. & Tanaka N. (2020): Contribution to the knowledge of the Lichen Mycota of Myanmar (I) Twenty species newly recorded from Southern Myanmar. - Taiwania, 65(4): 548‒558. DOI: 10.6165/tai.2020.65.548.
Specimens of lichens collected from southern Myanmar including Tanintharyi and Yangon Regions were examined. As the result of taxonomic examinations, the following 20 species were identified: Astrothelium macrocarpum, Bulbothrix subscortea, Coccocarpia erythroxyli, C. palmicola, Cruentotrema thailandicum, Dirinaria aegialita, D. consimilis, Dyplolabia afzelii, Flakea papillata, Glyphis cicatricosa, Graphis cf. caesiella, G. desquamescens, G. supracola, Malmidea bakeri, Physcia undulata, Pyrenula mamillana, Pyxine dactyloschmidtii, Sarcographa labyrinthica, Trypethelium eluteriae, and Zwackhia prosodea. All of them, except the two species of Coccocarpia, are new records for Myanmar. The ITS rDNA sequences were successfully obtained from 17 samples for 14 species. The BLAST identities for Myanmar collections with the same species in GenBank range from 89 to 100%. Key words: BLAST, distribution, inventory, ITS rDNA, lichenized fungi, Southeast Asia, taxonomy.
33891Mishra G.K., Nayaka S. & Upreti D.K. (2021): Myriospora himalayensis (Acarosporaceae, lichenized fungi), a new species from Western Himalayan region of India. - Taiwania, 66(1): 89‒92. DOI: 10.6165/tai.2021.66.89.
Myriospora himalayensis is described as a new to science. The new species is characterized by having pruinose apothecia with small (1.5–2.5 × 1–1.2 μm), hyaline, ellipsoid ascospores and areolate-effigurate to squamulose-lobate thalli with grey to brownish upper surface. The new species is so far known only from the Western Himalayan region of India. A key to all known species of Myriospora from the world is provided. Key words: Acarospora, Ascomycota, biodiversity, key, lichenized fungi, Myriospora myochroa, taxonomy.
33890Ezhkin A.K. & Ohmura Y. (2021): Notes to Pannariaceae species in Taiwan. - Taiwania, 66(4): 575‒579. DOI: 10.6165/tai.2021.66.575.
Ten species in the lichen family Pannariaceae were identified based on the examination of Taiwanese collections housed in the National Museum of Nature and Science, Japan. Among them, seven species are new records to Taiwan: Fuscopannaria ahlneri, F. dispersa, F. sorediata, Kroswia gemmascens, Pannaria asahinae, P. rubiginosa and Parmeliella pannosa. Their morphology, ecology, and phytogeography are discussed. Vahliella leucophae was deleted from the Taiwan list of Pannariaceae lichens. Key words: Biodiversity, Asia, rain forest, tropics, subtropics, disjunction, rare species.
33889Ohmura Y., Frisch A., Sugimoto M., Aung M.M. & Tanaka N. (2021): Contribution to the knowledge of the Lichen Mycota of Myanmar (II) Heterocyphelium triseptatum (Lecanographaceae) newly recorded from Asia and its molecular phylogenetic position. - Taiwania, 66(4): 569‒574. DOI: 10.6165/tai.2021.66.569.
Heterocyphelium triseptatum is newly recorded from Asia. The species was previously known only from South America and Africa. It was collected from the bark of a broadleaf tree at 35 m elevation in the Tanintharyi Region of southern Myanmar. An unidentified substance was newly detected for this species by thin layer chromatography (TLC). This study demonstrates the phylogenetic position of H. triseptatum in the Lecanographaceae using Bayesian and RAxML analyses of mtSSU and nrLSU sequence data. The close relationship with H. leucampyx within the Heterocyphelium clade was confirmed. Key words: Distribution, Lecanographaceae, mtSSU, nrLSU, Southeast Asia, taxonomy, TLC.
33888Ravera S., Puglisi M., Vizzini A., Assini S., Barcella M., Berta G., Boccardo F., Bonini I., Bottegoni F., Ciotti R., Clericuzio M., Cogoni A., Dagnino D., De Agostini A., De Giuseppe A.B., Dovana F., Gheza G., Isocrono D., Maiorca G., Mariotti M., Nascimbene J., Nimis P.L., Ongaro S., Pandeli G., Passalacqua N.G., Pezzi G., Poponessi S., Prosser F., Puntillo D., Puntillo M., Sicoli G., Turcato C. & Vallese C. (2021): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 12. - Italian Botanist, 12: 49–62. https://doi.org/10.3897/italianbotanist.12.76124.
In this contribution, new data concerning bryophytes, fungi and lichens of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records, confirmations or exclusions for the bryophyte genera Acaulon, Campylopus, Entosthodon, Homomallium, Pseudohygrohypnum, and Thuidium, the fungal genera Entoloma, Cortinarius, Mycenella, Oxyporus, and Psathyrella and the lichen genera Anaptychia, Athallia, Baeomyces, Bagliettoa, Calicium, Nephroma, Pectenia, Phaeophyscia, Polyblastia, Protoparmeliopsis, Pyrenula, Ramalina, and Sanguineodiscus. Keywords: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Bryidae.
33887García R., Acosta Hospitaleche C. & Márquez G. (2021): Biodeterioration of Antarctic fossil penguin bones caused by lichens from the Eocene La Meseta Formation. - Polar Biology, 44: 2243–2254. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-021-02957-7.
A large part of the Antarctic surface is covered by lichens since they can withstand extreme environmental conditions. Lichens are primary colonizers and contribute to soil formation by deteriorating rocks through a combination of chemical and physical mechanisms. Therefore, fossil remains found exposed on the surface are usually colonized by epilithic and endolithic lichens. The objective of this work is to determine the biodeterioration generated by lichens on fossil remains and its taphonomic implications. We identified the presence of the euendolithic lichens Lecidea andersonii and Athallia holocarpa growing into fossil penguin bones from Antarctica. The bioerosive damage was evaluated using light and electron microscopic techniques. Pits corresponding to apothecium and sinuous thin fissures remodeled, or in some cases produced, by hyphae were distinguished from the cracks originating from physical weathering. The maximum depth that hyphae extend inside the bone, probably constrained by the light supply, was established to be 2.5 mm. We provided a tool for the reconstruction of the chronology of the taphonomic events, describing the type and magnitude of the damage into the bones. Keywords: Taphonomy · Weathering · Traces · Fossil penguins · Bones · Endolithic.
33886Díaz-Reinoso B., Rodríguez-González I. & Domínguez H. (2021): Towards greener approaches in the extraction of bioactives from lichens. - Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, 20: 917–942. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11157-021-09595-9.
Lichens are widely distributed symbiotic organisms producing unique chemical compounds with interesting biological properties. The secondary metabolites of lichens, which are tailored to live in the most extreme conditions, are highly attractive for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The need for continuing research in the identification of new metabolites, the studies of their potential and mechanisms of action as well as their large scale production requires effective and greener extraction processes. This review presents a survey of the conventional and advanced extraction technologies reported for obtaining lichen bioactives. Due to the complex lichen morphology, the influence of different strategies causing the cell degradation for aiding in the extraction of solutes are discussed.
33885Галанина И.А. & Яковченко Л.С. [Galanina I.A. & Yakovchenko L.S.] (2021): Rinodina albertana Sheard на Дальнем Востоке России [Rinodina albertana Sheard in the Russian Far East]. - Биота и среда природных территорий [Biota and environment of natural areas], 2: 71–76. .
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The presented work is based on the study of extensive material that authors collected in 2002–2008 in Primorye Territory (Khasanskiy and Ussuriyskiy districts). The study resulted in the first record of Rinodina albertana in mainland Eurasia. R. albertana is a rare species for Russia and Eurasia and just recently has been found in Northeast Asia. This is the second finding of this species in Russia and Northeastern Asia. Previous record of the species was on Sakhalin Island (Nevelskiy District) on bark of Populus sp. in a valley forest. The species was previously described from Canada, and also found in the USA. Before our discovery the species was considered endemic for North America. This study suggests it is the East Asian ― North American species with disjunct distribution. Rinodina albertana is well distinguished by its large Dirinaria-type spores and the presence of blastidia or marginal consoredia among all species found in Northeast Asia. Rinodina oleae is similar to R.albertana by its Dirinaria-type spores, but it has smaller spores (12.0) 15.0–16.5 (19.0) μm, and does not have blastidia or consoredia. In addition, thickenings of the spore septum of R. oleae are very difficult to see, whereas in R. albertana thickenings of the spore septumare perfectly distinguishable. The work also presents a brief description of the rare species R.albertana found in Primorye Territory. Keywords: biodiversity, biogeography, lichens, new records, North-East Asia.
33884Aptroot A. & Souza M.F. (2021): New crustose lichens from a tropical coastal area in Paraná (Brazil). - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 42(12): 191–197. https://doi.org/10.5252/cryptogamie-mycologie2021v42a12.
Four new crustose lichens are described from the coastal area in Paraná (Brazil): Cryptothecia duplofluorescens Aptroot & M.F.Souza, sp. nov., Herpothallon purpureum Aptroot & M.F.Souza, sp. nov., Myriostigma xanthominiatum Aptroot & M.F.Souza, sp. nov., and Wirthiotrema xanthopustulatum Aptroot & M.F.Souza, sp. nov. In addition, a list is given of the 111 species that were newly recorded from the state, including nine species that are first records from Brazil. The significance of lichexanthone is discussed. Key words: Graphidaceae, Arthoniaceae, lichexanthone, Atlantic rain forest, new species.
33883Groner U. (2016): Flechten und assoziierte nicht lichenisierte Pilze des Bödmerenwald-Silberen-Gebietes im Muotatal, Kanton Schwyz (Schweiz). - Cryptogamica Helvetica, 22: 1–156. .
The Bödmeren Forest-Silberen region in the Muota Valley of Central Switzerland is part of the large karst area in the Prealps east of Lake Lucerne. An investigation of the lichen flora has been made during the last years; currently, 789 lichen taxa, including species, subspecies, varieties and forma, as well as 114 associated non-lichenized fungi were recor- ded. All substrates of the forested and non-forested parts and all vegetation zones from montane to alpine have been considered. The species list presents collection data, information about species characteristics and numerous illustra- tions. Several rare species have been found and the diversity of the lichen flora of the region is remarkably high. 33 lichen taxa, of which 7 Caloplaca and 7 Verrucaria species, are recorded new to Switzerland; 304 lichens are added to the list of the Canton of Schwyz. Today, 49 lichens are exclusively known from this area. Explanations for the species richness, threats and lichen protection and some peculiarities of the region, such as the well-known, rather large population of the rare Usnea longissima are discussed. available from: https://portal-cdn.scnat.ch/asset/13d71897-eb3a-56a2-a991-e420a9de1c09/Crypto.Helv.22%2072dpi.pdf?b=db71239d-bf6f-58df-8177-168664139119&v=2bfad5a2-886d-5360-b07e-ed0062df3fd1_0&s=M3c4EkRm9BhuipTnKmAQF7DNnFSiMJ0kDpV99wPJQpTew_b8ewBTN3-qS-FXLEozOzbnrD1cS-AdncvBa_bfeMMr838VBwho6dCnts-8vi6RRtVTPU1YQS0pLZ6Yzw9zU-456T65ZqihAmQDwwU3GkI4P_Jr4FA9NXLV9PoHsHM
33882Markut T. (2012): Der Umlaufberg im Thayatal – ein Berg voller Leben [The famous meander mountain in the Thaya valley – a mountain full of life]. - Abhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Österreich, 38: 169–213. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/AZBG_38_0169-0213.pdf.
[in German with English abstract: ] 1188 species were found by 22 experts within a 75 ha area of the national park Thayatal on 29 May 2010. Numerous endangered species are among the recorded taxa (17% of the birds, 4% of the beetles, 25% of the grasshoppers), and some insect species were recorded for the first time from the national park area on this single day. The results show the good development of the different habitats and the high biodiversity potential in the protected area. The high proportion of first records in the area indicates the usefulness of further biodiversity research, especially of standardized entomofaunistic surveys. Keywords: national park, Thaya, diversity, species lists, flora, fauna. Lichens (p. 175-178) elaborated by O.Breuss and F.Berger providing list of 170 species.
33881Aptroot A., Cavalcante J.G., Santos L.A., Oliveira Junior I., Lima D.O. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2021): Checklist of the lichens of The Reserva Florestal Adolphe Ducke in Manaus (Amazonas, Brazil). - Mycotaxon, 136(3): 685. .
A checklist is presented of the lichenized fungi of The Reserva Florestal Adolphe Ducke in Manaus (Amazonas, Brazil), which is one of the best studied and most accessible forest reserves in the Amazon. In total, 295 species are reported, 116 of which are newly reported here based on new sampling by the authors, 10 of which are first reports for Brazil, and 50 more are new reports to the Amazonas state. Among these, 214 are corticolous species, 81 are foliicolous and five are terricolous or on termitaria, with five species occuring both on bark and living leaves. Amazon Forest, living leaves, diversity, termite nest, tree bark
33880Groner U. & Schultz M. (2019): Die kleinen schwarzen Flechten am Roggenstöckli (Muotathal, Kanton Schwyz). - Berichte der Schwyzerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, 18: 55-92. .
The «small black ones» are mostly tiny cyanoli- chens predominantly belonging to the Lichinaceae and notoriously difficult to identify. These mainly saxicolous lichens are poorly known in Switzerland, in many cases, information about occurrence and distribution dates back to the 19th century. Roggen- stöckli is a small rocky elevation, a little more than a steep hill in the Bödmeren Forest karst area in the Muota Valley of central Switzerland. The 33 small black lichen species found here on limestone and si- liceous limestone are presented with descriptions and illustrations. In addition, 20 other small-sized cya- nolichens of the surrounding Bödmeren Forest area, not recorded on the Roggenstöckli, are mentioned and illustrated. The number of species observed is remarkable with respect to the rather sparse modern records in the country. Lichen nutrition, ecological conditions of the Roggenstöckli and the so far unique species diversity are discussed. Anema nodulosum, Gonohymenia myriospora, G. octosporella, Meta- melanea caesiella, Placynthium flabellosum, P. pul- vinatum, Psorotichia frustulosa, Pterygiopsis affinis, Pyrenopsis sanguinea and Scytinium fragile are small black species new to Switzerland. Moreover, this is the first report in the country of Polyblastia efflore- scens, a crustose lichen collected on marly limestone of the Roggenstöckli
33879Groner U. (2020): Eintausend Taxa auf 24 Quadratkilometer – Ergänzungen und Korrekturen zur Flechtenflora des Bödmerenwald-Silberengebietes, Kanton Schwyz. - Meylania, 66: 22–28. .
More than thousand taxa of lichens and associated fungi are currently known from the Bödmeren Forest-Silberen area (Canton Schwyz) in central Switzerland, comprising a surface area of 24 square kilometers only. Here, recently collected species are added to the pubtished inventory, and some corrections to the former list of species are made. Caloplaca marmorata, Lecanora campestris subsp. dolo- mitica, Peccania cernohorslEi and Schaereria corticola are reported as new to the country. The outstanding species richness of this area depends on the favourable ecological conditions discussed in previous articles, as well as on the time spent and the efforts made
33878Dietrich M., Keller C., Mermilliod J.-C. & Vust M. (2020): Beiträge zur lichenologischen Erforschung der Schweiz – Folge 2. - Meylania, 66: 4–18. .
The second issue of the series presents ten lichens new to switzerland (Arctomia delicatula, Aspicilia mashiginensis, cladonia krogiana, Gyalecta incarnata, Lecanora thysanophora, pali- cella filamentosa, Poina mammillosa, \renodesmia erodens, Rinodina obnascens, squamaina nivalis), as wett as new sites of rare, threatened or other remarkable Lichens
33877Wirth V. (2010): Zur nacheiszeitlichen Geschichte der Flechtenbiota von Wäldern in Zentraleuropa, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der montanen Buchenwälder (Fagetalia). In: J. Hafellner, I. Kärnefelt & V. Wirth (eds.) Diversity and Ecology of Lichens in Polar and Mountain Ecosystems. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 104: 373–389. .
Aspects of the postglacial history of lichen biota of forests in Central Europe, with special emphasis on montane beech forests (Fagetalia). – Based on recent observations, an attempt is made to reconstruct changes in lichen synusia of forests during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. The reflections are based largely on the premise that most epiphytes are adapted to certain pH-conditions and structural-anatomical bark features. These factors limit the potential spectrum of lichen species capable of establishing on the tree species mixtures dominating at any given period of time. Furthermore questions concerning speed of migration and origin of the forest lichens are discussed for the communities of the phytosociological order Fagetalia
33876Wirth V. (2010): Lichens of the Namib Desert. A guide to their identification. - Göttingen, Windhoek: V. Wirth and K. Hess Verlag, 96 pp. .
33875Wirth V. (2000): Flechten und flechtenbewohnenden Pilze neu für Deutschland. - Jahreshefte der Gesellschaft für Naturkunde in Württemberg, 156: 189–191. .
In Baden-Württemberg konnten zwei weitere Flechtenarten und flechten- bewohnende Pilze erstmals für Deutschland nachgewiesen werden. Bei der Flechte Agonimia globulifera handelt es sich um eine soeben erst beschrie- bene Sippe von Pioniercharakter auf Moosen und Erde, bei Zahlbruckne- rella calcarea um eine verbreitete, aber sehr seltene, schon lange bekannte Kalkflechte der Gebirge. Bei den flechtenbewohnenden Pilzen handelt es sich um verbreitete und relativ häufige Sippen, die in der Checkliste von WIRTH (1994) fehlen und z. T. formal noch nicht für Deutschland angegeben worden sind
33874Wirth V. (1997): Flechten im außeralpinen Mitteleuropa. – In: Schöller, H. (ed.), Flechten - Geschichte, Biologie, Systematik, Ökologie, Naturschutz und kulturelle Bedeutung. Begleitheft zur Ausstellung ‘Flechten - Kunstwerke der Natur’. - Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe, 27: 111–118. .
33873Wirth V. (1999): Neu- und Wiederfunde von Flechten und flechtenbewohnenden Pilzen in Deutschland. - Jahreshefte der Gesellschaft für Naturkunde in Württemberg, 155: 227–236. .
33872Wirth V. (1989): Über die außergewöhnliche Flechtenvegetation des Belchen-Gebietes im Schwarzwald. – In: Der Belchen - Geschichtlich-naturkundliche Monographie des schönsten Schwarzwaldberges. - Natur- und Landschaftsschutzgebiete Baden-Württembergs, 13: 593–616. .
Ver auf den Bergen des üdschwarzwaldes gewandert i t, dem sind Flechten kein unbekannter Anblick. Jn vielfältiger ~estalt begegnen sie dem aufmerksamen Naturbe- obachter: al su·uppiger Bewu h auf Asten und Stämmen von Bäumen, als buntschecki- ge Mosaik auf Fel en, als kleine graue, graugrüne oder braune Büs he auf dem Erdboden oder - heure ei11 seltener Anblkk - al zottige Bärte, die von den Zweigen herabhängen und die Bäume verkleiden
33871Wirth V. (1975): Neue und bemerkenswerte Flechtenfunde in Deutschland. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 46: 111–123. .
Verrucaria scabra, Arthonia granitophila, Arthonia xylophila, Toninia kolax, Lecanora reagens, Parmelia britannica, Parmelia reddenda, Sarcopyrenia gibba, Microglaena sphinctrinoides, Dermatocarpon monstrosum, Belonia russula, Cyphelium karelicum, Arthonia arthonioides, Arthonia lurida, Arthothelium ruanideum, Opegrapha vermicellifera, Lithographa teserata, Lecanactis dilleniana, Lecidea aenea, Lecidea caesioatra, Lecidea limosa, Lecidea pilatii, Lecidella achristotera, Catillaria bouteillei, Stereocaulon evolutum, Stereocaulon saxatile, Thelocarpon laureri, Pertusaria isidioides, Ochrolechia szatalaensis, Lecanora demissa, Lecanora garovaglii, Lecanora leptyrodes, Lecanora subaurea, Candelariella heidelbergensis, Hypogymnia bitteri, Parmelia pastillifera, Caloplaca proteus, Physcia endococcina, Coriscium viride
33870Wirth V. (1974): Zur Flechtenvegetation und -flora der westlichen Randgebirge der Oberrheinischen Tiefebene. - Nova Hedwigia, 25: 349–406. .
The most important lichen communities ofthe Vosges (NE-France), the Pfalzer Wald and the Nordpfälzer Bergland (SW-Germany) are mentioned and characterized on a site and phytosociological basis. Many rare and sporadic occurring lichens are listed and their sites outlined. Approximately 20 species were found in France for the first time, many are reported as new to the Vosges and a few to the Pfalz. A parasitic Lecidea, Lecidea vezdai, is described as new. Literature regarding the lichen flora ofthe investigated area is listed
33869Si H.-L., Zheng X.-X., Li X.-C., Su Y.-M., Bose T. & Chang R.-L. (2021): Dlhawksworthia flavoparmeliae sp. nov., a new endolichenic fungus in Phaeosphaeriaceae. - Phytotaxa, 525(1): 51–58. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.525.1.6.
The genus Dlhawksworthia presently includes three species. All the previously described species have been isolated from plants. Besides, none of these three species have ever been recorded in China. We conducted surveys in various regions of China to isolate and identify endolichenic fungi associated with diverse lichen species. During these surveys, we isolated both previously known and undescribed fungi associated with lichens. Among these, there was an isolate of an unknown fungus. The morphological and molecular analyses indicated that this isolate represented a new species from the genus Dlhawksworthia. As a consequence, we described this fungus as Dlhawksworthia flavoparmeliae sp. nov. This is the first report of Dlhawksworthia isolated from a lichen in China and globally. Keywords: Ascomycetes, Dematiopleospora, Hawksworthiana, Pleosporales, Yunnan Province.
33868van den Boom P.P.G. (2021): Lichen and lichenicolous fungus records from Santa Maria, Azores archipelago. - Botanica, 27(1): 34–43. https://doi.org/10.35513/Botlit.2021.1.4.
One hundred seventy-seven species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are recorded for the island Santa Maria (Azores Archipelago, Portugal). Eighteen species are new for the archipelago. A list of all pertinent specimens with their locality and substrate is presented. Six rare species are illustrated. Keywords: biodiversity, ecology, Macaronesia, lichens of Portugal, new records, taxonomy.
33867Nash III T.H. (2021): Lichenicolous fungi in WIS. - Evansia, 28(3): 90–99. .
The WIS herbarium has ca. 1000 specimens of lichenicolous fungi distributed across 406 species. Fifty-nine of the specimens are types, of which fourteen are isotypes and seven holotypes. Key words. World-wide lichenicolous fungi, WIS, Kalb collections, Matzer dissertation.
33866Kantvilas G. & Fryday A. (2021): Validation of Henry Imshaug’s “Ochrolechia alectoronica” (lichenised Ascomycetes, Pertusariales), with notes on O. weymouthii Jatta and a key to the genus Ochrolechia in Tasmania. - Swainsona, 35: 67–72. .
Two species of the lichen genus Ochrolechia from cool temperate latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere are described and illustrated: O. alectoronica Imshaug ex Kantvilas & Fryday sp. nov., validated on a type from Campbell Island and also occurring in Tasmania and the Auckland Islands; and O. weymouthii Jatta, widespread in Tasmania and the southern mainland of Australia. Both taxa are characterised by an esorediate thallus containing alectoronic acid. The southern South American species O. blandior (Nyl.) Darb. is a synonym of O. weymouthii. A key to the seven species of Ochrolechia occurring in Tasmania is provided. Keywords: alectoronic acid, lichens, Southern Hemisphere, Australia, New Zealand.
33865Lee B.G. & Hur J.-S. (2021): Two new calcicolous caloplacoid lichens from South Korea, with a taxonomic key to the species of Huriella and Squamulea. - MycoKeys, 84: 35–55. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.84.71227.
Pyrenodesmia rugosa Lee & Hur and Huriella aeruginosa Lee & Hur are described as new lichen-forming fungi from a calcareous mountain of South Korea. Pyrenodesmia rugosa is distinguishable from Pyrenodesmia micromontana (Frolov, Wilk & Vondrák) Hafellner & Türk, the most similar species, by thicker thallus, rugose areoles, larger apothecia, shorter hymenium, shorter hypothecium and narrower tip cells of paraphyses. Huriella aeruginosa, the second new species, differs from ‘Squamulea’ chelonia Bungartz & Søchting by dark greenish-grey to grey thallus without pruina, gold to yellow-brown epihymenium, larger ascospores and thallus K– and KC– reaction. Molecular analyses employing internal transcribed spacer (ITS), mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) and nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU) sequences strongly support the two caloplacoid species to be distinct in their genera. A surrogate key is provided to assist in the identification of all 20 taxa in Huriella and Squamulea. Keywords: Biodiversity, phylogeny, saxicolous, taxonomy, Teloschistaceae.
33864Torres J.-M., Barbosa T.D., Kitaura M.J., Spielmann A.A. & Lorenz A.P. (2021): Two new species of Sticta (Peltigeraceae subfam. Lobarioideae) from the Brazilian Cerrado (Brazilian savanna). - Bryologist, 124(4): 506–521. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.4.506.
Sticta, the most diverse genus of the Lobarioideae (Ascomycota: Peltigeraceae), contains species easily recognized by the presence of genuine cyphellae on the lower cortex of the thallus. Two new species collected in typical cerrado vegetation in Central Brazil are described as S. cerradensis and S. porella, including morphological, anatomical, and molecular analyses based on the ITS region. The two new taxa belong to one of the major Sticta clades, which contains mostly New World species. This work shows that the cerrado, a global biodiversity hotspot located in the center of South America, could contain a great diversity of new species of lichenized fungi. Keywords: Cyanolichens, Mato Grosso do Sul, ITS region.
33863Oliveira Junior I., Aptroot A. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2021): Lichens from Monte Pascoal, Bahia, Brazil, with some new pyrenocarpous species and a key to the Pyrenula species from Brazil. - Bryologist, 124(4): 552–568. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.4.552.
The following seven new species of pyrenocarpous lichens are described from Monte Pascoal in Bahia (Brazil): Astrothelium citrisporum Aptroot, Oliveira-Junior & M.Cáceres, with thallus ochraceous, UV-negative, ascomata fused in hemispherical, concolorous pseudostromata, hamathecium not inspersed, and ascospores submuriform, 5 × 1–2-septate, 35–40 × 18–20 µm, citriform, both ends pointed; A. eustominspersum Aptroot & Oliveira-Junior, with thallus pale greyish olivaceous, UV-negative, ascomata fused, ostiole UV+ yellow, hamathecium inspersed, and ascospores 3-septate, 25–27 × 7–7.5 µm; A. flavogigasporum Aptroot, with thallus olivaceous, UV-negative, ascomata single, ostioles apical, hamathecium yellowish (K-negative) inspersed, and ascospores 4/ascus, hyaline, densely muriform, 240–260 × 33–38 µm, long-ellipsoid, without thickened central septum; A. medioincrassatum Aptroot & M.Cáceres, with thallus olivaceous, UV-negative, ascomata fused in inconspicuous groups, ostioles lateral, hamathecium not inspersed, and ascospores 9–11-septate, 98–115 × 23–27 µm, long-ellipsoid, with thickened central septum; Pseudopyrenula gelatinosa Aptroot, with thallus UV-negative, ascomata solitary, ostioles apical, hamathecium not inspersed, and ascospores 3-septate, 34–37 × 9–10.5 µm, wall 1 µm thick, surrounded by a 9–10.5 µm thick gelatinous sheath; Pyrenula salmonea Aptroot, with thallus salmon pink, ascomata solitary, ostioles apical, hamathecium densely hyaline inspersed, and ascospores 3-septate, uniseriate, 24–27 × 13–16 µm, ellipsoid, lumina oval to somewhat angular, broader than long, without endospore between the outer lumina and the ascospore wall; and P. sanguineoastroidea Aptroot with thallus olivaceous, UV-negative, ascomata fused, deeply immersed in the bark, ostioles lateral, hamathecium not inspersed, and ascospores 3-septate, 24–27 × 10–12 µm, long-ellipsoid, lumina rhomboid, with thick endospore layer between the outer lumina and the ascospore wall. A further 353 species are reported, of which 12 are first records for Brazil and 192 are first records for the state of Bahia, despite it being one of the states of Brazil that is best investigated lichenologically. A graph is presented with the cumulative number of species collected after a certain time of fieldwork. It does not significantly level off, suggesting that many more species occur in the area. A key to the Pyrenula species known from Brazil is presented. Keywords: Astrothelium, Pseudopyrenula, Pyrenula, new species.
33862Knudsen K., Kocourková J., Hodková E., Malíček J. & Wang Y. (2021): Acarosporaceae of the Chihuahuan Desert: four Magnusson species saved from synonymy and a new yellow species. - Bryologist, 124(4): 533–551. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.4.533 .
Eighteen described Acarosporaceae are reported from the Chihuahuan Desert in southern New Mexico. Ten species reported by Magnusson from northern New Mexico were collected in the Chihuahuan Desert. Four species described by Magnusson are revised and taken out of synonymy: Acarospora amabilis, A. applanata, A. carnegiei and A. tenebrica. The squamulose yellow species A. organensis, new for science, was determined as A. xanthophana by Magnusson, a species endemic to South America. Acarospora organensis differs in having a higher hymenium than the two common and similar squamulose species, A. socialis from coastal Mexico and California and A. radicata from the New Mexican, Mojave and Sonoran Deserts. Acarospora subcontigua is reported new for North America. Keywords: Lichen diversity, lichenicolous lichens, phylogeny, taxonomy, Mexico.
33861Hollinger J.P. & Lendemer J.C. (2021): Capronia harrisiana (Ascomycota, Chaetothyriales), a new lichenicolous species on Crocodia aurata from the southern Appalachian Mountains of southeastern North America. - Bryologist, 124(4): 522–532. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.4.522.
Capronia harrisiana, a lichenicolous fungus on the tripartite foliose lichen Crocodia aurata, is described as new to science. Although the host species is widespread in many areas of the world, no species of Capronia has previously been reported from Crocodia aurata, and Capronia harrisiana appears to be endemic to the southern Appalachian Mountains in southeastern North America. The new species is characterized by 50–120 µm wide ascomata, 40–95 µm long setae, (1–)3-septate, pale brown, 11.9–15.7 × 4.4–5.8 µm ascospores, and an I+ red hymenium. An updated key to the lichenicolous species of Capronia is provided. Keywords: Biodiversity, endemism, host-parasite relationships, Pseudocyphellaria aurata, taxonomy.
33860García-Martínez Y.A., Guzmán-Guillermo J., Valenzuela R. & Raymundo T. (2021): Bactrospora cozumelensis sp. nov. from Mexico. - Mycotaxon, 136: 627–634. https://doi.org/10.5248/136.627.
Bactrospora cozumelensis is described as a new species associated with mangrove forests in Cozumel Island, Mexico. The specimens were collected on Rhizophora mangle bark in Punta Sur Ecological Park, Cozumel Island Biosphere Reserve, Quintana Roo, Mexico. This species is characterized by an erumpent to sessile apothecium, laterally carbonized excipulum, and 3-septate ascospores that are slightly constricted in the middle. Key words—Arthoniales, lichens, Roccellaceae, taxonomy.
33859Yao Z.-T., Jia Z.-F. & Jiang S.-H. (2021): Mazosia hainanensis sp. nov. from tropical China. - Mycotaxon, 136: 607–613. https://doi.org/10.5248/136.607.
A new species, Mazosia hainanensis, is described from Hainan, China. It is most similar to M. pseudobambusae but differs by its yellowish green thallus and smaller ascospores (14–18.5 × 3–4 μm). An analysis of its relationships based on molecular phylogeny is given. A key to the Mazosia species recorded in China is also presented. Key words—Arthoniales, lichenized fungi, Roccellaceae, taxonomy.
33858Muggia L., Coleine C., De Carolis R., Cometto A. & Selbmann L. (2021): Antarctolichenia onofrii gen. nov. sp. nov. from Antarctic endolithic communities untangles the evolution of rock-inhabiting and lichenized fungi in Arthoniomycetes. - Journal of Fungi, 7: 935 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7110935.
Microbial endolithic communities are the main and most widespread life forms in the coldest and hyper-arid desert of the McMurdo Dry Valleys and other ice-free areas across Victoria Land, Antarctica. There, the lichen-dominated communities are complex and self-supporting assemblages of phototrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms, including bacteria, chlorophytes, and both free-living and lichen-forming fungi living at the edge of their physiological adaptability. In particular, among the free-living fungi, microcolonial, melanized, and anamorphic species are highly recurrent, while a few species were sometimes found to be associated with algae. One of these fungi is of paramount importance for its peculiar traits, i.e., a yeast-like habitus, co-growing with algae and being difficult to propagate in pure culture. In the present study, this taxon is herein described as the new genus Antarctolichenia and its type species is A. onofrii, which represents a transitional group between the free-living and symbiotic lifestyle in Arthoniomycetes. The phylogenetic placement of Antarctolichenia was studied using three rDNA molecular markers and morphological characters were described. In this study, we also reappraise the evolution and the connections linking the lichenforming and rock-inhabiting lifestyles in the basal lineages of Arthoniomycetes (i.e., Lichenostigmatales) and Dothideomycetes. Keywords: algae; Lichenostigmatales; melanization; microbial communities; phylogeny; Stichococcus.
33857Gunawardana W.G.D.I., Sveshnikova N., Arsenault A. & Piercey-Normore M.D. (2021): Effect of environmental factors on polyketide synthase gene expression, usnic acid biosynthesis, and ground cover of a lichen-fungus, Cladonia uncialis. - Botany, 99(11): 735–745. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjb-2021-0009.
Lichens are composed of symbiotic slow-growing organisms and are often exposed to extreme microenvironmental conditions, resulting in the production of unique secondary metabolites. One of the most commonly produced secondary metabolites is usnic acid, which is thought to be produced by two genes. The objectives of the present study were to compare polyketide synthase (PKS) gene expression and usnic acid concentration in Cladonia uncialis (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg., with two environmental factors. Seventy-five lichen samples were collected from three locations in Newfoundland, Canada, using a strip transect method (×5 transects, ×5 quadrats). Usnic acid concentration was measured using the liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometric method and gene expression of two PKS genes (methylphloracetophenone oxidase (MPAO) and methylphloracetophenone synthase (MPAS)) was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that percent ground cover of C. uncialis was affected by soil pH level but not soil moisture, and usnic acid concentration was not affected by either soil pH or soil moisture. MPAO gene expression level was significantly affected by soil pH level but not soil moisture, and MPAS gene expression level was not affected by either soil pH level or soil moisture. There was no significant relationship between MPAS and MPAO gene expression levels and usnic acid concentration. These findings suggest that soil pH may be important for the production of usnic acid by C. uncialis but the genes involved require further study. Key words: lichen diversity, MPAO, MPAS, percent cover, secondary metabolites, soil moisture content, soil pH.
33856Zimmermann E. & Feusi S. (2020): Lichenicole Pilze der Schweiz III: Zur Biodiversität lichenicoler Pilze im Engadin (Graubünden, Schweiz). - Meylania, 66: 31–39. .
Thirty-seven lichenicolous fungi were collected in the Inn valley in the lower Engadin (Canton of Grisons, Switzerland). Among these, 12 species are recorded for the first time in Switzerland: Abrothallus peyritschii, Clypeococcum hypoceno- mycis, Gyrophthorus perforans, Lichenothelia rugosa, Lichenopeltella peltigericola, Polycoccum clauzadei, Pronectria fragmospora, Roselliniella nephromatis, Telogalla olivieri, Taeniolella diploschistis, Tremella anaptychiae and T. cetrariicola
33855Zimmermann E. & Feusi S. (2021): Lichenicole Pilze der Schweiz IV: Zur Biodiversität lichenicoler Pilze im Tal des Doubs bei Les Bois (Jura, Schweiz). - Meylania, 67(2): 49–63. .
Forty-six lichenicolous fungi were collected in a small area of the Doubs valley at the border to France (Jura, Switzerland). Among these, 19 species are recorded for the first time in Switzerland. Noteworthy species are: Capronia normandinae, Corynespora laevistipitata, Everniicola flexispora, Lichenopeltella ramalinae, Opeg- rapha physciaria, Spirographa fusisporella, S. giselae, S. intermedia, S. lichenicola, Xenonectriella septemseptata
33854Wirth V. (2021): Eine Straßenböschung im unteren Albtal (Südschwarzwald) als bemerkenswertes Flechtenhabitat. - Meylania, 67(2): 41–49. .
Roadside rocks in the lower Alb valley (southern Black Forest) as remarkable lichen habitats In connection with a planned rock stabilisation along a road between Tiefenstein and Albbruck (Baden-Württemberg, Germany), the affected lichen biota were in- vestigated. The rocks are characterised by three lichen communities. Two of them (Dermatocarpon miniatum-comm. and Caloplacetum demissae) prefer subneutral silicate rocks poor in SiO2, the third one, Lecanoretum epanorae, grows on acid gneiss rich in iron. Among the subneutrophytic species Squamulea (Caloplaca) subsoluta, Rinodina teichophila, R. oxydata, Collema flaccidum, C. furfuraceum are noteworthy, among the ferrophilous species Lecanora handelii, Rhizocarpon furfu- rosum and Acarospora sinopica
33853Zhurbenko M.P. (2021): Lichenochora sedelnikoviorum, a new species from the Russian Arctic with a synopsis of published additions to the Panarctic checklist of lichenicolous fungi. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 20: 73–80. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=20.
Lichenochora sedelnikoviorum, a lichenicolous ascomycete growing on Rostania ceranisca (Collemataceae), is described as new to science from the Arctic. The species is characterized by the absence of gall-induction, more or less exposed ascomata up to 300 μm in diameter, 4–8-spored asci, 70–110 × 10–14 μm, and (rarely 0–)1-septate ascospores, (20.5–)24.5–31.5(–37) × (4.5–)5.5–6.5(–7.5) μm. A list of additions to the Panarctic checklist of lichenicolous fungi, which now includes 375 species, is presented. Keywords. – Asia, biodiversity, lichen-dwelling fungi, polar desert, Russia, taxonomy.
33852Varga N., Lőkös L. & Farkas E. (2021): Annotated checklist of the lichenicolous fungi of Hungary. - Diversity, 13(11): 557 [20 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13110557.
Knowledge of lichenicolous fungi is limited at a worldwide level and needs further basic information, as in the case of Central and Southern Europe. The literature sources for “Revised checklist of the Hungarian lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi” by Lőkös and Farkas in 2009 contained 54 lichenicolous and other microfungi species of 38 genera. Due to recent field studies and microscopic work, the number of known species has increased to 104 lichenicolous species in 64 genera during the last decade, including 53 new species for the country. Old records of five species were confirmed by new collections. Key characteristics of some of the most interesting species are illustrated by microscopic views and two distribution maps are provided. Recent biodiversity estimates suggest that the number of currently known species could be 1.5 (–2) times higher with more detailed work on field collections. Although lichenicolous fungi have been less well studied in Hungary in the past, the relative diversity of lichenicolous fungi there, as indicated by Zhurbenko’s lichenicolous index, was found to be slightly higher than the mean value calculated for the world. Keywords: distribution; diversity; lichen-inhabiting fungi.
33851Lendemer J.C. & Clark P. (2021): Between a rock and a hard place: Chrysothrix susquehannensis is more widespread in eastern North America than previously thought. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 20: 81–87. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=20.
Chrysothrix susquehannensis was originally described from vertical rocks faces at a single locality in southeastern Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Here we document new occurrences discovered as result of fieldwork and the revision of herbarium specimens. We show that C. susquehannensis, although rare, is widespread in the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America, with a disjunction in New Mexico in southwestern North America.
33850Wirth V. (2021): Lichenologische Notizen aus dem linksrheinischen Berg- und Hügelland in Westdeutschland. - Decheniana , 174: 63–91. .
[in German with English abstract: ] From 27 localities, extending from Palatinate Forest in the south to the Eifel in the north, species lists are given. On the whole they show a considerable species diversity. Reasons are: richness in rocky areas, geological diversity, climatic contrasts between cool-oceanic and xerothermal areas and habitats. Some subatlantic species are much more frequent than in the regions east of the Rhine valley. Noteworthy findings are Trapeliopsis wallrothii, Tremolecia atrata, Schaereria fuscocinerea, Lecidea fuliginosa, Acarospora rugulosa, Lecanactis abietina, Thelotrema lepadinum and the lichenicolous fungus Tremella diploschistina. Sarea coeloplata is recorded.
33849Wirth V. (2020): Contributions à la végétation lichénique des Vosges et de la vallée du Rhin alsacienne 2. Lichens observés dans les Vosges. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 71: 101–130. .
[in French with German Zuzammenfassung :] Die vorliegende Studie vertieft die Kenntnis der Flechtenbiota der Vogesen durch Artenlisten von über 50 Lokalitäten. Die floristischen Daten werden durch soziologische Aufnahmen und ökologische Ausführungen ergänzt. Die Fundorte liegen teils in den lichenologisch gut bekannten Hochvogesen, teils in den Nordvogesen und in den niederen Lagen in der Nachbarschaft zur Rheinebene, beides noch ungenügend erforschte Bereiche. Die Vielfalt der dokumentierten Flechtenflora unterstreicht die lichenologische Bedeutung der Vogesen, die unter anderem in der petrographischen Vielfalt begründet ist, die basische Silikatgesteine einschließt. Als ein Beispiel können Vorkommen von Arten aufgeführt werden wie Lathagrium cristatum, L. fuscovirens, Enchylium polycarpon, Gyalecta jenensis, die gewöhnlich auf kalkreichen Gesteinen vorkommen, und subneutrophytischen Bewohnern von Silikatgesteinen, wie Diploicia canescens, Endocarpon psorodeum, Sparria endlicheri, Physcia tribacia, Xanthoria fallax. Naturnahe Wälder haben bis heute das Überleben von Arten von historisch alten Wäldern ermöglicht, wie Schismatomma pericleum, Biatora helvola, B. ocelliformis, Arthonia leucopellaea, Sphaerophorus globosus. Die kontinental getönten Lagen in Lee des Vogesenkammes bergen Arten des xerothermen Elementes, so Caloplaca demissa, C. subsoluta, Physcia dimidiata (Caloplacetum demissae), Pertusaria leucosora. So reich die Hochvogesen an alpinen Arten sind, so arm sind diesbezüglich die Nordvogesen; in erster Linie ist dies eine Folge des Höhenunterschieds von ca. 350 m, aber auch der Felsarmut der hohen Lagen der Nordvogesen. In den Wäldern der Nordvogesen sind einige hochmontane Arten gefunden worden, wie Calicium trabinellum, Palicella filamentosa, Vulpicida pinastri, Xylographa parallela. Caloplaca squamuloisidiata, Ramalina europaea, Stereocaulon leucophaeopsis, Verrucaria devensis und Candelariella boleana werden erstmals für Frankreich, letztere auch für Deutschland nachgewiesen. Bemerkenswert erscheinen die Funde von Baeomyces carneus, Buellia uberior, Hydropunctaria scabra, Palicella filamentosa.
33848Roux C. (2021): Du novaj specioj de Acarosporaceae el Francio. Deux espèces nouvelles d’Acarosporaceae de France. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 72: 31–46. .
[bilingual in Esperanto and French; diagnoses in Esperentoo and Latin] Acarospora poumaratii Cl. Roux sp. nov. diffère d’A. germanica surtout par ses apothécies à rebord nul ou mince, son hyménium moins haut, ses paraphysoïdes plus larges et son écologie (étage mésoméditerranéen inférieur). Clauzade et Roux (1981) l’avaient attribué à A. suzae var. tyroliensis. Thelocarpella wirthii Cl. Roux sp. nov. diffère de T. gordensis (la seule autre espèce connue dans le genre) surtout par son thalle grand squamuleux, par ses ascomes plus grands, à pseudopapilles périostiolaires nettement plus longues que les papilles périostiolaires de T. gordensis, par ses conidies plus longues et par son écologie (saxicole – calcifuge à l’étage subalpin).
33847Kim T.K., Hong J.-M., Kim K.H., Han S.J., Kim I.-C., Oh H. & Yim J.H. (2021): Potential of ramalin and its derivatives for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. - Molecules, 26(21): 6445 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26216445.
The pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is still unclear, and presently there is no cure for the disease that can be used for its treatment or to stop its progression. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of ramalin (isolated from the Antarctic lichen, Ramalina terebrata), which exhibits various physiological activities, in AD. Specifically, derivatives were synthesized based on the structure of ramalin, which has a strong antioxidant effect, BACE-1 inhibition activity, and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, ramalin and its derivatives exhibit activity against multiple targets associated with AD and can serve as potential therapeutic agents for the disease. Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; ramalin; derivatives; therapeutic potential; antioxidant; β-secratase; anti-inflammatory.
33846Darmostuk V.V. (2021): Lichenicolous fungi on Verrucaria s. lat. in Ukraine with the description of Zwackhiomyces khodosovtsevii sp. nov. and a key to the lichenicolous fungi on Verrucaria s. lat.. - Botanica Serbica, 45(2): 293–301. https://doi.org/10.2298/BOTSERB2102293D.
A revision of lichenicolous fungi on Verrucaria s. lat. in Ukraine is provided. As a result, 12 species of lichenicolous fungi on Verrucaria s. lat. are reported from Ukraine. Among them, Zwackhiomyces khodosovtsevii on Verrucaria cf. nigrescens is described as new to science and Lichenopeltella coppinsii on V. muralis, Stigmidium marinum on V. mucosa as well as S. rivulorum on V. dolosa, are newly reported to Ukraine. Ten species are reported from xerotic terrestrial habitats mainly from Southern Ukraine. Only Stigmidium marinum and S. rivulorum were found in a marine and freshwater habitat respectively. Toninia subfuscae should be removed from the Ukrainian list of lichenicolous fungi due to misidentification. Didymosphaeria geminella is considered as a new synonym for Polycoccum dzieduszyckii. A worldwide key for lichenicolous fungi on Verrucaria s. lat. is provided. Keywords: biodiversity, new species, Lichenopeltella, Stigmidium, Zwackhiomyces.
33845Schmitz D., Villa P.M., Michel R.F.M., Putzke J., Pereira A.B. & Schaefer C.E.G.R. (2021): Species composition, diversity and coverage pattern of associated communities of mosses-lichens along a pedoenvironmental gradient in Maritime Antarctica. - Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 94(Suppl.1): e20200094 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765202120200094.
Maritime Antarctica is one of the major terrestrial ecosystems dominated by lichens and mosses, which represent important ecological indicators. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the changes in associated communities of mosses-lichens diversity and coverage along a pedoenvironmental gradient on Half Moon Island, Maritime Antarctica. We focused on how patterns in associated communities of mosses-lichens species diversity (richness, species composition and beta diversity) and coverage are associated with soil properties using plant inventory data from 174 plots across 14 contrasting pedoenvironments. The results clearly show marked differences in soil properties along the pedoenvironmental gradient, which determine variations in species composition, richness and coverage. We presumed that these variations are common in Maritime Antarctica owing to varying periglacial processes, weathering degree, parent material and biological influence (especially by penguins and other birds). The community species richness and coverage along the pedoenvironmental gradient differ, nevertheless share common species present in most pedoenvironments, despite differences in coverage. We assume that most of the pedoenvironments are habitats to rare species that occur only under specific soil conditions, additionally promotes high β-diversity between pedoenvironments and low species similarity. Key words: beta diversity, community composition, mosses, lichens, plant-soil relationships, soil filters.
33844Wirth V. (2021): Neue und bemerkenswerte Funde von Flechten und flechtenbewohnenden Pilzen in Süddeutschland und Umgebung. - Carolinea, 79: 5–17. .
New and noteworthy records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from southern Germany and adjacent regions. [in German with English abstract: ] Occurrences and habitat conditions of 40 rare or ecologically noteworthy species are dealt with, e. g. of Caloplaca squamuloisidiata, Candelariella boleana, Stereocaulon leucophaeopsis, Strigula ziziphi and Toniniopsis dissimilis, which were recorded recently as new to France or Germany. Central European records of the newly differentiated species of Sarea difformis s. lat. are noted. The phytosociology of Rinodina malangica, R. orculata, Maronea constans and Candelariella boleana is documented.
33843Micheletti A.C., Honda N.K., Ravaglia L.M., Matayoshi T. & Spielmann A.A. (2021): Antibacterial potencial of 12 Lichen species. - Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 93(4): e20191194 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765202120191194.
Resistant bacterial infections are a major public health problem worldwide, which entails the need to search for new therapeutic agents. In this context, lichens stand out, provided that they are producers of structurally diverse compounds that have attractive biological properties, including antimicrobial activity. Thus, extracts of 12 lichen species were prepared and their potential to inhibit the growth of 5 bacterial strains was evaluated in this work. The chemical compositions of these extracts were examined using TLC and microcrystallization, being the identity of the active compounds in each extract attributed based on the bioautography technique. The most active extracts (and their identifi ed active compounds) were from Cladonia borealis (usnic, barbatic and 4-O-demethylbarbatic acids), Cladina confusa (usnic and perlatolic acids), Stereocaulom ramulosum (atranorin, perlatolic and anziaic acids) and Canoparmelia cryptochlorophaea (cryptochlorophaeic and caperatic acids), with MICs ranging from 7.8 to 31.25 μg/mL, including for resistant clinical strains. MIC values were also obtained for substances isolated from lichens for comparison purposes. A group of four extracts containing usnic acid was analyzed by 1 H NMR in order to correlate relative proportion of major metabolites and extracts activity. The less active extracts in this group, in fact, presented low proportion of usnic acid. Key words: Antimicrobial, bioautography, lichen, microdilution.
33842Sen U.K. & Bhakat R.K. (2021): Corticolous lichen species diversity on dominant trees in selected sacred groves of Paschim Medinipur District, West Bengal, India. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 63: 447–464. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.63.2021.3-4.13.
Sacred groves are the fairly well-protected system of community-based conservation of tree patches on account of their association with village gods, and repository of many rare and threatened elements of biodiversity. There are, however, few publications on lichens of sacred groves. The lichens have long been regarded as sensitive indicators for monitoring environmental state. The present study reports one hundred and sixteen species of lichens from forty-four genera of nineteen families in four selected sacred groves of Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal. These lichens represent two different growth forms, i.e. crustose (105 species) and foliose (11 species). Shorea robusta, a dominant tree species in two sacred groves bears the highest lichen diversity with seventy-four species. To better understand the related biodiversity and climate, this work is likely to promote further studies on lichen diversity in other regions of West Bengal. Key words: conservation, diversity, dominant species, India, sacred grove.
33841Kondratyuk S.Y., Lőkös L., Kärnefelt I., Thell A., Jeong M.-H., Oh S.-O., Kondratiuk A.S., Farkas E. & Hur J.-S. (2021): Contributions to molecular phylogeny of lichen-forming fungi 2. Review of current monophyletic branches of the family Physciaceae. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 63: 351–390. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.63.2021.3-4.8.
Seven genera new to science, i.e.: Helmutiopsis, Huriopsis, Johnsheardia, Klauskalbia, Kudratovia, Kurokawia and Poeltonia of the Physciaceae are proposed for the ‘Rinodina’ atrocinerea, the ‘Rinodina’ xanthophaea, the ‘Rinodina’ cinnamomea, the ‘Heterodermia’ obscurata, the ‘Rinodina’ straussii, the ‘Anaptychia’ isidiata and the ‘Physconia’ grisea groups consequently that all form strongly supported monophyletic branches in a phylogeny analysis based on a combined matrix of nrITS and mtSSU sequences. Phylogenetic positions of species belonging to the genera Kashiwadia s. l., Leucodermia, Mischoblastia, Oxnerella, Phaeorrhiza s. l., Polyblastidium and Rinodinella s. l. are discussed. Oxnerella afghanica which for the first time recorded as parasitic lichen species from both epiphytic and saxicolous crustose lichens is designated as type species for the genus Oxnerella. Sequences of the recently described Physcia orientostellaris as well as Huriopsis xanthophaea and additional sequences of Kashiwadia aff. orientalis and Mischoblastia aff. oxydata are submitted to the GenBank. The positions of Polyblastidium casaterrinum from Costa Rica, ‘Rinodina’ efflorescens from Białowieża, Poland, and ‘Mischoblastia’ confragosula from Cambodia in the Physciaceae are confirmed in a phylogeny analysis based on the nrITS sequences. The presence of ‘extraneous mycobiont DNA’ in lichen associations is exemplified with earlier incorrect identifications of Heterodermia, Kashiwadia, Kurokawia, Oxnerella and Poeltonia specimens. Fifty-six new combinations are presented: Helmutiopsis alba (for Rinodina alba Metzler ex Arn.), Helmutiopsis aspersa (for Lecanora aspersa Borrer), Helmutiopsis atrocinerea (for Parmelia atrocinerea Fr.), Huriopsis chrysidiata (for Rinodina chrysidiata Sheard), Huriopsis chrysomelaena (for Rinodina chrysomelaena Tuck.), Huriopsis lepida (for Lecanora lepida Nyl.), Huriopsis luteonigra (for Rinodina luteonigra Zahlbr.), Huriopsis plana (for Rinodina plana H. Magn.), Huriopsis thiomela (for Lecanora thiomela Nyl.), Huriopsis xanthomelana (for Rinodina xanthomelana Müll. Arg.), Huriopsis xanthophaea (for Lecanora xanthophaea Nyl.), Johnsheardia cinnamomea (for Rinodina mniaroea var. cinnamomea Th. Fr.), Johnsheardia herteliana (for Rinodina herteliana Kaschik), Johnsheardia jamesii (for Rinodina jamesii H. Mayrhofer), Johnsheardia reagens (for Rinodina reagens Matzer et H. Mayrhofer), Johnsheardia zwackhiana (for Lecanora zwackhiana Kremp.), Kashiwadia austrostellaris (for Physcia austrostellaris Elix), Kashiwadia jackii (for Physcia jackii Moberg), Kashiwadia littoralis for Physcia littoralis Elix), Kashiwadia nubila (for Physcia nubila Moberg), and Kashiwadia tropica (for Physcia tropica Elix), Klauskalbia crocea (for Heterodermia crocea R. C. Harris), Klauskalbia flabellata (for Parmelia flabellata Fée), Klauskalbia obscurata (for Physcia speciosa (Wulfen) Nyl. *obscurata Nyl.), Klauskalbia paradoxa (for Heterodermia paradoxa Schumm et Schäfer-Verwimp), Kudratovia bohlinii (for Rinodina bohlinii H. Magn.), Kudratovia candidogrisea (for Rinodina candidogrisea Hafellner, Muggia et Obermayer), Kudratovia luridata (for Buellia luridata Körb.), Kudratovia metaboliza (for Rinodina metaboliza Vain.), Kudratovia pycnocarpa (for Rinodina pycnocarpa H. Magn.), Kudratovia roscida (for Lecanora roscida Sommerf.), Kudratovia straussii (for Rinodina straussii J. Steiner), Kudratovia terrestris (for Rinodina terrestris Tomin), Kurokawia bryorum (for Anaptychia bryorum Poelt), Kurokawia isidiata (for Anaptychia isidiata Tomin), Kurokawia mereschkowskii (for Physcia mereschkowskii Tomin), Kurokawia palmulata (for Psoroma palmulatum Michx.), Kurokawia runcinata (for Lichen runcinatus With.), Kurokawia stippea (for Parmelia aquila var. stippea Ach.), Lecania safavidiorum (for Oxnerella safavidiorum S. Y. Kondr., Zarei-Darki, Lőkös et Hur), Leucodermia erinacea (for Lichen erinaceus Ach.), Mischoblastia confragosula (for Lecanora confragosula Nyl.), Mischoblastia destituta (for Lecidea destituta Nyl.), Mischoblastia moziana (for Lecanora moziana Nyl.), Mischoblastia moziana subsp. parasitica (comb. et stat. nova for Rinodina moziana var. parasitica Kaschik et H. Mayrhofer), Mischoblastia ramboldii (for Rinodina ramboldii Kaschik), Mischoblastia vezdae (for Rinodina vezdae H. Mayrhofer), Oxnerella afghanica (for Rinodina afghanica M. Steiner et Poelt), Oxnerella castanomelodes (for Rinodina castanomelodes H. Mayrhofer et Poelt), Physciella nigricans (for Lecanora nigricans Flörke), Poeltonia elegantula (for Physconia elegantula Essl.), Poeltonia grisea (for Lichen griseus Lam.), Poeltonia isidiomuscigena (for Physconia isidiomuscigena Essl.), Poeltonia perisidiosa (for Physcia perisidiosa Erichsen), Poeltonia venusta (for Parmelia venusta Ach.), and Polyblastidium albicans (for Parmelia albicans Pers.) are proposed. Key words: East Asia, Helmutiopsis, Huriopsis, Johnsheardia, Kashiwadia, Klauskalbia, Kudratovia, Kurokawia, Lecania, Leucodermia, Mischoblastia, Oxnerella, Physcia, Poeltonia.
33840Joshi Y. (2021): New species and new records of lichenicolous fungus Pyrenidium from India. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 63: 343–349. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.63.2021.3-4.7.
The present paper interprets a new species and a new record of the lichenicolous fungus Pyrenidium from India. The new species P. dimelaenae Y. Joshi was found on the thallus of saxicolous lichen species Dimelaena oreina (Ach.) Norman and is characterised by globose to subglobose black perithecia with light greenish blue tint in ostiolar channel. The new species shares many morphological characters with other Pyrenidium species but differs in its number of spores and hosts. In addition, two new records, i.e. Lichenostigma dimelaenae Calat. et Hafellner and P. borbonicum Huanraluek, Ertz et K. D. Hyde are also being reported from India for the first time. Key words: Dacampiaceae, Dimelaena, Himalaya, Lichenostigma, Pyrenidiaceae, Sticta.
33839Habib K., Arshad M., Bano A. & Khalid A.N. (2021): Polycoccum, Variospora, and Zeroviella, three new genera for Pakistan. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 63: 335–342. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.63.2021.3-4.6.
Two lichen species, Variospora kudratovii and Zeroviella laxa, and a lichenicolous species, Polycoccum clauderouxii are reported for the first time from Pakistan and represent first generic records as well. Detailed macro- and micromorphological descriptions and spot test results are provided along with ITS-based molecular phylogenetic analysis. Key words: Khaplu, nrDNA, Teloschistaceae, xanthorioid lichen, Ziarat.
33838Falswal A. & Bhandari B.S. (2021): A new lichenicolous fungus from Garhwal Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 63: 297–302. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.63.2021.3-4.3.
Sphinctrina pertusa Falswal A. is described as a new species of lichenicolous fungus from India. It is characterised by eight non-septate, broadly ellipsoidal, uniseriate, ascospores with olive green tint and irregular ridge like ornamentations. This fungus is growing on known lichen host Pertusaria but differs from five closely related species i.e., S. anglica, S. leucopoda, S. tubaeformis, S. turbinata, S. paramerae with different taxonomic characters. A detailed comparative analysis with non-septate closely related species is provided. Key words: Ascomycetes, lichens, Pertusaria, Sphinctrina pertusa, taxonomy.
33837Widhelm T.J., Grewe F., Goffinet B., Wedin M., Goward T., Coca L. F., Distefano I., Košuthová A. & Lumbsch H.T. (2021): Phylogenomic reconstruction addressing the Peltigeralean backbone (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota). - Fungal Diversity, 110: 59–73. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-021-00476-8.
Rapid radiations in Fungi are only beginning to be studied with phylogenomic data. The evolutionary history of the lichenized fungal order Peltigerales has not been well resolved, particularly for the Collematineae. Here, we used concatenation and coalescent-based species tree methods to reconstruct the phylogeny of the Peltigerales based on sequences of 125 nuclear single-copy exon sequences among 60 samples, representing 58 species. Despite uneven, lineage-specific missing data and significant topological incongruence of individual exon trees, the resulting phylogenies were concordant and successfully resolved the phylogenetic relationships of the Peltigerales. Relationships in the Collematineae were defined by short branches and lower nodal support than in other parts of the tree, due in part to conflicting signal in exon trees, suggesting rapid diversification events in the early evolution of the suborder. Using tree distance measures, we were able to identify a minimum subset of exons that could reconstruct phylogenetic relationships in Peltigerales with higher support than the 125-exon dataset. Comparisons between the minimum and complete datasets in species tree inferences, bipartition analyses, and divergence time estimations displayed similar results, although the minimum dataset was characterized by higher levels of error in estimations of divergence times. Contrasting our inferences from the complete and minimum datasets to those derived from few nuclear and mitochondrial loci reveal that our topology is concordant with topologies reconstructed using the nuclear large subunit and mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNA markers, but the target capture datasets had much higher support values. We demonstrated how target capture approaches can effectively decipher ancient rapid radiations in cases where well resolved individual exon trees are sufficiently sampled and how to identify subsets of loci that are appropriate for fungal order-level phylogenetics.
33836Marcinčinová M., Goga M., Mayrhofer H. & Bačkor M. (2021): Noteworthy lichens recorded in the Balkan Peninsula. - Botanica Serbica, 45(2): 303–309. https://doi.org/10.2298/BOTSERB2102303M.
Selected locations in four Balkan countries (Serbia, Albania, North Macedonia and Greece) were visited. One hundred and twenty one lichen species were recorded in fourteen locations. Cladonia cervicornis is reported new to Serbia, as well as Cladonia squamosa, Pertusaria leioplaca, Xanthoparmelia angustiphylla and Polycauliona polycarpa to Albania. One lichenicolous fungus Plectocarpon lichenum was recorded. A brief description of the new or interesting records of these species is also provided. Keywords: biodiversity, lichenized fungi, Balkan, new species, Southeastern Europe, Ascomycetes.
33835Llambí L.D., Melfo A., Gámez L.E., Pelayo R.C., Cárdenas M., Rojas C., Torres J.E., Ramírez N., Huber B. & Hernández J. (2021): Vegetation assembly, adaptive strategies and positive interactions during primary succession in the forefield of the last Venezuelan glacier. - Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 9: 657755 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2021.657755.
Glaciers are receding at unprecedented rates in the alpine tropics, opening-up new areas for ecosystem assembly. However, little is known about the patterns/mechanisms of primary succession during the last stages of glacier retreat in tropical mountains. Our aim was to analyze soil development and vegetation assembly during primary succession, and the role of changing adaptive strategies and facilitative interactions on these processes at the forefront of the last Venezuelan glacier (Humboldt Peak, 4,940 m asl). We established a chronosequence of four sites where the glacier retreated between 1910 and 2009. We compared soil organic matter (SOM), nutrients and temperatures inside vs. outside biological soil crusts (BSCs) at each site, estimated the cover of lichen, bryophyte and vascular plant species present, and analyzed changes in their growth-form abundance and species/functional turnover. We also evaluated local spatial associations between lichens/bryophytes and the dominant ruderal vascular plant (the grass Poa petrosa). We found a progressive increase in SOM during the first century of succession, while BSCs only had a positive buffering effect on superficial soil temperatures. Early seral stages were dominated by lichens and bryophytes, while vascular plant cover remained low during the first six decades, and was almost exclusively represented by wind dispersed/pollinated grasses. There was a general increase in species richness along the chronosequence, but it declined in late succession for lichens. Lichen and bryophyte communities exhibited a higher species turnover than vascular plants, resulting in the loss of some pioneer specialists as succession progressed. Lichen and bryophyte species were positively associated with safe-sites for the colonization of the dominant ruderal grass, suggesting a possible facilitation effect. Our results indicate that lichens and bryophytes play a key role as pioneers in these high tropical alpine environments. The limited initial colonization of vascular plants and the progressive accumulation of species and growth-forms (i.e., direct succession) could be linked to a combination of severe environmental filtering during early seral stages and limitations for zoochoric seed dispersal and entomophilic/ornithophilic pollination. This could potentially result in a slow successional response of these ecosystems to accelerated glacier loss and climate change. Keywords: Andes, bryophytes, climate change, facilitation, lichens, pollination, seed dispersal, soil development.
33834Урбанавичюс Г.П., Урбанавичене И.Н., Вондрак Я. & Исмаилов А.Б. [Urbanavichus G.P., Urbanavichene I.N., Vondrák J. & Ismailov A.B.] (2021): Эпифитные лишайники национального парка «Приэльбрусье» (Северный Кавказ, Россия) [Epiphytic lichen biota of Prielbrusie National Park (Northern Caucasus, Russia)]. - Nature Conservation Research. Заповедная наука, 6(4): 77–94. https://dx.doi.org/10.24189/ncr.2021.048.
[in Russian with English summary: ] We report on the diversity of epiphytic lichens and allied non-lichenised fungi in two forest sites in the Prielbrusie National Park (Northern Caucasus, Russia). Each forest site was represented by a 1-ha square. In Prielbrusie National Park (total area is 1010.2 km2 ), forest vegetation is restricted to the lowermost elevations in the river valleys, and it is represented by coniferous and mixed forests, predominantly with Pinus sylvestris, Betula pendula, and B. raddeana. Despite the long history of lichenological studies in the Prielbrusie National Park, the lichen diversity remained highly underexplored with the total number of 329 known species, including only 76 epiphytes. In the present time-limited study (three days in June 2018), we selected two contrasting forest stands (presumed lichen diversity hot-spots) on the left bank of the River Adyl-Su (1870 m a.s.l.) and River Shkhelda (2010 m a.s.l.). On the two 1-ha plots, we maximised efforts to obtain as complete as possible species lists, including epiphytic and epixylic lichens, allied non- or facultatively lichenised fungi and lichenicolous fungi. In total, we detected 423 species, including 355 species in Adyl-Su site and 267 species in Shkhelda site, while 199 species were recorded on both sites. Our study increased twice the number of known lichen species in the Prielbrusie National Park, i.e. 315 species were new to this area. Six species (Biatoropsis minuta, Buelliella lecanorae, Dactylospora crassa, Miriquidica majae, Stagonospora exasperatulae, Xyleborus sporodochifer) are new to Russia. Seventeen species (Arthopyrenia pithyophila, Asterophoma mazaediicola, Biatora albidula, Calicium pinastri, Catinaria neuschildii, Cladonia glauca, C. polydactyla, Fuscidea pusilla, Gyalideopsis alnicola, Lawalreea lecanorae, Lichenochora polycoccoides, Micarea fallax, Peltigera neocanina, Sarea resinae, Skyttea lecanorae, Thelocarpon laureri, Tremella christiansenii) were found for the first time in the Caucasus. The threatened species Menegazzia terebrata is included in the Red Data Book of Russia. It was found for the first time in the Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria. The diversity of forest epiphytic lichens has already been surveyed in the Western Caucasus (Republic of Adygea) and the Eastern Caucasus (Republic of Dagestan). Lichen communities on the Adyl-Su site are more similar to sites in the Western Caucasus, while the lichen communities on the Shkhelda site are more similar to a site on the Gunib plateau (Eastern Caucasus). The species richness on the Adyl-Su site approaches the highest number reached in the Caucasus: 358 species per 1 ha on the Lagonaki Plateau (Western Caucasus). Key words: biodiversity, Caucasus, inventory, Kabardino-Balkaria, lichen flora, virgin forests.
33833Timdal E. & Rui S. (2021): Peltigera seneca new to Europe. - Graphis Scripta, 33(5): 79–85. https://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/33_5/GS_33_79.pdf.
Peltigera seneca Magain, Miadl. & Sérus., previously known from eastern North America, is reported from 17 localities in South Norway and two localities in South Finland. The species was identified by the DNA barcode marker (nrITS) obtained from 12 specimens and by a diagnostic terpenoid occurring in all examined specimens. A sequence in GenBank from China is recognized as belonging to this species, hence it is also new to Asia. Peltigera seneca is apparently morphologically indistinguishable from P. polydactylon, i.e., a morphologically cryptic species, but can be identified by its terpenoid chemistry.
33832Masson D. & Bauvet C. (2021): Collema curtisporum Degel., Physcia erumpens Moberg and Pyxine subcinerea Stirt., three lichenized Ascomycota new to France. - Bulletin de la Société linnéenne de Bordeaux, 49: 205–222. .
[in French with English abstract: ] The discovery in France of the macrolichens Collema curtisporum Degel., Physcia erumpens Moberg and Pyxine subcinerea Stirt. is reported and documented. The main diagnostic characters, distribution and ecology of each of the three taxa are specified and discussed. Keywords - Caliciaceae, Collemataceae, Physciaceae, lichens, Cévennes, Corsica, distribution maps.
33831Lücking R., Leavitt S.D. & Hawksworth D.L. (2021): Species in lichen‑forming fungi: balancing between conceptual and practical considerations, and between phenotype and phylogenomics. - Fungal Diversity, 109: 99–154. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-021-00477-7.
Lichens are symbiotic associations resulting from interactions among fungi (primary and secondary mycobionts), algae and/ or cyanobacteria (primary and secondary photobionts), and specific elements of the bacterial microbiome associated with the lichen thallus. The question of what is a species, both concerning the lichen as a whole and its main fungal component, the primary mycobiont, has faced many challenges throughout history and has reached new dimensions with the advent of molecular phylogenetics and phylogenomics. In this paper, we briefly revise the definition of lichens and the scientific and vernacular naming conventions, concluding that the scientific, Latinized name usually associated with lichens invariably refers to the primary mycobiont, whereas the vernacular name encompasses the entire lichen. Although the same lichen mycobiont may produce different phenotypes when associating with different photobionts or growing in axenic culture, this discrete variation does not warrant the application of different scientific names, but must follow the principle "one fungus = one name". Instead, broadly agreed informal designations should be used for such discrete morphologies, such as chloromorph and cyanomorph for lichens formed by the same mycobiont but with either green algae or cyanobacteria. The taxonomic recognition of species in lichen-forming fungi is not different from other fungi and conceptual and nomenclatural approaches follow the same principles. We identify a number of current challenges and provide recommendations to address these. Species delimitation in lichen-forming fungi should not be tailored to particular species concepts but instead be derived from empirical evidence, applying one or several of the following principles in what we call the LPR approach: lineage (L) coherence vs. divergence (phylogenetic component), phenotype (P) coherence vs. divergence (morphological component), and/or reproductive (R) compatibility vs. isolation (biological component). Species hypotheses can be established based on either L or P, then using either P or L (plus R) to corroborate them. The reliability of species hypotheses depends not only on the nature and number of characters but also on the context: the closer the relationship and/or similarity between species, the higher the number of characters and/or specimens that should be analyzed to provide reliable delimitations. Alpha taxonomy should follow scientific evidence and an evolutionary framework but should also offer alternative practical solutions, as long as these are scientifically defendable. Taxa that are delimited phylogenetically but not readily identifiable in the field, or are genuinely cryptic, should not be rejected due to the inaccessibility of proper tools. Instead, they can be provisionally treated as undifferentiated complexes for purposes that do not require precise determinations. The application of infraspecific (gamma) taxonomy should be restricted to cases where there is a biological rationale, i.e., lineages of a species complex that show limited phylogenetic divergence but no evidence of reproductive isolation. Gamma taxonomy should not be used to denote discrete phenotypical variation or ecotypes not warranting the distinction at species level. We revise the species pair concept in lichen-forming fungi, which recognizes sexually and asexually reproducing morphs with the same underlying phenotype as different species. We conclude that in most cases this concept does not hold, but the actual situation is complex and not necessarily correlated with reproductive strategy. In cases where no molecular data are available or where single or multi-marker approaches do not provide resolution, we recommend maintaining species pairs until molecular or phylogenomic data are available. This recommendation is based on the example of the species pair Usnea aurantiacoatra vs. U. antarctica, which can only be resolved with phylogenomic approaches, such as microsatellites or RADseq. Overall, we consider that species delimitation in lichen-forming fungi has advanced dramatically over the past three decades, resulting in a solid framework, but that empirical evidence is still missing for many taxa. Therefore, while phylogenomic approaches focusing on particular examples will be increasingly employed to resolve difficult species complexes, broad screening using single barcoding markers will aid in placing as many taxa as possible into a molecular matrix. We provide a practical protocol how to assess and formally treat taxonomic novelties. While this paper focuses on lichen fungi, many of the aspects discussed herein apply generally to fungal taxonomy. The new combination Arthonia minor (Lücking) Lücking comb. et stat. nov. (Bas.: Arthonia cyanea f. minor Lücking) is proposed. Keywords: Alpha taxonomy · Beta taxonomy · Biological species concept · Cora · Cryptic speciation · Fungal farmers · Gamma taxonomy · Infraspecies · Lichens as ecosystems · Machine learning · Morphological species concept · One fungus = one name · Photomorph · Phylogenetic species concept · Species pair concept · Thamnolia.
33830Pem D., Jeewon R., Chethana K.W.T., Hongsanan S., Doilom M., Suwannarach N. & Hyde K.D. (2021): Species concepts of Dothideomycetes: classification, phylogenetic inconsistencies and taxonomic standardization. - Fungal Diversity, 109: 283–319. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-021-00485-7.
The species is one of the basic units of biological classification. Both species concepts and recognition are essential topics in taxonomic studies and other biological research. In the first part of this review, we briefly discuss the taxonomic history of the class Dothideomycetes. In the second part of the paper, we review four commonly used species concepts, focusing on morphological, ecological, biological and phylogenetic criteria and their applicability in the taxonomy of Dothideomycetes. The application and utility of the four criteria is discussed with examples in the genera Ascochyta, Cercospora and Neofusicoccum. Some problems and challenges of studying Dothideomycetes are analyzed and basic guidelines for classifying species under the above criteria are provided. Keywords: Challenges · DNA · Fungi · Morph · Phylogeny · Species · Taxonomy.
33829Richards J.H. (2021): Assessing the strength of climate and land-use influences on montane epiphyte communities. - Conservation Biology, 35(5): 1496–1506. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13679|.
Epiphytes, air plants that are structurally dependent on trees, are a keystone group in tropical forests; they support the food and habitat needs of animals and influence water and nutrient cycles. They reach peak diversity in humidmontane forests. Climate predictions for Central Americanmountains include increased temperatures, altered precipitation seasonality, and increased cloud base heights, all of which may challenge epiphytes. Although remaining montane forests are highly fragmented, many tropical agricultural systems include trees that host epiphytes, allowing epiphyte communities to persist even in landscapes with lower forest connectivity. I used structural equations models to test the relative effects of climate, land use, tree characteristics, and biotic interactions on vascular epiphyte diversity with data from 31 shade coffee farms and 2 protected forests in northern Nicaragua. I also tested substrate preferences of common species with randomization tests. Tree size, tree diversity, and climate all affected epiphyte richness, but the effect of climate was almost entirely mediated by bryophyte cover. Bryophytes showed strong sensitivity to mean annual temperature and insolation. Many ferns and some orchids were positively associated with bryophyte mats, whereas bromeliads tended to establish among lichen or on bare bark. The tight relationships between bryophytes and climate and between bryophytes and vascular epiphytes indicated that relatively small climate changes could result in rapid, cascading losses of montane epiphyte communities. Currently, shade coffee farms can support high bryophyte cover and diverse vascular epiphyte assemblages when larger, older trees are present. Agroforests serve as valuable reservoirs for epiphyte biodiversity and may be important early-warning systems as the climate changes. Keywords: agroforestry, climate change, cloud immersion, solar radiation, structural equation models, tropical montane forest, vapor pressure deficit.
33828Putzke J., Schaefer C.E.G.R., Villa P.M. & Almeida P.H.A. (2021): Whale bones: a key and endangered substrate for cryptogams in Antarctica. - Polar Biology, 44: 2085–2097. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-021-02944-y.
Whale bones are very abundant at coastal sites across the Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica, since whale hunting was common in the beginning of the XX century. Since then, these bones became suitable substrate and true oasis for many mosses and lichenized fungi, but their number is dramatically changing in the coastal zones, due to the sea erosion, degradation, and anthropization. In this work, whale bones found in Keller Peninsula were mapped with drone images coupled with field work, and the covering and diversity of moss and lichen species was registered for 37 vertebrae using the square method of Braun-Blanquet. Comparing the number of whale bones remaining at Keller Peninsula during a 21 years period revealed a dramatic reduction, with skull bones 55.8% lower than previous records. In addition, vertebrae and ribs are reduced in size, and so mobile and disrupted that no longer represent stable substrates for a normal plant succession (average covering of 31.6%). We detected 4 moss species and 19 lichens associated with whale bones. Muscicolous lichens occurred on 35.1% of the bones, and 5.4% showed more than 50% cover by mosses, whereas the rest are at the earliest stage of colonization due to constant displacement. Measures are suggested to preserve the bones still remaining to ensure the protection of vegetation in this part of Antarctica. The vegetation oasis found on Antarctic bone ecosystems are highly prone to anthropic and climatic disturbances and represent key sites of plant succession. Keywords: Antarctic protected areas · Environmental conservation · Polar plant species · Antarctic coastal areas · Phytosociology.
33827Roth R., Wagner R. & Goodenough U. (2021): Erratum: Lichen 3. Outer layers. - Algal Research, 60: 102462 [29 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2021.102462.
A lichen is a slow-growing niche-constructing organism that forms a thallus via scripted symbiotic/mutualist relationships between fungi, algae, and bacteria. Here we use quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy (QFDEEM), in conjunction with light microscopy, to document the structural manifestations of hyphal differentiation during the formation of three lichen tissues that localize between the algal layer and the surface of the thallus: the outer cortex of foliose lobes; the outer layer of fruticose stems; and the enwrapping layer of asexual propagules called soredia that protrude from squamulose podetia and foliose lobes. Our observations document features of outer-layer architecture and the role played by extracellular matrices (ECM). They also lead us to propose the medullary stem-cell hypothesis for lichen organization wherein totipotent medullary hyphae produce lateral branches that undergo specific differentiation pathways in specific domains of the thallus. Keywords: Lichen; Ascomycete; Alga; Hyphal branching; Fungal extracellular matrix (ECM); Medullary stem-cell; Quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy.
33826He L., Chen W., Leblanc S.G., Lovitt J., Arsenault A., Schmelzer I., Fraser R.H., Latifovic R., Sun L., Prévost C., White H.P. & Pouliot D. (2021): Integration of multi-scale remote sensing data for reindeer lichen fractional cover mapping in Eastern Canada. - Remote Sensing of Environment, 267: 112731 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2021.112731.
Reindeer lichens (Cladonia spp.) are an essential food source for caribou especially during winter. They can also be a valuable indicator for ecosystem health and climate change. Inventory of lichen abundance at regional scales is required to assess availability within caribou ranges, and assess potential declines from natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Previous studies have mapped lichen cover and volume using remote sensing, but these efforts were often constrained by the limited availability of ground truth information needed for model calibration and validation. In this study, we leveraged unoccupied aerial vehicle (UAV) surveys and WorldView (WV) satellite scenes in a nested upscaling approach in order to expand the number of training samples at the 30 m Landsat resolution. These were used to develop machine learning models to map fractional reindeer lichen cover in Eastern Canada. We found that the best correlation between UAV and WV derived lichen coverages exists at an optimal scale that is slightly larger than 30 m and varies with landscape type and observation geometry. Based on training data from UAV-calibrated lichen coverage from WV data, a neural network model with simple structure achieved a root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.09, a mean absolute error (MAE) = 0.07 and R2 = 0.79 for mapping fractional lichen cover from Landsat without the use of ancillary data. We then applied our model and Landsat data to produce a lichen fractional cover map for the Red Wine Mountain caribou herd range in Labrador, NL and the Manicouagan caribou herd range in Qu´ebec. Validation against domain-averaged lichen cover in eight UAV survey sites suggests an accuracy with RMSE = 0.04, MAE = 0.03 and R2 = 0.62 for low lichen cover. Compared to aggregated lichen cover at 30 m from UAV surveys, map accuracy decreases to RMSE = 0.09, MAE = 0.06, and R2 = 0.49, partially due to registration error between UAV and Landsat images. Our study demonstrates that upscaling of lichen cover from UAV data to Landsat via an intermediate image scale is an effective regional-scale mapping approach. Keywords: Lichen fractional cover; Landsat; Mapping; Deep learning; Multi-scale; Machine learning.
33825Zhang L., Di W.-Y., Hao Y., Wang L.-N., Deng Y.-R. & Wang J.-J. (2021): Phytochemical and chemotaxonomic study on the Lichen Lethariella cladonioides. - Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 99: 104343 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bse.2021.104343.
The comprehensive phytochemical research of Lethariella cladonioides (Nyl.) Krog, (Parmeliaceae), a lichen in southwest China, resulted in isolation of eighteen compounds (1–18), including a new phenolic acid 3,5-dihydroxy- 4-methylbenzaldehyde (1) and seventeen known compounds, nine phenolic acids (2–10), one dibenzofuran (11), two depsides (12 and 13), one alkane (14), one glucoside (15), two polyols (16 and 17), and one fatty acid (18). The structures of these compounds were assigned by detailed interpretations of spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS) and comparisons with the published data. Among them, 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methylbenzaldehyde (1) is a new one. (
33824Chagnon C., Simard M. & Boudreau S. (2021): Patterns and determinants of lichen abundance and diversity across a subarctic to arctic latitudinal gradient. - Journal of Biogeography, 48: 2742–2754. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.14233.
Aim: Lichens are a major component of Arctic biodiversity. However, they appear vulnerable to climate change, as they are exposed to warmer temperatures and increased competition with vascular plants. Our study aims to evaluate lichen cover, species richness, functional diversity and community composition among the dominant vegetation types along a 640-km latitudinal gradient, and to identify environmental determinants related to patterns in lichen communities. Location: From subarctic (56°N) to arctic (62°N) Nunavik (Québec, Canada). Taxon: Lichens. Methods: We characterized macrolichen communities at the species level in 42 sites across a latitudinal gradient, and identified latitudinal trends in lichen cover, species richness and functional diversity. Using linear models and distance-based redundancy analysis, we investigated the effect of climate, vegetation, topography and soil characteristics on lichen communities. Results: Lichen cover and species richness were the lowest at high latitudes, while functional diversity increased with increasing latitude. Vegetation types and surficial deposits were strongly related to lichen cover and richness. However, these factors did not influence functional diversity, which was mainly driven by climatic conditions. Key words: arctic, climate warming, functional diversity, latitudinal gradient, lichen cover, lichen species richness, Nunavik, subarctic. Main conclusion: Our results highlight the importance of vegetation structure in lichen communities and corroborate the negative relationship between vascular plant abundance and lichen abundance and species richness. While we found no influence of vegetation structure on lichen functional diversity, further studies using targeted functional traits are needed to accurately investigate the impact of ongoing changes in northern vegetation on ecosystem functioning.
33823Roux C. & Pinault P. (2021): Echinothecium rhizoplacae P. Pinault et Cl. Roux sp. nov., champignon lichénicole non lichénisé (Ascomycota) et remarques sur le genre Echinothecium. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 72: 55–62. .
[in French with Esperanto and French abstracts] Description de la nouvelle espèce Echinothecium rhizoplacae P. Pinault et Cl. Roux sp. nov., caractérisée par son parasitisme sur des Rhizoplaca et Lecanora gr. polytropa, chez lesquels elle ne produit pas d’altération appréciable ; par ses cordons d’hyphes superficiels ramifiés – anastomosés plus ou moins en réseau, formés d’une seule épaisseur de cellules ; par ses asques de largement claviformes à subglobuleux, de (18)20 – 23,0 – 25(26) × (13)15 – 17,5 – 22(23) μm ; et par ses spores longtemps incolores mais devenant brun assez clair à la fin, de (10)10,5 – 11,7 – 12,5(13,5) × (4,5)5 – 5,5 – 6(6,5) μm, uniseptées. La valeur du genre Echinothecium est confirmée par son hamathécium (formé de périphyses et de pseudoparaphyses courtes) différent de celui des Sphaerellothecium.
33822Roux C. & Pinault P. (2021): Lichenostigma cupreogriseae P. Pinault et Cl. Roux sp. nov. et L. spermatomanis P. Pinault et Cl. Roux sp. nov., champignons lichénicoles non lichénisés (Ascomycota). - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 72: 63–71. .
[In French with Esperanto and French abstracts] Description de deux espèces nouvelles de Lichenostigma parasites d’Aspicilia chez lesquels elles ne produisent pas d’altération appréciable : L. cupreogriseae P. Pinault et Cl. Roux sp. nov., sur Aspicilia cupreogrisea, caractérisé par ses cordons d’hyphes superficiels nombreux et bien développés, portant des ascomes globuleux ou fusiformes bien distincts des cordons ; par ses spores devenant rapidement brun sombre, de (9,5)11,5 – 13,9 – 16,5(20) × (5,5)7 – 8,9 – 10,5(13) μm, d’abord 1 – 3 – septées puis devenant submurales à la fin ; et par ses macroconidies nettement allongées (20 – 53 × 7 – 16 μm). L. spermatomanis P. Pinault et Cl. Roux sp. nov., sur Aspicilia spermatomanes, caractérisé par ses cordons d’hyphes superficiels relativement peu nombreux mais bien développés, ternes, à surface rugueuse, ses ascomes ronds ou allongés, souvent peu distincts des cordons, portés en partie par ces derniers et en partie par le thalle de l’hôte, par ses spores devenant rapidement brun sombre, de (12,5)14 – 15,8 – 19,5(22,5) × (7)8 – 9,4 – 11(14) μm, et par l’absence de macroconidies. Remarques générales sur les Lichenostigma, comparaison entre les deux espèces nouvelles et distinction de celles – ci avec les autres espèces du genre.
33821Roux C., Bertrand M., Navarro–Rosinés P., Poumarat S., Uriac P. & Diederich P. (2021): Nouveautés publiées dans les appendices taxonomiques du Catalogue des lichens de France (années 2014 – 2020) et validation d’une nouvelle combinaison. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 72: 73–74. .
[in French with Esperanto, Spanish and English abstracts] The authors give the alphabetical list of the new taxa and new combinations published in the Catalogue des lichens et champignons lichénicoles de France métropolitaine (Roux et al. 2014, 2017 and 2020) with their bibliographic references. The new combination Variospora epierodens is validated.
33820Méric J.-C., Bertrand M., Poumarat S. & Roux C. (2021): Lichénologie au Colorado de Rustrel (84) : 10 octobre 2020. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 72: 13–20. .
[in French] Report on excursions in département de Vaucluse (region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France) with a rich photodocumentation
33819Roux C. & Ertz D. (2021): Stictis maggiana Cl. Roux et Ertz sp. nov., lichen à Trentepohlia (Ascomycota, Ostropales, Stictidaceae). - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 72: 47–54. .
[in French with Esperanto and English abstracts] Description of the new species Stictis maggiana Cl. Roux et Ertz, characterized by its epiphloeodal thallus with Trentepohlia, by its urceolate apothecia 0,2 – 1,1 mm diam., of which the lateral, colorless excipulum is formed of three layers, the middle of which is filled with large crystals of calcium oxalate and the innermost layer consists of short, branched pseudoparaphyses, by a fairly well differentiated epithecium, by cylindrical, 8 – spored asci of 180 – 320 × 7 –12 μm, and by colorless, very long spores being spirally arranged in the ascus at maturity, becoming sigmoid and breaking easily out of these, about 112 – 155 × 1,5 – 2,5 μm when entire, and with 24 – 38 septa. Comparison with related or analogous species. Remarks on the ontogeny.
33818Sveshnikova N. & Piercey-Normore M.D. (2021): Transcriptome comparison of secondary metabolite biosynthesis genes expressed in cultured and lichenized conditions of Cladonia rangiferina. - Diversity, 13(11): 529. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13110529.
Lichen secondary metabolites are natural products of high medicinal and industrial value, which are produced by the fungal symbiont (mycobiont) of lichens in response to environmental changes. It has been shown that the cultured mycobiont is capable of secondary metabolite production, specifically polyketides, and polyketide production is affected by the presence or absence of the algal or cyanobacterial symbiont (photobiont). Identification of polyketide synthases encoding genes is, in turn, key for understanding the regulation of secondary metabolite synthesis. Using a previously established method of resynthesis for Cladonia rangiferina as well as the sequenced and assembled genome of that species, we compared transcriptomes of C. rangiferina cultured alone and resynthesized with the photobiont (Asterochloris glomerata) to reveal transcriptionally active genes in secondary metabolic gene clusters, as well some of the neighbouring genes, induced by the presence of the photobiont and events of lichenization. The results identify potential candidates for PKS genes in C. rangiferina, identify potential neighbouring genes in the PKS cluster, and offer insights into further research. The study provides preliminary insights into the activity of several identified biosynthetic gene clusters (BGC) as well as interactions of genes within those clusters. Keywords: Cladonia rangiferina; lichen-forming fungi; transcriptomics; lichen secondary metabolites; polyketide synthases; PKS; gene expression; lichenization; resynthesis.
33817Barcenas-Peña A., Diaz R., Grewe F., Widhelm T. & Lumbsch H.T. (2021): Contributions to the phylogeny of Lepraria (Stereocaulaceae) species from the Southern Hemisphere, including three new species. - Bryologist, 124(4): 494–505. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.4.494.
We utilized ITS and mtSSU sequence data to study the phylogenetic relationships of Lepraria samples collected in the Southern Hemisphere, including Australia, Chile, New Zealand and Antarctica. Morphological characters and the secondary chemistry of the specimens were also examined. Using a combination of morphological, chemical and molecular data, we identified nine lineages in our material. The lineages are: Lepraria toilenae, L. eburnea, L. nothofagi, L. straminea, L. caerulescens, L. finkii, and three previously undescribed clades that are here described as L. chileana, L. neozelandica and L. ulrikii. The first is described from Chile. The second occurs in New Zealand, and the third has an Australasian distribution, occurring in New Zealand, mainland Australia, and Tasmania. In addition, L. straminea is identified as an usnic acid-producing species of the genus Lepraria. Moreover, L. caerulescens is confirmed as a distinct species. Keywords: Australasia, biodiversity, leprose lichens, new species, phylogeny.
33816Usman M., Dyer P.S. & Khalid A.N. (2021): A novel arctic-alpine lichen from Deosai National Park, Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan. - Bryologist, 124(4): 484–493. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.4.484.
In 2019, during May to September a unique lichen occurring on soil was collected from four different localities in Deosai National Park, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. Phylogenetic analysis of the nrDNA ITS and LSU regions revealed that it clustered within the genus Placidium. Further morpho-anatomical and chemical analyses proved its novelty, and it is here described as a new species under the name P. deosaiense. The distinguishing characters of this novel taxon are brown to blackish 2–7 mm wide squamules, undulating in the center, epruinose at margins, epinecral layer up to 70 lm, cylindrical asci with ellipsoid to narrowly ellipsoid ascospores and clavate to bacilliform pycnidiospores. Keywords: Asia, Catapyrenium, Clavascidium, phylogenetics, pycnidia, rhizohyphae.
33815Hestmark G. (2021): (2835) Proposal to conserve the name Umbilicaria spodochroa (lichenized Ascomycota) with a conserved type and with that spelling. - Taxon, 70(5): 1131–1132. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12578.
33814Knudsen K., Arcadia L. in & Wirth V. (2021): (2834) Proposal to conserve the name Sarcogyne (Acarosporaceae, lichenised Ascomycota) with a conserved type. - Taxon, 70(5): 1129–1131. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12577.
33813Sammut S. (2016): Lichen communities responses to a changing environment: A case study of Ħaġar Qim and Mnajdra Temples. - Tesserae, The Heritage Malta Bulletin, 2 [Spring 2016]: 79–85. .
33812Trnka F. & Stejskal R. (2020): Orthocerus clavicornis a Orthocerus crassicornis (Coleoptera: Zopheridae) – poznámky k bionomii a rozšíření v České republice. - Thayensia (Znojmo), 17: 43–60. .
Records of Orthocerus clavicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) and O. crassicornis (Erichson, 1845) from the Czech Republic are summarized based on the study of museum and private collections. O. clavicornis is locally distributed in the whole Czech Republic and has been recorded in 20 grid mapping squares after the year 2000, with more records in Moravia. It was found on Peltigera rufescens (Weiss) Humb. for the first time. The rare O. crassicornis is known only from southern Moravia from 4 grid mapping squares after 2000, and it was repeatedly collected in polycormons of Cladonia foliacea (Huds.) Willd. in the Znojmo region.
33811Dittrich S., Thiem E., Albrecht B.M. & von Oheimb G. (2021): Cryptogamic epiphytes and microhabitat diversity on non-native green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh., Oleaceae) in urban habitats. - iForest, 14: 393–399. doi: 10.3832/ifor3739-014.
With the increased planting of non-native trees within urban environments there is a need for investigating the impacts they may have on the indigenous biodiversity. In this study, we explored the diversity of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes as well as the tree-related microhabitats on planted, non-native green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica and compared it to that of indigenous Fraxinus excelsior and Quercus robur. We conducted sampling on trees of similar growing conditions and size within two cities of eastern Germany (Dresden and Dessau-Roßlau). In our analysis we did not find any significant differences in epiphyte diversity and abundance. By contrast, microhabitat diversity was significantly higher on F. pennsylvanica than on the indigenous tree species, which we attribute to the pioneer character of F. pennsylvanica with faster ageing. Our results underline a low impact of F. pennsylvanica on epiphytic lichen and bryophyte diversity, while indigenous animals might even benefit from the higher diversity and frequency of microhabitats on trees of this species. Therefore, its use as an ornamental tree should not be generally rejected in urban environments. Keywords: Alien Trees, Bryophytes, Invasiveness, Lichens.
33810Duong T.A., Aylward J., Ametrano C.G., Poudel B., Santana Q.C., Wilken P.M., Martin A., Arun‑Chinnappa K.S., de Vos L., DiStefano I., Grewe F., Huhndorf S., Lumbsch H.T., Rakoma J.R., Poudel B., Steenkamp A.T., Sun Y., van der Nest M.A., Wingfeld M.J., Yilmaz N. & Wingfeld B.D. (2021): IMA Genome - F15. Draft genome assembly of Fusarium pilosicola, Meredithiella fracta, Niebla homalea, Pyrenophora teres hybrid WAC10721, and Teratosphaeria viscida. - IMA Fungus, 12: 30 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43008-021-00077-9.
33809Halıcı M.G. & Kahraman M. (2021): DNA barcoding and morphological observations of three lichenized fungal species from James Ross Island (Antarctic Peninsula). - Ukrainian Antarctic Journal, 1: 123–148. https://doi.org/10.33275/1727-7485.1.2021.671.
Antarctica seems to many people to be a very remote, isolated, and mysterious place at the end of the world, and its name is hardly mentioned in normal life and conversation. However, considering that it plays a key role in the rapidly warming global climate system and its contribution to the continuing sea-level rise, its importance today is increasing day by day and it can be seen that it is of vital importance for humanity. There is increasing interest in the distribution of terrestrial organisms in Antarctica because of the potential use of biodiversity as a predictor or indicator of climate change. Lichenized fungi cover large areas of Antarctica that are not covered by ice and form precursor organisms that thrive in harsh environments. They are the largest contributors to biomass and diversity. The characteristic features of these organisms can be counted as developing certain protective mechanisms, adapting to temperature and radiation, and surviving even when the amount of water in their body is minimized. On the other hand, lichenized fungi are the most dominant components of Antarctic terrestrial vegetation, and their adaptation to extreme conditions; growth forms, reproduction, adaptation to environmental conditions can also be explained through mechanisms. Because of the lichens, dominant organisms of Antarctica, studying lichen biodiversity is very important. Although around 500 species of lichens were reported from Antarctica, the lichen biodiversity of the continent is far from being fully known; as in the last 5 years of our studies on Antarctic lichens, we and other scientists reported a significant number of undescribed or unreported species. So the lichen biodiversity of Antarctica is not fully known as there are still many undescribed or unreported species on the continent. In this paper, we deal with three lichenized fungal species: Arthonia glebosa Tuck., Lecanora atromarginata (H. Magn.) Hertel & Rambold and Lecidea tessellata Flörke which are common in James Ross Island, using nrITS, mtSSU, and RPB1 sequences. The lichen samples are studied by morphological and anatomical characters. In addition, to determine the phylogenetic positions of the species, we provide nrITS and mtSSU of these 3 species from Antarctica and additionally RPB1 sequences of Lecidea tessellata. Keywords: Antarctica, biodiversity, Arthonia glebosa, Lecanora atromarginata, Lecidea tessellata.
33808Jeong G.S., Hillman P.F., Kang M.-G., Hwang S., Park J.-E., Nam S.-J., Park D. & Kim H. (2021): Potent and selective inhibitors of human monoamine oxidase A from an Endogenous lichen fungus Diaporthe mahothocarpus. - Journal of Fungi, 7(10): 876 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7100876.
Using 126 endogenous lichen fungus (ELF) extracts, inhibitory activities against monoamine oxidases (MAOs) and cholinesterases (ChEs) were evaluated. Among them, extract ELF29 of the endogenous fungus Diaporthe mahothocarpus of the lichen Cladonia symphycarpia showed the highest inhibitory activity against hMAO-A. Compounds alternariol (AT), 5′-hydroxy-alternariol (HAT), and mycoepoxydiene (MED), isolated from the extract, had potent inhibitory activities against hMAO-A with IC50 values of 0.020, 0.31, and 8.68 µM, respectively. AT, HAT, and MED are reversible competitive inhibitors of hMAO-A with Ki values of 0.0075, 0.116, and 3.76 µM, respectively. The molecular docking studies suggested that AT, HAT, and MED had higher binding affinities for hMAO-A (−9.1, −6.9, and −5.6 kcal/mol, respectively) than for hMAO-B (−6.3, −5.2, and −3.7 kcal/mol, respectively). The relative tight binding might result from a hydrogen bond interaction of the three compounds with a Tyr444 residue in hMAO-A, whereas no hydrogen bond interaction was proposed in hMAO-B. In silico pharmacokinetics, the three compounds showed high gastrointestinal absorption without violating Lipinski’s five rules, but only MED showed high probability to cross the blood–brain barrier. These results suggest that AT, HAT, and MED are candidates for treating neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression and cardiovascular disease. Keywords: endogenous lichen fungus; Diaporthe mahothocarpus; alternariol; 5-hydroxy-alternariol; mycoepoxydiene; selective monoamine oxidase A inhibitor; docking simulation.
33807Beckett R. Minibayeva F. & Mkhize K. (2021): Shade lichens are characterized by rapid relaxation of non-photochemical quenching on transition to darkness. - Lichenologist, 53(5): 409-414. doi:10.1017/S0024282921000323.
Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) plays an important role in protecting photosynthetic organisms from photoinhibition by dissipating excess light energy as heat. However, excess NPQ can greatly reduce the quantum yield of photosynthesis at lower light levels. Recently, there has been considerable interest in understanding how plants balance NPQ to ensure optimal productivity in environments in which light levels are rapidly changing. In the present study, chlorophyll fluorescence was used to study the induction and relaxation of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in the dark and the induction of photosynthesis in ten species of lichens, five sampled from exposed and five sampled from shaded habitats. Here we show that the main difference between sun and shade lichens is the rate at which NPQ relaxes in the dark, rather than the speed that photosynthesis starts upon illumination. During the first two minutes in the dark, NPQ values in the five sun species declined only by an average of 2%, while by contrast, in shade species the average decline was 40%. For lichens growing in microhabitats where light levels are rapidly changing, rapid relaxation of NPQ may enable their photobionts to use the available light most efficiently, hlorophyll fluorescence, photoprotection, photosynthesis, sunfleck, xanthophyll cycle
33806Sanders W. & Masumoto H. (2021): Lichen algae: The photosynthetic partners in lichen symbioses. - Lichenologist, 53(5): 347-393. doi:10.1017/S0024282921000335.
A review of algal (including cyanobacterial) symbionts associated with lichen-forming fungi is presented. General aspects of their biology relevant to lichen symbioses are summarized. The genera of algae currently believed to include lichen symbionts are outlined; approximately 50 can be recognized at present. References reporting algal taxa in lichen symbiosis are tabulated, with emphasis on those published since the 1988 review by Tschermak-Woess, and particularly those providing molecular evidence for their identifications. This review is dedicated in honour of Austrian phycologist Elisabeth Tschermak-Woess (1917–2001), for her numerous and significant contributions to our knowledge of lichen algae (some published under the names Elisabeth Tschermak and Liesl Tschermak), chlorobiont, cyanobacteria, cyanobiont, lichenized stramenopiles, phaeobiont, photobiont, phycobiont, xanthobiont
33805Kantvilas G., Wedin M. & Svensson M. (2021): Australidea (Malmideaceae, Lecanorales), a new genus of lecideoid lichens, with notes on the genus Malcolmiella. - Lichenologist, 53(5): 395-407. doi:10.1017/S0024282921000311.
The new genus Australidea Kantvilas, Wedin & M. Svensson is described to accommodate Lecidea canorufescens Kremp., a widespread lichen in temperate Australasia. It is characterized by a crustose thallus with a green photobiont, reddish brown, biatorine apothecia with an internally hyaline, cupulate proper exciple constructed of branched and anastomosing hyphae, mainly simple paraphyses, 8-spored, Porpidia-type asci and simple, hyaline, non-halonate ascospores. A phylogenetic analysis places the new genus in the family Malmideaceae. Lecidea canorufescens Kremp., L. glandulosa C. Knight, L. immarginata R. Br. ex Cromb. and L. intervertens Nyl. are lectotypified. These names, plus L. dacrydii Müll. Arg. and L. eucheila Zahlbr., are all synonyms of Australidea canorufescens (Kremp.) Kantvilas, Wedin & M. Svensson comb. nov. Several genera superficially similar to Australidea, including Malcolmiella Vĕzda, Malmidea Kalb et al. and Myochroidea Printzen et al., are compared. A comprehensive anatomical and morphological description of the genus Malcolmiella, recorded for Tasmania for the first time, is also provided. The new combination M. interversa (Nyl.) Kantvilas, Wedin & M. Svensson is introduced and the names M. cinereovirens Vĕzda and M. cinereovirens var. isidiata Vĕzda are reduced to synonyms. The systematic position of this genus remains unclear, although phylogenetic analysis suggests its affinities lie with a group of genera that includes Bryobilimbia Fryday et al., Romjularia Timdal and Clauzadea Hafellner & Bellem., ascus structure, Australia, biodiversity, corticolous Lecidea, lichenized fungi, Malmidea, Myochroidea
33804Villagra J., Muñoz-Muñoz M., Nuñez P. & Casanova-Katny A. (2021): Estudio preliminar de líquenes del orden Peltigerales presentes en el Parque Ecológico y Cultural Rucamanque, Región de La Araucanía, Chile [Preliminary study of lichens of the order Peltigerales in the Ecological and Cultural Park Rucamanque in the Araucania Region, Chile]. - Gayana Botanica, 78(1): 104–111. DOI: 10.4067/S0717-66432021000100104.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] The Rucamanque Park houses some of the remnants of the Roble-Raulí-Coigüe mixed forest in CentralSouth Chile. Cortical lichens were monitored in Renoval and in the Original Remnant Forest of Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb.) Oerst. We found differences in specific richness by tree species and between the Renoval (13 species) and the Original Remnant (7 species). The variables that affect the greatest richness are discussed, suggesting that the structure of the forest may play a key factor.
33803Suija A., Delhoume A., Poumarat S. & Diederich P. (2021): Didymocyrtis microxanthoriae (Phaeosphaeriaceae, Dothideomycetes), a new lichenicolous fungus from France. - Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois, 123: 129–136. .
The new asexual Didymocyrtis microxanthoriae, lichenicolous on Xanthoria parietina, is described from France. Morphological characters and DNA sequence data (ITS, nuLSU) place the new fungus in the genus Didymocyrtis. Didymocyrtis microxanthoriae is only distantly related to the other known species of the genus inhabiting X. parietina, and is characterized by the particularly small, subspherical to shortly ellipsoid, 1(–2)-guttulate conidia, 3.0–3.7 × 2.6–2.9 μm that distinguish it from all other known species of the genus. Key words: asexual fungi, lichen-inhabiting fungi, Phoma, Xanthoria.
33802Burrascano S., Trentanovi G., Paillet Y., Heilmann-Clausen J., Giordani P., Bagella S., Bravo-Oviedo A., Campagnaro T., Campanaro A., Francesco C., De Smedt P., Itziar G.-M., Matošević D., Sitzia T., Aszalós R., Brazaitis G., Andrea C., Ettore D’A., Doerfler I., Hofmeister J., Hošek J., Janssen P., Kepfer Rojas S., Korboulewsky N., Kozák D., Lachat T., Lõhmus A., Lopez R., Mårell A., Matula R., Mikoláš M., Munzi S., Nordén B., Pärtel M., Penner J., Runnel K., Schall P., Svoboda M., Tinya F., Ujházyová M., Vandekerkhove K., Verheyen K., Xystrakis F. & Odór P. (2021): Handbook of field sampling for multi-taxon biodiversity studies in European forests. - Ecological Indicators, 132: 108266 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.108266.
Highlights: • Forest multi-taxon studies have similar aims but different sampling protocols. • The most sampled taxonomic groups are plants, beetles, lichens, birds, fungi. • Soil, litter and canopy resulted as undersampled forest habitats. • Sampling units and substrates differed widely within and among taxonomic groups. • Sampling methods for stand structure were relatively homogeneous. Forests host most terrestrial biodiversity and their sustainable management is crucial to halt biodiversity loss. Although scientific evidence indicates that sustainable forest management (SFM) should be assessed by monitoring multi-taxon biodiversity, most current SFM criteria and indicators account only for trees or consider indirect biodiversity proxies. Several projects performed multi-taxon sampling to investigate the effects of forest management on biodiversity, but the large variability of their sampling approaches hampers the identification of general trends, and limits broad-scale inference for designing SFM. Here we address the need of common sampling protocols for forest structure and multi-taxon biodiversity to be used at broad spatial scales. We established a network of researchers involved in 41 projects on forest multi-taxon biodiversity across 13 European countries. The network data structure comprised the assessment of at least three taxa, and the measurement of forest stand structure in the same plots or stands. We mapped the sampling approaches to multi-taxon biodiversity, standing trees and deadwood, and used this overview to provide operational answers to two simple, yet crucial, questions: what to sample? How to sample? The most commonly sampled taxonomic groups are vascular plants (83% of datasets), beetles (80%), lichens (66%), birds (66%), fungi (61%), bryophytes (49%). They cover different forest structures and habitats, with a limited focus on soil, litter and forest canopy. Notwithstanding the common goal of assessing forest management effects on biodiversity, sampling approaches differed widely within and among taxonomic groups. Differences derive from sampling units (plots size, use of stand vs. plot scale), and from the focus on different substrates or functional groups of organisms. Sampling methods for standing trees and lying deadwood were relatively homogeneous and focused on volume calculations, but with a great variability in sampling units and diameter thresholds. We developed a handbook of sampling methods (SI 3) aimed at the greatest possible comparability across taxonomic groups and studies as a basis for European-wide biodiversity monitoring programs, robust understanding of biodiversity response to forest structure and management, and the identification of direct indicators of SFM. Keywords: Biodiversity; Field methods; Multi-taxon; Indicators; Sampling protocol; Forest stand structure.
33801Langbehn T., Hofmeister J., Svitok M., Mikoláš M., Matula R., Halda J., Svobodová K., Pouska V., Kameniar O., Kozák D., Bače R., Frankovič M. & Svoboda M. (2021): The impact of natural disturbance dynamics on lichen diversity and composition in primary mountain spruce forests. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 32:e13087. https://doi.org/10.1111/ jvs.13087.
Aim: Natural disturbances influence forest structure, successional dynamics and con- sequently, the distribution of species through time and space. We quantified the long- term impacts of natural disturbances on lichen species richness and composition in primary mountain forests, with a particular focus on the occurrence of endangered species. Location: Ten primary mountain spruce forest stands across five mountain chains of the Western Carpathians, a European hotspot of biodiversity. Methods: Living trees, snags and downed logs were surveyed for epiphytic and epix- ylic lichens in 57 plots. Using reconstructed disturbance history, we tested how lichen species richness and composition was affected by the current forest structure and disturbance regimes in the past 250 years. We also examined differences in commu- nity composition among discrete microhabitats. Results: Dead standing trees as biological legacies of natural disturbances promoted lichen species richness and the occurrence of threatened species at the plot scale, suggesting improved growing conditions for rare and common lichens during the early stages of recovery post disturbance. However, high-severity disturbances com- promised plot-scale species richness. Both species richness and the number of old- growth specialists increased with time since disturbance (i.e., long-term uninterrupted succession). No lichen species was strictly dependent on live trees as a habitat, but numerous species showed specificity to logs, standing objects or an admixture of tree species. Conclusions: Lichen species richness was lower in regenerating, young and uniform plots compared with overmature and recently disturbed areas. Natural forest dynamics and its legacies are critical to the diversity and species composition of lichens. Spatio- temporal consequences of natural dynamics require a sufficient area of protected forests for provisioning continual habitat variability at the landscape scale. Ongoing climatic changes may further accentuate this necessity. Hence, we highlighted the need to protect the last remaining primary forests to ensure the survival of regionally unique species pools of lichens deadwood, dendrochronology, forest continuity, Ips typographus, lichenised fungi, mixed- severity disturbance regime, Picea abies, Western Carpathians
33800Nanda S.A., Haq M.-u., Singh S.P., Reshi Z.A., Rawal R.S., Kumar D., Bisht K., Upadhyay S., Upreti D.K. & Pandey A. (2021): Species richness and β-diversity patterns of macrolichens along elevation gradients across the Himalayan Arc. - Scientific Reports, 11: 20155 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-99675-1.
Understanding the species richness and β-diversity patterns along elevation gradients can aid in formulating effective conservation strategies particularly in areas where local anthropogenic stresses and climate change are quite significant as in the Himalaya. Thus, we studied macrolichen richness and β-diversity along elevational gradients at three sites, namely Kashmir (2200 to 3800 m a.m.s.l), Uttarakhand (2000–3700 m a.m.s.l) and Sikkim (1700 to 4000 m a.m.s.l) which cover much of the Indian Himalayan Arc. In all, 245 macrolichen species belonging to 77 genera and 26 families were collected from the three sites. Only 11 species, 20 genera and 11 families were common among the three transects. Despite the differences in species composition, the dominant functional groups in the three sites were the same: foliose, fruticose and corticolous forms. The hump-shaped elevation pattern in species richness was exhibited by most of the lichen groups, though an inverse hump-shaped pattern was also observed in certain cases. β-diversity (βsor) based on all pairs of comparisons along an elevation gradient varied from 0.48 to 0.58 in Kashmir, 0.03 to 0.63 in Uttarakhand and 0.46 to 0.77 in Sikkim. The contribution of turnover to β-diversity was more than nestedness at all the three transects. Along elevation β-diversity and its components of turnover and nestedness varied significantly with elevation. While species turnover increased significantly along the elevation in all the three transects, nestedness decreased significantly in Kashmir and Sikkim transects but increased significantly in the Uttarakhand transect. Except for the Kashmir Himalayan elevation transect, stepwise β-diversity and its components of turnover and nestedness did not vary significantly with elevation. The present study, the first of its kind in the Himalayan region, clearly brings out that macrolichen species richness, β-diversity, and its components of turnover and nestedness vary along the elevation gradients across the Himalayan Arc. It also highlights that contribution of turnover to β-diversity is higher in comparison to nestedness at all the three transects. The variations in species richness and diversity along elevation gradients underpin the importance of considering elevational gradients in planning conservation strategies.
33799Fernandes R.F., Alves G.A.S., Gonçalves R.V. & Temperini M.L.A. (2021): A methodology to identify the releasing of the amide‑containing β‑glucan from the Usnea lichen: A spectroscopic study. - Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 29: 3105–3115. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10924-021-02104-7.
Polymer fractions from a biological matrix have been well-characterized by vibrational spectroscopy, XPS, CP/MAS 13C NMR, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, thermal analysis, and SEM, and all the results had corroborated for the chemical extraction of β-glucan polymers grafted amino groups by peptide bonds (namely NH2- β-glucan) as well as a cyclic oligosaccharide. Our primary purpose was to explore the polysaccharide extraction parameters in the sample of Usnea lichen, mainly in terms of extraction time and concentration of the extractive alkaline solution, to investigate the chemical characterization of the polysaccharide fractions. The low-cost methodology adopted in this work was able to extract the materials of interest with the expected efficiency without the significant impact of chemicals on the environment. The chemical extraction of an NH2- bonded biopolymer can be a very interesting material for many applications since chemical functionalization is crucial to introducing specific properties for developing new materials. In this regard, the cyclic β-glucan described as a very porous material is highly desirable for various applications in the biomedical, biotechnological, and environmental areas. Keywords: β-Glucan · Amino acids · Lichens · Spectroscopic characterization.
33798Salah M.B., Aouadhi C. & Khadhri A. (2021): Green Roccella phycopsis Ach. mediated silver nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, phenolic content, antioxidant, antibacterial and anti‑acetylcholinesterase capacities. - Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, 44: 2257–2268. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00449-021-02601-y.
In this study, we develop here for the first time an easy, eco-friendly method for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the lichen Roccella phycopsis. AgNPs formation was first determined by a color change of the lichen filtrate to brown, subsequent to addition of AgNO3 solution, and confirmed by a maximum absorbance peak at 425 nm in UV–vis spectrum. Scanning electron microscope images showed a spherical shape with a size distribution between 11 and 18 nm, while the elemental composition was elucidated by the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The chemical compounds responsible for reduction and stabilization of silver nanoparticles were detected by Frourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. The synthesized R. phycopsis silver nanoparticles displayed a strong antioxidant activity. Further, the antibacterial activity was more effective against Gram-negative than Gram-positive bacteria. Besides, the R. phycopsis-AgNPs were potent in inhibiting acetylcholinesterase enzyme with IC50 value of 1.65 ± 0.07 mg/mL. Keywords: Roccella phycopsis · Lichen · Silver nanoparticles · Phenolic compounds · Antioxidant · Antibacterial · Antiacetylcholinesterase.
33797Unal D., Gül U.D. & Silah H. (2021): Decolorization property of living Lichen Evernia prunastri on textile Acid Red P‑2BX dye. - International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 18: 3469–3478. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-020-03081-5.
The removal of textile dye using the biosorption technique is important for improving water quality and avoiding the harmful effects of the traditional approach for removing wastewater on human health. Lichens are symbiotic organisms that have great potential for decolorization and degradation of textile dye. The present study evaluates Acid Red P-2BX dye decolorization by living lichen Evernia prunastri at the pH range of 2–10. Dye decolorization rates at pH 2 were 84.62%, 87.5% and 88.54% at 25, 50 and 100 mg/L of initial dye concentrations, respectively. The pigment analysis and mean intensity of chlorophyll autofluorescence results indicated that pH could be the main factor affecting lichen physiology and thalli decolorization capacity. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used as a high-throughput method for understanding biomolecular changes in thalli. The lipid/amide I and carbohydrate/amide I ratio increased at pH 2. The present study also indicated, for the first time, that decolorization rate is related to altering lichen carbohydrate and especially lipid metabolism in the E. prunastri thalli. Thus, we demonstrated that the lichen E. prunastri could be a good candidate for use as a biosorbent. Keywords: Evernia prunastri · Acid Red P-2BX · FTIR · Decolorization.
33796Aptroot A. & Souza M.F. (2021): New lichen species and records from the Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso, Brazil. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 42(10): 171–180. https://doi.org/10.5252/cryptogamie-mycologie2021v42a10.
Three species of lichens are described as new from the Chapada dos Guimarães in Mato Grosso (Brazil): Astrothelium muriconicum Aptroot & M.F.Souza, sp. nov. which is the first species in the core group of the genus, the A. conicum-group, with muriform ascospores; Gassicurtia lopesiana M.F.Souza & Aptroot, sp. nov. which is characterized by red apothecium margins and lichexanthone in the thallus; and G. pruinosa M.F.Souza & Aptroot, sp. nov. which has brown pruinose, UV+ green discs and less red pigmantation. A further 191 species are reported new to the state Mato Grosso, 14 of which are first reports from Brazil. Key words: Cerrado, Caliciaceae, Trypetheliaceae, new species, new records.
33795Jonsson B.G., Dahlgren J., Ekström M., Esseen P.-A., Grafström A., Ståhl G. & Westerlund B. (2021): Rapid changes in ground vegetation of mature boreal forests—An analysis of Swedish National Forest Inventory data. - Forests, 12: 475 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12040475.
The boreal forest floor vegetation is critical for ecosystem functioning and an important part of forest biodiversity. Given the ongoing global change, knowledge on broad-scale changes in the composition and abundance of different plant species and species groups is hence important for both forest conservation and management. Here, we analyse permanent plot data from the National Forest Inventory (NFI) on changes in the vegetation over a 10-year period in four regions of Sweden. To limit the direct and relatively well-known effects of forest management and associated succession, we only included mature forest stands not influenced by forestry during the 10 years between inventories, and focused on vegetation change mainly related to other factors. Results show strong decrease among many species and species groups. This includes dominant species such as Vaccinimum myrtillus and Deschampsia flexuosa as well as several forest herbs. The only species increasing are some mosses in the southern regions. Our data do not allow for a causal interpretation of the observed patterns. However, the changes probably result from latent succession in combination with climate change and nitrogen deposition, and with time lags complicating the interpretation of their relative importance. Regardless of the cause, the observed changes are on a magnitude that suggest impacts on ecosystem functioning and hence highlight the need for more experimental work. Keywords: plants; lichens; mosses; climate change; nitrogen; succession; ecosystem function; biodiversity.
33794Martínez D.N., Díaz-Álvarez E.A. & de la Barrera E. (2021): Selecting biomonitors of atmospheric nitrogen deposition: guidelines for practitioners and decision makers. - Nitrogen, 2: 308–320. https://doi.org/10.3390/nitrogen2030021.
Environmental pollution is a major threat to public health and is the cause of important economic losses worldwide. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is one of the most significant components of environmental pollution, which, in addition to being a health risk, is one of the leading drivers of global biodiversity loss. However, monitoring pollution is not possible in many regions of the world because the instrumentation, deployment, operation, and maintenance of automated systems is onerous. An affordable alternative is the use of biomonitors, naturally occurring or transplanted organisms that respond to environmental pollution with a consistent and measurable ecophysiological response. This policy brief advocates for the use of biomonitors of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Descriptions of the biological and monitoring particularities of commonly utilized biomonitor lichens, bryophytes, vascular epiphytes, herbs, and woody plants, are followed by a discussion of the principal ecophysiological parameters that have been shown to respond to the different nitrogen emissions and their rate of deposition. Keywords: atmospheric pollution; environmental management; planetary boundaries; public policy; public health.
33793Dyrkheeva N.S., Filimonov A.S., Luzina O.A., Zakharenko A.L., Ilina E.S., Malakhova A.A., Medvedev, S.P., Reynisson J., Volcho K.P., Zakian S.M., Salakhutdinov N.F. & Lavrik O.I. (2021): New hybrid compounds combining fragments of usnic acid and monoterpenoids for effective tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 inhibition. - Biomolecules, 11: 973 [23 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11070973.
Usnic acid (UA) is a secondary metabolite of lichens that exhibits a wide range of biological activities. Previously, we found that UA derivatives are effective inhibitors of tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1). It can remove covalent complex DNA-topoisomerase 1 (TOP1) stabilized by the TOP1 inhibitor topotecan, neutralizing the effect of the drugs. TDP1 removes damage at the 3′ end of DNA caused by other anticancer agents. Thus, TDP1 is a promising therapeutic target for the development of drug combinations with topotecan, as well as other drugs for cancer treatment. Ten new UA enamino derivatives with variation in the terpene fragment and substituent of the UA backbone were synthesized and tested as TDP1 inhibitors. Four compounds, 11a-d, had IC50 values in the 0.23–0.40 μM range. Molecular modelling showed that 11a-d, with relatively short aliphatic chains, fit to the important binding domains. The intrinsic cytotoxicity of 11a-d was tested on two human cell lines. The compounds had low cytotoxicity with CC50 ≥ 60 μM for both cell lines. 11a and 11c had high inhibition efficacy and low cytotoxicity, and they enhanced topotecan’s cytotoxicity in cancerous HeLa cells but reduced it in the non-cancerous HEK293A cells. This “protective” effect from topotecan on non-cancerous cells requires further investigation. Keywords: usnic acid; tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1; TDP1 inhibitor; inhibiting activity; terpene; topotecan; synergy.
33792Kikowska M., Thiem B., Jafernik K., Klimek-Szczykutowicz M., Studzińska-Sroka E., Ekiert H. & Szopa A. (2021): Effect of elicitation with (+)-usnic acid on accumulation of phenolic acids and flavonoids in agitated microshoots of Eryngium alpinum L.. - Molecules, 26: 5532 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185532.
The present work was aimed at studying the potential of elicitation on the accumulation of phenolic compounds in in vitro shoot cultures of Eryngium alpinum L., a protected plant from the Apiaceae family. The study examined the influence of (+)-usnic acid on the biomass growth as well as on the biosynthesis of the desired flavonoids and phenolic acids in the cultured microshoots. The phenolic compound content was determined by HPLC-DAD. The flavonoid of the highest concentration was isoquercetin, and the phenolic acids of the highest amount were rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, both in the non-elicited and elicited biomass. Isoquercetin accumulation was efficiently increased by a longer elicitation with a lower concentration of lichenic compound (107.17 ± 4.67 mg/100 g DW) or a shorter elicitation with a higher concentration of acid (127.54 ± 11.34 and 108.37 ± 12.1 mg/100 g DW). Rosmarinic acid production generally remained high in all elicited and non-elicited microshoots. The highest content of this acid was recorded at 24 h of elicitation with 3.125 µM usnic acid (512.69 ± 4.89 mg/100 g DW). The process of elicitation with (+)-usnic acid, a well-known lichenic compound with allelopathic nature, may therefore be an effective technique of enhancing phenolic compound accumulation in alpine eryngo microshoot biomass. Keywords: alpine eryngo; microshoot cultures; phenolic compounds; elicitation; HPLC-DAD analysis.
33791Mod H.K., Heikkinen R.K., le Roux P.C., Väre H. & Luoto M. (2016): Contrasting effects of biotic interactions on richness and distribution of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens in an arctic–alpine landscape. - Polar Biology, 39: 649–657. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-015-1820-y.
Biotic interactions may strongly affect the distribution of individual species and the resulting patterns of species richness. However, the impacts can vary depending on the species or taxa examined, suggesting that the influences of interactions on species distributions and diversity are not always straightforward and can be taxon-contingent. The aim of this study was therefore to examine how the importance of biotic interactions varies within a community. We incorporated three biotic predictors (cover of the dominant vascular species) into two correlative species richness modelling frameworks to predict spatial variation in the number of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens in arctic–alpine Fennoscandia, in N Europe. In addition, predictions based on single-species distribution models were used to determine the nature of the impact (negative vs. positive outcome) of the three dominant species on individual vascular plant, bryophyte and lichen species. Our results suggest that biotic variables can be as important as abiotic variables, but their relative contributions in explaining the richness of sub-dominant species vary among dominant species, species group and the modelling framework implemented. Similarly, the impacts of biotic interactions on individual species varied among the three species groups and dominant species, with the observed patterns partly reflecting species’ biogeographic range. Our study provides additional support for the importance of biotic interactions in modifying arctic–alpine biodiversity patterns and highlights that the impacts of interactions are not constant across taxa or biotic drivers. The influence of biotic interactions, including the taxon contingency and range-based impacts, should therefore be accounted for when developing biodiversity forecasts. Keywords: Betula nana; Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii; Empetrum hermaphroditum; Species distribution model; Species richness model; Vegetation.
33790Ojha M., Kil Y.‐S., Youn U.J., Ok Y.J., Choi H. & Nam J.‐W. (2021): Compositional variation of atranorin‐related components of lichen Myelochroa leucotyliza dependent on extraction solvent and their quantitative analysis by qHNMR. - Phytochemical Analysis, 32(6): 1067–1073. https://doi.org/10.1002/pca.3048.
Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) is one of the effective and reliable quantification tools for natural product research. Myelochroa leucotyliza belongs to the genus Myelochroa, a common foliose lichen genus found in the Korean Peninsula, and has not been quantitatively analysed using NMR. Previous chemical studies on M. leucotyliza have been limited to the main components by traditional thin‐layer chromatography (TLC) experiments. Myelochroa leucotyliza belongs to the genus Myelochroa, a common foliose lichen genus found in the Korean peninsula. In the present study, chemical investigation of M. leucotyliza was performed and the structures were identified as atraric acid (1), methyl haemmatommate (2), methyl chlorohaemmatommate (3), (+)‐usnic acid (4), atranorin (5), and (+)‐praesorediosic acid (6) by spectroscopic data analysis. The composition of 5 and its related components varied depending on the extraction solvent used, which was confirmed by quantitative NMR (qNMR) analysis. Keywords: Myelochroa leucotyliza; atranorin; qNMR.
33789Chiva S., Dumitru C., Bordenave C.D. & Barreno E. (2021): Watanabea green microalgae (Trebouxiophyceae) inhabiting lichen holobiomes: Watanabea lichenicola sp. nova. - Phycological Research, 69(4): 226–236. https://doi.org/10.1111/pre.12463.
Microalgae of the genus Watanabea are widely distributed as free living in soil/subaerial and aquatic habitats. In this study, two Watanabea spp. were isolated from lichen thalli of Buellia zoharyi collected on biocrusts in the Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands. To ascertain their taxonomic position and phylogenetic relationships within the genus Watanabea, morphological observations were performed using light and confocal microscopy, combined with molecular analyses based on the phylogeny of small subunit ribosomal region (SSU) and internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) genes and the ITS2 secondary structure. One isolate matches Watanabea acidophila, and the other, which has not been previously reported, is described here as Watanabea lichenicola sp. nov. Both molecular phylogenetic analyses (SSU and ITS) suggest the division of the Watanabea spp. into two well‐supported clades: Watanabea group I and Watanabea group II, to which W. lichenicola and W. acidophila belong, respectively. Furthermore, an exclusive side loop in helix 3 of the ITS2 secondary structure of Watanabea group II reinforces the use of this analysis as a molecular hallmark for this genus. The integrative approaches carried out in this study suggest lichen thalli as a new ecological niche for this genus, either as associated (not primary symbiont), epiphyte and/or endophyte microalgae in Buellia zoharyi holobionts. Keywords: Buellia zoharyi; endophyte; epiphyte; lichen‐associated microalgae; phycobiome; phylogeny.
33788Greiser C., Ehrlén J., Luoto M., Meineri E., Merinero S., Willman B. & Hylander K. (2021): Warm range margin of boreal bryophytes and lichens not directly limited by temperatures. - Journal of Ecology, 109: 3724–3736. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.13750.
Species at their warm range margin are potentially threatened by higher temperatures, but may persist in microrefugia. Whether such microsites occur due to more suitable microclimate or due to lower biotic pressure from, for example competitive species, is still not fully resolved. We examined whether boreal bryophytes and lichens show signs of direct climate limitation, that is whether they perform better in cold and/or humid microclimates at their warm range margin. We transplanted a moss, a liverwort and a lichen to 58 boreal forest sites with different microclimates at the species' southern range margin in central Sweden. Species were grown in garden soil patches to control the effects of competitive exclusion and soil quality. We followed the transplanted species over three growing seasons (2016–2018) and modelled growth and vitality for each species as a function of subcanopy temperature, soil moisture, air humidity and forest type. In 2018, we also recorded the cover of other plants having recolonized the garden soil patches and modelled this potential future competition with the same environmental variables plus litter. Species performance increased with warmer temperatures, which was often conditional on high soil moisture, and at sites with more conifers. Soil moisture had a positive effect, especially on the moss in the last year 2018, when the growing season was exceptionally hot and dry. The lichen was mostly affected by gastropod grazing. Recolonization of other plants was also faster at warmer and moister sites. The results indicate that competition, herbivory, shading leaf litter and water scarcity might be more important than the direct effects of temperature for performance at the species' warm range margin. Synthesis. In a transplant experiment with three boreal understorey species, we did not find signs of direct temperature limitation towards the south. Forest microrefugia, that is habitats where these species could persist regional warming, may instead be sites with fewer competitors and enemies, and with sufficient moisture and more conifers in the overstorey. Keywords: biotic interactions; herbivory; microclimate; plant–climate interactions; rear edge; soil moisture; species distribution; transplant experiment.
33787Díaz J., Montaño L., Salinas P. & Benítez Á. (2021): Epiphytic cryptogams as bioindicators of air quality in a tropical Andean city. - Sustainability, 13(20): 11218 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011218.
Air pollution is one of the main environmental problems in developed and developing countries. Epiphytic cryptogams (bryophytes and lichens) are proposed as a reliable indicator to detect environmental changes, given to their sensitivity to pollutants. In this study we evaluated air quality in the city of Ambato using bryophytes and epiphytic lichens on three land uses (urban, peri-urban and control). In each zone we selected ten trees (a total of 90 trees) for each station (a total of nine stations), where we recorded the frequency and cover of epiphytic cryptogams in a quadrat of 10 × 50 cm that was divided into 5 × 5 cm squares. Differences in richness, index of atmospheric purity (IAP) and diversity were analyzed using a generalized linear model (GLM) and changes in species composition using multivariate analysis. We recorded 39 species of cryptogams (25 lichens and 14 bryophytes). Richness, diversity and index of atmospheric purity were higher in the control zone compared to the urbanized zones. Community composition changed between the different zones, with increasing differences between the control and urban zones. The urban areas of the city of Ambato were identified with high levels of air pollution due to their lower diversity related to higher vehicular traffic and industrial activities (e.g., footwear and textile factories, tanneries). Thus, epiphytic cryptogams are a fast and low-cost method for air quality assessment in tropical areas. Keywords: alpha diversity; beta diversity; bryophytes; Ecuador; lichens.
33786Salminen-Paatero S. & Paatero J. (2021): Transfer of natural radionuclides in terrestrial food chains—A review of investigations in Finland. - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18: 10577 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010577.
Transfer of natural radionuclides 210Pb, 210Po, 238U, and 228,230,232Th in subarctic food chains has been studied in Finland since the 1960s. The unique food chain lichen-reindeer-man related to Sami people in Finnish Lapland and other food chain options, from berries or mushrooms to man, have been explored and the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in biological samples determined. The results from Finnish radioecological studies are summarized and differences in bioaccumulation between different radionuclides are discussed. It was found out that, although a substantial amount of activity concentration data exist from the research projects executed in Finland during the last 6 decades, more data, especially from U and Th, in biological environment and humans would be useful, e.g., for modeling purposes and for improved assessment of bioaccumulation and adverse effects (both radiological and chemical) of radionuclides. Keywords: natural radionuclides; radioecology; food chain; bioaccumulation; uranium; polonium; radiolead; lichen; reindeer; radionuclide exposure.
33785Jung P., Brust K., Schultz M., Büdel B., Donner A. & Lakatos M. (2021): Opening the gap: Rare lichens with rare cyanobionts – Unexpected cyanobiont diversity in cyanobacterial lichens of the order Lichinales. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 12: 728378 [24 p.]. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.728378.
The last decades of research led to a change in understanding of lichens that are now seen as self-sustaining micro-ecosystems, harboring diverse microbial organisms in tight but yet not fully understood relationships. Among the diverse interdependencies, the relationship between the myco- and photobiont is the most crucial, determining the shape, and ecophysiological properties of the symbiotic consortium. Roughly 10% of lichens associate with cyanobacteria as their primary photobiont, termed cyanolichens. Up to now, the diversity of cyanobionts of bipartite lichens resolved by modern phylogenetic approaches is restricted to the filamentous and heterocytous genera of the order Nostocales. Unicellular photobionts were placed in the orders Chroococcales, Pleurocapsales, and Chroococcidiopsidales. However, especially the phylogeny and taxonomy of the Chroococcidiopsidales genera remained rather unclear. Here we present new data on the identity and phylogeny of photobionts from cyanolichens of the genera Gonohymenia, Lichinella, Peccania, and Peltula from a broad geographical range. A polyphasic approach was used, combining morphological and cultivationdepending characteristics (microscopy, staining techniques, life cycle observation, baeocyte motility, and nitrogen fixation test) with phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and 16S–23S ITS gene region. We found an unexpectedly high cyanobiont diversity in the cyanobacterial lichens of the order Lichinales, including two new genera and seven new species, all of which were not previously perceived as lichen symbionts. As a result, we describe the novel unicellular Chroococcidiopsidales genera Pseudocyanosarcina gen. nov. with the species Pseudocyanosarcina phycocyania sp. nov. (from Peltula clavata, Australia) and Compactococcus gen. nov. with the species Compactococcus sarcinoides sp. nov. (from Gonohymenia sp., Australia) and the new Chroococcidiopsidales species Aliterella compacta sp. nov. (from Peltula clavata, Australia), Aliterella gigantea sp. nov. (from Peltula capensis; South Africa), Sinocapsa ellipsoidea sp. nov. (from Peccania cerebriformis, Austria), as well as the two new Nostocales species Komarekiella gloeocapsoidea sp. nov. (from Gonohymenia sp., Czechia) and Komarekiella globosa sp. nov. (from Lichinella cribellifera, Canary Islands, Spain). Our study highlights the role of cyanolichens acting as a key in untangling cyanobacterial taxonomy and diversity. With this study, we hope to stimulate further research on photobionts, especially of rare cyanolichens. Keywords: Compactococcus, cyanobionts, Chroococcidiopsidales, Peltula, Komarekiella, photobionts, Pseudocyanosarcina, Lichinales.
33784Svensson M. & Westberg M. (2021): A new lichenicolous species of Carbonea (Ascomycota, Lecanoraceae) from northern Sweden. - Phytotaxa, 522(3): 221–230. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.522.3.5.
Carbonea is a widely distributed genus of lecideoid fungi, including both lichenized and non-lichenized, often parasitic species. We describe the new, non-lichenized species Carbonea tephromelae, based on material collected in the Swedish part of the Scandes. The new species is characterized by a colourless hypothecium, broadly ellipsoid to globose ascospores, and by growing on the thallus of the common saxicolous lichen Tephromela atra. It is similar to the likewise lichenicolous species C. supersparsa and C. vitellinaria, but is clearly separated from these species by anatomy and in a phylogenetic analysis based on four markers (mrSSU, ITS, RPB1, RPB2). Carbonea tephromelae is apparently specific to T. atra, but the use of host specificity as a character for species delimitation in lichenicolous species of Carbonea needs further evaluation. Keywords: Huea, Lecanoromycetes, Scandinavia, taxonomy,
33783Eckstein J., Brackel W. v., Rettig J., Cezanne R. & Eichler M. (2021): Erste Checkliste der flechtenbewohnenden Pilze Thüringens mit neuen Funden für das Bundesland. - Haussknechtia, 15: 117–139. .
A first checklist of lichenicolous fungi of Thuringia with 130 species is presented. Refractohilum peltigerae und Unguiculariopsis lesdainii are new to Germany, and the species Arthonia parietinaria, Carbonea supersparsa, Didymocyrtis cladoniicola, D. slaptoniensis, Endococcus exerrans, Epilichen scabrosus, Karschia talcophila, Lichenochora obscuroides, Lichenodiplis pertusariicola, Lichenostigma cosmopolites, Lichenothelia rugosa, Merismatium heterophractum, Milospium lacoizquetae, Nectriopsis lecanodes, Pezizella epithallina, Pleospora physciae, Polycoccum arnoldii, Sphinctrina leucopoda, Stigmidium eucline, S. mycobilimbiae, S. pseudopeltideae, S. squamariae, Taeniolella phaeophysciae and Trichoconis physciicola are first records for Thuringia. Key words: Ascomycetes, biodiversity, Germany, new records, Refractohilum peltigerae, Unguiculariopsis lesdainii.
33782Fávaro A., do Nascimento A.G. & Coelho F.F. (2021): Urban environmental influences on heterocyst investment in Leptogium cyanescens (Collemataceae). - Nova Hedwigia, 113: 259–277. DOI: 10.1127/nova_hedwigia/2021/0644.
Cyanobacteria perform biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in specialized cells called heterocysts, and their differentiation is closely associated with the balance between carbon and nitrogen quantities. Although BNF is an important ecosystem function, there are no studies verifying the production of heterocysts in cyanolichens from different habitats. Therefore, we compared the densities of heterocysts in specimens located in an urban and a forested area. Leptogium cyanescens (Collemataceae) specimens were collected at the Universidade Federal de Lavras (urban area) and at Unilavras – Reserva Biológica Boqueirão (forested area). We detected and analyzed 10,758 heterocysts in specimens from the urban area and 7,217 heterocysts in specimens from the forested area. Specimens from the urban area had higher heterocyst densities per total cell count than specimens from the forested area, producing on average 384 heterocysts per total cell count in the urban area and 257 heterocysts per total cell count in the forested area. These differences may be a consequence of an imbalance between carbon and nitrogen quantities in the sampled urban and forested areas. Increased availability of carbon dioxide may induce demand for nitrogen, thus increasing heterocyst differentiation to obtain more nitrogen. Keywords: C/N ratio; carbon dioxide; cyanobacteria; ecosystem function; nitrogen fixation.
33781Kantvilas G. (2021): The lichen genus Enterographa Fée (Roccellaceae) in Tasmania. - Muelleria, 40: 31–38. .
Five species of Enterographa Fée from Tasmania are treated: the foliicolous E. bella R.Sant., the corticolous E. divergens (Müll.Arg.) Redinger, and three saxicolous species, E. cretacea P.M.McCarthy & Elix, E. subgelatinosa (Stirt.) Redinger, and E. ophiolithica Kantvilas, the last being new to science. The new species is known only from Tasmania and is characterised by a whitish thallus that lacks lichen substances, black apothecia, 0.15–0.4 mm long, and by the (3–)5–7(–8)-septate ascospores, 20–30 x 4–6 μm. Keywords: lichenised Ascomycetes, new species, new records, taxonomy.
33780Tønsberg T., Palice Z. & Timdal E. (2021): Marchantiana asserigena, a genus and species new to Norway. - Graphis Scripta, 33(4): 67–78. https://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/33_4/GS_33_67.pdf.
Marchantiana asserigena is reported new to Norway from the south-west (counties Rogaland, Hordaland, Sogn og Fjordane, and Møre og Romsdal) at altitudes from near sea level to 393 m. It occurs on branches of trees and shrubs and has been found on 33 species of phorophytes (including two hybridigenous ones). Larix decidua was the phorophyte with most collections. Based on the present material M. asserigena seems to be widespread in urban and suburban areas and in the cultural landscape. It is likely that M. asserigena is more widely distributed in Norway than the presented material indicates. Due to the inconspicuous thallus, the diminutive apothecia, and its unusual ecology it is easily overlooked.
33779Gaarder G., Jordal J.B. & Frisch A. (2021): Phaeographis inusta new to Norway, with comments on Arthothelium macounii. - Graphis Scripta, 33(4): 59–66. https://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/33_4/GS_33_59.pdf.
Phaeographis inusta (Ach.) Müll. Arg. is reported from Norway for the first time, a southern, oceanic species which in Europe previously has been found north to East Jutland in Denmark. Arthothelium macounii (G. Merr.) W.J. Noble was recently reported from Norway. Here we add some short comments on the first record in Norway of this species. The two species were found on the same hazel shrub in a boreo-nemoral rainforest on the island of Stord, growing on smooth bark. The site, located on the west coast of Norway, is about 80 km south of Bergen. Arthothelium macounii is a strongly oceanic species. Within Europe it is known only from Scotland and Madeira.
33778Fałtynowicz W. (2021): Jaka ma być ochrona gatunkowa? Część I. Ochrona gatunkowa porostów, czyli co tak naprawdę chronimy? [What is the species protection? Part I. Species protection of lichens, or what are we really protecting?]. - Wiadomości Botaniczne, 65: 653 [41 p.]. https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12333/307.
[in Polish with English abstract:] The article contains information on all lichen species included in the Regulation on the species protection of fungi. Their systematic position is put in order, their general and country distribution is discussed. For each species, suggestions regarding the need for their legal protection are also given. An in-depth analysis showed that the regulation does not actually contain 205, but 168 species currently growing in Poland. More than 35 names listed in the ordinance turned out to be synonyms, and three species have never appeared in our country. Moreover, it turned out that the list includes 29 species that have become extinct in Poland. Keywords: lichens; distribution of lichens; updating the list of protected lichens; Poland.
33777Araújo H.D.A., Silva H.A.M.F., Silva Júnior J.G., Albuquerque M.C.P.A., Coelho L.C.B.B. & Aires A.L. (2021): The natural compound hydrophobic usnic acid and hydrophilic potassium usnate derivative: Applications and comparisons. - Molecules, 26(19): 5995 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26195995.
Usnic acid is the best-studied lichen metabolite, presenting several biological activities, such as antibacterial, immunostimulating, antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antiparasitic agents; despite these relevant properties, it is a hydrophobic and toxic molecule. In this context, scientific research has driven the development of innovative alternatives, considering usnic acid as a source of raw material in obtaining new molecules, allowing structural modifications (syntheses) from it. The purpose is to optimize biological activities and toxicity, with less concentration and/or response time. This work presents a literature review with an analogy of the hydrophobic molecule of usnic acid with its hydrophilic derivative of potassium usnate, emphasizing the elucidation and structural characteristics, biological activities, and toxicological aspects of both molecules, and the advantages of using the promising derivative hydrophilic in different in vitro and in vivo assays when compared to usnic acid. Keywords: lichen; secondary metabolite; usnic acid; acid-base reaction.
33776Singh G., Armaleo D., Dal Grande F. & Schmitt I. (2021): Depside and depsidone synthesis in lichenized fungi comes into focus through a genome-wide comparison of the olivetoric acid and physodic acid chemotypes of Pseudevernia furfuracea. - Biomolecules, 11(10): 1445 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11101445.
Primary biosynthetic enzymes involved in the synthesis of lichen polyphenolic compounds depsides and depsidones are non-reducing polyketide synthases (NR-PKSs), and cytochrome P450s. However, for most depsides and depsidones the corresponding PKSs are unknown. Additionally, in non-lichenized fungi specific fatty acid synthases (FASs) provide starters to the PKSs. Yet, the presence of such FASs in lichenized fungi remains to be investigated. Here we implement comparative genomics and metatranscriptomics to identify the most likely PKS and FASs for olivetoric acid and physodic acid biosynthesis, the primary depside and depsidone defining the two chemotypes of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. We propose that the gene cluster PF33-1_006185, found in both chemotypes, is the most likely candidate for the olivetoric acid and physodic acid biosynthesis. This is the first study to identify the gene cluster and the FAS likely responsible for olivetoric acid and physodic acid biosynthesis in a lichenized fungus. Our findings suggest that gene regulation and other epigenetic factors determine whether the mycobiont produces the depside or the depsidone, providing the first direct indication that chemotype diversity in lichens can arise through regulatory and not only through genetic diversity. Combining these results and existing literature, we propose a detailed scheme for depside/depsidone synthesis. Keywords: lichen-forming fungi; natural products; secondary metabolites; orsellinic acid derivatives; chemosyndrome; biosynthetic gene clusters; fatty acid synthases; cytochrome P450; PKSs.
33775Stalter R., Tong J. & Lendemer J. (2021): The flora on the High Line, New York City, New York: A 17-year comparison. - Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 148(3): 243–251. doi: 10.3159/TORREY-D-21-00007.1.
This study compares the lichen, moss, and vascular plant species found on the abandoned High Line rail line in 2002 with those found on a three-block remnant of the High Line between 30th and 33rd Streets and 12th Avenue in 2019. One hundred fifty-five species were identified in 125 genera belonging to 47 families in the 2002 study. The 2019 study identified 79 species within 68 genera belonging to 32 families. Ten lichens were identified in 2019; four were identified in 2002. The number of mosses found in 2019 remained the same (six species); four species were new to the study area, and four species found in 2002 were not relocated. The loss of vascular plant species on the old High Line in 2019 is a function of its reduced size, a three-block remnant of the original site. The increase in lichen diversity might reflect improved air quality and continued lack of disturbance to suitable substrates at the remnant site. Key words: bryophytes, High Line, lichens, New York, New York City, vascular flora.
33774Kaufmann S., Funck S.-K., Paintner F., Asbeck T. & Hauck M. (2021): The efficiency of retention measures in continuous-cover forestry for conserving epiphytic cryptogams: A case study on Abies alba. - Forest Ecology and Management, 502: 119698 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2021.119698.
Lacking structural diversity in production forests has been evidenced to decrease epiphytic bryophytes and lichens. One approach to create structurally more diverse forests is retention forestry. Only a small number of studies focused on the effectiveness of retention measures in continuous-cover forestry. Most studies have been conducted in even-aged, clear-cut based management systems and applied different approaches, but they all have in common that the retained trees have been examined for epiphytes only after harvest. Thus, it remains unclear whether these trees or even a certain tree species could take the life-boat function for epiphytes on logged sites. Thus, prior to logging, we assessed epiphytic bryophytes and lichens on potential large living retention trees, here referred to as habitat trees (HT), of Abies alba and compared the diversity pattern to nearby average trees (AT; A. alba, Fagus sylvatica or Picea abies) of smaller sizes in selectively harvested continuous-cover forests. Selection of AT was based on the average stem diameter of all trees within the stand. We found that species richness and Simpson diversity of lichens were significantly higher on HT. For bryophytes, F. sylvatica AT showed significantly higher Simpson diversity. Mixed models revealed positive effects of F. sylvatica on bryophytes, whereas large stem diameters and elevation were the driving forces for lichens. Additionally, ordinations revealed clear patterns in species composition separating between conifers and broadleaved trees, and along increasing altitude and stem diameter. Concerning HT selection, we suggest to focus rather on the tree species diversity than on stem diameter, when aiming to protect epiphytic bryophytes and lichens. Keywords: Abies alba; Bryophytes; Continuous-cover forestry; Dbh; Elevation; Fagus sylvatica; Lichens; Picea abies.
33773Boluda C.G., Rico V.J., Naciri Y., Hawksworth D.L. & Scheidegger C. (2021): Phylogeographic reconstructions can be biased by ancestral shared alleles: The case of the polymorphic lichen Bryoria fuscescens in Europe and North Africa. - Molecular Ecology, 30(19): 4845–4865. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.16078.
Large phylogeographic studies on lichens are scarce, and none involves a single species within which different lineages show fixed alternative dispersal strategies. We investigated Bryoria fuscescens (including B. capillaris) in Europe and western North Africa by phenotypically characterizing 1400 specimens from 64 populations and genotyping them with 14 microsatellites. We studied population structure and genetic diversity at the local and continental scales, discussed the post‐glacial phylogeography, and compared dispersal capacities of phenotypes with and without soralia. Our main hypothesis is that the estimated phylogeography, migration routes, and dispersal capacities may be strongly biased by ancestral shared alleles. Scandinavia is genetically the richest area, followed by the Iberian Peninsula, the Carpathians, and the Alps. Three gene pools were detected: two partially linked to phenotypic characteristics, and the third one genetically related to the American sister species B. pseudofuscescens. The comparison of one gene pool producing soredia and one not, suggested both as panmictic, with similar levels of isolation by distance (IBD). The migration routes were estimated to span from north to south, in disagreement with the assessed glacial refugia. The presence of ancestral shared alleles in distant populations can explain the similar IBD levels found in both gene pools while producing a false signal of panmixia, and also biasing the phylogeographic reconstruction. The incomplete lineage sorting recorded for DNA sequence loci also supports this hypothesis. Consequently, the high diversity in Scandinavia may rather come from recent immigration into northern populations than from an in situ diversification. Similar patterns of ancestral shared polymorphism may bias the phylogeographical reconstruction of other lichen species. Keywords: Parmeliaceae; bioindicator; climate change; lichen ecology; lichenicolous; soredia; speciation.
33772Thiyagaraja V., Lücking R., Ertz D., Coppins B.J., Wanasinghe D.N., Karunarathna S.C., Suwannarach N., To-Anun C., Cheewangkoon R. & Hyde K.D. (2021): Sequencing of the type species of Arthopyrenia places Arthopyreniaceae as a synonym of Trypetheliaceae. - Mycosphere, 12(1): 993–1011. https://www.friscris.be/files/2705041/Thiyagaraja_EA_2021_Arthopyrenia.pdf.
Arthopyrenia sensu lato comprises lichenicolous, lichenized and non-lichenized saprotrophic species; however, the lifestyle of several taxa as either lichenized or saprotrophic remains unclear. The systematic position of the genus was so far unresolved: while sequenced species appeared in different clades within Dothideomycetes, the type species, A. cerasi, had no molecular data so far. In lieu of sequence data, the family Arthopyreniaceae was assigned to Pleosporales, whereas tropical, lichenized species were reclassified in Constrictolumina and Macroconstrictolumina, shown to belong in Trypetheliaceae (Trypetheliales). In this study, the generic type, A. cerasi, has been sequenced for the first time. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses using mtSSU and nuLSU sequences recovered Arthopyrenia sensu stricto as an early diverging lineage within Trypetheliaceae, separate from Constrictolumina and Macroconstrictolumina but in the same clade as the temperate, non-lichenized Julella fallaciosa. Therefore, Arthopyreniaceae is here synonymized under Trypetheliaceae and the taxonomic placement of its type species is discussed based on morphological and phylogenetic evidence. Our phylogenetic results further support the polyphyly of non-lichenized, temperate species of Arthopyrenia and Julella sensu lato. Consequently, Julella fallaciosa is transferred to Arthopyrenia and its close relationship with A. cerasi is discussed. We also conducted ancestor character state analysis to reconstruct lifestyle changes within Trypetheliales using Bayes Traits and Bayesian Binary MCMC approaches. Keywords – ancestral character state analyses – Julella – lifestyles – non-lichens – phylogeny – taxonomy.
33771Costas S.M., Canton N. & Rodríguez J.M. (2021): The relative effect of altitude and aspect on saxicolous lichen communities at mountain summits from central-west of Argentina. - Rodriguésia, 72: e00282020. 2021 [11 p.]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2175-7860202172064.
The altitudinal patterns of lichen communities in altitudinal gradients are very variable. The changes that occur along the mountains depend on climatic factors but also on microsite variables such as substrate type and aspect. The effect of altitude and aspect on richness, cover and composition of saxicolous lichens communities along an elevation gradient in extra Andean mountains from the central-west of Argentina was studied. Rock outcrops on the north and south aspect of three mountain summits distributed between 2,500 and 4,500 m.a.s.l. were sampled. Lichen species present in a 20 × 20 cm square were identified and the relative cover was measured using digital photography. Richness, cover and composition were analyzed through linear models and multivariate analysis. Fifty-eight saxicolous lichen species were identified between the three sites. Richness and cover were maximum at middle altitude. Also compositional differences among communities of each mountain summit were found. Finally, the effect of the aspect was significant at lower altitudes for cover and composition. Key words: diversity, elevation gradient, lichenized fungi, microsite, species composition.
33770Rodríguez M.P. & Michlig A. (2021): Macrolichens from Chaco National Park (Chaco Province, Argentina). - Rodriguésia, 72: e00692019. 2021 [13 p.]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2175-7860202172067.
A study of the macrolichens diversity from Chaco National Park was conducted. Thirty-six species were identified, three of which are recorded for the first time from Argentina (Dirinaria melanocapa, Pyxine petricola var. convexula, and P. pungens). Moreover, the distribution of 27 species in the country is extended, including new records for Chaco province and, additionally, for other provinces of the region. An identification key for species is here provided and the geographic distribution of each one in Argentina was revised. Key words: diversity; lichenized ascomycetes; protected area.
33769Grzesiak J., Woltyńska A., Zdanowski M.K., Górniak D., Świątecki A., Olech M.A. & Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk T. (2021): Metabolic fingerprinting of the Antarctic cyanolichen Leptogium puberulum–associated bacterial community (Western Shore of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica). - Microbial Ecology, 82: 818–829. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-021-01701-2.
Lichens are presently regarded as stable biotopes, small ecosystems providing a safe haven for the development of a diverse and numerous microbiome. In this study, we conducted a functional diversity assessment of the microbial community residing on the surface and within the thalli of Leptogium puberulum, a eurytopic cyanolichen endemic to Antarctica, employing the widely used Biolog EcoPlates which test the catabolism of 31 carbon compounds in a colorimetric respiration assay. Lichen thalli occupying moraine ridges of differing age within a proglacial chronosequence, as well as those growing in sites of contrasting nutrient concentrations, were procured from the diverse landscape of the western shore of Admiralty Bay in Maritime Antarctica. The L. puberulum bacterial community catabolized photobiont- (glucose-containing carbohydrates) and mycobiont-specific carbon compounds (D-Mannitol). The bacteria also had the ability to process degradation products of lichen thalli components (Dcellobiose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine). Lichen thalli growth site characteristics had an impact on metabolic diversity and respiration intensity of the bacterial communities. While high nutrient contents in lichen specimens from “young” proglacial locations and in those from nitrogen enriched sites stimulated bacterial catabolic activity, in old proglacial locations and in nutrient-lacking sites, a metabolic activity restriction was apparent, presumably due to lichen-specific microbial control mechanisms. Keywords: EcoPlates . Microbiome . Symbiosis . Metabolism . Bacteria . Lichens.
33768Galanty A., Węgrzyn M., Wietrzyk-Pełka P., Fołta M., Krośniak M., Podolak I. & Zagrodzki P. (2021): Quantitative variations of usnic acid and selected elements in terricolous lichen Cladonia mitis Sandst., with respect to different environmental factors – A chemometric approach. - Phytochemistry, 192: 112948 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2021.112948.
In the present study, quantitative analysis of usnic acid and the selected elements (Ag, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in samples of Cladonia mitis thalli collected along a North-Central Europe transect, was performed. Additionally, we analysed geographical and environmental factors that could potentially influence the levels of the analytes. With the constructed partial least square (PLS) chemometric model we aimed to establish the relationships between the analysed factors. Our study is the first to provide comparative quantitative data on usnic acid in C. mitis. We proved this lichen species is a rich source of usnic acid (4.52 ± 0.54–21.58 ± 2.23 mg/g dry wt). Significant differences in usnic acid content between samples collected in the open and forest areas were noted, with the predominance of the former (mean 17.4 ± 2.8 and 8.8 ± 2.3 mg/g dry wt, respectively). Our results supported the hypothesis on the relationship between usnic acid and selected heavy metals content in lichens, as the positive correlation of the compound was noted with Pb. Our PLS model indicated also a positive correlation between usnic acid and Cr content, which was reported for the first time. Keywords: Cladonia mitis Sandst.; Cladoniaceae; Quantitative analysis; Chemometric analysis; Usnic acid; Trace elements; Environmental factors.
33767Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2021): Находки новых и редких видов лишайников и лихенофильных грибов в Мурманской области [Findings of species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi new and rare for the Murmansk region]. - Труды Карельского научного центра РАН, Серия "Биология", Петрозаводск [Proceedings of the Karelian Research Centre of Russian Academy of Science, ser. Biology, Petrozavodsk], 8: 61–69. DOI: 10.17076/bg1340.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Based on field research in the Murmansk Region in the past two years, twenty lichen species (Acolium karelicum, Bacidina inundata, Biatora chrysantha, B. efflorescens, Bryoria glabra, Hymenelia rhodopis, Lecanora albellula, L. anopta, L. cadubriae, Lecidea albohyalina, Lepraria elobata, L. jackii, Micarea melaena, M. misella, Rhexophiale rhexoblephara, Thelidium submethorium, Verrucaria hydrela, Xylographa pallens, X. trunciseda, Xylopsora caradocensis) and three lichenicolous fungi (Dactylospora deminuta, Homostegia piggotii, Raesaenenia huuskonenii) are reported as new to the biogeographic provinces Lapponia Tulomensis, Lapponia Imandrae, and Kuusamo. Three species – Homostegia piggotii, Thelidium submethorium, and Xylographa trunciseda are reported for the Murmansk Region for the first time. The globally rare hydrophilic lichen Thelidium submethorium was found on the southern shore of Lake Kuolajärvi (Kuusamo) on willow branches submerged in water. This is second finding of this species in Russia and the third in Northern Europe. Xylographa trunciseda was found on pine wood in the nature-monument area of regional significance “Pines at the northern limit of the distribution range” (Lapponia Tulomensis). Lichenicolous fungus Homostegia piggotii was recorded on Rakhmoiva Mountain (Kuusamo). The new records for the lichen Bryoria glabra in the vicinity of Polyarnye Zori town and the lichenicolous fungus Raesaenenia huuskonenii from Isokumpu locality, situated to the west of the Alakurtti settlement, represent their second detections in the Murmansk Region. Fifteen new species were found in the biogeographic province of Kuusamo, four species – in Lapponia Tulomensis, and two species – in Lapponia Imandrae. The species Lepraria jackii is new to the lichen flora of the Lapland Nature Reserve. Information about the localities, ecology and collection dates is presented for all the said species. The distribution of these species in the Murmansk Region and in adjacent territories is outlined.
33766Klein J., Low M., Thor G., Sjögren J., Lindberg E. & Eggers S. (2021): Tree species identity and composition shape the epiphytic lichen community of structurally simple boreal forests over vast areas. - PLoS ONE, 16(9): e0257564 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0257564.
Greatly simplified ecosystems are often neglected for biodiversity studies. However, these simplified systems dominate in many regions of the world, and a lack of understanding of what shapes species occurrence in these systems can have consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services at a massive scale. In Fennoscandia, ~90% of the boreal forest (~21Mha) is structurally simplified with little knowledge of how forest structural elements shape the occurrence and diversity of for example epiphytic lichens in these managed forests. One form of structural simplification is the reduction of the number and frequency of different tree species. As many lichen species have host tree preferences, it is particularly likely that this simplification has a huge effect on the lichen community in managed forests. In a 40–70 years old boreal forest in Sweden, we therefore related the occurrence and richness of all observed epiphytic lichens to the host tree species and beta and gamma lichen diversity at the forest stand level to the stand’s tree species composition and stem diameter. Picea abies hosted the highest lichen richness followed by Pinus sylvestris, Quercus robur, Alnus glutinosa, Betula spp., and Populus tremula. However, P. tremula hosted twice as many uncommon species as any of the other tree species. Stand level beta and gamma diversity was twice as high on stands with four compared to one tree species, and was highest when either coniferous or deciduous trees made up 40–50% of the trees. The stem diameter was positively related to lichen richness at the tree and stand level, but negatively to beta diversity. For biodiversity, these findings imply that leaving a few trees of a different species during forest thinning is unlikely as effective as combining life-boat trees for endangered species with an even tree species mixture.
33765Richardson G., Leblanc S.G., Lovitt J., Rajaratnam K. & Chen W. (2021): Leveraging AI to estimate caribou lichen in UAV orthomosaics from ground photo datasets. - Drones, 5(3): 99 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/drones5030099.
Relating ground photographs to UAV orthomosaics is a key linkage required for accurate multi-scaled lichen mapping. Conventional methods of multi-scaled lichen mapping, such as random forest models and convolutional neural networks, heavily rely on pixel DN values for classification. However, the limited spectral range of ground photos requires additional characteristics to differentiate lichen from spectrally similar objects, such as bright logs. By applying a neural network to tiles of a UAV orthomosaics, additional characteristics, such as surface texture and spatial patterns, can be used for inferences. Our methodology used a neural network (UAV LiCNN) trained on ground photo mosaics to predict lichen in UAV orthomosaic tiles. The UAV LiCNN achieved mean user and producer accuracies of 85.84% and 92.93%, respectively, in the high lichen class across eight different orthomosaics. We compared the known lichen percentages found in 77 vegetation microplots with the predicted lichen percentage calculated from the UAV LiCNN, resulting in a R2 relationship of 0.6910. This research shows that AI models trained on ground photographs effectively classify lichen in UAV orthomosaics. Limiting factors include the misclassification of spectrally similar objects to lichen in the RGB bands and dark shadows cast by vegetation. Keywords: image classification; lichen mapping; orthomosaics; artificial intelligence; UAV.
33764Magnusson A.H. (1930): New or interesting Swedish lichens VI. - Botaniska Notiser, 1930(5): 459–476. .
33763Magnusson A.H. (1924): New or interesting Swedish lichens II. - Botaniska Notiser, 1924(4): 377–391. .
33762Magnusson A.H. (1923): New or interesting Swedish lichens I. - Botaniska Notiser, 1923(5): 401–416. .
33761Яцына А.П., Гигиняк Ю.Г., Бородин O.И., Андреев М.П., Лукашанец Д.А. & Гайдашов А.А. [Yatsyna А.P., Hihiniak Yu.H., Borodin О.I., Andreev М.P., Lukashanets Dz.А. & Gaidashov А.А.] (2021): Антарктические сборы лишайников в гербарии Института экспериментальной ботаники им. В. Ф. Купревича Национальной академии наук Беларуси [Antarctic collection of lichens in the herbarium of V. F. Kuprevich Institute of experimental botany of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus]. - Природные Ресурсы [Natural Resources], 1/2021: 68–75. .
[in Russian with English abstract: ] As a result of the revision of the MSK-L collection, lichens of 11 localities of maritime and continental Antarctic, diverse in species composition, were revealed. The collection includes three ecological groups of lichens. The material for this article was the lichen samples stored in the MSK-L collection in the amount of about 600 herbarium packages collected during 1 CAE, 5 SAE, 63 Russian Antarctic expeditions and 2, 3, 4, 6, 11, 12 Belarusian Antarctic expeditions. 82 species of lichens from 54 genera were identified. Most of the identified species were found in maritime Antarctic. 16 species of lichens were common to maritime and continental Antarctic. Most of the species are classified as bipolar lichens. Thin layer chromatography of genus Lepraria lichens was carried out. It has been shown that usnic acid and zeorin are present only in the Antarctic endemic L. straminea. Keywords: Antarctica, collection, lichens, thin layer chromatography, taxonomy.
33760Blanco-Sacristán J., Panigada C., Gentili R., Tagliabue G., Garzonio R., Martín M.P., Ladron de Guevara M., Colombo R., Dowling T.P.F. & Rossini M. (2021): UAV RGB, thermal infrared and multispectral imagery used to investigate the control of terrain on the spatial distribution of dryland biocrust. - Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 46: 2466–2484. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.5189.
Biocrusts (topsoil communities formed by mosses, lichens, bacteria, fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria) are a key biotic component of dryland ecosystems. Whilst climate patterns control the distribution of biocrusts in drylands worldwide, terrain and soil attributes can influence biocrust distribution at landscape scale. Multi‐source unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery was used to map and study biocrust ecology in a typical dryland ecosystem in central Spain. Red, green and blue (RGB) imagery was processed using structure‐from‐motion techniques to map terrain attributes related to microclimate and terrain stability. Multispectral imagery was used to produce accurate maps (accuracy > 80%) of dryland ecosystem components (vegetation, bare soil and biocrust composition). Finally, thermal infrared (TIR) and multispectral imagery was used to calculate the apparent thermal inertia (ATI) of soil and to evaluate how ATI was related to soil moisture (r 2 = 0.83). The relationship between soil properties and UAV‐derived variables was first evaluated at the field plot level. Then, the maps obtained were used to explore the relationship between biocrusts and terrain attributes at ecosystem level through a redundancy analysis. The most significant variables that explain biocrust distribution are: ATI (34.4% of variance, F = 130.75; p < 0.001), Elevation (25.8%, F = 97.6; p < 0.001), and potential solar incoming radiation (PSIR) (52.9%, F = 200.1; p < 0.001). Differences were found between areas dominated by lichens and mosses. Lichen‐dominated biocrusts were associated with areas with high slopes and low values of ATI, with soil characterized by a higher amount of soluble salts, and lower amount of organic carbon, total phosphorus (Ptot) and total nitrogen (Ntot). Biocrust‐forming mosses dominated lower and moister areas, characterized by gentler slopes and higher values of ATI with soils with higher contents of organic carbon, Ptot and Ntot. This study shows the potential to use UAVs to improve our understanding of drylands and to evaluate the control that the terrain has on biocrust distribution. We used in synergy multi‐source UAV‐based imagery to map and study biocrusts’ ecology in a typical dryland ecosystem in central Spain. We processed RGB imagery by means of Structure from Motion techniques to map terrain attributes related to microclimate and terrain stability. We used thermal infrared imagery to calculate the apparent thermal inertia (ATI) of soils and to estimate how ATI was related to soil moisture. Finally, we used multispectral imagery to produce accurate maps of dryland ecosystem components (i.e., vegetation, bare soil and biocrust composition). We integrated traditional field approaches with new methodologies to explore the relationship between biocrusts and terrain attributes at landscape level. The very fine spatial resolution maps provided by UAVs were essential for a detailed description and monitoring of these complex and threatened ecosystems. Keywords: UAV; apparent inertia; biocrusts; biological soil crusts; drylands; lichen; moss; multispectral; thermal.
33759Zhou R., Yang Y., Park S.-Y., Nguyen T.T., Seo Y.-W., Lee K.H., Lee J.H., Kim K.K., Hur J.-S. & Kim H. (2021): Author Correction: The lichen secondary metabolite atranorin suppresses lung cancer cell motility and tumorigenesis. - Scientific Reports, 11: 13132 [3 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91474-y.
33758Dulamsuren C. & Hauck M. (2021): Drought stress mitigation by nitrogen in boreal forests inferred from stable isotopes. - Global Change Biology, 27: 5211–5224. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15813.
Forest growth in most parts of the boreal zone is originally limited by low temperatures and low nitrogen availability. Due to the rapid climate warming at high latitudes, an increasing forest area is switching to drought limitation, especially in continental and southern parts of the boreal forest. Studies addressing this issue were mostly dendrochronological and remote-sensing analyses focusing on climatic effects, but not answering the question whether drought is effective alone or in combination with nitrogen shortage at limiting the forests’ productivity and vitality. Here we show in a case study from larch forests of Mongolia with a combination of stable isotope analyses, tree-ring analysis and bioindication of the local variability of livestock densities using epiphytic lichens that, in the studied highly drought-prone forests at the southern fringe of the boreal forest in Inner Asia, the trees’ vulnerability to drought is modified by nitrogen fertilization from livestock kept in the vicinity and the edge of the forests. The most likely mechanism behind this drought-nitrogen interaction is the reduction of stomatal conductance, which is known to be induced by low nitrogen levels in plants. Nitrogen fertilization by the livestock could, thus, shorten the times of stomatal closure and thereby increase tree growth, which we measured as radial stem increment. Even though the underlying mechanisms, which were so far examined in angiosperms, should be experimentally tested for conifers, our results indicate that focusing on water alone is not enough to understand the climate change response of drought-limited boreal forests. Keywords: boreal forests, climate change, dendrochronology, drought limitation, nitrogen limitation, productivity, soil organic carbon, δ15N signature.
33757Roos R.E., Asplund J. & van Zuijlen K. (2021): Covered by a blanket of lichens: how mat-forming lichens affect microclimate and ecological processes. A commentary on: ‘Lichens buffer tundra microclimate more than the expanding shrub Betula nana’. - Annals of Botany, 128(4): i–iii. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcab075.
Key words: Lichen traits, Betula nana, climate change.
33756Wolski G.J., Piwowarczyk R., Plášek V., Kukwa M. & Ruraż K. (2021): Tea plantations and their importance as host plants and hot spots for epiphytic cryptogams. - Scientifc Reports, 11: 18242 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-97315-2.
Bryophytes and lichens are outstanding bioindicators, not only of the plant community in which they develop, but also the substrates on which they grow. Some epiphytic cryptogams, particularly the rare ones, are stenotopic and require a long habitat continuity, for example substrates such as old trees. It could also be a tea plantation, this is because the shrubs are not felled, and most of them may have several dozen years. In addition, the shrubs are not subject to sudden changes in microclimatic conditions as only the young leaves are harvested. As the importance of tea plantations as host plants for mosses and lichens has not yet been studied, the present study examines the species diversity of cryptogams of two tea plantations in Georgia (Caucasus). The study also examines the phytogeography, spatial pattern, environmental conditions and ecological indicators of the cryptogams. Thirty-nine cryptogam taxa were identifed; typical forest taxa dominated, even in the absence of typical forest communities. Some of these species are obligatory epiphytes, rare or even critically endangered in most European countries (e.g., Orthotrichum stellatum, O. stramineum, Lewinskya striata). The fairly abundant record of such species on tea plantations indicates the importance of these phytocoenoses for the preservation of rare species, and indicates that these habitats are hot spots for these cryptogams in otherwise changed envirnonment. Additionally, as indicated the analysis of the species composition of individual plantations and the mathematical analysis made on this basis, plantations difer from each other. Another interesting result is also the spatial distributions of cryptogams on tea bushes resemble those of forest communities and lichens seems to be more sensitive than bryophytes to antropogenic changes of environment.
33755Стороженко Ю.В., Давыдов Е.А. & Яковченко Л.С. [Storozhenko Y.V., Davydov E.A. & Yakovchenko L.S.] (2020): Первые данные о лишайниках Монгун-Тайгинского кластера заповедника Убсунурская котловина: напочвенные макролишайники [The first data on the lichens of the Mongun-Taiga cluster of the Ubsunur Hollow Biosphere Reserve: epigeic macrolichens]. - Проблемы ботаники Южной Сибири и Монголии [Problems of Botany of South Siberia and Mongolia], 19(1): 174–178. https://doi.org/10.14258/pbssm.2020035.
[in Russian with English summary: ] 34 species of soil macrolichensare reported for the first time for Ubsunur Hollow Biosphere Reserve. The species belong to 15 genera and 6 families. Most of them are representatives of Parmeliaceae and the lichen genera Peltigera, Cladonia, Stereocaulon, and Cetraria. All studied species inhabit soil; some species also mosses, or plant debris in addition. The studied species are characterized by fruticose (19 species) and foliose (15) growth form. The majority of the marcolichens have been found in mountain tundras, alpine meadows and sparse larch forests. Key words. Altai Mts., biodiversity, lichenized fungus, specially protected natural area, substrate ecology.
33754Зятнина М.В., Яковченко Л.С. & Давыдов Е.А. [Zyatnina M.V., Yakovchenko L.S. & Davydov E.A.] (2020): Материалы к лихенобиоте Сайлюгемского национального парка [Materials to the lichen biota of the Sailugemsky National Park]. - Проблемы ботаники Южной Сибири и Монголии [Problems of Botany of South Siberia and Mongolia], 19(1): 124–128. https://doi.org/10.14258/pbssm.2020025.
[in Russian with English summary: ] Thirty three lichen species from 24 genera and 12 families are listed for the first time for the Sailugemsky National Park. Lichen families Parmeliaceae (12 species), Teloschistaceae (4), Peltigeraceae (3), and Physciaceae (3) comprise a majority of the species. The studied lichens are characterized by various growth forms. Only three squamulose species represent the true epigeic lichens. 16 macrolichens (13 fruticose and 3 foliose) are hemiepigeic. The group on plant debris is represented by 13 microlichens (9 crustose and 4 squamulose). Among them, 5 species were found, usually inhabit bark of trees. In the studied area, they grow on the limit of their ecological capabilities. Key words: Altai Mts., biodiversity, lichenized fungus, specially protected natural area, substrate ecology.
33753Давыдов Е.А., Яковченко Л.С., Хрусталева И.А. & Елесова Н.В. [Davydov E.A., Yakovchenko L.S., Khrustaleva I.A. & Elesova N.V.] (2020): Экологические особенности и плотность популяций охраняемых лишайников в лесах с участием ели, пихты и сосны сибирской на Салаирском кряже (Алтайский край) [Ecological features and population density of protected lichens in forests with spruce, fir and siberian pine on the Salair ridge (Altai territory)]. - Проблемы ботаники Южной Сибири и Монголии [Problems of Botany of South Siberia and Mongolia], 19(2): 275–280. https://doi.org/10.14258/pbssm.2020118.
[in Russian with English summary: ] For a comprehensive assessment of the habitats of rare and vulnerable lichen species, 4 key sites in the Eltsovsky, Togulsky and Zarinsky districts of the Altai territory were studied. Plant communities – spruce forests, forests with spruce and cedar pine, as well as fir and aspen forests were described. Seven species of lichens listed in the Red data book of the Altai territory (2016) were found in the studied forests: Graphis scripta, Lobaria pulmonaria, Nephroma bellum, Ramalina roesleri, R. sinensis, R. vogulica, and Usnea longissima. Ecological preferences are indicated for each species, and the population density is calculated. Key words. Biodiversity, biologically valuable forests, lichenized fungus, monitoring the state of populations, population structure, red data book.
33752Круглова Е.П., Пауков А.Г., Тептина А.Ю. & Ширяева А.С. [Kruglova E.P., Paukov A.G., Teptina A.Yu. & Shiryaeva A.S.] (2020): Ржавоокрашенные представители рода Circinaria Link. (лихенизированные аскомицеты) в аридных сообществах Богдинско-Баскунчакского заповедника [Rusty-colored representatives of genus Circinaria Link. (lichenized ascomycetes) in arid habitats of Bogdinsko-Baskunchakskiy nature reserve]. - Проблемы ботаники Южной Сибири и Монголии [Problems of Botany of South Siberia and Mongolia], 19(2): 249–251. https://doi.org/10.14258/pbssm.2020113 .
[in Russian with English summary: ] Diversity of Aspicilia desertorum s. l. was studied in Bogdinsko-Baskunchakskiy reserve (Astrakhan region, Russia). The group comprises eight species in the region. Six of them include specimens with rusty-colored thalli. We found that trivalent iron in the cortex of the studied species is not a taxonomic character but has a connection with chemistry of the substrate and may act as a sun-screen, decreasing levels of UV-B reaching the photobiont. Key words: Aspicilia desertorum, iron accumulation, Megasporaceae, species delimitation, taxonomy.
33751Аристархова Е.А. & Суслова Е.Г. [Aristarkhova E.A. & Suslova E.G.] (2020): Редкие эпифитные лишайники в растительных сообществах нарушенных территорий и их применение в биоиндикации на примере Московской области [Rare epiphytic lichens in phytocenoses of anthropogenic disturbed territories and their application in bioindication (Moscow region)]. - Проблемы ботаники Южной Сибири и Монголии [Problems of Botany of South Siberia and Mongolia], 19(2): 177–183. https://doi.org/10.14258/pbssm.2020098 .
[in Russian with English summary: ] The article analyzes the ecology and distribution of species of genera: Bryoria Brodo et D. Hawksw., Ramalina Ach., Usnea Dill. ex Adans., found in Moscow region and listed in the red book of the region (2018). It is based on literature materials and monitoring data that we conducted as part of the «Verkhovye» Nature protection Fund in 2010– 2019. In the period from 1906 to 1995, a greater number of Ramalina species were cited for Moscow region than at present, some of the finds of Usnea species were made on the outskirts of Moscow and in the near Moscow region, meanwhile the distribution of genus Bryoria was not studied. Currently, the most favorable conditions for the development of lichens are formed in the North, West and North-West of the Moscow region, where the largest number of finds of various species with maximum abundance is noted. In the South-east, their settlement is probably hindered by dust, increased dryness of the air and the presence of harmful compounds in the atmosphere. In their distribution, lichens prefer intact habitats with high humidity and minimal air pollution: large fragments of preserved protected old-growth forests (spruce and sprucesmall- leaved), swampy forests and forest swamps. For the most common species with a high abundance (Bryoria fuscescens (Gyeln.) Brodo et D. Hawksw. and B. capillaris (Ach.) Brodo et D. Hawksw., Usnea hirta (L.) Weber ex F. H. Wigg.), it is possible to track the dynamics of changes in the environment. The rarest species are recommended to keep category 1–2 in the Red book of the Moscow region (Bryoria nadvornikiana (Gyeln.) Brodo et D. Hawksw., B. vrangiana (Gyeln.) Brodo et D. Hawksw., B. osteola (Gyeln.) Brodo et D. Hawksw., Usnea lapponica Vain.). Key words. Bioindication, distribution maps, epiphytic lichens, rare species, Red book of the Moscow region.
33750Хрусталева И.А., Давыдов Е.А., Елесова Н.В. & Яковченко Л.С. [Khrustaleva I.A., Davydov E.A., Elesova N.V. & Yakovchenko L.S.] (2020): Лесные сообщества Салаирского кряжа как места обитания охраняемых видов лишайников [Forest communities of the Salair ridge as habitats of protected lichen species]. - Проблемы ботаники Южной Сибири и Монголии [Problems of Botany of South Siberia and Mongolia], 19(2): 386–393. DOI: 10.14258/pbssm.2020140. URL: http://journal.asu.ru/bpssm/article/view/pbssm.2020140.
[in Russian with English summary: ] For a comprehensive assessment of the habitats of rare and vulnerable lichen species, four key sites in the Eltsovsky, Togulsky and Zarinsky districts of the Altai territory were studied, which described plant communities – spruce forests, forests with spruce and cedar pine, as well as fir-aspen forests. In total, 20 geobotanical descriptions were performed, each with an area of 400 sq. m; the vertical and horizontal structure and composition of species were described. Fir-aspen forests and their derivatives are distributed along the peaks and slopes and are dominant in the axial part of the ridge. They are significantly disrupted by logging. Spruce forests occupy low relief elements – river valleys, small in area. Despite the good development of spruce trees in these forests, they do not have any significant economic significance, as they are located in hard-to-reach places, often swampy. However, they can also be transformed as a result of fires. The main threat to their existence is the process of gold mining in the valleys of small rivers, which destroys not only spruce forests, but also the entire complex of environmental conditions necessary for their existence. Five species of lichens listed in the Red data book of the Altai territory were found in the studied forests. Key words. Biodiversity, biologically valuable forests, lichenized fungus, monitoring the state of populations, population structure, Red data book, spruce.
33749Olech M. & Alstrup V. (1996): Dactylospora dobrowolskii sp. nov. and additions to the flora of lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Bunger Oasis, East Antarctica. - Polish Polar Research, 17: 165–168. https://journals.pan.pl/Content/110963/PDF/1996-3-4_165-168.pdf.
A lichenicolous fungus, Dactylospora dobrowolskii Olech et Alstrup, new to science is described. The paper reports on 9 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi collected in the Bunger Oasis (East Antarctica). Key words: Antarctic, Bunger Oasis, lichens, lichenicolous fungi, taxonomy, distribution, Dactylospora dobrowolskii sp. nov.
33748Zaady E., Stavi I. & Yizhaq H. (2021): Hillslope geodiversity effects on properties and composition of biological soil crusts in drylands. - European Journal of Soil Science, 72: 2308–2315. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.13097.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) play important roles in ecosystem functioning and are considered ecosystem engineers: stabilizing the soil surface, preventing soil erosion, changing soil surface hydrology, and enriching the soil with carbon and nitrogen. The link between geodiversity and biodiversity incorporates physical aspects from geology, geomorphology and pedology. We aimed to assess the effects of hillslope geodiversity on the cover, composition and biophysiological properties of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) in a dryland ecosystem. The geodiversity of the hillslope is determined by the stone cover on the ground surface, the content, stones in the soil profile, and the soil depth. It is known from the scientific literature that geodiversity affects biodiversity; thus, we hypothesized that the hillslope type may affect biocrust properties that develop on these hillslopes. The results indicate that the mean covers of biocrust types in the homogeneous (low geodiversity) hillslopes were 60.6% cyanobacterial crusts and 39.4% biocrusts composed of cyanobacteria, moss and lichens, whereas those of the heterogeneous (high geodiversity) hillslopes were 81.6% cyanobacterial crusts and 18.4% biocrusts composed of cyanobacteria, moss and lichens. It was concluded that geodiversity enhances the growth of biocrust species that require higher soil moisture. The results imply that wherever restoration activities are planned, and especially in drylands, the geodiversity of the area should be taken into account. Highlights: Geodiversity expressed by the degree of stoniness impacts ecosystem functioning and soil properties. Geodiversity impacts the biocrust's cover and composition. Geodiversity enhances the growth of biocrusts that require high soil moisture. Chlorophyll a, b and a + b in biocrusts are increased in heterogeneous hillslopes. Keywords: biocrust composition, bio-geodiversity, chlorophyll, dryland ecosystems.
33747Paz-Bermúdez G., Calvino-Cancela M., López de Silanes M.E. & Prieto B. (2021): Lichen saxicolous communities on granite churches in Galicia (NW Spain) as affected by the conditions of north and south orientations. - Bryologist, 124(3): 414–428. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.3.461.
Lichens constitute the largest organisms among the stone colonisers. Several studies have shown that lichen species and their traits respond to environmental changes, but none of them focused on saxicolous communities. Five granite Galician churches were studied to characterize the lichen saxicolous communities established in the four façades. In four of the churches two climatic stations were placed, on the N and the S façades. Sampling was also more systematic on N and S walls, as these tend to show the most extreme microclimatic characteristics: relatively cool and humid in the N vs. warm and dry in the S. We aimed at identifying the species and traits associated with these conditions, so as to predict the possible evolution over time in these communities in the prospect of further climate warming in the future. Climatic data were subjected to two-way analyses of variance (ANOVA). We computed species accumulation curves and species richness estimators with EstimateS, analysed the effect of the church, the aspect (N vs. S) and the position of sampling squares on the number of lichen species and on lichen abundance, and community composition in terms of species and lichen traits. Richness analysis showed that only orientation had a significant effect on the number of species present on the walls. Lichen cover was always higher in the N, but the difference was not significant, and only the church factor had a significant effect. Taxa characterizing the N façades were the two varieties of Haematomma ochroleucum, Ochrolechia parella, together with the lichen species with Trentepohlia as photobiont. On the S façades, the characteristic species were Candelariella vitellina and Lepra leucosora; there was a higher diversity of biotype, size and color; with a total absence of sorediate species or with Trentepohlia as photobiont. There was a clear difference between the lichen species requirements in sunlight and aridity on the N and S façades. We hypothesize that a warmer and more arid climate may result in an expansion of the S-dominant lichen species and/or lichen traits to the detriment of those N-dominant. Keywords: Lichen traits, cultural heritage, siliceous rocks, Europe, global warming.
33746Lendemer J.C. (2021): Recent literature on lichens—262. - Bryologist, 124(3): 461–466. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.3.461.
33745Cannon P., Fryday A., Spribille T., Coppins B., Vondrák J., Sanderson N. & Simkin J. (2021): Baeomycetales: Xylographaceae, including the genera Lambiella, Lithographa, Ptychographa and Xylographa. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 17: 1–11. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Xylographaceae.pdf.
33744Zahlbruckner A. (1928): Die Gattung Lecanora. - Report of the Scientific Results of the Norwegian Expedition to Novaya Zemlya 1921, 44: 1–32, tab. .
33743Zahlbruckner A. (1943): Flechtenflora von Java. [Teil 1]. Ergänzt und herausgegeben von F. Mattick, Berlin-Dahlem. - Feddes Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis, Beiheft 127: 1–80. .
33742Coleine C. & Selbmann L. (2021): Black fungi inhabiting rock surfaces. In: Büdel, B. & Friedl, T. (eds.), Life at rock surfaces: Challenged by extreme light, temperature and hydration fluctuations. - Berlin, Boston: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, pp. 57–86. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110646467-003.
The fungal kingdom includes millions of species [1], ranging from yeast to mushrooms, and represents one of the most diverse and ancient branches of the tree of life, being critical in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Based on current knowledge, nineteen phylum‐level clades can be defined, as reported by Wijayawardene et al. [2]. Fungi have a worldwide distribution because of their small size and their cryptic lifestyle in soil, and decomposing matter, as symbionts with algae, bryophyte, plants, and animals [3, 4]. They are found in every biome such as polar, temperate, and tro- pical environments, as well in the bottom of the Dead Sea, where they play an essen- tial role in global geological processes, namely, “geomycology,” including organic and inorganic transformations and element cycling, bioweathering, and mycogenic mineral formation [5]. Fungi are highly resilient and capable of successfully occupy- ing extreme environments. In contrast to the majority of fungi, which live more or less comfortably inside of hosts or substrates, black fungal lineages have evolved and adapted to thrive on bare naked rock surfaces in nutrient-deprived conditions and excessive radiation, among other challenging stressors. The phenotypes of these commonly called “black fungi” have evolved in different highly adapted and specialized lineages of ascomycetes; they are phylogenetically more diverse than previously thought and primarily belong to the classes Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Arthoniomycetes. This chapter will first provide an overview of the current understanding or RIF. We will then describe the diversity, taxonomy, occurrence, and ecology of black fungi colonizing both worldwide natural rocks and stone monuments, with a particu- lar focus on insights into the whole-genome sequencing approach. We will finally explore the future perspectives, including the biotechnological, bioremediation, and radioprotection potential
33741Bowker M.A., Rengifo‐Faiffer M.C., Antoninka A.J., Grover H.S., Coe K.K., Fisher K., Mishler B.D., Oliver M. & Stark L.R. (2021): Community composition influences ecosystem resistance and production more than species richness or intraspecific diversity. - Oikos, 130(8): 1399–1410. https://doi.org/10.1111/oik.08473.
Biodiversity describes the variety of life and may influence properties and processes of ecosystems, such as biomass production and resistance to disturbance. We investigated the effects of multiple facets of biodiversity – species richness and composition of the community, and intraspecific diversity in two key species – on both production and resistance of experimentally‐assembled biological soil crusts (biocrusts). We found that productivity was most strongly influenced by community composition (variation in the presence and relative proportions of community members), and weakly positively influenced by species richness. Intraspecific diversity, encompassing both the richness and composition of clones, had a neutral effect on community productivity within one focal species (Syntrichia caninervis), but a moderately negative effect on productivity within the other focal species (S. ruralis). Resistance was also most strongly influenced by community composition, although different sets of species contributed most to resistance and production. Resistance was not affected by either species richness or intraspecific diversity in either focal species. Our findings supported our general expectation that community‐level facets of biodiversity would be more influential than intraspecific diversity within a species because trait variability among species is usually greater than that within. These results also indicated that although species richness is often thought to strongly affect both productivity and resistance, the presence, absence and relative abundance of particular species may be more influential to both. Simultaneous manipulation of multiple facets of biodiversity in experiments may lead to a more complete understanding of the variety of ways in which biodiversity may regulate ecological systems. Keywords: biocrust; biodiversity; biological soil crust; ecosystem function and services; ecosystem stability; intraspecific diversity; lichen; moss; species richness.
33740Singh G., Calchera A., Schulz M., Drechsler M., Bode H.B., Schmitt I. & Dal Grande F. (2021): Climate‐specific biosynthetic gene clusters in populations of a lichen‐forming fungus. - Environmental Microbiology, 23(8): 4260–4275. https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15605.
Natural products can contribute to abiotic stress tolerance in plants and fungi. We hypothesize that biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), the genomic elements that underlie natural product biosynthesis, display structured differences along elevation gradients. We analysed biosynthetic gene variation in natural populations of the lichen‐forming fungus Umbilicaria pustulata. We collected a total of 600 individuals from the Mediterranean and cold‐temperate climates. Population genomic analyses indicate that U. pustulata contains three clusters that are highly differentiated between the Mediterranean and cold‐temperate populations. One entire cluster is exclusively present in cold‐temperate populations, and a second cluster is putatively dysfunctional in all cold‐temperate populations. In the third cluster variation is fixed in all cold‐temperate populations due to hitchhiking. In these two clusters the presence of consistent allele frequency differences among replicate populations/gradients suggests that selection rather than drift is driving the pattern. We advocate that the landscape of fungal biosynthetic genes is shaped by both positive and hitchhiking selection. We demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of climate‐associated BGCs and BGC variations in lichen‐forming fungi. While the associated secondary metabolites of the candidate clusters are presently unknown, our study paves the way for targeted discovery of natural products with ecological significance.
33739Keepers K.G., Pogoda C.S., Lendemer J.C., Kane N.C. & Manzitto‐Tripp E.A. (2021): Author response to Tagirdzhanova et al. (2021): “Lichen fungi do not depend on alga for ATP production: A comment on Pogoda et al. (2018)”. - Molecular Ecology, 30(17): 4160–4161. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.16053.
33738Tagirdzhanova G., McCutcheon J.P. & Spribille T. (2021): Lichen fungi do not depend on the alga for ATP production: A comment on Pogoda et al. (2018). - Molecular Ecology, 30(17): 4155–4159. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.16010.
Lichen fungi live in a symbiotic association with unicellular phototrophs and most have no known aposymbiotic stage. A recent study in Molecular Ecology postulated that some of them have lost mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and rely on their algal partners for ATP. This claim originated from an apparent lack of ATP9, a gene encoding one subunit of ATP synthase, from a few mitochondrial genomes. Here, we show that while these fungi indeed have lost the mitochondrial ATP9, each retain a nuclear copy of this gene. Our analysis reaffirms that lichen fungi produce their own ATP. Keywords: ATP synthase, ATP9, gene loss, mitochondrial genome, symbiosis.
33737Groner U. (2010): Flechtenreichtum auf einem Wildschutzzaun im Gebiet der Stadt Zürich. - Vierteljahrsschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zürich, 155(3/4): 51–56. .
During an inventory on the wooden posts of a deer fence in the southwestern part of the City of Zurich, no less than 56 lichen species and 3 species of non- lichenized fungi were recorded, of which Lecidea huxariensis is new to Switzerland. However, the fence posts host mainly epiphytic taxa; the low number of lignicolous species is most probably due to the lack of lichen-inhabited dead wood in the neighbourhood. The deer fence as well as other lichen habitats and localities in Zurich with a similarly rich species diver- sity are valuable and must be preserved. Biodiversity, Lichen flora, Lignicolous species, Non-lichenized fungi
33736Galanty A., Popiół J., Paczkowska-Walendowska M., Studzińska-Sroka E., Paśko P., Cielecka-Piontek J., Pękala E. & Podolak I. (2021): (+)-Usnic acid as a promising candidate for a safe and stable topical photoprotective agent. - Molecules, 26(17): 5224 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26175224.
The study aimed to examine whether usnic acid—a lichen compound with UV-absorbing properties—can be considered as a prospective photoprotective agent in cosmetic products. Moreover, a comparison of two usnic acid enantiomers was performed to preselect the more effective compound. To meet this aim, an in vitro model was created, comprising the determination of skin-penetrating properties via skin-PAMPA assay, safety assessment to normal human skin cells (keratinocytes, melanocytes, fibroblasts), and examination of photostability and photoprotective properties. Both enantiomers revealed comparable good skin-penetrating properties. Left-handed usnic acid was slightly more toxic to keratinocytes (IC50 80.82 and 40.12 µg/mL, after 48 and 72 h, respectively) than its right-handed counterpart. The latter enantiomer, in a cosmetic formulation, was characterized by good photoprotective properties and photostability, comparable to the UV filter octocrylene. Perhaps most interestingly, (+)-usnic acid combined with octocrylene in one formulation revealed enhanced photoprotection and photostability. Thus, the strategy can be considered for the potential use of (+)-usnic acid as a UV filter in cosmetic products. Moreover, the proposed model may be useful for the evaluation of candidates for UV filters. Keywords: usnic acid; photoprotection; normal skin cells; octocrylene.
33735Matesanz M.C., Villa-Carvajal M., Linares J., Morante-Zarcero S., Sierra I., Barreno E., Catalá M. & Portolés M.T. (2021): Chemical characterization of the lichen-symbiont microalga Asterochloris erici and study of its cytostatic effect on the L929 murine fibrosarcoma cell Line. - Processes, 9(9):1509 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9091509.
New resources of food, pharmaceuticals or biotechnological products are needed. The huge biodiversity of aero-terrestrial lichen-symbiont microalgae belonging to the Chlorophyta group remains unexplored despite they present interesting features such as extreme stress tolerance and growth in water shortage. Appropriateness for human consumption demands the demonstration of the absence of toxic effects. In vitro biocompatibility of crude homogenates of axenic microalga Asterochloris erici, isolated from the lichen Cladonia cristatella, was analyzed after treatment of cultured L929 fibroblasts with different concentrations of microalgal homogenates. The microalgal protein content (37%) was similar to spirulina or soybean. Antioxidant capacity (10.6 ± 0.6 µmol TE/g WW) or phenolic content (7.5 ± 0.5 mg GAE/g DW) were high compared to Chlorella. The results show that crude homogenates of A. erici do not induce cytotoxicity but seem to have some cytostatic effect inducing slight cell cycle alterations and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase at the highest concentration. Carotenoid analysis demonstrates high contents of lutein (1211 µg/g microalga DW), a xanthophyll with antioxidant and cytostatic properties in vivo and high commercial added value. These findings confirm that Asterochloris erici can be suitable for the development of alimentary or pharmaceutical applications and further in vivo animal testing. The cytostatic effects should be further investigated for antitumor agents. Keywords: bioactivity; phytochemistry; cytostatic; cytotoxicity; microalga.
33734Contardo T., Gazzotti S., Ortenzi M.A., Vannini A. & Loppi S. (2021): Biological effects of air pollution on sensitive bioindicators: A case study from Milan, Italy. - Urban Science, 5(3): 64 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci5030064.
In this study, the physiological response of a sensitive lichen species (Evernia prunastri) exposed for three months in a complex urban area (Milan, Italy) was evaluated in order to verify if the air pollution abatement measures adopted over the years resulted in a suitable air quality for the survival of this sensitive species. Parameters investigated rely on the photosynthetic activity of the photobiont (Fv/Fm, PIabs, and OJIP curves), damage to mycobiont (membrane damage and antiradical activity), and the production of secondary metabolites involved in the protective functions of the organisms. Results showed that although air quality in Milan still suffers from heavy pollution from PM and NOx, the overall situation is not as severe as to induce the death of this sensitive biomonitor, at least in the short term. Nevertheless, the vital status of the samples exposed in the study area showed a significant impairment compared to that of samples exposed in a control area, indicating that the current air quality in Milan still prevents the optimal survival of E. prunastri. Keywords: lichens; secondary metabolites; ecophysiological parameters; air quality.
33733Яцына А.П. [Yatsyna A.P.] (2021): Лишайники и близкородственные грибы дубрав Петриковского района Гомельской области (Республика Беларусь) [Lichens and related fungi of oak forests of the Petrikovsky district, Gomel Region (Republic of Belarus)]. - Разнообразие растительного мира [Diversity of plant world], 2(9): 40–47. DOI: 10.22281/2686-9713-2021-2-40-47.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Based on studies of lichenbiota of oak forests of Petrikovsky district (Gomel Region, Republic of Belarus), carried out in 2021 in 10 localities, an annotated list, including 100 species of lichens and 5 species – related fungi, was compiled. Lichen Coenogonium luteum is published for the first time for Belarus; 16 species are new for the Gomel Region. Calicium adspersum, Chaenotheca chlorella, Hypotrachyna revolutа and Parmotrema stuppeum are included in the Red Data Book of Belarus and are presented for the first time for the Petrikovsky district. The indicator lichens of old-growth forests include 18 species. In all surveyed 10 localities, 31 species were noted. Keywords: biological diversity, Coenogonium luteum, new finds, indicator species, oak forests.
33732Cansaran‑Duman D., Eskiler G.G., Colak B. & Kucukkara E.S. (2021): Vulpinic acid as a natural compound inhibits the proliferation of metastatic prostate cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. - Molecular Biology Reports, 48: 6025–6034. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06605-5.
Background: Lichen secondary metabolites have drawn considerable attention in recent years due to the limitations of current treatment options. Vulpinic acid (VA) obtained from Letharia vulpina lichen species exerts a remarkable cytotoxic efect on diferent cancer types. However, the therapeutic efcacy of VA in metastatic prostate cancer (mPC) cells has not been investigated. In the present study, we aimed to identify VA-mediated cytotoxicity in PC-3 mPC cells compared with control cells. Methods and results: After identifying the cytotoxic concentrations of VA, VA induced apoptosis was analyzed by Annexin V, cell cycle, acridine orange and propidium iodide staining and RT-PCR analysis. Our fndings showed that VA signifcantly decreased the viability of PC-3 cells (p<0.01) and caused a considerable early apoptotic efects through G0/G1 arrest, nuclear blebbing and the activation of particularly initiator caspases. Conclusions: Therefore, VA may be a potential treatment option for mPC patients. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of VA-induced apoptosis with advanced analysis should be further investigated. Keywords: Prostate cancer · Vulpinic acid · Apoptosis · Lichens.
33731Vingiani G.M., Gasulla F., Barón-Sola Á., Sobrino-Plata J., Henández L.E. [recte Hernández L.E.] & Casano L.M. (2021): Physiological and molecular alterations of phycobionts of genus Trebouxia and Coccomyxa exposed to cadmium. - Microbial Ecology, 82: 334–343. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-021-01685-z.
Several studies on aeroterrestrial microalgae are unravelling their resistance mechanisms to different abiotic stressors, including hazardous metals, pointing to their future role as bioremediation microorganisms. In the present study, physiological and molecular alterations of four phycobionts of genus Trebouxia (T. TR1 and T. TR9) and Coccomyxa (C. subellipsoidea and C. simplex) exposed to Cd were studied. Cd accumulation and subcellular distribution, cell wall structure, production of biothiols (GSH and phytochelatins), reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, expression of key antioxidant genes and ROS-related enzymes were evaluated to determine the physiological differences among the four microalgae, with the aim to identify the most suitable microorganism for further biotechnological applications. After 7 days of Cd exposure, Coccomyxa algae showed higher capacity of Cd intake than Trebouxia species, with C. subellipsoidea being the highest Cd accumulator at both intracellular and, especially, cell wall level. Cd induced ROS formation in the four microalgae, but to a greater extent in both Coccomyxa algae. Trebouxia TR9 showed the lowest Cd-dependent oxidative stress probably due to glutathione reductase induction. All microalgae synthetized phytochelatins in response to Cd but in a species-specific and a dose-dependent manner. Results from this study agree with the notion that each microalga has evolved a distinct strategy to detoxify hazardous metals like Cd and to cope with oxidative stress associated with them. Coccomyxa subellipsoidea and Trebouxia TR9 appear as the most interesting candidates for further applications. Keywords: Biothiols . Bioremediation . Cadmium . Coccomyxa . Hazardousmetal . Lichen Microalgae . Trebouxia.
33730Pozo-Antonio J.S., Barreiro P., Paz-Bermúdez G., González P. & Fernandes A.B. (2021): Effectiveness and durability of chemical- and laser-based cleanings of lichen mosaics on schists at archaeological sites. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 163: 105276 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2021.105276.
Lichen mosaics on different-textured schists located in the Coa Valley (Portugal) and Siega Verde (Spain) archaeological sites were cleaned using different chemicals, namely ethanol (50% v/v in distilled water), benzalkonium chloride (3% v/v) or Biotin T® (3% v/v), and different Nd:YAG laser wavelengths (1064 nm or 266 nm). The surfaces were evaluated 24 h and 4 years after cleaning to determine its durability using colour spectrophotometry and Raman spectroscopy. Unlike lasers, chemicals achieved overall satisfactory results. Cleaning effectiveness, harmfulness and durability of chemicals were highly influenced by the orientation of the schistosity planes of the stone; in Siega Verde samples, the schistosity planes parallel to the surface contributed to a low impact of the methods on the surface colour and absence of lichen recolonization. Cleaning carried out upon the devitalization of lichens with benzalkonium chloride and Biotin T were maintained longer in both sites. Keywords: Rock art; Archaeology; Schist; Lichen; Biocide; Laser; Raman spectroscopy; Cleaning effectiveness.
33729Bower D.M., Yang C.S.C., Hewagama T., Nixon C.A., Aslam S., Whelley P.L., Eigenbrode J.L., Jin F., Ruliffson J., Kolasinski J.R. & Samuels A.C. (2021): Spectroscopic characterization of samples from different environments in a Volcano-Glacial region in Iceland: Implications for in situ planetary exploration. - Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 263: 120205 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.120205.
Raman spectroscopy and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are complementary techniques that together can provide a comprehensive characterization of geologic environments. For landed missions with constrained access to target materials on other planetary bodies, discerning signatures of life and habitability can be daunting, particularly where the preservation of organic compounds that contain the building blocks of life is limited. The main challenge facing any spectroscopy measurements of natural samples is the complicated spectra that often contain signatures for multiple components, particularly in rocks that are composed of several minerals with surfaces colonized by microbes. The goal of this study was to use the combination of Raman spectroscopy and LIBS to discern different environmental regimes based on the identification of minerals and biomolecules in rocks and sediments. Iceland is a terrestrial volcano-glacial location that offers a range of planetary analog environments, including volcanically active regions, extensive lava fields, geothermal springs, and large swaths of ice-covered terrain that are relevant to both rocky and icy planetary bodies. We combined portable VIS (532 nm) and NIR (785 nm) Raman spectroscopy, VIS micro-Raman spectroscopic mapping, and UV/VIS/NIR (200 – 1000 nm) and Mid-IR (5.6 – 10 μm, 1785 – 1000 cm−1) laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to characterize the mineral assemblages, hydrated components, and biomolecules in rock and sediment samples collected from three main sites in the volcanically active Kverkfjöll-Vatnajökull region of Iceland: basalt and basalt-hosted carbonate rind from Hveragil geothermal stream, volcanic sediments from the base of Vatnajökull glacier at Kverkfjöll, and lava from the nearby Holuhraun lava field. With our combination of techniques, we were able to identify major mineral polytypes typical for each sample set, as well as a large diversity of biomolecules typical for lichen communities across all samples. The anatase we observed using micro-Raman spectroscopic mapping of the lava compared with the volcanic sediment suggested different formation pathways: lava anatase formed authigenically, sediment anatase could have formed in association with microbial weathering. Mn-oxide, only detected in the carbonate samples, seems to have two possible formation pathways, either by fluvial or microbial weathering or both. Even with our ability to detect a wide diversity of biomolecules and minerals in all of the samples, there was not enough variation between each set to distinguish different environments based on the limited measurements done for this study. Keywords: Raman spectroscopy; LIBS; Biosignatures; Field spectroscopy; Astrobiology.
33728Gauslaa Y., Maslać Mikulec M. & Solhaug K.A. (2021): Short-term growth experiments – A tool for quantifying lichen fitness across different mineral settings. - Flora, 282: 151900 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2021.151900.
Lichens are frequently used as indicators of air-borne depositions, yet the differential effect of different mineral nutrients on lichen growth is still poorly understood. Here we quantify relative lichen growth rates (RGR) in representatives of three functional groups (chloro-, cephalo-, cyanolichens; Xanthoria parietina, Lobaria pulmonaria, Lobarina scrobiculata, respectively) placed in growth cabinets and subjected to eight fertilization regimes, i.e. four concentrations of NH4NO3 with and without the addition of other essential nutrients. After the experimental period of 14 days, we were able to document: (1) most N in the sprayed solutions that could fill the lichen's water holding capacity (WHC) was taken up, except for lower uptake in the cyanolichen at high N irrigation; (2) an increase in chlorophyll a (Chl a – a proxy of photosynthetic capacity) in the chlorolichen with increasing N irrigation; (3) a strong corresponding decline in Chl a in the cyanolichen; (4) unchanged Chl a in the cephalolichen; and (5) a decline in RGR in all species with increasing N irrigation. Addition of other essential nutrients significantly boosted RGR in all species, suggesting that N was not the most limiting element. We conclude that (1) short-term growth experiments can characterize lichens’ fitness in response to mineral nutrient deposition, and that (2) WHC contributes to lichens’ capacity to capture mineral nutrients from wet depositions. Keywords: Chlorophyll; Lichen symbiosis; Mineral nutrients; Nitrogen pollution; Nitrogen uptake; Relative growth rate.
33727Vannini A., Tedesco R., Loppi S., Di Cecco V., Di Martino L., Nascimbene J., Dallo F. & Barbante C. (2021): Lichens as monitors of the atmospheric deposition of potentially toxic elements in high elevation Mediterranean ecosystems. - Science of the Total Environment, 798: 149369 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149369.
In this study we used a terricolous lichen (Cetraria islandica) as bioaccumulator of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) to explore spatial patterns of air pollutant deposition along elevational gradients in the Majella Massif (Italy). Samples of C. islandica were collected at 200 m intervals along 6 transects from 1600 to 2600 m, both along the eastern and thewestern slope of theMajellamassif, and analyzed for their PTE content. The results supported the hypothesis that the deposition of PTEs to the Majella massif is largely influenced by elevation and slope. Two main patterns emerged connected either with local soil erosion and long-range atmospheric transport. For some PTEs, namely Al, Cr, Li, Mg, in the absence of any other data, it is supposed that the anthropogenic input is very small compared to the natural input fromweathering processes. In contrast, the group of air pollutants subjected to long-range transport, as in the case of Cd, Hg, and Pb, has very limited local input and the main sources responsible for the higher concentrations on the eastern slope are probably to be searched in the Balkan area. Highlights: • The lichen Cetraria islandica is a valid bioaccumulator of potentially toxic elements. • The deposition of potentially toxic elements is influenced by elevation and slope. • Soil erosion and long-range transport are the main inputs of airborne elements. Keywords: Air pollution; Biomonitoring; Cetraria islandica; Elevational gradient; Long-range atmospheric transport; Mediterranean mountains.
33726Szufa K.M., Mietelski J.W. & Olech M.A. (2021): Assessment of internal radiation exposure to Antarctic biota due to selected natural radionuclides in terrestrial and marine environment. - Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 237: 106713 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2021.106713.
The present article introduces data on natural radioactivity (40K, 230,232Th, 234,238U) in the Antarctic marine and terrestrial environment. Various biota samples were analysed due to internal exposure to 40K, 230,232Th, 234,238U. Activity concentration of 40K was the highest in both marine and terrestrial samples. Mean values of 40K activity concentration are 1340 Bq/kg and 370 Bq/kg for the marine and terrestrial samples respectively. 234U/238U ratios analysis revealed that sea waters and sea spray are the main source of the uranium in the terrestrial samples. Average 230,232Th, 234,238U activity concentrations in the Antarctic biota do not exceed 6 Bq/kg. Weighted internal dose rates are relatively low; they range from approximately 0.1 to 0.6 μGy/h. Statistically significant differences in radionuclide accumulation were discovered between the mosses and lichens. It may point to various mechanisms of the nutrient absorption from the environment by these organisms. Keywords: The Antarctic; Doses to biota; Potassium; Thorium; Uranium.
33725Goodenough U. & Roth R. (2021): Lichen 2. Constituents. - Algal Research, 59: 102356 [31 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2021.102356.
Lichens are slow-growing niche-constructing organisms that form a thallus via scripted symbiotic/mutualist relationships between fungi, algae, and bacteria. Here we use quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy (QFDEEM) to document the ultrastructure of the eukaryotic organisms and the extracellular matrix materials that are found in four lichens. Previous studies have shown that each thallus in a complex lichen consists of a central medullary layer containing aligned fungal hyphae. These medullary hyphae send lateral branches to an upper layer, some making contact with resident algae, and usually to a lower layer. As the thallus ages, such “regular” branches transform into acellular versions called “struts” and “honeycombs.” We conclude with a consideration of two materials that are synthesized and secreted by lichenized fungi: abundant secondary products/metabolites that often crystallize, and hydrophobin proteins that self-assemble into films. Keywords: Lichen; Ascomycete; Alga; Hydrophobin; Secondary products; Quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy.
33724Goodenough U. (2021): Erratum: Introduction to the lichen ultrastructure series. - Algal Research, 59: 102460 [3 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2021.102460.
33723Leavitt S.D., Hollinger J., Summerhays S., Munger I., Allen J. & Smith B. (2021): Alpine lichen diversity in an isolated sky island in the Colorado Plateau, USA—Insight from an integrative biodiversity inventory. - Ecology and Evolution, 11: 11090–11101. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.7896.
Lichens are major components of high altitude/latitude ecosystems. However, accurately characterizing their biodiversity is challenging because these regions and habitats are often underexplored, there are numerous poorly known taxonomic groups, and morphological variation in extreme environments can yield conflicting interpretations. Using an iterative taxonomic approach based on over 800 specimens and incorporating both traditional morphology-based identifications and information from the standard fungal DNA barcoding marker, we compiled a voucher-based inventory of biodiversity of lichen-forming fungi in a geographically limited and vulnerable alpine community in an isolated sky island in the Colorado Plateau, USA—the La Sal Mountains. We used the newly proposed Assemble Species by Automatic Partitioning (ASAP) approach to empirically delimit candidate species-level lineages from family-level multiple sequence alignments. Specimens comprising DNA-based candidate species were evaluated using traditional taxonomically diagnostic phenotypic characters to identify specimens to integrative species hypotheses and link these, where possible, to currently described species. Despite the limited alpine habitat (ca. 3,250 ha), we document the most diverse alpine lichen community known to date from the southern Rocky Mountains, with up to 240 candidate species/species-level lineages of lichen-forming fungi. 139 species were inferred using integrative taxonomy, plus an additional 52 candidate species within 29 different putative species complexes. Over 68% of sequences could not be assigned to species-level rank with statistical confidence, corroborating the limited utility of current sequence repositories for species-level DNA barcoding of lichen-forming fungi. By integrating vouchered specimens, DNA sequence data, and photographic documentation, we provide an important baseline of lichen-forming fungal diversity for the limited alpine habitat in the Colorado Plateau. These data provide an important resource for subsequent research in the ecology and evolution of lichens alpine habitats, including DNA barcodes for most putative species/species-level lineages occurring in the La Sal Mountains, and vouchered collections representing any potentially undescribed species that can be used for future taxonomic studies. Keywords: ASAP, DNA barcoding, La Sal Mountains, Rocky Mountains, vouchered collections.
33722 Урбанавичюс Г.П., Боровичев E.A. & Ершов В.В. [Urbanavichus G.P., Borovichev E.A. & Ershov V.V.] (2021): Криптогамные организмы – пионеры восстановления северотаежных лесов при снижении воздушного промышленного загрязнения [Cryptogamic organisms as pioneers of the northern taiga recovery affected under the conditions of lowered industrial air pollution]. - Лесоведение [Lesovedenie], 2021/2: 195–207. DOI: 10.31857/S0024114821020108.
[in Russian with English summary: ] The restoration process of the ground vegetation cover in the areas affected by the Severonikel Smelter in Monchegorsk, Murmansk Region is studied. Cryptogamic organisms are the first to colonize areas where the ground vegetation cover was destroyed as a result of industrial air pollution above the critical level. For the first time, lichen and bryophyte species with the highest tolerance to toxicity and capable of growing in the conditions of an anthropogenic desert have been determined. These are liverworts Isopaches bicrenatus, Nardia geoscyphus, Gymnocolea inflata, Solenostoma confertissimum and mosses Pohlia nutans and Dicranella cerviculata. It was found that colonization by pioneer lichen species, even those highly adapted to extreme concentrations of heavy metals (Stereocaulon leucophaeopsis and St. pileatum), requires a bryophyte sod layer as a substrate. In total, within the area directly affected by the copper and nickel smelter (1.7–10 km), 18 bryophyte species and 13 lichen species were found: in the anthropogenic desert (1.7–2.7 km), six and one species; in the anthropogenic wasteland (4–6.5 km), ten and five species; in the anthropogenic sparse woodland (7– 10 km), 15 and 11 species, respectively. Signs of ground cover recovery and a noticeable (by a factor of 2 to 3) increase in the diversity of the ground layer cryptogamic biota were observed at a distance of 6.5–10 km from the pollution source with a decrease in the deposition of sulfates by a factor of 2.5–3, of Ni by a factor of 17, and of Cu by a factor of 20. Keywords: Subarctic, northern taiga forests, pollution, biodiversity, recovery, lichens, bryophytes.
33721Урбанавичюс Г.П., Урбанавичене И.Н. & Головлёв А.А. [Urbanavichus G.P., Urbanavichene I.N. & Golovlev A.A.] (2020): О небольшой коллекции лишайников из ущелья р. Адыл-Су (Кабардино-Балкарская Республика) [About a small collection of lichens from the gorge Adyl-Su river (Kabardino-Balkar Republic)]. - Ботанический вестник Северного Кавказа [Botanical Herald of the North Caucasus], 2020/1: 66–72. DOI: 10.33580/2409-2444-2020-6-1-66-72.
[in Russian with English summary: ] Based on the results of field works by A.A. Golovlev in July 2017, data on new and noteworthy species for the lichen flora of the Prielbrusiy National Park are presented. The specimens were collected in the Adyl-Su River gorge, Elbrus district, Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria. In total 75 species from 44 genera are listed here with their localities and substrates, and novelties data. Eighteen species are new for the Prielbrusiy National Park, of which twelve were found for the first time in the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic (Aspicilia cf. laevata, Blastenia hungarica, Bryoria vrangiana, Cladonia cyathomorpha, Henrica melaspora, Lasallia rossica, Lecidea promiscens, Normandina pulchella, Parmelina tiliacea, Ramalina pollinaria, Rinodina trevisanii, Rusavskia sorediata). Henrica melaspora is reported for the first time for Caucasus, Cladonia cyathomorpha is new to the Russian Caucasus. Two species (Lecidea promiscens and Rinodina trevisanii) are reported for the first time for the Central Caucasus. The genus Henrica is reported as new to the Caucasus, and the genus Normandina is new for the lichen flora of Kabardino-Balkaria. Keywords: lichens, new findings, diversity, National Park, Caucasus.
33720Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichus G.P.] (2021): Tholurna dissimilis (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) в России [Tholurna dissimilis (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) in Russia]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 106(7): 683–687. DOI: 10.31857/S0006813621050069.
[in Russian with English summary: ] Tholurna dissimilis, a rare corticolous dwarf fruticose lichen with a specific ecology, was discovered in Russia for the first time since 1936 in the Sallatunturi Ridge in the southwestern part of the Murmansk Region. Tholurna has a specialized ecology occurring in extremely exposed habitats, on decaying twigs in the uppermost parts of low spruce trees growing above the tree-line. Information on all early findings of T. dissimilis in the territory of Russia is provided. For the first time, a complete description of the species in Russian, its ecology and distribution in Russia and the world are presented. Keywords: lichens, new finding, distribution, Murmansk Region.
33719Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2021): Находки новых и редких для Мурманской области видов лишайников [Findings of lichen species new and rare to Murmansk Region]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 106(8): 801–806. DOI: 10.31857/S0006813621080093.
[in Russian with English summary: ] Based on field research by the first author, nine rare and noteworthy lichen species from the Murmansk Region are recorded. Among them, five species, namely Bryonora castanea, Bryoria americana, B. kuemmerleana, B. vrangiana and Xylographa difformis are reported for the first time for the Murmansk Region. Gyalecta biformis and Schadonia alpina are found for the second time in Russia and the Murmansk Region. The information on the localities, ecology and distribution of all mentioned species is provided. Keywords: lichens, new findings, distribution, Murmansk region.
33718Tønsberg T., Gauslaa V., Haugan R., Holien H. & Timdal E. (1996): The Threatened Macrolichens of Norway - 1995. - Sommerfeltia, 23: 1–258. https://doi.org/10.2478/som-1996-0002.
On request from The Directorate for Nature Management (DN), Trondheim, a revised red list for Norwegian macrolichens is presented. The present list supersedes the preliminary list published by Direktoratet for naturforvaltning ( 1992) and includes 69 species of the currently known c. 430 species of macrolichens in Norway. The compiling of the list is mainly based on studies of relevant herbarium material in all major Fennoscandian herbaria of all species believed to be rare or endangered in Norway and on field work carried out on the localities in 1992-1994. Of 1938 known localities for threatened macrolichens in Norway, 1046 were investigated. Collema coccophorum and Leptogium britannicum are classified as extinct (Ex), 16 species as endangered (E), 11 as vulnerable (V), 9 as in need of monitoring (V+), 18 as rare (R), 5 as indeterminate (I), and 7 as insufficiently known (K). Parmeliopsis esorediata is assigned to category A (special responsibility). Special maps summarize the distribution of all species within each of the categories E, V, V+, and R. Norway has European responsibility for 18 species and Fennoscandian responsibility for 55 species of macrolichens. Among the species included in the red list, Norway has the only or the main population for several species on a Fennoscandian (55 species), European (18), or world-wide basis (1). Each species is described and discussed with respect to substrate and habitat preferences, threats, and status in Norway. For species known from more than five localities, maps indicate the status in each locality. A complete locality list is given for each species. Distributions in Fennoscandia, Europe and on a world-wide basis are briefly reviewed. Recommendations are given for conservation purposes. Threatened macrolichens are concentrated in deciduous forests and woodlands along the south western coast, old-growth spruce forests in central Norway, and old-growth boreal forests and agricultural landscapes in eastem Norway. Keywords: Air pollution, Biodiversity, Conservation, Forestry, Landuse changes, Lichens, Norway, Protection, Red list, Threats.
33717Huynh B.L.C., Nguyen T.T.L., Le H.H., Phan H.L., Pham N.K.T., Nguyen T.P. & Nguyen T.A.T. (2021): Triterpenoids and steroids from the lichen Ramalina peruviana Arch [sic!]. - Vietnam Journal of Chemistry, 598(4): 451–456. https://doi.org/10.1002/vjch.202000174.
Five known triterpenes, β-amyrone (1), isoarborinol acetate (2), hopane-6α,22-diol (3), hopane-22-ol (4), hopane-6α,16β,22-triol (5), along with two esgostane-type sterols, 5α,8α-esgosterol peroxide (6), brassicasterol (7) were isolated from the lichen Ramalina peruviana Ach. (Ramalinaceae). Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis and comparison with those reported in the literature. Except 2, this is the first time these compounds are reported in Ramalina genus. Keywords: Ramalina peruviana, triterpenes, esgostane-type sterols.
33716Vail C.A. & Walker A.K. (2021): Vertical zonation of some crustose lichens (Verrucariaceae) in Bay of Fundy littoral zones of Nova Scotia. - Northeastern Naturalist, 28(3): 311–326. https://doi.org/10.1656/045.028.0306.
Despite harsh conditions provided by wave action, salinity, UV exposure, and other pressures, lichens provide most of the substrate cover in the rocky littoral zone. We documented the vertical zonation and general ecology of several littoral members of the lichenized ascomycete family Verrucariaceae from 7 sites along Nova Scotia’s Bay of Fundy coast. We identified lichens morphologically and confirmed species using ITS rDNA barcoding to provide novel biodiversity data. We documented 8 lichens in Nova Scotia littoral zones, with all transects showing low lichen diversity and moderate evenness. Vertical zonation was not strongly correlated with mean low tide; a variety of biotic and abiotic factors likely affected the distribution of the few species determining lichen community composition in this region.
33715Ganyushkin D.A., Lessovaia S.N., Vlasov D.Y., Kopitsa G.P., Almásy L., Chistyakov K.V., Panova E.G., Derkach E. & Alekseeva A. (2021): Application of rock weathering and colonization by biota for the relative dating of moraines from the arid part of the Russian Altai mountains. - Geosciences, 11: 342 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11080342.
For the Altai Mountains’ region, especially the arid southeastern part of the Russian Altai, the data on glacier fluctuations in the Pleistocene and Holocene are still inconsistent. The study area was the Kargy River’s valley (2288–2387 m a.s.l.), a location that is not currently affected by glaciation and the glacial history of which is poorly studied. Field observations and geomorphological mapping were used to reveal the configuration of Pleistocene moraines. The relative dating method was applied to define the degree of weathering as an indicator of age. Three moraine groups of different ages (presumably MIS 6, MIS 4, and MIS 2) were identified based on a detailed investigation of their morphological features and the use of relative dating approaches. The latter were primarily based on weathering patterns. Data on the rock mineralogy, porosity, and specificity of biological colonization as an agent of weathering were obtained for the moraine debris. The studied moraines were composed of fine-grained schist, in which the specific surface area and fractality (self-similarity) were more developed in the older moraine. The growth of biota (crustose lichen and micromycetes) colonizing the rock surface led to rock disintegration and the accumulation of autochthonous fragments on the rock surface. Despite the fact that the initial stage(s) of moraine weathering affected by biota was fixed, the correlation trends of biota activity and moraine ages were not determined. Keywords: biota colonization; weathering; rock porosity; Pleistocene moraines; moraine relative dating.
33714Hofmeister J., Vondrák J., Malíček J., Palice Z. & Šoun J. (2021): Ochrana biodiverzity horských smrčin za kůrovcové kalamity – lišejníky v NPR Boubínský prales. - Živa, 4/2021: 157–161. .
popular paper on lichens in one of the oldest protected forest reserves - Boubín / Kubany; Czech Republic; old-growth spruce forests; indication organisms; bark beetle; forestry management
33713Nascimbene J., Gheza G., Hafellner J., Mayrhofer H., Muggia L., Obermayer W., Thor G. & Nimis P.L. (2021): Refining the picture: new records to the lichen biota of Italy. - MycoKeys, 82: 97–137. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.82.69027.
Based on the analysis of both historical and recent collections, this paper reports an annotated list of taxa which are new to the lichen biota of Italy or of its administrative regions. Specimens were identified using a dissecting and a compound microscope; routine chemical spot tests and standardized thin-layer chromatography (TLC or HPTLC). The list includes 225 records of 153 taxa. Twenty taxa are new to Italy, the others are new to one or more administrative regions, with 15 second records and 5 third records for Italy. Some of the species belong to recently-described taxa, others are poorly known, sterile or ephemeral lichens which were largely overlooked in Italy. Several species are actually rare, either because of the rarity of their habitats (e.g. old-growth forests), or because in Italy they are at the margins of their bioclimatic distribution. The picture of the lichen biota of Italy has now new pixels, but its grain is still coarse. Further analysis of historical collections, increased efforts in the exploration of some areas, and the taxonomic revision of critical groups are still necessary to provide more complete distributional data for new biogeographic hypotheses, taxonomic and ecological research, and biodiversity conservation. Keywords: Alps, biodiversity, floristics, herbarium specimens, rarity.
33712Joshi T., Sharma P., Joshi T., Pundir H., Mathpal S. & Chandra S. (2021): Structure‑based screening of novel lichen compounds against SARS Coronavirus main protease (Mpro) as potentials inhibitors of COVID‑19. - Molecular Diversity , 25: 1665–1677. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11030-020-10118-x.
The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 and deaths caused by it all over the world have imposed great concern on the scientifc community to develop potential drugs to combat Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). In this regard, lichen metabolites may ofer a vast reservoir for the discovery of antiviral drug candidates. Therefore, to fnd novel compounds against COVID-19, we created a library of 412 lichen compounds and subjected to virtual screening against the SARS-CoV-2 Main protease (Mpro). All the ligands were virtually screened, and 27 compounds were found to have high afnity with Mpro. These compounds were assessed for drug-likeness analysis where two compounds were found to ft well for redocking studies. Molecular docking, drug-likeness, X-Score, and toxicity analysis resulting in two lichen compounds, Calycin and Rhizocarpic acid with Mpro-inhibiting activity. These compounds were fnally subjected to molecular dynamics simulation to compare the dynamics behavior and stability of the Mpro after ligand binding. The binding energy was calculated by MM-PBSA method to determine the intermolecular protein–ligand interactions. Our results showed that two compounds; Calycin and Rhizocarpic acid had the binding free energy of −42.42 kJ mol/1 and −57.85 kJ mol/1 respectively as compared to reference X77 (−91.78 kJ mol/1). We concluded that Calycin and Rhizocarpic acid show considerable structural and pharmacological properties and they can be used as hit compounds to develop potential antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2. These lichen compounds may be a suitable candidate for further experimental analysis. Keywords: COVID-19 · Lichen COMPOUNDS · Main protease · Molecular docking · Molecular dynamics simulation.
33711Knudsen K. & Kocourková J. (2020): The real Acarospora socialis. - Bulletin of the California Lichen Society, 27(2): 41–46. .
Acarospora socialis is recognized as a coastal species from central California to Baja California in Mexico. Acarospora radicata is not recognized as a synonym of A. socialis. It is the common yellow squamulose species in the New Mexican, Mojave and Sonoran Deserts. Acarospora amabilis and A. rimulosa are not recognized as synonyms of A. socialis. Keywords: California distributions, Channel Islands, taxonomy.
33710Sahin E., Dabagoglu Psav S., Avan I., Candan M., Sahinturk V. & Koparal A.T. (2021): Lichen-derived physodic acid exerts cytotoxic and anti-invasive effects in human lung cancer. - Rendiconti Lincei. Scienze Fisiche e Naturali, 32: 511–520. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12210-021-00996-0.
Lichens can produce secondary metabolites with important biological activities such as antioxidants, antibacterial, etc. Physodic acid (PA) is an important lichen secondary metabolite. The anticancer activity of PA has been shown in many tumor types other than lung cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PA on A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. In this study, A549 lung cancer cell line was used. MTT and colony formation assays were used to evaluate cytotoxic effects of PA at 24, 48, and 72 h; hematoxylin–eosin staining and DAPI staining were used for determining cell and nucleus morphology, respectively, and wound healing assay was used for investigating cell migration. PA was shown to be cytotoxic in 24, 48, and 72 h by increasing concentrations. IC50 concentrations at 24, 48, and 72 h were found to be 382.0, 235.4, and 175.8 μM, respectively. PA was found to inhibit colony formation completely at non-toxic concentration. It was observed that PA disrupted cell and nuclear morphology and showed apoptotic activities by increasing concentrations. It was determined that non-toxic and higher concentrations of PA inhibited cell migration widely. In conclusion, PA was shown to have cytotoxic, apoptotic and cell migration inhibitory effects on A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Keywords: Lichen acids · Physodic acid · A549 cell line · Lung adenocarcinoma · Natural molecules.
33709Papierska K., Krajka-Kuźniak V., Paluszczak J., Kleszcz R., Skalski M., Studzińska-Sroka E. & Baer-Dubowska W. (2021): Lichen-derived depsides and depsidones modulate the Nrf2, NF-κB and STAT3 signaling pathways in colorectal cancer cells. - Molecules, 26: 4787 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26164787.
The study aimed to evaluate the possible modulation of Nrf2, NF-ĸB and STAT3 signaling pathways in the colorectal cancer (CRC) cells line DLD-1 and HCT116 by secondary metabolites of lichens. An attempt was made to indicate the most promising targets in these signaling pathways. Attention was also paid to the effects of the compounds tested on CRC cells using anakoinosis—that is, simultaneous analysis of several signaling pathways. The effects of the tested natural compounds on the activity of selected transcriptional factors related to CRC were analyzed by Western blot and RT-PCR assays. The highest activity against CRC cells was shown by physodic and salazinic acids from the studied secondary metabolites of lichens. As a result, an increase in the activation of transcription factor Nrf2 and the expression of its selected target genes was observed. Physodic and salazinic acids induced the opposite effect in relation to the NF-κB and STAT3 pathways. These results confirmed our earlier observations that lichen-derived compounds have the ability to modulate signaling pathway networks. While caperatic acid affected Wnt/β-catenin to the most extent, salazinic acid was the most potent modulator of Nrf2, NF-κB and STAT3 pathways. Physodic acid seemed to affect all the investigated pathways. Keywords: colorectal cancer; lichens; NF-κB; Nrf2; STAT3.
33708Romtveit L., Strand O., Mossing A., Kastdalen L., Hjeltnes A.W., Bjerketvedt D.K., Odland A. & Heggenes J. (2021): Optimal foraging by a large ungulate in an extreme environment: Wild mountain reindeer select snow-free feeding habitats in winter. - Ecology and Evolution, 11(5): 10409–10420. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.7843.
Optimal foraging models predict that individual animals will optimize net energy gain by intensifying forage activity and/or reducing forage energy cost. Then, the free distribution model predicts an animal's distribution in a patchy landscape will match the distribution of the resources. If not modified by other factors, such patterns may be expected to be particularly explicit in variable and extreme, forage-limited, and patchy environments, notably alpine and Arctic environments during winter. The large ungulate wild mountain reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) surviving in such environments is used as a model during the forage-limited winter season. The largest wild reindeer area in Western Europe (Hardangervidda, 8130 km2) is actively managed to sustain 10,000–12,000 wild reindeer. Since 2001, 104 different individuals have been GPS-tracked at 3-hr intervals. In winter, mountain reindeer may either choose to seek out and forage in patchy snow-free habitats, typically on top of wind-blown ridges, or use energy-demanding digging through the snow to reach ground forage (cratering). We use late April satellite data from Landsat 5 and 8 (30 × 30 m), airborne laser scanning subsampling (processed to 1 × 1 m grid), and topographic information (1 m resolution) derived from digital aerial photographs (0.25 × 0.25 m resolution) to delineate snow-free patches, constituting less than 694 km2. By overlaying recorded wild reindeer GPS positions winters 2001–2017 (188,942 positions), we document a strong positive selection for snow-free patches, which were used about four times more frequently than expected from a “random walk” model. On a daily basis, the preference for snow-free areas was slightly stronger in the evenings. In the sustainable management of wild mountain reindeer, the area of snow-free patches is an important predictor of winter forage availability and important winter source areas. It may be derived from remote sensing data.
33707Mejstřík V. (2014): Epifytické lišejníky středních Brd a Příbramského Podbrdska. - Erica, 21: 57–99. .
The paper presents the occurence of epiphytic lichens in central Brdy Mts and the adjacent area along their eastern edge (Central Bohemia, Czech Republic). In total, 78 lichen taxa were recorded in 440 localities. The data were used for bioindication study: five zones were defined for estimating air pollution within the studied region. Several localities were repeatedly monitored during three time intervals (1978–1980, 1992–1994, 2005–2007), thus, the changes in lichen flora composition are discussed. The distribution maps of several lichen taxa are included.
33706Scheidegger C. (2021): High alpine lichens. – In: Büdel, B. & Friedl, T. (eds.), Life at rock surfaces: Challenged by extreme light, temperature and hydration fluctuations. - Berlin, Boston: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, pp. 161–173. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110646467-006.
Mountain regions host an overproportionate fraction of global biodiversity, supporting an estimated one-third of terrestrial biological diversity. In alpine land- scapes, lichen diversity has often been reported to follow a unimodal distribution along altitudinal gradients with a midaltitudinal peak. In the European Alps, the montane belt includes the highest number of lichen species, but the mid altitu- dinal peak for rocks with a low calcareous content (saxicolous intermediate), terricolous and bryophilous species, and the growth form of umbilicate species peak at the subalpine belt. Alpine landscapes are strongly influenced by glacial oscillations during the Pleistocene and most prominently by the last glaciation. We hypothesize that Umbilicaria virginis, the only macrolichen restricted to the nival belt in the Alps, is a candidate species that survived the last glacial maximum on central alpine nunataks in the Alps and possibly also on ice-free peaks in other mountain systems. Survival on central alpine nunataks is also a likely hypothesis for a number of other alpine lichen species, including the rare saxicolous Lecanora diaboli and Lecanora freyi on rocks with a low content in carbonates, Lecanora concolor, and several lecideoid lichens on siliceous rocks. High alpine regions, including the nival belt, provide key habitats for extremophile lichen species that depend on cold climates, which are unavailable at lower altitudes. Nival regions of mountain systems are therefore important “museums” for a considerable number of lichens, many of them with boreal arctic-alpine distributions across diverse mountain systems. However, more studies are needed to test if high alpine and nival environments also act as “cradles” for lichen diversity, and immediate studies on threats and a possible decline of high alpine and nival lichens is needed to avoid that alpine and nival environments turn into “graves” because of the dra- matic retreat of glaciers and permanent snow due to climate change
33705Jung P. & Büdel B. (2021): Lichen as pioneers of rock surfaces. – In: Büdel, B. & Friedl, T. (eds.), Life at rock surfaces: Challenged by extreme light, temperature and hydration fluctuations. - Berlin, Boston: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, pp. 141–159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9783110646467-005.
Lichens can be understood as multiorganismic complex organisms with a symbiotic character that represents a self-sustaining ecosystem formed by the interaction of an exhabitant fungus (sometimes more) and an extracellular arrangement of one or more photosynthetic partners, as well as an indeterminate number of other microscopic organisms. Lichens are among the first microbial organisms colonizing barren sur- faces as, for example, rocks, where they have various benefits that make them supe- rior to other organisms and thus they are considered pioneers. Although the greatest proportion of lichens colonize the rock’s surfaces (saxicolous lichens), others prefer to colonize deeper structures underneath the rock’s surface (endolithic lichens), which interact with the lithomatrix. Here, we discuss the ecology of lichens as pioneers from various biomes, their adaptations to a life on rocks, and the succession of lichen com- munities and give insights into their interactions with the lithomatrix
33704Ossowska E., Guzow-Krzemińska B., Szymczyk R. & Kukwa M. (2021): A molecular re-evaluation of Parmelia encryptata with notes on its distribution. - Lichenologist, 53(4): 341-345. doi:10.1017/S0024282921000219.
Parmelia encryptata is morphologically and chemically identical to P. sulcata but genetically different (Molina et al. 2011), and despite similarities, these species are not closely related (Molina et al. 2017). Both P. encryptata and P. sulcata have adnate to loosely adnate thalli, lobes that are sublinear with a greyish upper surface with brown tips and laminal and marginal pseudocyphellae, rhizines simple to squarrose, and soralia that are laminal (Molina et al. 2011). When examining the specimens of P. encryptata from Poland, we found that rhizines were predominantly simple, and squarrose ones appeared only in the central parts of the thalli, whereas in P. sulcata they are usually squarrose in all thallus parts. The type of rhizine is an important feature that distinguishes another morphologically similar species, P. barrenoae, from P. sulcata s. str. (Divakar et al. 2005; Barreno & Herrera-Campos 2009; Hodkinson et al. 2010). Therefore, the abundance of squarrose in proportion to simple rhizines might be a diagnostic feature which is worth considering in the identi- fication of P. encryptata. However, we examined only two samples of the species, which were very young, thus more material needs to be studied to evaluate whether this character is diagnostic. Another feature that separates P. sulcata from P. barrenoae is the ontogeny and abundance of the soralia (Hodkinson et al. 2010; Ossowska & Kukwa 2016); however, in the case of P. encryptata, we have not observed any differences in comparison to P. sulcata. The new records of P. encryptata suggest that a certain degree of caution and critical evaluation should be exercised during Parmelia species identification, as rare species may be accidentally overlooked. Parmelia encryptata is a morphologically cryptic spe- cies that can only be identified by molecular techniques. This approach is also recommended for other Parmelia species (Divakar et al. 2016; Corsie et al. 2019). Our assumptions about the shape and abundance of the rhizines and the ecological requirements can be a good basis for further detailed research. Nevertheless, at this point there are too few comparative specimens and localities of the species to draw any far-reaching conclusions
33703Pentecost A. (2021): Estimates of abundance and biomass of cephalodia and their relationship to nitrogen deposition in some British populations of Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. - Lichenologist, 53(4): 335-339. doi:10.1017/S0024282921000281.
Internal cephalodia of Lobaria pulmonaria were examined in two British locations, one in western Scotland (Isle of Skye) and the other in England (Cumbria, Lake District), sites which were predicted to have contrasting levels of fixed nitrogen deposition. Cephalodia were found to occupy a small proportion of the total biomass averaging (<1%) in both areas. Modelled nitrogen deposition in the sites in Cumbria was 3–6 times higher than in the Skye sites but the cephalodium relative biomass was not significantly different. It is suggested that local climatic and topographic effects might have reduced the estimated rate of nitrogen deposition at the former sites. biomass, climate, lichen, nitrogen deposition, Nostoc
33702Wang W., Sangvichien E., Buaruang K., Jiang S., Wei T. & Wei J. (2021): A preliminary study of Badimia Vězda (Ramalinaceae) in East Asia. - Lichenologist, 53(4): 327-334. doi:10.1017/S002428292100013X.
The tropical areas of eastern Asia contain a high diversity of foliicolous lichens, including various species of the genus Badimia. Badimia xanthocampylidia W. C. Wang & J. C. Wei is described from tropical rainforests in southern China and Thailand based on morphology, chemistry, and combined mtSSU, ITS and nrLSU sequences. It is characterized by a pale green thallus with yellow verrucae and bright yellow campylidia and the presence of isousnic acid. Three other species, B. multiseptata Papong & Lücking, B. pallidula (Kremp.) Vězda and B. polillensis (Vain.) Vězda, are discussed and the genus Badimia is newly reported from China. A worldwide key to currently known species in the genus is presented. foliicolous lichens, ITS, mtSSU, new species, nrLSU
33701Kantvilas G., Suija A. & Motiejūnaitė J. (2021): Caloplaca tephromelae (Teloschistaceae), a new lichenicolous species from Tasmania. - Lichenologist, 53(4): 317-325. doi:10.1017/S0024282921000207.
Caloplaca tephromelae Kantvilas, Suija & Motiej., a lichenicolous species growing on saxicolous thalli of species of Tephromela, is described from Tasmania. The new species is characterized by lecanorine to zeorine apothecia with a whitish grey thalline margin devoid of anthra- quinone pigments, a non-inspersed hymenium, paraphyses without oil vacuoles and ascospores 10–14 × 5–8 μm, with a septum 5–8 μm thick. It is compared with selected taxa of Caloplaca s. lat. that share these salient features. Molecular data support the distinctiveness of the new species but do not suggest any obvious close relatives. Australia, biodiversity, lichens, Tephromela
33700Fryday A., Wheeler T. & Etayo J. (2021): A new species of Aspicilia (Megasporaceae), with a new lichenicolous Sagediopsis (Adelococcaceae), from the Falkland Islands. - Lichenologist, 53(4): 307-315. doi:10.1017/S0024282921000244.
The new species Aspicilia malvinae is described from the Falkland Islands. It is the first species of Megasporaceae to be discovered on the islands and only the seventh to be reported from South America. It is distinguished from other species of Aspicilia by the unusual secondary metabolite chemistry (hypostictic acid) and molecular sequence data. The collections of the new species support two lichenicolous fungi: Endococcus propinquus s. lat., which is new to the Falkland Islands, and a new species of Sagediopsis with small perithecia and 3-septate ascospores c. 18–20 × 4–5 μm, which is described here as S. epimalvinae. A total of 60 new DNA sequences obtained from species of Megasporaceae (mostly Aspicilia) are also introduced. DNA sequences, Endococcus, Lecanora masafuerensis, lichen, southern South America, southern subpolar region
33699Frolov I., Himelbrant D., Stepanchikova I. & Prokopiev I. (2021): Polycauliona comandorica, a new fruticulose species in the family Teloschistaceae from the Commander Islands, Russia. - Lichenologist, 53(4): 299-306. doi:10.1017/S0024282921000268.
A new fruticulose species, Polycauliona comandorica, is described from the supralittoral zone of the Commander Islands in the Russian Far East. This growth form is very rare in the family Teloschistaceae where the new species belongs. It is the only fruticulose species of the family that forms vegetative propagules (soredia and blastidia). Polycauliona comandorica is similar to the North American P. thamnodes but differs in having a lighter yellow to grey thallus, longer and thicker branches with a rough surface, soredia and blastidia, and in lacking apothecia. Two fruticulose-lobate pairs of species in Polycauliona are briefly discussed: P. comandorica-P. verruculifera and P. thamnodes-P. brattiae. Aleutian Arc, Ascomycota, Beringia, Caloplaca s. lat., Far East, Kamchatka Territory, ornithocoprophilous lichens
33698Elvebakk A. (2021): Gibbosporina cyanea (Pannariaceae), a new bipartite cyanolichen from Sri Lanka with comparisons to related palaeotropical cyanogenera. - Lichenologist, 53(4): 291-298. doi:10.1017/S002428292100027X.
Gibbosporina cyanea is described here as new to science, based on its holotype collected in Sri Lanka in the 1860s. The species is a bipartite cyanolichen in contrast to all other known Gibbosporina species, which are tripartites. The species appears to have evolved through cephalodia emancipation followed by divergence. Phyllidia indicate a cephalodiate evolutionary origin with a continued function similar to vegetative propagules. The species is considered to represent a relatively young speciation within an evolutionary old genus and G. sphaerospora is discussed as a possible candidate for being its closest known relative based on spore morphology. As the species appears to be so different from the remaining Gibbosporina species, it is compared here to representatives of other related palaeotropical cyanogenera, such as Leightoniella, Lepidocollema, Pannaria and Physma. Perispore structure is shown to be a useful character in separating these genera, including distinct clades of the non-monophyletic genera Physma and Lepidocollema. Leightoniella zeylanensis is reported here as new to Japan, and it is concluded that Pannaria lurida needs to be restudied in India and Sri Lanka. iodiversity, evolution, Palaeotropics, photobionts, taxonomy, tripartite lichens, vegetative propagation
33697Libby E. & Ratcliff W. (2021): Lichens and microbial syntrophies offer models for an interdependent route to multicellularity. - Lichenologist, 53(4): 283-290. doi:10.1017/S0024282921000256.
The evolution of multicellularity paved the way for significant increases in biological complexity. Although multicellularity has evolved many times independently, we know relatively little about its origins. Directed evolution is a promising approach to studying early steps in this major transition, but current experimental systems have examined only a subset of the possible evolutionary routes to multicellularity. Here we consider egalitarian routes to multicellularity, in which unrelated unicellular organisms evolve to become a multicellular organism. Inspired by microbial syntrophies and lichens, we outline three such routes from a system of different species to an interdependent relationship that replicates. We compare these routes to contemporary experimental systems and consider how physical structure, the threat of invasion, division of labour and co-transmission affect their evolution. division of labour, experimental evolution, major transitions, microbes, multicellularity, syntrophy
33696Kocakaya M. (2021): Didymocyrtis epiphyscia, Lichenochora weillii, and Lichenoconium xanthoriae newly recorded from Turkey. - Mycotaxon, 136: 523–528. https://doi.org/10.5248/136.523.
Three lichenicolous fungal species, Didymocyrtis epiphyscia, Lichenochora weillii, and Lichenoconium xanthoriae, are reported for the first time from Turkey. Comments on the taxonomy, ecology, and hosts and photographic illustrations are provided for each species.Key words—biodiversity, lichens, Lichenoconiaceae, Phaeosphaeriaceae, Phyllachoraceae.
33695Wilk K. (2021): Calogaya miniata comb. nov., Huneckia crocina comb. nov., and new neotropical records of Wetmoreana brouardii. - Mycotaxon, 136: 387–400. https://doi.org/10.5248/136.387.
New combinations Calogaya miniata and Huneckia crocina are proposed for species previously placed in Caloplaca s.lat., following the revised classification of Teloschistaceae. The taxonomy of Wetmoreana brouardii is discussed in relation to Caloplaca ochraceofulva, and its current world distribution is presented, including new records from Chile, Colombia, Peru, and Uruguay. Key words—lichenized Ascomycota, nomenclature, South America, Teloschistaceae.
33694Poengsungnoen V., Buaruang K., Boonpragob K. & Lumbsch H.T. (2021): A key to the identification of the genera of lichenized fungi occurring in Thailand. - Mycotaxon, 136: 409–444. https://doi.org/10.5248/136.409.
A key to the identification of the 258 genera of lichenized fungi in Thailand is presented. Species names are provided for genera for which only a single species has been recorded for Thailand. Recent available keys that include all species known from Thailand are referenced. The replacement name Ionaspis aptrootii is proposed for I. tropica Aptroot (non Riddle). Key words—biodiversity, lichens, Southeast Asia, tropics.
33693Marcano V. (2021): Siphula paramensis V. Marcano & L. Castillo (Icmadophilaceae, Lichenized Fungi), a new species from the high paramo in Venezuela. - Phytotaxa, 512(3): 169–178. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.512.3.4.
A new species of the genus Siphula is described from the Cordillera de Merida and Sierra La Culata in the Venezuelan Andes: Siphula paramensis V. Marcano & L. Castillo sp. nov. This species closely resembles Siphula subsimplex V. Marcano from the Guayana Highlands. Siphula paramensis differs by its very small thallus, obovoid or globuliform lobes, ochre-coloured, yellowish or whitish gray (in older thalli) surface, rugose, rounded and entire apices having usually reticulated lines, less thick cortex and shorter rhizines; the thalli are K–, C+ yellow, and P+ yellow in the cortex, and contain baeomycesic and squamatic acids. This is the Siphula species that grows at the highest altitude in Venezuela. It is considered to be endemic to the Venezuelan Andes. Key words: lichen, new species, endemic species, Venezuelan Andes.
33692Vicol I. (2020): Multi-aged forest fragments in Atlantic France that are surrounded by meadows retain a richer epiphyte lichen flora. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 41(15): 235–247. https://doi.org/10.5252/cryptogamie-mycologie2020v41a15.
This project was focused on identifying the effect of environmental factors on epiphytic lichen species by using a multiscale design applied within multi-aged forest fragments. The field investigations were performed within 20 forest fragments, of which 14 were surrounded by crops and six were surrounded by meadows. Sampling units of 10 by 10 m were selected from the exterior to the interior of each forest fragment following the perimeter line; other sampling units were selected following the same perimeter line to the centre of the forests. The spatial gradient represented by the exterior and interior parts of the forest fragments, surrounding matrix and forest structure (i.e., the presence of larger trees) significantly supported patterns of lichen abundance and diversity. Lichen abundance and diversity were significantly influenced by microhabitat and macrohabitat drivers on the relatively large trees in the forest fragments surrounded by both crops and meadows. Lichen species replacement was significantly described by both larger and thinner trees situated in the interior and at the exterior of the forest fragments surrounded by meadows. The lichen richness was significantly higher on larger trees situated in the interior of the forest fragments surrounded by meadows. The mature structure of forests and the surrounding matrix significantly determined the pattern of epiphytic lichen species. Furthermore, larger and thinner trees harbour very rare lichen species within forest fragments surrounded by both crops and meadows. Forest management practices based on selective cutting on a short rotation cycle did not exert a negative impact on epiphytic lichen. Key words: Larger trees, lichen diversity, lichen abundance, surrounding matrix, thinner trees, tree species.
33691de Lange P.J. (2021): An update on Lecanora kohu (Lecanoraceae)—new locations and a review of its conservation status. - Trilepidea, 209: 5–9. .
33690Zhang T., Liu M., Wang Y.-Y., Wang Z.-J., Wei X.-L. & Wei J.-C. (2017): Two new species of Endocarpon (Verrucariaceae, Ascomycota) from China. - Scientific Reports, 7: 7193 [11 p.]. DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-07778-5.
Endocarpon species are key components of biological soil crusts. Phenotypic and systematic molecular analyses were carried out to identify samples of Endocarpon collected from the southeast edge of the Tengger Desert in China. These morphological and molecular analyses revealed two previously undescribed species that form highly supported independent monophyletic clades within Endocarpon. The new taxa were named Endocarpon deserticola sp. nov. and E. unifoliatum sp. nov. Furthermore, our results indicated that the newly developed protein coding markers adenylate kinase (ADK) and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme h (UCEH) are useful for assessing species boundaries in phylogenic analyses.
33689Sargsyan R., Gasparyan A., Tadevosyan G. & Panosyan H. (2021): Antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of non‑cytotoxic extracts of corticolous lichens sampled in Armenia. - AMB Express, 11: 110 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13568-021-01271-z.
Due to wide range of secondary metabolites, lichens were used from antiquity as sources of colorants, perfumes and medicaments. This research focuses on exploring the antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of methanol, ethanol, acetone extracts and aqueous infusions of corticolous lichens sampled from Armenia. Methanol, ethanol and acetone extracts from all tested lichens were active against Gram-positive bacterial strains. The most effective solvent to retrieve antimicrobial compounds was methanol. Aqueous infusions of tested lichens didn’t show any significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. The highest antimicrobial activity was observed for methanol extract of Ramalina sinensis. The minimum inhibitory concentration of methanol extract of Ramalina sinensis were 0.9–1.8 mg mL− 1. Pseudevernia furfuracea demonstrated antifungal activity (Ø 12 mm). Methanol extract of Parmelia sulcata demonstrated largest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (71 %). The cytotoxicity was measured on human HeLa (cervical carcinoma) cell lines using microculture tetrazolium test assay. The IC50 values estimated for methanol extracts of Peltigera praetextata, Evernia prunastri, Ramalina sinensis and Ramalina farinacea species in HeLa cell line were within 1.8–2.8 mg mL− 1 and considered as non-cytotoxic. Obtained results suggest that studied lichens can be prospective in biotechnologies as alternative sources of antimicrobial and antioxidant substances. Keywords: Lichens, Crude extracts, Antimicrobial activity, Antioxidant activity, Cytotoxic activity.
33688Lendemer J.C. & Keepers K.G. (2021): Bacidia depriestiana (Ramalinaceae), a new species from the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. - Bryologist, 124(3): 362–375. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.3.362.
Bacidia depriestiana is described as new to science based on material from the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. The species has a granular to minutely areolate thallus, with minute, erumpent soralia, produces atranorin and zeorin, and is not known to produce apothecia. The combination of chemistry and thallus type appears to be unique within the genus. Originally identified as Lecanora nothocaesiella, the species was recognized as distinct in conjunction with study of a large metagenomic dataset for lichens from the region. In connection with obtaining molecular loci use for phylogenetic placement of the material, the mitochondrial genome was assembled, found to be 38,546 bp in length, and encoded for the full suite of protein coding genes previously found in lichen fungi, with the exception of atp9. Keywords: Asexual reproduction, biodiversity, collection bias, endemism, granule, molecular phylogeny, soredia.
33687Habib K., Zulfiqar R. & Khalid A.N. (2021): Additions to the lichen genus Rhizocarpon in Pakistan and their comparative analysis. - Webbia, 76(1): 123–134. doi: 10.36253/jopt-9889.
As part of a comprehensive study of lichen diversity of northern areas of Pakistan using molecular and morphological approaches, we found four species of the genus Rhizocarpon. The analysis revealed two new species in the lichen biota of Pakistan namely, Rhizocarpon lavatum and Rhizocarpon petraeum, while the other two, Rhizocarpon disporum and Rhizocarpon geminatum are reported for the second time, from new localities. In comparison to literature information and GenBank sequences of the same taxa, variation in the morpho-anatomical features and nucleotide differences in the ITS marker of nrDNA have been documented. Descriptions and phylogenetic analysis of the taxa are given, along with information on ecology and distribution. Keywords: Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Lichens, Rhizocarpaceae, Taxonomy.
33686Muhoro A.M. & Farkas E.É. (2021): Insecticidal and antiprotozoal properties of lichen secondary metabolites on insect vectors and their transmitted protozoal diseases to humans. - Diversity, 13(8): 342 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13080342.
Since the long-term application of synthetic chemicals as insecticides and the chemotherapy of protozoal diseases have had various negative effects (non-target effects, resistance), research on less harmful biological products is underway. This review is focused on lichens with potential insecticidal and antiprotozoal activity. Literature sources (27) were surveyed from five bibliographic databases and analyzed according to the taxonomic group of the insect, the protozoal disease and the lichen, the type of bioactive compounds (including method of application and mount applied), and the potential bioactivity based on mortalities caused after 24 h of exposure on insects and on parasitic protozoa. Six species of protozoa and five species of mosquitoes, three kinds of larval stages of insects and three protozoa stages were tested. Insecticidal and antiprotozoal effects of crude extracts and seven lichen secondary metabolites (mostly usnic acid) of 32 lichen species were determined. Physiological and morphological changes on parasitic protozoa were observed. Mortality rates caused by LSMs on insect vectors closer to (or somewhat above) the WHO threshold were considered to be insecticides. The results are based on laboratory experiments; however, the efficacy of metabolites should be confirmed in the field and on non-human primates to control the insect vectors and human protozoal diseases transmitted by insects. Keywords: antiprotozoal; bioactivity; insect bite; human illnesses; human infections; insecticidal; larvicidal; lichens; literature survey; secondary substances.
33685Dal Forno M., Lawrey J.D., Sikaroodi M., Gillevet P.M., Schuettpelz E. & Lücking R. (2021): Extensive photobiont sharing in a rapidly radiating cyanolichen clade. - Molecular Ecology, 30: 1755–1776. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.15700|.
Recent studies have uncovered remarkable diversity in Dictyonema s.lat. basidiolichens, here recognized as subtribe Dictyonemateae. This group includes five genera and 148 species, but hundreds more await description. The photobionts of these lichens belong to Rhizonema, a recently resurrected cyanobacterial genus known by a single species. To further investigate photobiont diversity within Dictyonemateae, we generated 765 new cyanobacterial sequences from 635 specimens collected from 18 countries. The ITS barcoding locus supported the recognition of 200 mycobiont (fungal) species among these samples, but the photobiont diversity was comparatively low. Our analyses revealed three main divisions of Rhizonema, with two repeatedly recovered as monophyletic (proposed as new species), and the third mostly paraphyletic. The paraphyletic lineage corresponds to R. interruptum and partnered with mycobionts from all five genera in Dictyonemateae. There was no evidence of photobiont-mycobiont co-speciation, but one of the monophyletic lineages of Rhizonema appears to partner predominantly with one of the two major clades of Cora (mycobiont) with samples collected largely from the northern Andes. Molecular clock estimations indicate the Rhizonema species are much older than the fungal species in the Dictyonemateae, suggesting that these basidiolichens obtained their photobionts from older ascolichen lineages and the photobiont variation in extant lineages of Dictyonemateae is the result of multiple photobiont switches. These results support the hypothesis of lichens representing "fungal farmers," in which diverse mycobiont lineages associate with a substantially lower diversity of photobionts by sharing those photobionts best suited for the lichen symbiosis among multiple and often unrelated mycobiont lineages. Keywords: fungi, lichens, pantropic, species interactions, symbiosis.
33684Vaez M. & Davarpanah S.J. (2021): New insights into the biological activity of lichens: bioavailable secondary metabolites of Umbilicaria decussata as potential anticoagulants. - Chemistry and Biodiversity, 18: e2100080 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202100080.
This study reports the in vitro anticoagulation activity of acetonic extract (AE) of 42 lichen species and the identification of potential bioavailable anticoagulant compounds from Umbilicaria decussata as a competent anticoagulant lichen species. Lichens’ AEs were evaluated for their anticoagulant activity by monitoring activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) assays. A strong, positive correlation was observed between total phenolics concentration (TPC) of species and blood coagulation parameters. U. decussata was the only species with the longest clotting time in both APTT and PT assays. The research was moved forward by performing in vivo assays using rats. The results corroborated the dose-dependent impact of U. decussata’s AE on rats’ clotting time. Major secondary metabolites of U. decussata and their plasma-related bioavailability were also investigated using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Atranol, orsellinic acid, D-mannitol, lecanoric acid, and evernic acid were detected as possible bioavailable anticoagulants of U. decussata. Our findings suggest that U. decussata might be a potential anticoagulant lichen species that can be used for the prevention or treatment of coagulation-related issues such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Keywords: Umbilicaria decussata, clotting time, natural products, metabolic profiling, biological activity. .
33683Wu H.-X., Ren W.-B., Li X.-H. & Yang Z.-X. (2021): A new species of foliicolous lichenized fungi from southwest China: Calopadia ruiliensis sp. nov.. - Turkish Journal of Botany, 45: 371–377. doi:10.3906/bot-2101-32.
Calopadia ruiliensis, found on living leaves in southwest China, is described as a new species, based on morphology and phylogenetic analysis. It is characterized by a foliicolous thallus with yellow greenish to creamy yellow color, rounded apothecia with nonpruinose to thinly pruinose disc, a dark olive-green hypothecium and black-brown subhymenium, and 1-spored asci producing muriform ascospores. Phylogenetic analysis of LSU sequence data shows that the new species clusters in the genus Calopadia with high bootstrap support. The new species is compared with closely related and similar species of Calopadia and a comprehensive description and micrographs are provided. Key words: Pilocarpaceae, new taxon, morphology, phylogeny, taxonomy.
33682Jeong M.-H., Park C.-H., Kim J.A., Choi E.D., Kim S., Hur J.-S. & Park S.-Y. (2021): Production and activity of cristazarin in the lichen-forming fungus Cladonia metacorallifera. - Journal of Fungi, 7(8): 601 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7080601.
Lichens are a natural source of bioactive compounds. Cladonia metacorallifera var. reagens KoLRI002260 is a rare lichen known to produce phenolic compounds, such as rhodocladonic, thamnolic, and didymic acids. However, these metabolites have not been detected in isolated mycobionts. We investigated the effects of six carbon sources on metabolite biosynthesis in the C. metacorallifera mycobiont. Red pigments appeared only in Lilly and Barnett’s media with fructose at 15 °C after 3 weeks of culture and decreased after 6 weeks. We purified these red pigments using preparative-scale high performance liquid chromatography and analyzed them via nuclear magnetic resonance. Results indicated that 1% fructose-induced cristazarin and 6-methylcristazarin production under light conditions. In total, 27 out of 30 putative polyketide synthase genes were differentially expressed after 3 weeks of culture, implying that these genes may be required for cristazarin production in C. metacorallifera. Moreover, the white collar genes Cmwc-1 and Cmwc-2 were highly upregulated at all times under light conditions, indicating a possible correlation between cristazarin production and gene expression. The cancer cell lines AGS, CT26, and B16F1 were sensitive to cristazarin, with IC50 values of 18.2, 26.1, and 30.9 μg/mL, respectively, which highlights the value of cristazarin. Overall, our results suggest that 1% fructose under light conditions is required for cristazarin production by C. metacorallifera mycobionts, and cristazarin could be a good bioactive compound. Keywords: Cladonia metacorallifera; cristazarin; lichen bioresource; polyketide synthase (PKS) genes; secondary metabolites.
33681Svensson M. & Owe-Larsson B. (2021): Synonymizations and lectotypifications of some lecideoid lichens (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes) described from Finland or Sweden. - Nordic Journal of Botany, 39(7): e03236 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/njb.03236.
Between 1850 and 1950, hundreds of lecideoid lichen-forming fungi were described from Fennoscandia, mainly in the genus Lecidea. The status of many of these species is still uncertain and some have not been revised since their description. We examined types and nomenclature of nine such lecideoid taxa, and found that they represent synonyms of earlier described species: Bacidia dolera (= Lecidea albofuscescens), Lecidea aviaria (= Rhizocarpon richardii), L. cavernarum (= Porpidia soredizodes), L. cuculi (= Schaereria fuscocinerea), L. frustulenta (= Micarea subnigrata), L. ivalensis (= Carbonea vorticosa), L. melaphanoides (= Scoliciosporum intrusum), L. mustialensis (= L. albofusces-cens) and L. submilvina (= Miriquidica leucophaea). In addition, we examined types and nomenclature of three synonyms of Lecanora cadubriae: Biatora admixta, B. pinicola and Lecidea subinsequens. Lectotypes are designated for the basionyms Biatora admixta Th.Fr., Biatora pinicola Th.Fr. ex Hellb., Lecidea cuculi Vain., Lecidea fuscocinerea Nyl., Lecidea ivalensis Vain., Lecidea melaphanoides Nyl. and Lecidea subinsequens Nyl.bKeywords: Fennoscandia, fungi, lichens, nomenclature, taxonomy.
33680Martins C.C., de Abreu-Mota M.A., do Nascimento M.G., Dauner A.L.L., Lourenço R.A., Bícego M.C. & Montone R.C. (2021): Sources and depositional changes of aliphatic hydrocarbons recorded in sedimentary cores from Admiralty Bay, South Shetland Archipelago, Antarctica during last decades. - Science of the Total Environment, 795: 148881 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148881.
Organic biomarkers, as aliphatic hydrocarbons, are present in sedimentary organic matter and have been largely applied to the evaluation of recent environmental changes in the marine environment around the globe, including the Antarctic continent. Five sediment cores were taken in the Admiralty Bay, South Shetland Archipelago, Antarctica to evaluate changes in the signature of aliphatic hydrocarbons such as n-alkanes (n-C10 to n-C40) and isoprenoids as pristane and phytane, over the last decades. The total n-alkanes concentration ranged from 0.17 to 1.67 μg g−1 (mean = 0.74 ± 0.42) which is considered low and similar to pristine sediments. Aliphatic hydrocarbons present in the sedimentary pool came mostly from terrestrial sources as Antarctic lichens and mosses, and frommarine sources as the macroalgae forest debris and emergent macrophytes. Anthropogenic inputs of aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g., petroleum and their by-products) may be neglected based on the multiproxy approach used to distinct sources of these organic compounds. In general, no significant changes in the sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons were observed along the sediment cores; however, an increased aliphatic hydrocarbons input registered between 1975 and 1992 may be related to the increase in meltwater runoff and the relatively high abundance of marine producers more adapted to increased sea temperatures. Keywords: Sediments; n-Alkanes; Pristane; Phytane; Organic matter; Proxies; King George Island. Highlights: • Aliphatic hydrocarbons were studied in sediment cores from a marine Antarctic region. • Lichens, mosses, macroalgae forest debris and macrophytes are main sources of n-alkanes. • Meltwater runoff contributed to the increased n-alkanes input between 1975 and 1992. • Petroleum and related sources inputs may be neglected based on the multiproxy applied.
33679Goodenough U., Wagner R. & Roth R. (2021): Lichen 4. The Algal Layer. - Algal Research, 58: 102355 [53 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2021.102355.
A lichen is a slow-growing niche-constructing organism that forms a thallus via scripted symbiotic/mutualist relationships between fungi, algae, and bacteria. Here we use quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy (QFDEEM) and light microscopy to probe a hallmark lichen construction wherein clusters of algae and hyphae, inter-connected by wall-to-wall junctions, form stable consortia that we call green modules. These assemble in the pseudo-meristem and then localize to the algal layer of the thallus. In the foliose lobes of Candelaria concolor, the cells in each module are enveloped in a continuous 10-nm-thick film of hydrophobin proteins, which binds to wall and matrix surfaces on its hydrophilic side and faces air or water on its hydrophobic side. We document patterned relationships between modules and associated cords of hyphae destined for the outer layers, and propose ways that these relationships could form the structural foundation for water and air regulation within foliose lobes. Keywords: Lichen; Ascomycete; Alga; Green module; Hydrophobin; Fungal secondary products; Quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy.
33678Kakeh J., Gorji M., Mohammadi M.H., Asadi H., Khormali F., Sohrabi M. & Eldridge D.J. (2021): Biocrust islands enhance infiltration, and reduce runoff and sediment yield on a heavily salinized dryland soil. - Geoderma, 404: 115329 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2021.115329.
Salinity and sodicity are major forms of land degradation in drylands worldwide, reducing soil function, and threatening pastoral livelihoods. Dryland soils are often dominated by biocrusts, surface aggregations of lichens, bryophytes, fungi and other minute organisms that stabilize surface soils. Biocrusts could have a role in maintaining hydrological functions in heavily salinized areas, but there have been few studies, and the mechanisms are poorly understood. We tested whether biocrust mosses and lichens enhanced infiltration, and reduced runoff and sediment yield, on biocrusted islands scattered among extensive patches of bare highly saline soils in northeaster Iran. Biocrusted soils had greater cumulative infiltration and hydraulic conductivity, less runoff, which commenced later, and lower sediment yields than bare soils. The water content of biocrusted soils was greater than bare soils, but only at low matric potentials. Biocrusted surfaces were alkaline, more sandy, had lower levels of sodium, chloride, and calcium-plus-magnesium ions, and a lower sodium absorption ratio than bare soils. Structural equation modelling showed that increasing salinity was associated with a suppression of the negative effect of biocrusts on runoff. Potential mechanisms for reduced runoff likely relate to enhanced soil aggregation and porosity of biocrusted soils leading to greater retention of soil water content at low matric potentials, as well as an ability of mosses and lichens to capture and store surface water or to permit infiltration into the uppermost surface layers. Overall, our findings reveal a strong association between moss- and lichendominant biocrusts and soil hydrological processes, and suggest that these crusts play an important role in maintaining hydrological function in heavily salinized soils. Keywords: Biological soil crusts; Hydrological function; Runoff; Sediment yield; Soil salinity.
33677Agnelli A., Corti G., Massaccesi L., Ventura S. & D’Acqui L.P. (2021): Impact of biological crusts on soil formation in polar ecosystems. - Geoderma, 401: 115340 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2021.115340.
We tested the impact of biological soil crusts (BSC) at different degrees of development on soil formation in Polar ecosystems, specifically in two Arctic sites, Svalbard Island (Norway) and Tarfala (Sweden), and in an Antarctic site, Apostrophe Island (Victoria Land). In each site, slightly developed BSC (thin and made by green algae and cyanobacteria associations – SD-BSC) highly developed BSC (thick and dominated by green algae and cyanobacteria associations with/without mosses and/or lichens – HD-BSC), and moderately developed BSC (MD-BSC) with intermediate characteristics between the slightly and the highly developed, were sampled together with the AC and A horizons immediately under the crust. After separating the organic residue of the biocrust from the mineral phase by density fractionation, in the heavy fractions obtained from HD-BSC, MD-BSC and SD-BSC we determined the amount of soil organic carbon and its radiocarbon natural abundance, total nitrogen content, mineralogical assemblage by x-ray diffraction, and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) by infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). We found that when BSC were able to develop on stable ice-free surfaces, they modified the soil by supplying new organic substances. These new substances, in addition to diluting the old C inherited from the substrate and darkening the upper mineral horizon, promoted acidification, which is responsible for mineral weathering and neogenesis of clay minerals. With their development, BSC act as ecosystem engineers and promote soil formation in Polar ecosystems by increasing soil stability, organic matter content and nutrient availability, which indirectly improve aggregation, water holding capacity, and soil heating. Keywords: Gelisols; Biocrusts; Soil organic C; Weathering; Radiocarbon; Infrared photoacoustic spectrometry (FTIRPAS).
33676Looney C.E., D’Amato A.W. & Jovan S. (2021): Investigating linkages between the size-growth relationship and drought, nitrogen deposition, and structural complexity in western U.S. Forests. - Forest Ecology and Management, 497: 119494 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2021.119494.
Understanding how stand structure responds to stresses such as drought and pollution could aid forest managers in evaluating silvicultural treatment success, predicting treatment durability, and designing adaptive management approaches. The size-growth relationship (SGR), a measure of growth partitioning among different size trees in a stand, may provide a means of linking stresses impacting individual trees to forest stand development and growth. No study to date has tested SGR’s response to drought and pollution, specifically N deposition, across landscapes. We combined Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) stand development and plot-level lichen bioindicator data on N deposition with climate data denoting moisture availability. Using linear regression, we examined SGR, stand structural complexity, individual tree growth and mortality in largely multi-aged, mixed species stands in California, Oregon, and Washington, USA, coniferous and pine-oak forests. Our goals were to determine a) the influence of moisture availability and/or N deposition on SGR, b) whether SGR translates to differences in stand structural complexity over time, and c) the extent to which SGR mediates the impacts of abiotic stress on tree growth and mortality. Consistent with previous research, our results indicated that SGR increased with stand density, indicative of larger trees possessing a disproportionate advantage in aboveground competition for light. SGR declined linearly with stand age, trending over time towards disproportionately slow large-tree growth. SGR strongly increased with low-moderate bioindicated N deposition, which is consistent with past findings that SGR increases with site quality and suggests that N deposition disproportionately increases growth in larger trees. We did not find evidence that drought stress (as indicated by the Palmer Drought Severity Index) influenced SGR. Stands that were already more structurally complex showed further gains in complexity under high SGR (disproportionately rapid large-tree growth), whereas stands that were initially structurally simpler increased in complexity under low SGR (disproportionately slow large tree growth). As such, individualtree growth and mortality may drive changes in complexity. Our results support the utility of SGR as a predictor of how stress impacts stand structure, but only when accounting for initial structural complexity. Our findings also have implications for the design and durability of silvicultural treatments, given that silvicultural prescriptions often involve the manipulation of tree size distributions. Moreover, these findings underscore the importance of accounting for the historical influence of N deposition on stand development during treatment planning, as well as the likelihood of socioeconomic changes altering N deposition in the future. Keywords: Growth dominance; Climate change; Air pollution; Competition symmetry; Structural heterogeneity; Lichen bioindicator.
33675McCann E., Reed S.C., Saud P., Reibold R.H., Howell A. & Faist A.M. (2021): Plant growth and biocrust-fire interactions across five North American deserts. - Geoderma, 401: 115325 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2021.115325.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are communities predominately comprised of lichens, bryophytes, fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria that form at the soil surface in dryland ecosystems worldwide. Biocrusts can influence the vascular plant community by altering surface hydrology, nutrient cycling, and the availability of microsites suitable for germination. Fire frequency has increased in many dryland systems, but the potential impacts of fire on biocrust-plant interactions remains unclear. Our study explores how biocrusts and the heating associated with fire affect plant growth across five North American desert sites: the Chihuahuan, Colorado Plateau, Great Basin, Mojave, and Sonoran. Using field-collected biocrusts and mineral soil samples from each of these five deserts, we investigated soil biogeochemical differences and the implications of soil heating and biocrust cover on greenhouse grown Elymus elymoides plants. Results showed plant biomass and leaf production were largely determined by the desert where soils originated, and that the soils collected from the Great Basin site, whether heated or not, were generally higher in nutrients and distinct from the other North American desert sites. In contrast, the Chihuahuan site was lower in nutrients and plant biomass growth compared with the other desert sites. In the short term, biocrusts and heating did not significantly affect the biogeochemical profile of individual desert site soils. However, biocrusts and soil heating positively influenced plant growth, and the combination of these factors influenced plants more strongly than either factor considered separately. These findings highlight the importance of biocrusts in mediating resources and suggest additional mechanisms through which fire may alter or accentuate dynamics between biocrusts and vascular plants. Keywords: Biological soil crusts; Drylands; Ecosystem recovery; Great Basin; First order fire effects; North American deserts; Plant biomass; Elymus elymoides.
33674Chaparro M.A.E. (2021): Airborne particle accumulation and loss in pollution-tolerant lichens and its magnetic quantification. - Environmental Pollution, 288: 117807 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117807.
Pollution-tolerant lichens are recognized ecological indicators of air pollution in cities, which can also collect airborne anthropogenic particles in their tissues. Harmful (sub)micron-sized magnetites are a ubiquitous component of air particle pollution, adversely impacting human health. In this work, in situ magnetic susceptibility κis of well-characterized ultrafine magnetite and lichen thalli were measured to quantify the amount of airborne magnetic particles (AMP) after calibration and to assess the lichen’s decontamination over time. Up to 2850 magnetic measurements were carried out in twenty-nine transplanted lichens (collected in urban and clean areas) from winter 2020 to winter 2021. Before the transplants, their initial κis values were 0.23–9.45 × 10
33673Dietrich M., Krekeler M.P.S., Kousehlar M. & Widom E. (2021): Quantification of Pb pollution sources in complex urban environments through a multi-source isotope mixing model based on Pb isotopes in lichens and road sediment. - Environmental Pollution, 288: 117815 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117815.
Despite a growing focus on anthropogenic toxic metal pollution in urban environments, few studies have addressed the problem of quantification when more than two pollution sources are likely present, particularly within complex urban settings in the United States (U.S.). In this study, we utilize the MixSIAR package in R for source apportionment based on Pb isotopic signatures in lichen and road sediment in two urban-industrial centers in SW Ohio (OH). We show that ranges of pollutant contributions are more useful than only visualizing mean or raw values of source apportionment, because this avoids overinterpretation of data when certain sources have a large range of uncertainty. We point out both the dominance of industrial pollution as well as the legacy of leaded gasoline pollution in typical mid-sized U.S. cities, which is evident in both road sediment and lichens. Leaded gasoline contribution to Pb in Middletown, OH lichens mostly vary between ~10 and 25%, while in Hamilton, OH the contribution to lichens and road sediment tends to be relatively negligible except for two road sediment samples and one lichen sample, where median contributions are ~20–30%. Industrial combustion pollution source contributions vary between ~25 and 75% in Hamilton, and ~50–100% in Middletown, OH. Furthermore, comparing pollution sources in lichens to modern particulate matter can provide a record of how pollutant sources change over time, such as our traffic lichen (Sample Li-9) plotting closer to leaded gasoline on a bivariate mixing diagram than modern traffic particulate matter, or our coke plant lichen containing slightly less Pb contribution from industrial combustion sources relative to modern coke plant particulate matter. Lastly, when applicable, multi-source mixing models should be complimented in future studies with additional isotopic source tracers such as Cu, Zn, Nd, and Os to further elucidate unique sources of metal pollutants in addition to Pb. Keywords: Pb isotopes; Pollution source apportionment; MixSIAR; Urban pollution; Road dust; Lichens.
33672Pino-Bodas R. & Stenroos S. (2021): Global biodiversity patterns of the photobionts associated with the genus Cladonia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota). - Microbial Ecology, 82: 173–187. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-020-01633-3.
The diversity of lichen photobionts is not fully known. We studied here the diversity of the photobionts associated with Cladonia, a sub-cosmopolitan genus ecologically important, whose photobionts belong to the green algae genus Asterochloris. The genetic diversity of Asterochloris was screened by using the ITS rDNA and actin type I regions in 223 specimens and 135 species of Cladonia collected all over the world. These data, added to those available in GenBank, were compiled in a dataset of altogether 545 Asterochloris sequences occurring in 172 species of Cladonia. A high diversity of Asterochloris associated with Cladonia was found. The commonest photobiont lineages associated with this genus are A. glomerata, A. italiana, and A. mediterranea. Analyses of partitioned variation were carried out in order to elucidate the relative influence on the photobiont genetic variation of the following factors: mycobiont identity, geographic distribution, climate, and mycobiont phylogeny. The mycobiont identity and climate were found to be the main drivers for the genetic variation of Asterochloris. The geographical distribution of the different Asterochloris lineages was described. Some lineages showed a clear dominance in one or several climatic regions. In addition, the specificity and the selectivity were studied for 18 species of Cladonia. Potentially specialist and generalist species of Cladonia were identified. A correlation was found between the sexual reproduction frequency of the host and the frequency of certain Asterochloris OTUs. Some Asterochloris lineages co-occur with higher frequency than randomly expected in the Cladonia species. Keywords: Asterochloris . Lichens . Specificity . Symbiosis . Trebouxiophyceae.
33671Lyanguzova I.V. (2021): Airborne heavy metal pollution and its effects on biomass of ground vegetation, foliar elemental composition and metabolic profiling of forest plants in the Kola Peninsula (Russia). - Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 68, Suppl. 1: S140–S149. DOI: 10.1134/S1021443721070086.
In this work a quantitative estimation of biomass accumulation in the ground cover of pine forests of northern taiga in the background area of the Kola Peninsula (Russia) and in the territory of the buffer and impact zones of non-ferrous metallurgical plant, producing air emissions containing sulfur dioxide and polymetallic dust, was carried out. It was found that under the influence of airborne pollution in the first place the moss–lichen layer is destroyed with elimination of sensitive species of mosses and lichens; the structure of biomass changes and both the total stock of aboveground biomass and stocks of individual components decrease. The results of studying the elemental composition of dominant species of plants (Vaccinium myrtillus L., V. vitis-idaea L., V. uliginosum L., Empetrum hermaphroditum Hagerup), mosses (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt.) and lichens (Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouza et Vĕzda) of northern taiga forests revealed an imbalance in their mineral nutrition. Using metabolomic analysis, the macroprofile of the component composition of the secondary metabolites in the leaves of 3 species of the Vaccinium genus was characterized, the specificity of the composition of metabolites in each studied species was revealed. Despite the reduction in atmospheric emissions by Severonickel Combine, the restoration of the ground cover in pine forests is inhibited (buffer zone) or it cannot even begin (impact zone) due to the high level of soil contamination with heavy metals. The mineral nutrition of higher plants, mosses and lichens is disturbed: as one approaches the source of pollution, the accumulation of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Co, Fe) increases; their ratio changes; the content of micro- (Mn) and essential macroelements (Ca, Mg) decreases in the leaves of the dwarf shrubs and the moss. The changes in the metabolite profiles of the leaves of the genus Vaccinium are due to both the plant species and the level of airborne pollution. Keywords: Vaccinium genus, Empetrum hermaphroditum, Pleurozium schreberi, Cladonia stellaris, heavy metals, airborne technogenic pollution, biomass, mineral composition, metabolic profiling, northern pine forests, Kola Peninsula.
33670Trindade D.P.F., Pärtel M., Carmona C.P., Randlane T. & Nascimbene J. (2021): Integrating dark diversity and functional traits to enhance nature conservation of epiphytic lichens: a case study from Northern Italy. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 30: 2565–2579. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-021-02211-w.
Mountains provide a timely opportunity to examine the potential effects of climate change on biodiversity. However, nature conservation in mountain areas have mostly focused on the observed part of biodiversity, not revealing the suitable but absent species—dark diversity. Dark diversity allows calculating the community completeness, indicating whether sites should be restored (low completeness) or conserved (high completeness). Functional traits can be added, showing what groups should be focused on. Here we assessed changes in taxonomic and functional observed and dark diversity of epiphytic lichens along elevational transects in Northern Italy spruce forests. Eight transects (900–1900 m) were selected, resulting in 48 plots and 240 trees, in which lichens were sampled using four quadrats per tree (10 × 50 cm). Dark diversity was estimated based on species co-occurrence (Beals index). We considered functional traits related to growth form, photobiont type and reproductive strategy. Linear and Dirichlet regressions were used to examine changes in taxonomic metrics and functional traits along gradient. Our results showed that all taxonomic metrics increased with elevation and functional traits of lichens differed between observed and dark diversity. At low elevations, due to low completeness and harsh conditions, both restoration and conservation activities are needed, focusing on crustose species. Towards high elevations, conservation is more important to prevent species pool losses, focusing on macrolichens, lichens with Trentepohlia and sexual reproduction. Finally, dark diversity and functional traits provide a novel tool to enhance nature conservation, indicating particular threatened groups, creating windows of opportunities to protect species from both local and regional extinctions. Keywords: Biodiversity conservation · Climate change · Crustose · Functional diversity · Macrolichens · Species pool.
33669Huynh B.L.C. (2021): A new diphenyl ether from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum . - Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 57(4): 667–669. DOI 10.1007/s10600-021-03446-3.
A new diphenyl ether, named praesorether P (1), was isolated from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale. Its chemical structure was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis including HR-ESI-MS and NMR as well as comparison with previously published data. Keywords: Parmotrema praesorediosum, diphenyl ether, praesorether.
33668Rabahi‑Touloum N., Brara A. & Dessandier D. (2021): Weathering patterns of the hard grey‑striped limestone in the typical Mediterranean climate of northeastern Algeria at the Roman city of Djemila. - Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 80: 6003–6022. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-021-02344-w.
The ancient ruins of Djemila, located in northeastern Algeria, represent the most important Roman archaeological site in North Africa. Originally named “Cuicul” in 96 or 97 A.D./C.E. when the Roman emperor Nerva built and established it as a Roman colony, Djemila (“beautiful” in Arabic) has been included on the UNESCO World Heritage list since 1982. The primary research objective at these ruins was to explain the major decay patterns observed, and the related processes affecting the hard grey-striped limestone widely used in the construction of the city. Mineralogical, petrophysical, and mechanical tests were performed on samples of this limestone collected from both the ancient city and the original quarry using different tools (XRD, XRF, SEM-EDX, etc.) and methods. Results obtained show that this stone has a high compressive strength with very low porosity and capillary absorption. The linear thermal coefficient showed a marked difference between the matrix and the veinlet of the same sampled stone. Hence, exposure over many centuries to strong climatic variations due to the typical Mediterranean climate of Northeastern Algeria naturally resulted in the characteristic yet spectacular decay patterns exhibited on the stone, namely cracks, fractures, contour scaling, large fragmentation, and delamination, as well as orange patina and lichens. The main effective parameters involved are temperature variations (thermal gradient), along with the wet–dry cycles resulting from climatic changes, and insolation decay due to the extreme radiant energy. These factors work in conjunction with the heterogeneity of the stone (presence of the calcite veinlets on the matrix) causing a fatigue phenomenon which, in turn, catalyzes deterioration patterns. Keywords: Djemila · Stone decay · Micritic limestone · Mediterranean climate.
33667Hintz L., Fischer D., Ferrari N. & Crisafulli C.M. (2021): Vegetation dynamics under residual large trees following a volcanic eruption in a Valdivian temperate rainforest. - Plant Ecology, 222: 915–931. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-021-01151-3(0123456789.
Airborne volcanic ejecta (tephra) can strongly influence forest ecosystems through initial disturbance processes and subsequent ecological response. Within a tephra-disturbed forest, large trees may promote plant growth and create favorable sites for colonization. Three primary ways trees can influence posteruption vegetation response include: (1) amelioration of volcanic substrates, (2) providing source propagules from the tree or from associated epiphytes, and (3) sheltering understory vegetation, thereby increasing the rate of recovery near tree bases. Here, we evaluate Valdivian temperate rainforest understory vegetation responses in close proximity to large trees that survived the 2015 eruption of Calbuco Volcano. Understory vegetative cover was higher near the base of trees for mosses, many epiphytes, and some herbaceous, shrub, and trees species. However, significant interactions with year of measurement, and individualistic responses by many species made generalizations more difficult. Shrubs and trees in particular demonstrated patterns of recovery that were frequently independent of distance. In some cases, percent cover of colonizing vegetation actually increased away from trees by 2019. The soil surface was similarly variable where bare soil cover was associated with locations proximal to tree bases, but material shed from living and dead standing vegetation increased wood and litter abundances on the soil surface away from the base of trees. Soils near trees had lower pH, elevated organic matter, and higher nitrogen and carbon. Our results support the assertion that in this temperate rainforest ecosystem large trees may provide important early refugia for vegetative regrowth following a tephra-fall event with altered edaphic conditions. Nevertheless, individualistic dynamics of different species and growth forms suggest the influence of large trees on nearby understory plants is more complex than a simple facilitative model might suggest. Keywords: Calbuco Volcano;  Chile;  Patagonia; Tephra;  Disturbance ecology;  Vegetation.
33666Aoussar N., Achmit M., Es‑sadeqy Y., Vasiljević P., Rhallabi N., Mhand R.A., Zerouali K., Manojlović N. & Mellouki F. (2021): Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and antistaphylococcal activities of Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach., Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf. and Ramalina farinacea (L.) Ach. from Morocco. - Archives of Microbiology, 203: 2887–2894. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-021-02288-5.
The purpose of this work was to assess chemical composition, antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus isolates from catheter-associated infections and antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of three lichens collected from Morocco. The phytochemical analysis of the methanol extracts of these lichens was performed by HPLC–UV method, the predominant phenolic compounds were evernic acid, physodalic acid and usnic acid for Evernia prunastri, Pseudevernia furfuracea and Ramalina farinacea, respectively. Total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid content of all extracts were also determined. As a result, Pseudevernia furfuracea extract had the strongest effect and the highest phenolic compounds content. All extracts showed antibacterial activity against all tested strains (MIC values ranging from 0.078 to 0.625 mg/mL), the strongest inhibition was obtained with the extract of Evernia prunastri. Keywords: Antioxidant activity · Antibacterial activity · Evernia prunastri · Pseudevernia furfuracea · Ramalina farinacea · Staphylococcus aureus.
33665Saini K.C., Bast F., Nayaka S. & Gautam A.K. (2021): Morpho‑molecular characterization of rock‑inhabiting lichen Dermatocarpon miniatum (Verrucariaceae, Ascomycota) and its symbiont in Indian Himalayas. - Nucleus, 64: 193–202. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13237-021-00349-0.
The genus Dermatocarpon (Verrucariaceae) is a rock-inhabiting lichen, mostly grows along the edges of lakes, rivers, streams, and watercourses. Dermatocarpon species are widely distributed from the tropics to the polar regions. In present study, D. miniatum samples were collected from the Indian Himalayas; the mycobiont and their photobionts are identified using morphological and molecular methods. The ITS rDNA markers was amplified for the DNA extracted from cultured photobiont isolates and mycobiont. The light and confocal laser scanning microscope were used for morphological evaluation of the photobionts. The nuclear ITS rDNA gene of the mycobionts and photobionts were sequenced to confirm identity. The phylogenetic trees of mycobionts and photobionts were constructed using the Maximum likelihood method that revealed an evolutionary affinity of lichen D. miniatum and photobiont Diplosphaera chodatii with similar taxa. The D. chodatii (Trebouxiophyceae) was associated with all samples of D. miniatum. This study concludes that Diplosphaera chodatii is the primary photobiont associated with D. miniatum. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of diversity for the photobiont associated with D. miniatum from India. Keywords: Diplosphaera · ITS rDNA · Mycobionts · Phylogeny · Symbionts.
33664Lechat C., Gardiennet A. & Fournier J. (2017): First report of a lichenicolous species of Hypomyces (Hypocreaceae), H. peltigericola sp. nov.. - Ascomycete.org, 9(2): 23–26. https://ascomycete.org/Portals/0/Archives/AscomyceteOrg%2009-02%2023-26.pdf.
Hypomyces peltigericola sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on material collected in France on thalli of the lichen Peltigera canina. In culture the ascospores yielded a cladobotryum-like asexual morph that was sequenced. The placement of this new species in the aurofusarin-group of the genus Hypomyces is based on the combination of morphological characters of sexual and asexual morphs as well as the comparison of its ITS rDNA sequence with those of this group available in GenBank. Keywords: Ascomycota, aurofusarin, Hypocreales, ribosomal DNA, taxonomy.
33663Etayo J. (2018): Hongos liquenícolas de las islas Azores. I. Terceira. - Ascomycete.org, 10(3): 107–116. https://ascomycete.org/Portals/0/Archives/AscomyceteOrg%2010-03%20107-116.pdf.
A total of 66 different lichenicolous fungi have been found in Terceira (Azores Islands) of which 55 have been named at least to genus. A new species is described: Arthonia albotrachynae on Hypotrachyna endochlora. A further 20 species are recorded first time in the Azores islands. Keywords: Arthonia, new species, taxonomy.
33662van den Boom P.P.G. & Etayo J. (2017): Further interesting lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Fuerteventura, Canary Islands (Spain), with three new species and notes on Mixtoconidium. - Ascomycete.org, 9(4): 124–134. https://ascomycete.org/Portals/0/Archives/AscomyceteOrg%2009-04%20124-134.pdf.
Fifty-two taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Fuerteventura (Canary Islands) are presented as a result of recent fieldwork. For each taxon, information about habitat and substrata is given. Forty-seven species are newly recorded from the island, including the rare lichenicolous fungi Arthonia follmanniana and Stigmidium epistigmellum, the latter previously only known from America, and three new species described here: Lecania euphorbiae, Staurothele alboterrestris and Stigmidium seirophorae. The new combination Variospora fuerteventurae is proposed for Caloplaca fuerteventurae. In a revision of the genus Mixtoconidium the new combinations Mixtoconidium insidens and M. nashii are proposed. Keywords: biodiversity, Macaronesia, mycoflora, new records, taxonomy.
33661van den Boom P.P.G., Sipman H.J.M., Divakar P.K. & Ertz D. (2018): New or interesting records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Suriname, with descriptions of eight new species. - Ascomycete.org, 10(6): 244–258. https://ascomycete.org/Portals/0/Archives/AscomyceteOrg%2010-06%20244-258.pdf.
Altogether 193 taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are reported from Suriname of which many are new records for the country. These include eight species which are described as new to science: Bacidia fellhaneroides, B. multicarpa, B. surinamensis, Bactrospora ochracea, Cryptolechia submyriadella, Graphis triseptata, Lasioloma pauciseptatum and Zwackhiomyces parmotrematis. notes on morphology, chemistry and ecology are given. Keywords: biodiversity, chemistry, ecology, lichenized Ascomycetes, South America, taxonomy.
33660Popovici V., Bucur L., Vochita G., Gherghel D., Mihai C.T., Rambu D., Calcan S.I., Costache T., Cucolea I.E., Matei E., Badea F.C., Caraiane A. & Badea V. (2021): In vitro anticancer activity and oxidative stress biomarkers status determined by Usnea barbata (L.) F.H. Wigg. dry extracts. - Antioxidants, 10(7): 1141 [27 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10071141.
Lichens represent an important resource for common traditional medicines due to their numerous metabolites that can exert diverse pharmacological activities including anticancer effects. To find new anticancer compounds with fewer side effects and low tumor resistance, a bioprospective study of Usnea barbata (L.) F.H. Wigg. (U. barbata), a lichen from the Călimani Mountains (Suceava county, Romania) was performed. The aim of this research was to investigate the anticancer potential, morphologic changes, wound healing property, clonogenesis, and oxidative stress biomarker status of four extracts of U. barbata in different solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate), and also of usnic acid (UA) as a positive control on the CAL-27 (ATCC® CRL-2095™) oral squamous carcinoma (OSCC) cell line and V79 (ATCC® CCL-93™) lung fibroblasts as normal cells. Using the MTT assay and according to IC50 values, it was found that the most potent anticancer property was displayed by acetone and ethyl acetate extracts. All U. barbata extracts determined morphological modifications (losing adhesion capacity, membrane shrinkage, formation of abnormal cellular wrinkles, and vacuolization) with higher intensity in tumor cells than in normal ones. The most intense anti-migration effect was established in the acetone extract treatment. The clonogenic assay showed that some U. barbata extracts decreased the ability of cancer cells to form colonies compared to untreated cells, suggesting a potential anti-tumorigenic property of the tested extracts. Therefore, all the U. barbata extracts manifest anticancer activity of different intensity, based, at least partially, on an imbalance in antioxidant defense mechanisms, causing oxidative stress. View Full-Text Keywords: Usnea barbata dry extracts; usnic acid; CAL-27 cancer cells; V79 healthy cells; cytotoxicity; clonogenesis; wound healing assay; antioxidant enzymes activity.
33659Castellani M.B., Bianchi E., Coppi A., Nascimbene J. & Benesperi R. (2021): Revision of the Parmelia saxatilis group in Italy based on morphological, chemical, and molecular data. - Phytotaxa, 512(1): 28–40. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.512.1.2.
Recent molecular studies on Parmelia revealed several new semi-cryptic and cryptic species, suggesting the existence of considerable genetic diversity within this genus that may not yet be expressed at the phenotypic level. This is the case of the two species Parmelia ernstiae and P. serrana that have been described in the P. saxatilis group from Europe and that are still poorly known in Italy. The main aim of this study is to shed light into the Italian distribution of these cryptic species on the basis of a systematic and taxonomic revision of exiccata and new specimens of the Parmelia saxatilis group collected along a biogeographical gradient through the Italian peninsula. In this revision, we combined morphological, chemical, and molecular data and evaluated their reliability for identification at the species level. Results indicate that P. saxatilis is the most widespread species and that P. ernstiae is much more widespread than previously thought. In contrast, P. serrana seems to be a rare species in Italy. Our results also indicate that the combined use of morphological and chemical data does not provide a reliable tool to discriminate the cryptic species of this group and that molecular data are thus indispensable for identification at the species level. Finally, our phylogenetic analysis supports the existence of an unrecognized diversity in parmelioid lichens that should be further investigated. Keywords: parmelioid lichens, Parmelia ernstiae, Parmelia serrana, phylogeny, secondary metabolites, taxonomy.
33658Käffer M.I., Piasa V., Weber D.D., Araújo J.F. & Martins S.M.A. (2020): Composição da comunidade liquênica na área da nascente do Rio dos Sinos, Caraá, RS, Brasil. - Pesquisas, Botânica, 74: 383–397. .
[in Portuguese with English abstract: ] The conservation units are areas that hold an expressive number of species, including lichens. The objective of this study was to verify the lichen composition around Rio dos Sinos source, which can be found at the Environmental Protection Area of Caraá, RS. Samples were collected from tree trunks, branches/leaves, and from the soil, in the interior of the forest and at its edge. The identification of species was carried out through usual identification techniques for lichens. One hundred and thirty-three species were recorded, being Lobaria asperula (Stirt.) Yoshim. a new occurrence for Brazil. Leptogium, Parmotrema and Heterodermia were the most representative genera. And, the foliose and crustose morphological groups were more predominant. Over 50% the species of genus Leptogium recorded within the area are reported to Rio Grande do Sul State. Recording the different organisms composing the ecosystem is essential, considering the fragility of the environment such as water sources, as well as to know the ecological role that they play in the environment, which can help decision taking on conservation and protection of the areas inserted in conservation units. Key-words: Lichenized fungi. Atlantic Forest. Hydrographic Basin. Conservation Unit.
33657Habib K., Firdous Q., Sohrabi M. & Khalid A.N. (2021): Aspiciliella pakistanica a new lichen species (Megasporaceae, Pertusariales, Ascomycota) from Pakistan. - Phytotaxa, 511(2): 175–182. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.511.2.5.
A new species in Megasporaceae, Aspiciliella pakistanica is described and illustrated from Pakistan. A comparative morpho– anatomical study and ITS–based molecular analysis confirmed its position within the recently resurrected genus Aspiciliella. The taxon is characterized by whitish–grey thalli having large and thick areoles without pale lines on the surface, and a discontinuous algal layer arranged in groups of vertical rows. Its positioning in a separate branch in the phylogenetic tree also makes it distinct from the other known species of the genus. Keywords: Azad Jammu & Kashmir, lichenized fungi, new species, Pakistan, taxonomy.
33656Malíček J., Bouda F., Hlisnikovský D., Konečná E., Peksa O. & Syrovátková L. (2021): Lišejníky zaznamenané během bryologicko-lichenologických dní ve Spáleném Poříčí. - Bryonora, 65: 8–23. https://botanospol.cz/sites/default/files/2021-07/BRYONORA_67_2021_06_02.pdf.
This contribution provides records on 224 lichenized fungi and one non-lichenized fungus observed during several excursions in the Brdy highlands and the Příbram region in central Bohemia. Uranium spoil heaps in the surroundings of the town of Příbram harbour many rare species such as lichens adapted to metal-rich substrates or early succession stages. Acarospora rugulosa, A. sinopica, Bacidina brandii, Leptogium subtile and Rhizocarpon ridescens are the best examples. Lecanora flavoleprosa, traditionally known as an arctic-alpine species, is locally common in the Příbram region on siliceous stones in screes. The specific and valuable habitats on uranium spoil heaps are currently endangered by restoration activities. The localities visited in the Brdy highlands included boulder screes, a valley of a brook and avenues. Bellemerea sanguinea, Cetraria sepincola, Cladonia amaurocraea, C. bellidiflora, C. stellaris, Rhizocarpon postumum, R. timdalii represent the most important records. Surprisingly, the pyrenocarpous lichen Porina rivalis was collected in the valley of the Klabava brook at its first locality outside of Great Britain, where the species has recently been described. Key words: biodiversity, boulder screes, Porina rivalis, uranium spoil heaps.
33655Palice Z. (2021): Česká a Slovenská lichenologická bibliografie XXXIII [Czech and Slovak lichenological bibliography, XXXIII]. - Bryonora, 65: 36–41. https://botanospol.cz/sites/default/files/2021-07/BRYONORA_67_2021_06_04.pdf.
bibliography; Czech Republic, Slovakia
33654Yang M.-X., Devkota S., Wang L.-S. & Scheidegger C. (2021): Ethnolichenology—The use of lichens in the Himalayas and southwestern parts of China. - Diversity, 13(7): 330 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070330.
Lichens are used in traditional medicine, food and various other ethnic uses by cultures across the Himalayas and southwestern parts of China. Evidence-based knowledge from historical and modern literatures and investigation of ethnic uses from 1990 proved that lichen species used as medicine in the Himalayas and southwestern parts of China totaled to 142 species; furthermore, 42 species were utilized as food. Moreover, some lichens are popularly used for lichen produce in ethnic and modern life. An understanding and clarification of the use of lichens in the Himalayas and southeastern parts of China can therefore be important for understanding uses of lichens elsewhere and a reference for additional research of lichen uses in the future. Keywords: lichen; ethnic use; medicinal; edible species; Himalayas; southwestern China.