34551Ai M., Li L.J., Worthy F.R., Yin A.C., Zhong Q.Y., Wang S.Q., Wang L.S. & Wang X.Y. (2022): Taxonomy of Buellia epigaea-group (Caliciales, Caliciaceae), revealing a new species and two new records from China. - MycoKeys, 92: 45–62. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.92.83939.
During the Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research Program, we discovered that white terricolous lichenized fungal species of Buellia De Not. were widely distributed across the Tibetan Plateau. After examining their morphology, chemistry and phylogeny, we describe Buellia alpina Xin Y. Wang & Li S. Wang, sp. nov. as new to science. It is present in alpine meadows, and is characterized by its effigurate thallus, distinct linear marginal lobes, cover of thick white pruina and four-spored asci. This is also the first report of Buellia elegans Poelt and Buellia epigaea (Pers.) Tuck from China. The Buellia epigaea-group has previously been characterized by white and often effigurate thalli that occur mainly on soil. However, our results show that species in this group actually belong to two distinct clades. This conclusion is based on analyses of the nuITS region and the combined regions dataset (nuITS-nuLSU-mtSSU-β-tubulin). We discuss differences in morphology, anatomy, chemistry and ecology among the putative Buellia epigaea-group. Detailed descriptions and figures for the three species from China and a key for species of Buellia epigaea-group are provided. Keywords: Lichenized fungi, nuITS-nuLSU-mtSSU-β-tubulin, phylogenetic analysis, terricolous, Tibetan Plateau.
34550Varrica D., Lo Medico F. & Alaimo M.G. (2022): Air quality assessment by the determination of trace elements in lichens (Xanthoria calcicola) in an industrial area (Sicily, Italy). - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(15): 9746 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159746.
This study provides data on variation in the content of metals and metalloids measured in the lichens (Xanthoria calcicola Oxner) collected in the Syracusan petrochemical complex (Sicily, Italy) which is considered one of the largest in Europe. Concentrations of eighteen trace elements measured in the lichens that were collected from 49 different points were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) device. The concentrations of the typical elements of industrial emissions (As, Cr, Ni, and V) highlight the environmental criticality that exists in the study area. The interpretation of the data in terms of multi-element statistical analysis (FA) and enrichment factor (EFs) proved to be particularly useful in identifying several sources that contribute to the presence of trace elements in the atmospheric particulate between anthropogenic emissions and geogenic emissions. The results of this study reveal the versatility of the lichen species Xanthoria calcicola Oxner in the search for trace elements in highly anthropized environments, so the approach followed in this study can also be applied to other industrial contexts. Keywords: trace elements; industrial area; atmospheric pollution; biomonitoring.
34549Cera A., Mendes J., Cortada À. & Gómez-Bolea A. (2022): Cover of Ramalina species as an indicator of habitat quality in threatened coastal woodlands. - Bryologist, 125(3): 424–432. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.3.424.
Coastal forests in the Mediterranean area are threatened habitats due to intense human influence. In the context of global change, a rapid tool is needed for the evaluation of habitat quality in woodlands by calculating lichen cover on twigs rather than weight biomass. We selected epiphytic Ramalina species as indicators of habitat quality and evaluated them in threatened woodlands dominated by Olea europea var. sylvestris on the island of Menorca, a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in the Mediterranean area. We measured species richness, percentage cover and dry weight in nine sites grouped into urban, rural and naturalized areas to evaluate the effect of land uses, and regressed dry weight against percentage cover. Percentage cover, dry weight, species richness of Ramalina and of its species varied depending on land use, reaching higher rates in naturalized and rural areas rather than in urban areas. In addition, we showed for the first time that field estimates of Ramalina cover at the field were related to dry weight by applying a logarithmic transformation to dry weight. Percentage cover of Ramalina was a good indicator of land uses and will be a rapid, easy and non-destructive tool to assess the quality of woodland habitats in the coastal zone. Keywords: Habitat quality, lichen ecology, Mediterranean region, lichen biomass, land use, bioindicator, Menorca.
34548Zulfiqar R., Habib K., Mayrhofer H. & Khalid A.N. (2022): A new species of the genus Rinodina (lichenized Ascomycota, Physciaceae) from Pakistan. - Bryologist, 125(3): 418–423. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.3.418.
Specimens of a species belonging to the genus Rinodina were collected during a lichen diversity study in district Kohistan, Pakistan. Both morphology and ITS sequence data confirm its position within the genus Rinodina and suggest it is distinct from other known species of the genus. The new taxon, described here as Rinodina iqbalii, is characterized by the absence of a prothallus; small apothecial discs up to 0.6 mm in diameter; and small, Milvina–type ascospores, (12.0–)16.0–18.5(–20.0) 3 (6.5–)8.0– 10.0(–12.0) µm, which become more or less Physcia–type during their ontogeny and the presence of atranorin. A tabular comparison of characters between the new species and similar taxa is provided. Keywords: Kohistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, morphology, phylogeny, taxonomy.
34547Favero-Longo S.E., Tabasso M.L., Brigadeci F., Capua M.-C., Morelli A., Pastorello P., Sohrabi M., Chaverdi A.A. & Callieri P. (2022): A first assessment of the biocidal efficacy of plant essential oils against lichens on stone cultural heritage, and the importance of evaluating suitable application protocols. - Journal of Cultural Heritage, 55: 68–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2022.02.006.
Plant essential oils (EOs) are increasingly considered as potential tools to control biodeterioration of stone cultural heritage. The application of EOs was indeed shown to devitalize photo- and hetero-trophic constituents of lithobiontic biofilms, but their effects on lichens, which are other remarkable biodeteriogens of stone surfaces, is still unexplored. In this work, we analyzed the biocidal efficacy of a commercial mixture of essential oils (Syzygium aromaticum, Thymbra capitata, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) against crustose lichen species on stone walls in Persepolis (Iran) and Saluzzo (Italy), in semi-arid and temperate bioclimatic areas, respectively. In the former site (ST1), the efficacy of EOs, quaternary ammonium and isothiazolinone biocides, applied with cellulose poultice, was compared against Acarospora cervina, Calogaya biatorina and Protoparmeliopsis usbekica. In the latter (ST2), the efficacy of different protocols to apply EOs was compared against Candelariella vitellina and Protoparmeliopsis muralis. The devitalization effect was evaluated by measuring chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters of lichen thalli (basal fluorescence, F0, and maximum quantum efficiency, Fv/Fm) and with epifluorescence microscopy. In ST1, EOs poultice application remarkably affected lichen vitality, determining in all the targets a decrease of Fv/Fm values similar or even higher than that observed for the other biocidal products. F0 values and epifluorescence microscopy, however, indicated some persistence of viable cells in A. cervina and P. usbekica. Incomplete hydration and metabolic activation of thalli during EOs application, also related to anatomical traits, may account for such partial resistance of these species of semi-arid areas. In ST2, the zeroing of Fv/Fm and a strong decrease of F0 indicated the devitalization of both the target species when EOs were applied with cellulose poultice, and also when the EOs application by brush (requiring a minor quantity of product) was combined with the immediate covering of the surface with a paper tissue, a second EOs supply and the final covering with a plastic film. Both these application protocols assured a prolonged wet condition of the surface -at least in the humid autumn climate of the temperate ST2-, and thus the metabolic activity of thalli and their susceptibility to the chemicals. The simple EOs application by brush, even if combined with the plastic film covering, was instead ineffective, likely due to the lower product supply and thallus hydration. In conclusion, the biocidal potency of EOs was also confirmed for lichens, although some species-specific resistance may be encountered, as in the case of A. cervina and P. usbekica in ST1. The set up of the application protocol, particularly with respect to the assurance of thallus hydration, was shown as crucial to make the EOs treatments effective and should be taken into particular care when targeting lichens of semi-arid areas and, in general, to plan interventions in favourable, more humid seasons. Keywords: Biodeterioration control; Chlorophyll a fluorescence; Lichen devitalization; Synthetic and natural biocides; Chemical stress tolerance.
34546Song H., Kim K.-T., Park S.-Y., Lee G.-W., Choi J., Jeon J., Cheong K., Choi G., Hur J.-S. & Lee Y.-H. (2022): A comparative genomic analysis of lichen‑forming fungi reveals new insights into fungal lifestyles. - Scientific Reports, 12: 10724 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-14340-5.
Lichen-forming fungi are mutualistic symbionts of green algae or cyanobacteria. We report the comparative analysis of six genomes of lichen-forming fungi in classes Eurotiomycetes and Lecanoromycetes to identify genomic information related to their symbiotic lifestyle. The lichenforming fungi exhibited genome reduction via the loss of dispensable genes encoding plant-cell-walldegrading enzymes, sugar transporters, and transcription factors. The loss of these genes reflects the symbiotic biology of lichens, such as the absence of pectin in the algal cell wall and obtaining specific sugars from photosynthetic partners. The lichens also gained many lineage- and species-specific genes, including those encoding small secreted proteins. These genes are primarily induced during the early stage of lichen symbiosis, indicating their significant roles in the establishment of lichen symbiosis.Our findings provide comprehensive genomic information for six lichen-forming fungi and novel insights into lichen biology and the evolution of symbiosis.
34545Ivanets V., Yevchun H., Miryuta N., Veselsky M., Salganskiy O., Konishchuk V., Kozeretska I., Dykyi E. & Parnikoza I. (2022): Skua and plant dispersal: lessons from the Argentine Islands – Kyiv Peninsula region in the maritime Antarctic. - Nordic Journal of Botany, 2022: e03326 [12 p.]. doi: 10.1111/njb.03326.
Birds are one of the most likely dispersal vectors for plants in Antarctica. We studied the nesting behavior of south polar skua Catharacta maccormicki and brown skua Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi to assess their potential role in ornithochory in the Argentine Islands – Kyiv Peninsula region. Nest samples were collected during 2009– 2020 years in the Argentine Islands – Kyiv Peninsula region including all islands and coasts of the Graham Land from the Lemaire Channel to the islands of Berthelot Islands from north to south and extending from west to east from the Roca Islands, Cruls Islands, Rasmussen Point to the coast. We found that skuas utilize different nest building materials, including bryophytes, vascular plants (hairgrass Deschampsia antarctica) and lichens. In south polar skua nests, mosses and lichens dominate in the nest material; in brown skuas Deschampsia antarctica and mosses dominate. Both bird species likely collect nest components from nearby vegetation formations (< 1 m distant). We conclude that C. maccormicki and C. antarctica lonnbergi are not selective in their choice of plant species, simply using the materials that dominate near the nest. Therefore, both species carry these materials from nearby sites, and only occasionally bring them from distant places. In conclusion, for both species we did not find any evidence to support their involvement in long-distance ornithochory (stomatochory) in the region. Keywords: Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi, Catharacta maccormicki, ornithochory, vegetation. [p. 10:] "Lichens were second-most abundant component in nests of south polar skua (up to 20.6%). This is interesting, since for a more northern region of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Peter et al. (1990) also recorded that C. maccormicki built nests mostly from lichens, such as Usnea spp., and to a lesser extent from mosses. The main mass in the lichen fraction in nests of south polar skuas in the Argentine Islands – Kyiv Peninsula region belonged to Usnea antarctica Du Rietz."
34544Trass H.H. (1963): K flore lishajnikov Kamchatki I. [On the lichen-flora of Kamchatka I]. – In: Parmasto, E. H., Raïk, A. A. & Trass, H. H. (eds.), Исследование природы Дальнего Востока. Investigationes Naturae Orientis Extremis. - Tallinn: Academia Scientiarum R.S.S. Estonia, pp. 170–220, tab.. .
34543Setchell A. & Haughian S.R. (2022): Translating a species distribution model into management recommendations for an at-risk lichen. - Écoscience, 29(2): 159–165. https://doi.org/10.1080/11956860.2021.1949821.
Species distribution models are powerful tools on their own for the management of rare and at-risk species, but their utility as such can be limited if their accuracy is low, or if management policies are applied without consideration of the structure of the data. We tested the accuracy of a MaxEnt species distribution model for white-rimmed shingle lichen (Fuscopannaria leucosticta) in New Brunswick, Canada, and proposed an additional decision support-tool that matches the species probability of occurrence (PO) to possible management actions. The model was tested using two years of new field observations. Classification trees were used to define four groups across the range of PO values. Chi-squared tests were used to test the accuracy of predictions in each class. The model was found to accurately predict occurrences in very low and moderate classes, but underpredicted occurrences in low and high classes. We recommend using similar, data-driven support tools in the conservation decision-making process to minimize losses of the species and maximize efficacy of management. Keywords: Decision-support tools; Fuscopannaria leucosticta; species at risk; New Brunswick; forest management.
34542Sánchez M., Ureña-Vacas I., González-Burgos E., Divakar P.K. & Gómez-Serranillos M.P. (2022): The genus Cetraria s. str.—A review of its botany, phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacology. - Molecules, 27(15): 4990 [26 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27154990.
The genus Cetraria s. str. (Parmeliaceae family, Cetrarioid clade) consists of 15 species of mostly erect brown or greenish yellow fruticose or subfoliose thallus. These Cetraria species have a cosmopolitan distribution, being primarily located in the Northern Hemisphere, in North America and in the Eurasia area. Phytochemical analysis has demonstrated the presence of dibenzofuran derivatives (usnic acid), depsidones (fumarprotocetraric and protocetraric acids) and fatty acids (lichesterinic and protolichesterinic acids). The species of Cetraria, and more particularly Cetraria islandica, has been widely employed in folk medicine for the treatment of digestive and respiratory diseases as decoctions, tinctures, aqueous extract, and infusions. Moreover, Cetraria islandica has had an important nutritional and cosmetic value. These traditional uses have been validated in in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies. Additionally, new therapeutic activities are being investigated, such as antioxidant, immunomodulatory, cytotoxic, genotoxic and antigenotoxic. Among all Cetraria species, the most investigated by far has been Cetraria islandica, followed by Cetraria pinastri and Cetraria aculeata. The aim of the current review is to update all the knowledge about the genus Cetraria covering aspects that include taxonomy and phylogeny, morphology and distribution, ecological and environmental interest, phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacological properties. Keywords: Cetraria; lichens; traditional uses; pharmacology; phytochemistry; botany.
34541He Z., Naganuma T., Nakai R., Imura S., Tsujimoto M. & Convey P. (2022): Microbiomic analysis of bacteria associated with rock tripe lichens in continental and maritime Antarctic regions. - Journal of Fungi, 8(8): 817 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8080817.
Increased research attention is being given to bacterial diversity associated with lichens. Rock tripe lichens (Umbilicariaceae) were collected from two distinct Antarctic biological regions, the continental region near the Japanese Antarctic station (Syowa Station) and the maritime Antarctic South Orkney Islands (Signy Island), in order to compare their bacterial floras and potential metabolism. Bulk DNA extracted from the lichen samples was used to amplify the 18S rRNA gene and the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, whose amplicons were Sanger- and MiSeq-sequenced, respectively. The fungal and algal partners represented members of the ascomycete genus Umbilicaria and the green algal genus Trebouxia, based on 18S rRNA gene sequences. The V3-V4 sequences were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which were assigned to eight bacterial phyla, Acidobacteriota, Actinomyceota, Armatimonadota, Bacteroidota, Cyanobacteria, Deinococcota, Pseudomonadota and the candidate phylum Saccharibacteria (also known as TM7), commonly present in all samples. The OTU floras of the two biological regions were clearly distinct, with regional biomarker genera, such as Mucilaginibacter and Gluconacetobacter, respectively. The OTU-based metabolism analysis predicted higher membrane transport activities in the maritime Antarctic OTUs, probably influenced by the sampling area’s warmer maritime climatic setting. Keywords: Umbilicaria; Antarctica; rRNA gene; V3-V4 region; MiSeq; OTUs; biogeography; metabolism.
34540Widhelm T. & Lumbsch H.T. (2011): The phylogenetic placement of Miltideaceae inferred from ribosomal DNA sequence data. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 106: 365–373. .
The phylogeny and systematic placement of the monotypic genus Miltidea was studied using maximum likelihood and a Bayesian approach based on nuclear LSU and mitochondrial SSU rDNA sequences. Two new sequences from Miltidea ceroplasta were aligned with 84 ascomycete sequences retrieved from GenBank. Our results show that Miltideaceae belongs to Agyriales (syn. Pertusariales). Miltideaceae forms a strongly supported sister-group with Agyriaceae and these two families form a strongly supported sister-group relationship with Pertusariaceae sensu stricto. Based on the results of the phylogenetic analyses we re-examined the morphology of Miltidea and found several micromorphological characters, including exciple and ascus type, that support a close relationship of Agyriaceae and Miltideaceae. Keywords: Acarosporinae, Agyriaceae, Australasia, lichenized fungi, Miltidea, Pertusariales.
34539Concostrina-Zubiri L., Valencia E., Ochoa V., Gozalo B., Mendoza B.J. & Maestre F.T. (2022): Biocrust-forming lichens increase soil available phosphorus under simulated climate change. - European Journal of Soil Science, 73: e13284 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.13284.
Drylands are important reservoirs of soil phosphorus (P) at the global scale, although large uncertainties remain regarding how climate change will affect P cycling in these ecosystems. Biocrust-forming lichens are important regulators of abiotic and biotic processes occurring in the soil surface, including nutrient availability and redistribution, across global drylands. However, their role as modulators of climate change impacts on soil P cycling is poorly known. We conducted a manipulative microcosm experiment to evaluate how six biocrust-forming lichens (Buellia zoharyi, Diploschistes diacapsis, Fulgensia subbracteata, Psora decipiens, Squamarina lentigera and Toninia sedifolia) with diverse morphology and chemistry affect soil available P concentration and the activity of acid phosphatase after 50 months of simulated ~2°C warming and 35% rainfall reduction. Lichens increased soil available inorganic and total available P, and the activity of acid phosphatase, although the magnitude of these effects was highly species-specific. Climate change treatments increased available organic P regardless of lichen species. Our findings provide novel experimental evidence of the importance of biocrusts as modulators of P cycling in drylands and highlight the necessity to take into account the identity of biocrust constituents when evaluating their effects on soil fertility. Highlights: Biocrust-forming lichens effects on soil phosphorus under simulated climate change were evaluated. A microcosm experiment with warming and rainfall reduction and six lichen species was conducted. Lichens increased available inorganic and total available P, and the activity of acid phosphatase. Biocrust-forming lichens have species-specific effects on phosphorus cycling in dryland soils. Keywords: biological soil crusts, climate change, drylands, lichens, soil fertility.
34538Bautista-González J.A., Montoya A., Bye R., Esqueda M. & Herrera‑Campos M.A. (2022): Traditional knowledge of medicinal mushrooms and lichens of Yuman peoples in Northern Mexico. - Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 18: 52 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-022-00550-8.
Background: Mushrooms and lichens are natural therapeutic resources whose millenary importance persists in indigenous and mestizo communities of Mexico. However, in this regard, in the northern part of the country there are few ethnobiological explorations. This study investigates the local knowledge of medicinal mushrooms and lichens used by Yuman peoples, whose native speakers are in imminent danger of extinction along with their biocultural heritage due to changes in their traditional primary activities and the usurpation of their ancestral lands. Methods: Ethnographic techniques in the feld and standard lichenological and mycological methods in the labora‑ tory were used. Results: Information was obtained on the medicinal use of 20 species, of which six are lichens of the genus Xanthoparmelia and 14 are non-lichenized fungi, mainly gasteroids. The latter are primarily used to treat skin lesions, while lichens are used in heart, urinary, and gastrointestinal diseases. The transmission of this local knowledge to future generations is discussed, as well as the intercultural cognitive convergence about the uses of medicinal mushrooms and lichens. Conclusions: The Yuman peoples preserve knowledge, practices and beliefs around mushrooms and lichens. Although increasingly less used, they still form part of their culinary and traditional medicine; even some are also used as ludic and ornamental purposes, and as trail markers. Beyond the pragmatic importance of these organisms, tradi‑ tional knowledge about them is an essential part of the cultural identity that the Yuman peoples strive to preserve. Keywords: Ethnomycology, Ethnolichenology, Traditional medicine, Yuman, Kiliwa, Paipai, Kumeyaay, Cucapá.
34537Morillas L., Roales J., Cruz C. & Munzi S. (2022): Lichen as multipartner symbiotic relationships. - Encyclopedia, 2(3): 1421–1431. https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030096.
Lichens have long been considered as composite organisms composed of algae and/or cyanobacteria hosted by a fungus in a mutualistic relationship. Other organisms have been gradually discovered within the lichen thalli, such as multiple algal species, yeasts, or even viruses. Of pivotal relevance is the existence of the lichen microbiome, which is a community of microorganisms that can be found living together on the lichen surface. This community performs a growing number of functions. In this entry, we explore the journey of lichens being considered from a dual partnership to a multi-species symbiotic relationship. Keywords: symbiosis; microbiome; partnership; mycobiont; photobiont; holobiont; bacterial layer.
34536Pykälä J. & Lommi S. (2021): Lichen flora of Finland – short history of Finnish lichenology and updated species statistics. - Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica, 97: 73–88. .
We present some statistics on Finnish lichens. The knowledge on taxonomy, distribution and ecology of Finnish lichens is extremely uneven between different lichen groups. At present 1708 lichen species are known from Finland. The number has increased by 20.4 % compared to Vitikainen et al. (1997), even when more than 100 species have been synonymized or proven to be erroneously reported from Finland. Most species are rare in Finland, and 204 species are known from one locality only. The proportion of lichen species known from Finland compared to estimated global number of lichen species is higher than among any other species-rich organism group. This outlines the importance of lichens as a crucial part of the Finnish biodiversity. Data on accepted species described from Finland (n=225) is presented.
34535Furmanek Ł., Czarnota P. & Seaward M.R.D. (2022): A review of the potential of lichen substances as antifungal agents: the effects of extracts and lichen secondary metabolites on Fusarium fungi. - Archives of Microbiology, 24: 523 [31 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-022-03104-4.
The present meta-analysis provides literature data on the effect of lichen extracts and single secondary metabolites used against Fusarium spp. moulds. Lichen extracts were obtained from 51 corticolous, 17 terricolous and 18 saxicolous lichen species and 37 secondary compounds were tested against eight fungal species, i.e., Fusarium acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. fujikuroi, F. oxysporum, F. roseum, F. solani and F. udum. The researchers used several test methods, mostly to determine MIC and IZ. Extracts were obtained using several solvents, mainly organic ones with use of the Soxhlet apparatus. The most frequently tested species was F. oxysporum, against which lichen substances from Alectoria sarmentosa, Cladonia mitis, C. rangiferina, Flavoparmelia caperata, Hypotrachyna cirrhata, Leucodermia leucomelos, Parmotrema austrosinense, P. reticulatum, Physcia aipolia, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Roccella montagnei and Umbilicaria nylanderiana and secondary metabolites such as 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3,6-dimethylbenzoic acid, atranorin, lecanoric and (+)-usnic acids showed the highest antifungal potential. These agencies could compete with the potential of fungicides, such as flucytosine and fluconazole. Other species have been poorly investigated. Statistical analysis of literature data showed that the fungistatic potential of lichen extracts is significantly different from individual secondary metabolites. Similarly, the potential of secondary metabolites often differs significantly from that of non-lichen substances. This meta-analysis indicates the potential of lichen substances as future anti-fusarial agents. Keywords: Antibiotics · Antifungal potential · Allelopathy · Fusarium · Lichen substances · Inhibition.
34534Kawagoe H., Itioka T., Hyodo F., Iku A., Shimizu-kaya U. & Meleng P. (2022): Evidence in stable isotope ratios for lichen-feeding by Lithosiini moths from a tropical rainforest but not from a temperate forest. - Entomological Science, 25: e12519 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/ens.12519.
Lithosiini (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae) is distinctive in having some species that feed on lichens, whereas the majority of moths feed on vascular plants. However, the larval diet of most Lithosiini species is poorly known. This study examines whether Lithosiini species, collected in a tropical rainforest of Borneo (nine species) and a temperate forest of Japan (eight species), feed on lichens as larvae, based on stable isotope analyses. As a result, the δ15N values for eight of nine Lithosiini species collected from Borneo were notably lower than those of nine co-occurring herbivorous non-Lithosiini species, and were similar to those of sympatric, lichen-feeding termites; however, δ13C and δ15N values of one Lithosiini species (Adites sp.) were significantly higher than those of the other moth species and similar to those of humus-feeding termites and predatory insects occurring at the same site. These results have suggested that the Lithosiini in the Southeast Asian tropical rainforests contain some species that feed on lichens as their larval main diet and at least one species whose larvae feed on humus or animal-derived materials. In contrast, the δ13C and δ15N values of all examined Lithosiini species (eight species) in the temperate forest have suggested that their larvae fed on plants and not on lichens. Our stable isotope ratio analysis presented quantitative evidence suggesting lichen-feeding by Lithosiini moths in a tropical rainforest without observation of feeding behavior during the larval stages. Key words: larval diet, Lepidoptera, Lithosiini, Sarawak, stable C and N isotopes.
34533Zorrilla J.G., D’Addabbo T., Roscetto E., Varriale C., Catania M.R., Zonno M.C., Altomare C., Surico G., Nimis P.L. & Evidente A. (2022): Antibiotic and nematocidal metabolites from two lichen species collected on the Island of Lampedusa (Sicily). - International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23(15): 8471 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23158471.
The antibiotic and nematocidal activities of extracts from two coastal lichen species collected on Lampedusa Island (Sicily), Ramalina implexa Nyl. and Roccella phycopsis Ach., were tested. Methyl orsellinate, orcinol, (+)-montagnetol, and for the first time 4-chlororcinol were isolated from Roccella phycopsis. (+)-Usnic acid was obtained from Ramalina implexa. The crude organic extract of both lichen species showed strong antibiotic activity against some bacterial species and nematocidal activity. Among all the pure metabolites tested against the infective juveniles (J2) of the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloydogine incognita, (+)-usnic acid, orcinol, and (+)-montagnetol had significant nematocidal activity, comparable with that of the commercial nematocide Velum® Prime, and thus they showed potential application in agriculture as a biopesticide. On the contrary, methyl orsellinate and 4-chlororcinol had no nematocidal effect. These results suggest that the substituent pattern at ortho-para-position in respect to both hydroxyl groups of resorcine moiety, which is present in all metabolites, seems very important for nematocidal activity. The organic extracts of both lichens were also tested against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Both extracts were active against Gram-positive species. The extract of Ramalina implexa showed, among Gram-negative species, activity against Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii, while that from Roccella phycopsis was effective towards all test strains, with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of (+)-usnic acid, methyl orsellinate, and (+)-montagnetol is already known, so tests were focused on orcinol and 4-chlororcinol. The former showed antibacterial activity against all Gram positive and Gram-negative test strains, with the exception of A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae, while the latter exhibited a potent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive test strains and among Gram-negative strains, was effective against A. baumannii and K. pneumonia. These results suggest, for orcinol and 4-chlororcinol, an interesting antibiotic potential against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Keywords: lichen; Ramalina implexa; Roccella phycopsis; secondary metabolites; antibiotic and nematocidal activity.
34532Daminova A.G., Rogov A.M., Rassabina A.E., Beckett R.P. & Minibayeva F.V. (2022): Effect of melanization on thallus microstructure in the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria. - Journal of Fungi, 8(8): 791 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8080791.
Lichens often grow in microhabitats where they experience severe abiotic stresses. Some species respond to high UV radiation by synthesizing dark brown melanic pigments in the upper cortex. However, unlike the melanized structures of non-lichenized fungi, the morphology of the melanic layer in lichens remains unstudied. Here, we analyzed the morphology, ultrastructure, and elemental composition of the melanized layer in UV-exposed thalli of the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. Using light microscopy, we detected a pigmented layer sensitive to staining with 3,4-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, a precursor of eumelanin, in the upper cortex of melanized thalli. Analysis of cross-sections of melanized thalli using scanning electron microscopy revealed that melanin-like granules are deposited into the hyphal lumens. Melanized thalli also possessed thicker hyphal cell walls compared to pale thalli. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis of the elemental composition of the hyphal walls and extracted melanin indicated that the type of melanin synthesized by L. pulmonaria is eumelanin. Transmission electron microscopy was used to show that during melanization melanosome-like dark vesicles are transported to the cell surface and secreted into the cell walls of the fungal hyphae. Results from this study provide new insights into the effects of melanin synthesis on the microstructure of lichen thalli. View Full-Text Keywords: lichens; melanins; mycobiont; scanning electron microscopy; transmission electron microscopy; UV stress.
34531Fayyaz I., Kouser R., Afshan N.S., Niazi A.R., Zulfiqar R., Khalid A.N. & Kondratyuk S.Y. (2022): Iqbalia kashmirensis gen. et sp. nov. from Pakistan (Teloschistaceae, lichenized ascomycetes) based on multigene phylogeny. - Mycological Progress, 21: 68 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-022-01823-y.
The robust monophyletic branch having the highest level of bootstrap support in the phylogenetic tree of the Teloschistaceae, based on combined dataset of nrITS, 28S nrLSU DNA, and mtSSU sequences, which does not belong to any other earlier proposed genera of the subfamily Teloschistoideae, is described as new genus. The genus Iqbalia is characterized and differs from the closely related genus Nevilleilla by having discrete and compact/aggregated, rather not scattered areoles, without schizidia-like formations, a wide septum in ascospores when mounted in water and in having different chemistry (in having variolaric acid). Keywords: Lichenized fungi . Garhi dupatta . Kotli . Teloschistaceae. Note: numerous sequences attributed to Kondratyuk and coauthors in Table 1 were in fact received and published earlier by other authors (usually under different generic names)! See the genbank.
34530Cometto A., Ametrano C.G. & Muggia L. (2022): Life on top: cryptoendolithic ascomycetes and microalgae isolated from over 6000 m altitude. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 67(1): 1–16. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2022-0001.
Rocks are among the oldest terrestrial niches hosting a multiplicity of life forms, of which diversity has been only partially uncovered. Endolithic metacommunities comprise all major groups of microorganisms, such as chemo-organotrophic, chemo-lithotrophic and phototrophic, represented by bacteria, microalgae and microfungi. Their diversity is often difficult to describe and may remain underestimated. Furthermore, knowledge about the diversity of microorganisms colonizing rocks in peculiar niches is even poorer due to the difficulty to retrieve environmental specimens. Here, we report the phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization of a few endolithic fungi and algae isolated from rock fragments collected at high elevation, i.e., on the top of two mountains over 6000 m altitude, Muztagh Ata (China) and Cerro Mercendario (Argentina). The identity of the strains was confirmed by sequencing the nuclear ITS and LSU, the plastidial rbcL loci and by morphological analysis. Three fungal strains belonging to the class Dothideomycetes and one algal strain belonging to the genus Trebouxia were isolated from Muztagh Ata, while six fungal strains belonging to the order Chaetothyriales and four algal strains belonging to the genus Myrmecia were isolated from Cerro Mercedario. The detected species diversity is discussed in an evolutionary and ecological context. Key words: Chaetothyriales, Dothideomycetes, Myrmecia, symbiosis, Trebouxia.
34529McMullin R.T. & Miadlikowska J. (2022): Two rare Peltigera species new to the Canadian Arctic, P. islandica and P. lyngei. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 67(1): 17–23. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2022-0002.
Peltigera islandica and P. lyngei are rarely reported lichens. Previously, P. islandica was known from British Columbia, Estonia, and Iceland, and P. lyngei from Amchitka Island (Alaska), Gough Island (South Atlantic), Iceland, Siberia and Svalbard. Both species are reported here for the first time from the Canadian Arctic and from the second localities in North America. Peltigera lyngei is also reported for the first time from Canada. The identities of these species are confirmed morphologically, chemically, and with molecular data. Phylogenetic relationships are inferred using the ITS region. The widespread, but scattered, distribution of both species suggests that they may be underreported throughout their range. Key words: Biogeography, Peltigerales, Arctic, Arviat, Kukluk/Bloody Falls Territorial Park, Nuvuk (proposed) Territorial Park, Sylvia Grinnell Territorial Park.
34528 Mishra G.K., Nayaka S., Upreti D.K., Kondratyuk S.Y., Thell A. & Kärnefelt I. (2022): Cetrarioid lichens from India revised, including Nephromopsis awasthii sp. nov. and new records. - Mycotaxon, 137: 283–334. https://doi.org/10.5248/137.283.
Morpho-taxonomic studies of cetrarioid lichens from India recorded 46 species representing Cetraria, Melanelia, Nephromopsis, and Platismatia. Nephromopsis awasthii is described as new to science; and Cetraria endochrysea, C. sinensis, Melanelia agnata, Nephromopsis ciliaris, N. morrisonicola, N. pseudocomplicata, N. pseudoweberi, N. rugosa, N. weii, and N. yunnanensis are reported for the first time from India. A key to all genera and species of cetrarioid lichens in India is provided together with their detailed morpho-taxonomic characters and distribution. Key words—ascomycetes, diversity, Himalaya, Parmeliaceae, taxonomy.
34527Garrido-Benavent I., Chiva S., Bordenave C. D., Molins A. & Barreno E. (2022): Trebouxia maresiae sp. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), a new lichenized species of microalga found in coastal environments. - Cryptogamie, Algologie, 43(9): 135–145. https://doi.org/10.5252/cryptogamie-algologie2022v43a9.
Coccoid microalgae of the genus Trebouxia Puymaly are by far the most prevalent among the various species involved in lichen symbioses. However, their taxonomic knowledge is rather scarce compared to that of lichenized fungi. In the present work, a taxonomic study integrating diverse techniques (phylogenetics, light, confocal and transmission electron microscopies) is carried out to describe Trebouxia maresiae Garrido-Benavent, Chiva & Barreno, sp. nov. This species widely associates with the red-listed lichenized fungus Seirophora villosa (Ach.) Frödén but also with species of the genus Ramalina Ach., both occurring in coastal environments in the western Mediterranean and the Cape Verdean islands. This microalga is circumscribed to Trebouxia clade A and is closely related to T. decolorans Ahmadjian. It is characterized by the cell size being up to 15 μm in diam., the crenulate chloroplasts, and the structure of pyrenoids, which in cultured cells fits well with the crenulata-type, with long branched tubules meandering through the pyrenoid matrix, whereas in the lichenized state it acquires a hybrid structure (maresiae-type), characterized by the periphery of the pyrenoid being rather gigantea-type, with thylakoid membranes forming short, branched tubules. With the present work, the taxonomy of the genus Trebouxia moves a step forward towards more accurately characterizing species in lichen microalgae which is a prerequisite for future, more complex studies on speciation, co-evolution and selectivity. Key words: Mediterranean, Cape Verde, lichen, photobiont, symbiosis, new species.
34526Rada P., Halda J.P., Holuša J., Maliňáková K. & Horák J. (2022): Urban fruit orchards: Biodiversity and management restoration effects in the context of land use. - Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 75: 127686. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2022.127686.
Urban areas have increased greatly in recent decades, which has resulted in habitat loss. However, the promotion of urban green spaces could have a profound effect on biodiversity. Traditional fruit orchards are an important land-use type with the potential to host myriad organisms. Our goal was to determine the most important factors that influence orchard biodiversity in the million city of Prague (the capital of the Czech Republic). We used a multitaxon approach to evaluate the effect of orchard restoration in a landscape context. Restoration had a positive impact on species diversity, specifically, the diversity of orthopterans and butterflies. Moreover, landscape context determined the biodiversity of orthopterans, butterflies, and birds but not that of lichens. Our study underlines the importance of both the internal and external structures of traditional fruit orchards for species richness and composition. The results of our study support the restoration of traditional fruit orchards as a suitable management practice for promoting city biodiversity. Furthermore, orchard restoration can improve the attractiveness of suburban areas. Such areas often lack sufficient urban greening. Thus, restoration in these areas can also increase future recreational value. Landscape effect, Multitaxa, Species response, Traditional landscape management, Urban agroforestry
34525Petersson L., Lariviere D., Holmström E., Fritz Ö. & Felton A. (2022): Conifer tree species and age as drivers of epiphytic lichen communities in northern European production forests. - Lichenologist, 54: 213-225. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000172.
The epiphytic lichen species richness and community composition was compared for 600 living trees distributed within the interior of 60 Scots pine and Norway spruce monoculture stands in southern Sweden. A higher species richness, and more unique species, was found on trees of Scots pine than of Norway spruce, and distinctive communities were associated with the two tree species. Lichen species com- position also shifted between the 30-, 55- and 80-year-old stands, although there was no significant difference in species richness between the different age classes. Tree species and age of the stand explained most of the variation in community composition (41%), with additional variance explained by lichen proximity to the ground (6%) and aspect (1%) (northern/southern side of trunk). Scots pine and Norway spruce share many attributes, such as both being conifers with acidic bark properties and having a similar geographical distribution in Fennoscandia. However, our study showed that species richness and community composition can nevertheless diverge in stands dominated by these two tree species. Since the occurrence of red-listed species was low in these stands, we suggest that 80-year rotations are not long enough for the occur- rence of the many rare and specialized lichen species that require old forest structures and long forest continuity in this region. biodiversity, forest management, Norway spruce, Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, Scots pine, species richness, stand age, Sweden, zonation
34524Rico V.J. (2022): Long sigmoid and twisted ascospores in the genus Harpidium: H. longisporum sp. nov., a synopsis of the genus and a key to the species. - Lichenologist, 54: 175-181. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000123.
Harpidium longisporum is proposed as a new species. It is characterized by an areolate, mainly black thallus with trebouxioid algae, K+ blue- purple pigmented parts, pycnoascocarps forming aspicilioid apothecia, with moniliform paraphyses, unitunicate-rostrate, thick-walled asci and long sigmoid, lunate to falcate or irregularly curved and twisted ascospores, growing on steps of a vertical, intermittently moist, gneiss rock face. The genus Harpidium now comprises four species worldwide and, based on the selected specimens, a genus synopsis, a compara- tive table and a key to the species are included. Harpidiaceae, lichens, new species, Spain, taxonomy
34523Orange A. & Chhetri S.G. (2022): Verrucariaceae from Nepal. - Lichenologist, 54: 139-174. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000160.
Twenty-eight species of Verrucariaceae are reported from Nepal. One genus and nine species are described as new: Nesothele gen. nov., sister to Staurothele s. lat., with a crustose to squamulose thallus, hymenial algae and 4–8 colourless muriform ascospores per ascus; Nesothele glebulosa sp. nov., resembling N. rugulosa but with smaller perithecia; Thelidium uvidulum sp. nov., producing a thin thallus with soralia, prominent perithecia, and 1-septate ascospores; Verrucaria antepotens sp. nov., having a well-developed thallus with dark- sided areoles, immersed perithecia, and small ascospores 12.5–16.5 μm long; V. lactea sp. nov., resembling V. praetermissa but with larger ascospores and a strongly deviating ITS sequence; V. parvipeltata sp. nov., with brown, basally constricted areoles on an extensive dark prothallus; V. senta sp. nov., with a brown cracked thallus and prominent naked perithecia; Willeya eminens sp. nov., with prominent peri- thecia, and differing from W. protrudens in its ITS sequence; W. irrigata sp. nov. with a thallus cracked into dark-sided areoles, and relatively large ascospores 28.5–40 μm long; W. nepalensis sp. nov. with a cracked thallus, immersed perithecia and a distinctive ITS sequence. Three species complexes might contain new taxa, but wider geographical sampling is necessary before delimiting species: Thelidium minutulum, Verrucaria elaeomelaena and V. hydrophila. Five new combinations are made: Willeya honghensis comb. nov. (for Staurothele honghensis), Nesothele globosa comb. nov. (for Endocarpon globosum), N. hymenogonia comb. nov. (for Staurothele hymenogonia), N. rugulosa comb. nov. (for Staurothele rugulosa) and N. succedens comb. nov. (for Staurothele succedens). Four species are unidentified. floristics, ITS, lichens, mtSSU, taxonomy
34522Stelate A., Del-Prado R., Alors D., Tahiri H., Divakar P.K. & Crespo A. (2022): Resolving the phylogenetic relationship between Parmotrema crinitum and Parmotrema perlatum populations. - Lichenologist, 54: 183-194. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000147.
The widespread species Parmotrema crinitum (Ach.) M. Choisy and Parmotrema perlatum (Huds.) M. Choisy are mainly distinguished by their reproductive strategies. While P. crinitum propagates by isidia, P. perlatum produces soredia. In this study, we aim to evaluate the phylogenetic relationship between both species and to critically examine their species boundaries. To this purpose, 46 samples belonging to P. crinitum and P. perlatum were used in our analysis, including 22 for which we studied the morphology and chemistry, before extracting their DNA. We used 35 sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS) of Parmotrema perlatum from Europe and Africa (20 of which were newly generated), and 11 of Parmotrema crinitum from Europe, North America and North Africa (two newly generated). Additionally, 28 sequences of several species from Parmotrema were included in the ITS dataset. The ITS data matrix was analyzed using different approaches, such as traditional phylogeny (maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses), genetic distances, auto- matic barcode gap discovery (ABGD) and the coalescent-based method poisson tree processes (PTP), in order to test congruence among results. Our results indicate that all samples referred to P. crinitum and P. perlatum nested in a well-supported monophyletic clade, but phylogenetic relationships among them remain unresolved. Delimitations inferred from PTP, ABGD and genetic distance analyses were comparable and suggested that P. crinitum and P. perlatum belong to the same lineage. Interestingly, two samples of P. perlatum separate in a different monophyletic clade, which is supported as a different lineage by all the analyses. genetic diversity, ITS, lichen, phylogenetic analyses, species delimitation
34521Fazan L., Gwiazdowicz D.J., Fragnière Y., Fałtynowicz W., Ghosn D., Remoundou I., Rusińska A., Urbański P., Pasta S., Garfì G. & Kozlowski G. (2022): Factors influencing the diversity and distribution of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes on the relict tree Zelkova abelicea (Lam.) Boiss. (Ulmaceae). - Lichenologist, 54: 195-212. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000159.
Trees have a crucial importance in the functioning of ecosystems on Earth. They are among the largest and longest-living taxa and provide habitat and shelter to numerous species belonging to diverse groups of organisms. Relict trees are of particular interest through their history of survival and adaptation, and because they potentially shelter rare or threatened organisms today. We investigated for the first time the diversity and distribution of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes found on the Cretan (Greek) endemic and relict phorophyte Zelkova abelicea (Ulmaceae). Our results showed that Z. abelicea hosts a high number of epiphytes. The Levka Ori mountain range in western Crete seems to be a hot spot for epiphytic lichens on Z. abelicea. Bryophytes had the highest diversity on Mt Kedros in central Crete but were absent from several other sites. Moreover, 17% of the studied lichens were recorded for the first time for Crete and 5% have never been recorded for Greece. Geographical position and browsing intensity seem to be important factors influencing the epiphytic community encountered. Tree morphology (dwarfed or arborescent) was also significant in influencing community composition although it was not possible to dis- sociate this factor from the effect of topography. Dwarfed individuals were found to have as much epiphytic diversity as arborescent trees. Ecological indicator values showed that high epiphytic diversity was found in some sites despite signs of eutrophication and disturbance due to pastoral activities and suggest the co-occurrence of both disturbance tolerant and sensitive species. Our results show how little is known about the biodiversity of Cretan phorophytes and highlights the need for further research on the topic. Crete, dwarfed over-browsed trees, ecological indicator values, epiphytic assemblages, Greece, phorophyte
34520Earland-Bennett P.M. (ed.) (1988): New, rare and interesting british lichen records. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 62: 8-30. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2062%20Summer%201988.pdf.
34519Henderson A. (1988): Etymological notes on lichen names – part 5. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 62: 13-14. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2062%20Summer%201988.pdf.
34518Woods R. (1988): Life in the squidgy bits. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 62: 10-10. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2062%20Summer%201988.pdf.
34517Gilbert O.L. (1988): Urban demolition sites: a neglected habitat. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 62: 1-3. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2062%20Summer%201988.pdf.
34516Cardile V., Graziano A.C.E., Avola R., Madrid A. & Russo A. (2022): Physodic acid sensitizes LNCaP prostate cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis . - Toxicology in Vitro, 84: 105432 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2022.105432.
In spite of the extensive research for developing new therapies, prostate cancer is still one of the major human diseases with poor prognosis and high mortality. Therefore, with the aim of identifying novel agents with antigrowth and pro-apoptotic activity on prostate cancer cells, in the present study, we evaluated the effect of lichen secondary metabolite physodic acid on cell growth in human prostate cancer cells. In addition, we tested the apoptotic activity of physodic acid on TRAIL-resistant LNCaP cells in combination with TRAIL. The cell viability was measured using MTT assay. LDH release, a marker of membrane breakdown, was also measured. For the detection of apoptosis, the evaluation of DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activity assay were employed. The expression of proteins was detected by Western blot analysis. It was observed that physodic acid showed a dose–response relationship in the range of 12.5–50 μM concentrations in LNCaP and DU-145 cells, activating an apoptotic process. In addition, physodic acid sensitizes LNCaP cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The combination of physodic acid with other anti-prostate cancer therapies could be considered a promising strategy that warrants further investigations. Keywords: Lichens; Depsidone; Physodic acid; Prostate cancer; Apoptosis; TRAIL.
34515Song G., Hui R., Yang H., Wang B. & Li X. (2022): Biocrusts mediate the plant community composition of dryland restoration ecosystems. - Science of the Total Environment, 844: 157135 [11 p.]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157135.
Degradation and expansion are current threats associated with drylands. During natural or artificial restoration, dryland ecosystems tend to contain a unique community, namely, biocrusts. Studies have shown that biocrusts serve multiple functions and have the potential to accelerate or inhibit degradation. However, the mechanisms by which biocrusts mediate dryland plant community structure and composition remain largely unknown. In this study, we performed a series of pot experiments under greenhouse conditions at three disturbance levels (strong, moderate and no disturbance) and at three rainfall gradients (− 50 %, normal, + 50 %) for different biocrust types. Our objective was to examine how biocrusts influence the introduction and establishment of different functional forms of plant species during the different succession stages of dryland recovery. Our results showed that biocrusts have significantly different effects on the seed germination and survival of the tested plant species. Although strong disturbances to the biocrusts and increasing rainfall alleviated the inhibitory effects of biocrusts on the perennial herb (S. glareosa) and subshrub (C. latens) species, these factors could only promote the temporary survival of these two plants in the revegetated area. These results indicate that biocrusts in revegetated systems play important sieving functions during plant species establishment. Additionally, the survival of S. viridis, a plant species with small seeds adapted to the current habitat, was promoted in the community, but two plant species that are currently unsuitable, S. glareosa and C. latens, were filtered out by the biocrusts. Our conclusions suggest that biocrusts play an ecological filtering role in plant species introduction and establishment in revegetated ecosystems and demonstrate the scientific significance of biocrusts in maintaining the health and stability of dryland ecosystems. Keywords: Biocrusts; Arid ecosystem; Restoration; Functional form; Germination; Establishment.
34514Orock A.E. & Fonge B.A. (2022): Diversity of lichens at Mount Cameroon, South West Region, Cameroon. - International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, 14(2): 72–93. https://doi.org/10.5897/IJBC2021.1517.
Concern about maintaining the biodiversity of lichen communities’ species has been an issue with lichenologists for many years. Many of the understudied regions face increasing threats from urban development, pollution, and potentially climate change, among other factors. The objective of this study was to examine the diversity of lichens on Mt. Cameroon. To achieve this objective, eight collection sites were surveyed on two flanks of the mountain at elevations ranging from 3 to 2178 m above sea level. The visual estimate sampling method using circular plots was adopted for the survey. Voucher specimens were collected in triplicate and deposited in the herbaria in Limbe and the University Buea. Lichens were identified by studying the morphology and chemical spot test. The morphology of the thallus and reproductive structures were examined under the stereomicroscope at 10×. The K-test, C-tests and KC-spot test were performed for each specimen with KOH and Ca(OCl)2. The abundance rating scale, species diversity, similarity and richness indices were computed. Identification by molecular, morphological and chemical spot tests produced a total of 89 species, 22 site-specific species, 52 genera belonging to 27 families and 11 orders. Four lichen specimens were identified to genus level and eighty-five to species level. According to the Cameroon lichen database, 82 of these are new discoveries. Parmeliaceae, Heterodermia, Usnea and Dirinaria applanata dominated the area. The identified species occurred in six growth forms and from nine substrates types. Foliose and corticolous lichens were most represented. Among the sites surveyed, Upper Buea situated on the leeward flank at high altitude >1000 m, recorded the highest diversity and site-specific species. Key words: Lichens diversity, Mt. Cameroon, Upper Buea Leeward flank.
34513Georgiev K.B., Bässler C., Feldhaar H., Heibl C., Karasch P., Müller J., Perlik M., Weiss I. & Thorn S. (2022): Windthrow and salvage logging alter β-diversity of multiple species groups in a mountain spruce forest. - Forest Ecology and Management, 520: 120401 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2022.120401.
The response of biodiversity to natural and anthropogenic disturbances is a central topic in applied ecology. Climate change has altered forest disturbance regimes, resulting in global increases in stand-replacing disturbances, which are regularly followed by the removal of trees (salvage logging). Yet, the mid- to long-term effects of disturbances and salvage logging and the importance of species relative abundances on β-diversity remain unclear. We compared the β-diversity of 13 taxonomic groups in intact forest, unlogged windthrow, and salvage-logged windthrow plots 11 years after a windthrow. Hill numbers were used to quantify differences in between-treatment and within-treatment β-diversity for rare, common, and dominant species. We found that over a decade post-disturbance, both windthrow and salvage logging led to significant changes in between-treatment β-diversity of all 13 taxonomic groups. In addition, differences in between- and within-treatment β-diversity were more pronounced for rare species than for common and dominant ones. Windthrow led to the homogenization of communities of most saproxylic and half of the non-saproxylic studied groups. However, contrary to our expectation, salvage logging did not further increase community homogenization for any taxonomic group or Hill number. Moreover, salvage logging even reversed the community homogenization caused by the windthrow for saproxylic groups, leading to more heterogeneous communities. This effect was likely caused by the relatively high amount and diversity of deadwood found on the salvage-logged plots. Our study suggests that differences in within-treatment β-diversity between salvaged and unsalvaged windthrows tend to vanish over time, whereas differences between-treatments persisted, especially for saproxylic groups and rare species. This finding underlines the importance of preserving the characteristic communities in unsalvaged wind-disturbed forests in the mid- to long-term. Therefore, we recommend a management strategy that balances the amount of salvage-logged areas with that of set-aside areas. Keywords: Forest management ; Natural disturbance ; Post-disturbance management ; Biodiversity ; Hill numbers ; Community homogenization ; Community composition.
34512Simko P., Leskanicova A., Suvakova M., Blicharova A., Karasova M., Goga M., Kolesarova M., Bojkova B., Majerova P., Zidekova N., Barvik I., Kovac A. & Kiskova T. (2022): Biochemical properties of atranorin-induced behavioral and systematic changes of laboratory rats. - Life, 12(7): 1090 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/life12071090.
Atranorin (ATR) is a secondary metabolite of lichens. While previous studies investigated the effects of this substance predominantly in an in vitro environment, in our study we investigated the basic physicochemical properties, the binding affinity to human serum albumin (HSA), basic pharmacokinetics, and, mainly, on the systematic effects of ATR in vivo. Sporadic studies describe its effects during, predominantly, cancer. This project is original in terms of testing the efficacy of ATR on a healthy organism, where we can possibly attribute negative effects directly to ATR and not to the disease. For the experiment, 24 Sprague Dawley rats (Velaz, Únetice, Czech Republic) were used. The animals were divided into four groups. The first group (n = 6) included healthy males as control intact rats (♂INT) and the second group (n = 6) included healthy females as control intact rats (♀INT). Groups three and four (♂ATR/n = 6 and ♀ATR/n = 6) consisted of animals with daily administered ATR (10mg/kg body weight) in an ethanol–water solution per os for a one-month period. Our results demonstrate that ATR binds to HSA near the binding site TRP214 and acts on a systemic level. ATR caused mild anemia during the treatment. However, based on the levels of hepatic enzymes in the blood (ALT, ALP, or bilirubin levels), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), or liver histology, no impact on liver was recorded. Significantly increased creatinine and lactate dehydrogenase levels together with increased defecation activity during behavioral testing may indicate the anabolic effect of ATR in skeletal muscles. Interestingly, ATR changed some forms of behavior. ATR at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight is non-toxic and, therefore, could be used in further research. Keywords: atranorin; microsomal stability; human serum albumin; behavioral changes; laboratory rats; metabolomics.
34511Sebald V., Goss A., Ramm E., Gerasimova J.V. & Werth S. (2022): NO2 air pollution drives species composition, but tree traits drive species diversity of urban epiphytic lichen communities. - Environmental Pollution, 308: 119678 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119678.
Lichens serve as important bioindicators of air pollution in cities. Here, we studied the diversity of epiphytic lichens in the urban area of Munich, Bavaria, southern Germany, to determine which factors influence species composition and diversity. Lichen diversity was quantified in altogether 18 plots and within each, five deciduous trees were investigated belonging to on average three tree species (range 1–5). Of the 18 plots, two were sampled in control areas in remote areas of southern Germany. For each lichen species, frequency of occurrence was determined in 10 quadrats of 100 cm2 on the tree trunk. Moreover, the cover percentage of bryophytes was determined and used as a variable to represent potential biotic competition. We related our diversity data (species richness, Shannon index, evenness, abundance) to various environmental variables including tree traits, i.e. bark pH levels and species affiliation and air pollution data, i.e. NO2 and SO2 concentrations measured in the study plots. The SO2 levels measured in our study were generally very low, while NO2 levels were rather high in some plots. We found that the species composition of the epiphytic lichen communities was driven mainly by NO2 pollution levels and all of the most common species in our study were nitrophilous lichens. Low NO2 but high SO2 values were associated with high lichen evenness. Tree-level lichen diversity and abundance were mainly determined by tree traits, not air pollution. These results confirm that ongoing NO2 air pollution within cities is a major threat to lichen diversity, with non-nitrophilous lichens likely experiencing the greatest risk of local extinctions in urban areas in the future. Our study moreover highlights the importance of large urban green spaces for species diversity. City planners need to include large green spaces when designing urban areas, both to improve biodiversity and to promote human health and wellbeing. Keywords: Community ecology ; Species richness ; Lichens ; Nitrogen dioxide NO2 ; Sulphur dioxide SO2 ; Ordination.
34510White F. J. & James P.W. (1987): A chemical checklist of british lichens. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 42-47. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34509Henderson A. (ed.) (1987): New, rare and interesting british lichen records. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 35-38. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34508Benfield B. (1987): Note on Arthopyrenia areniseda. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 34-34. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34507Guest J.P. (1987): Lichens of suburban Manchester. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 32-32. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34506Henderson A. (1987): Etymological notes on lichen names – part 3. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 29-30. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34505Anonymous (1987): Key to the identification of some common extant british (sensu lato) lichenologist (incomplete). - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 18-19. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34504Ahti T. (1987): The correct name of Parmelia perlata or should we have kept our mouths shut?. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 14-14. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34503Swinscow T.D.V. (1987): E. C. Wallace: An appreciation. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 11-13. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34502Rose F. (1987): Alice Burnet remembered. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 10-11. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34501Rose F. (1987): A new lichen flora of Somerset. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 9-9. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34500Woods R.G. (1987): Heavy metal-rich river gravel. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 5-7. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34499Henderson A. (1987): Approaches to lichen aesthetic I. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 3-5. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34498Acharius E. (1797): Nya och mindre kända Svenska Lafarter. VI Fortsättningen aennu vidare och til flut fullfoelgd. - Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar / Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [ser. 2], 18[4]: 257–298, tab. .
34497Acharius E. (1797): Nya och mindre kända Svenska Lafarter, beskrifne VI Fortsättningen vidare fullfoeljd. - Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar / Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [ser. 2], 18[3]: 193–218, tab. .
34496Acharius E. (1797): Nya och mindre kända Svenska Lafarter, beskrifne VI Fortsättningen vidare fullfoeljd. - Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar / Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [ser. 2], 18[2]: 111–133. .
34495Acharius E. (1797): Nya och mindre kända Svenska Lafarter, beskrifne VI. Fortsättning. - Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar / Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [ser. 2], 18[1]: 69–81. .
34494Morse C.A. & Ladd D. (2022): Lichenes Exsiccati Magnicamporum Fascicle 2, with comments on selected taxa. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 21: 1-23. .
Biogeography, grasslands, scheda, taxonomy, trentepohlioid lichens. Data are provided for the second 50 numbers of a series exemplifying the lichen biota of the Great Plains of central North America. The set includes isotypes of Biatoridium lasiothecium, Phaeocalicium atenitikon, Physcia thomsoniana, and Reichlingia americana, as well as several rare or regionally restricted taxa. Detailed discussions, images, specimen data, and range maps are provided for Caloplaca lobulata (≡ Calogaya lobulata), Gyalecta farlowii (≡ Petractis farlowii), and Thelidium minutulum. Caloplaca lobulata is reported new for Iowa, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming; G. farlowii is reported new for Kansas; and T. minutulum is reported new for Kansas and Oklahoma. Previous identifications of T. microbolum from Kansas are based on specimens attributable to T. zwackhii, which is reported new for Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, and Oklahoma. Corrected collection data are provided for Lichenes Exsiccati Magnicamporum No. 49
34493Morse C.A. (2022): Lichenes Exsiccati Magnicamporum Fascicle 3. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 21: 24-32. .
Grasslands, scheda, taxonomy. Data are provided for the third 50 numbers of a series exemplifying the lichen biota of the Great Plains of central North America. The set is especially rich in members of the family Physciaceae
34492Haughland D.L., Hood A., Thauvette D., Toni S.A., Cao M., Birch J.D., Wasyliw J., Hjartarson L., Villeneuve M., Stordock A., Fielder D.A., Lewis M., Evans D., Royko D., Bolduc R., Webster H., Singh J.D., Schafer K.A., Davidson H.E. & Shier C. (2022): Getting to know our biomonitor neighbours: urban lichens and allied fungi of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 21: 33-181. .
Air quality, lichenized Ascomycetes, biomonitoring, calicioids, Candelariaceae, cyanolichens, continental climate, detection error, Endocarpon, Flavopunctelia, floristics, Lecanora dispersa group, Lecidella, molecular phylogenetics, Peltigera, Punctelia, survey repeatability, urban biodiversity Here we provide one of the first detailed studies of lichen and allied fungi diversity in a continental North American city (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada), including an annotated checklist, images of all species, dichotomous keys, and local distribution maps. Edmonton is the northernmost city in North America with a population of over one million, and an industrial and transportation gateway for much of northern Canada. Lichen-based biomonitoring could be a tool to track airborne pollutants resulting from Edmonton’s growing populace and industrial activity. The first step towards such a program is documenting the diversity and distribution of lichens in the city. To accomplish this, we conducted a city-wide, systematic survey of 191 sites focused on epiphytes growing on deciduous boulevard trees. We augmented that survey with surveys of rare trees, opportunistic collections from river valley and ravine habitats, herbarium collections, phylogenetic analyses of a subset of collections, and observations submitted to online nature-reporting applications. We present ITS sequence barcode data for 33 species, phylogenetic analyses for Candelariaceae, Endocarpon, Flavopunctelia, the Lecanora dispersa group, Lecidella, Peltigera, Physconia, and Punctelia, and detailed descriptions of 114 species in 47 genera and 23 families. Two species are hypothesized to be new to North America (Endocarpon aff. unifoliatum, Lecidella albida), twelve more are new to Alberta (Amandinea dakotensis, Bacidia circumspecta, Candelaria pacifica, Candelariella antennaria, Heterodermia japonica, Lecania naegelii, Lecanora sambuci, Lecanora stanislai, Lecidea erythrophaea, Peltigera islandica, Phaeocalicium aff. tremulicola, and the introduced Xanthoria parietina), and five are putative new species to science (Physcia aff. dimidiata, Physcia aff. stellaris, Phaeocalicium sp., Phaeocalicium aff. tremulicola, Lichenaceae sp.). Illustrations are provided for all species to aid in verification and public outreach. Species richness was highest in foliose lichens (48), followed by crustose and calicioid lichens and allied fungi (41), with the lowest richness in fruticose lichens (25). We did a preliminary assessment of the suitability of species for citizen-science biomonitoring by assessing their distribution across the city, perceptibility to the public, identification accuracy, and, for a subset, how consistently species were surveyed by trained novices. Compared to other urban areas where lichen diversity has been studied, Edmonton is relatively species-rich in calicioids and Peltigera. Promising bioindicators may be limited to chlorolichens, including Caloplaca spp., Evernia mesomorpha, Flavopunctelia spp., Phaeophyscia orbicularis, Physcia adscendens, Physcia aipolia group, Physcia aff. stellaris, Usnea spp., and Xanthomendoza fallax. Other genera that may be responsive to pollutants such as Cladonia and Peltigera were almost exclusively restricted to river valley and ravine ecosystems, limiting their application as bioindicators. Some species commonly used as biomonitors elsewhere were too rare, small, poorly developed, or obscured by more common species locally (e.g., Candelaria concolor s.l., Xanthomendoza hasseana). The low overlap with lists of biomonitoring species from other regions of North America illustrates the necessity of grounding monitoring in knowledge of local diversity. Future augmentation of this list should focus on enhanced sampling of downed wood-, conifer-, and rock-dwelling lichens, particularly crustose species. The next step in developing a biomonitoring program will require modelling species’ responses to known air quality and climatic gradients
34491Berger F. (2022): Flechten auf Rohböden, ein unerwartet artenreicher Nischenstandort am Beispiel von verlassenen Schottergruben im Kobernaußerwald. - ÖKO·L, 44: 15–23. .
[in German] popular paper; Austria; abandoned gravel/sand pits; pioneer lichens; succession
34490McCune B. & Conway S.N. (2022): Two new species, Hypogymnia tuckerae and H. discopruina (Parmeliaceae), from North America and China. - Bryologist, 125(3): 406–417. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.3.406.
Hypogymnia tuckerae is a newly described sorediate lichenized fungus currently known from three sites in the Cascade Range in Oregon, three sites in northern California, and one site in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. Although we have known a few of these anomalous sorediate specimens for many years, taxonomic action was stymied by possibilities that they were rare sorediate morphs of a normally fertile species, H. wilfiana, or a rare chemotype of a normally sorediate lichen, H. oceanica. ITS and GPD1 sequences demonstrated that neither is the case; instead, H. tuckerae occupies an isolated position in phylogenetic reconstructions. With ITS alone, however, H. tuckerae is sister to the largest clade of Hypogymnia species from the southern hemisphere. Esorediate individuals of H. tuckerae are very similar to H. antarctica (South America), H. metaphysodes (Japan), and H. wilfiana (North America). We have not yet found a reliable chemical or morphological character to separate esorediate H. tuckerae from H. wilfiana. Hypogymnia discopruina is described as a new species from southwestern China. The species is unusual for the genus in having pruinose apothecia and a POLþ epithecium. The only other Hypogymnia known to have a POLþ epithecium is H. crystallina from the Himalaya Range in India. So far H. discopruina is known from only two locations in Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces at 3000 m and 3600 m and appears to be rare. Adjustments to the keys to Hypogymnia in the Pacific Northwest of North America and for southwest China are given for these two new species and the recently described Asian sorediate species, H. caperatica. Keywords: California, Lecanorales, lichenized ascomycetes, lichenized fungi, Parmeliaceae, Oregon, Sichuan Province, Yunnan Province.
34489Chrapusta-Srebrny E., Bialczyk J., Duchnik K. & Bober B. (2022): Metabolism of mycosporine-glutamicol in the lichen Cladonia arbuscula subsp. squarrosa under seasonal changes and elevated exposure to UV-B or PAR irradiation. - Metabolites, 12(7): 632 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12070632.
Cladonia arbuscula in its environmental niches is regularly affected by daily and annual variations in solar radiation. Mycosporine-glutamicol, Myc-Glu(OH), which it synthesizes, may act as a significant cellular UV-protector. Therefore, we studied this compound concentration in lichen thalli concerning seasonal changes and increased exposure to UV-B and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) with/without simultaneous CO2 deprivation. Myc-Glu(OH) occurred year-round and exhibited a strong seasonality. The most crucial role in the control of its synthesis played UV-B radiation, although its high concentration was also found after PAR irradiation at 1000 µmol m−2 s −1 . As PAR intensity increased to 2000 µmol m−2 s −1 , the rate of Myc-Glu(OH) synthesis slowed down. In turn, under dark/PAR irradiation with simultaneous deprivation of CO2 in the atmosphere surrounding C. arbuscula and during darkness with continuous access to atmospheric CO2 , its production was insignificant. Obtained data confirmed that Myc-Glu(OH) plays an important role in protecting C. arbuscula from UV damage and favours its adaptation to environmental stress in its natural habitat. They also suggest that its synthesis is a synergism of multiple factors. Consequently, further studies should focus on their evaluation and the identification of a lichen partner actively involved in Myc-Glu(OH) biogenesis. Keywords: Myc-Glu(OH); mycosporine-like amino acid; PAR exposure; stress conditions; UV protection; UV-B exposure.
34488Mohammadi M., Zambare V., Suntres Z. & Christopher L. (2022): Isolation, characterization, and breast cancer cytotoxic activity of gyrophoric acid from the lichen Umbilicaria muhlenbergii. - Processes, 10(7): 1361 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10071361.
Lichens produce a large variety of secondary metabolites with diverse bioactivities, chemical structures, and physicochemical properties. For this reason, there is a growing interest in the use of lichen-derived bioactive molecules for drug discovery and development. Here, we report on the isolation, identification, and cytotoxic evaluation of gyrophoric acid (GA) from the lichen Umbilicaria muhlenbergii, a largely unexplored and scantly described lichen species. A simple purification protocol was developed for the fractionation of lichen crude extracts with silica gel column chromatography using solvents with changing polarity. GA was identified in one of the fractions with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ion trap mass spectrometry (MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR). The FTIR spectra demonstrated the presence of aromatic and ester functional groups C=C, C-H, and C=O bonds, with the most remarkable signals recorded at 1400 cm−1 for the aromatic region, at 1400 cm−1 for the CH3 groups, and at 1650 cm−1 for the carbonyl groups in GA. The MS spectra showed a molecular ion [M-1]− at (m/z) 467 with a molecular weight of 468.4 and the molecular formula C24H20O10. that correspond to GA. The 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra verified the chemical shifts that are typical for GA. GA reduced the cell viability of breast cancer cells from the MCF-7 cell line by 98%, which is indicative of the strong cytotoxic properties of GA and its significant potential to serve as a potent anticancer drug. Keywords: lichen; Umbilicaria muhlenbergii; secondary metabolites; gyrophoric acid; breast cancer; cytotoxicity.
34487Zhang T., Zhang X., Yang Q. & Wei X. (2022): Hidden species diversity was explored in two genera of catapyrenioid lichens (Verrucariaceae, Ascomycota) from the deserts of China. - Journal of Fungi, 8(7): 729 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8070729.
Verrucariaceae is the third-largest lichen family with high species diversity. However, this diversity has not been well-explored in China. We carried out a wide-scale field investigation in the arid and semi-arid regions of Northwest China from 2017 to 2021. A large number of lichen groups, especially those commonly distributed in deserts, were collected. Based on molecular phylogeny using ITS and nuLSU sequences by Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses, combining morphological characters, seven taxa of catapyrenioid lichens in Verricariaceae were found in this study, including one genus (Clavascidium) and one species (Clavascidium lacinulatum) new to China; one genus (Placidium) new to the mainland of China; and four species (Clavascidium sinense, Placidium nitidulum, Placidium nigrum, and Placidium varium) new to science. It enriched our understanding of the high species diversity in Verrucariaceae and the lichen flora of Chinese arid and semi-arid deserts. Keywords: catapyrenioid lichens; Clavascidium; new species; Placidium; taxonomy; Verrucariaceae.
34486Balčiūnaitienė A., Štreimikytė P., Puzerytė V., Viškelis J., Štreimikytė-Mockeliūnė Ž., Maželienė Ž., Sakalauskienė V. & Viškelis P. (2022): Antimicrobial activities against opportunistic pathogenic bacteria using green synthesized silver nanoparticles in plant and lichen enzyme-assisted extracts. - Plants, 11: 1833 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11141833.
Enzyme-assisted extraction is a valuable tool for mild and environmentally-friendly extraction conditions to release bioactive compounds and sugars, essential for silver nanoparticle (AgNP) green synthesis as capping and reducing agents. In this research, plant and fungal kingdoms were selected to obtain the enzyme-assisted extracts, using green synthesized AgNPs. For the synthesis, pseudo-cereal Fagopyrum esculentum (F. esculentum) and lichen Certaria islandica (C. islandica) extracts were used as environmentally-friendly agents under heating in an aqueous solution. Raw and enzyme-assisted extracts of AgNPs were characterized by physicochemical, phytochemical, and morphological characteristics through scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), as well as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical in shape and well dispersed, with average sizes ranging from 10 to 50 nm. This study determined the total phenolic content (TPC) and in vitro antioxidant activity in both materials by applying standard methods. The results showed that TPC, ABTS•+ , FRAP, and DPPH• radical scavenging activities varied greatly in samples. The AgNPs derived from enzymatic hydrolyzed aqueous extracts C. islandica and F. esculentum exhibited higher antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial pathogens than their respective crude extracts. Results indicate that the extracts’ biomolecules covering the AgNPs may enhance the biological activity of silver nanoparticles and enzyme assistance as a sustainable additive to technological processes to achieve higher yields and necessary media components. Keywords: green synthesis; silver nanoparticles; Cetraria islandica; Fagopyrum esculentum; enzyme-assisted extraction; Trichoderma reese.
34485Potenza G., Gerardi G., Fascetti S. & Rosati L. (2022): Habitat fragmentation and lichen diversity in peri‐urban woodlands: A case study in the municipality of Potenza (southern Italy). - Plants, 11(14): 1858 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11141858.
The fragmentation of the natural habitat is a process that is exponentially increasing world‐ wide and represents one of the biggest threats to biological diversity. Habitat destruction and frag‐ mentation have a major impact on landscapes and may also affect ecosystems, populations, and spe‐ cies. The ongoing anthropogenic process can result in habitat loss for some species, habitat creation for others,reduced patch size, and increased distance between patches, which may lead to local extinction. We analyzed the effects of patch size and isolation on lichens in Quercus pubescens woods surrounding the city of Potenza (south Italy). We randomly sampled 11 forest patches with homogeneous environ‐ mental variables using circular plots with a 10 m radius; the patches ranged from 0.3 to 30 ha. For each plot, we collected data about presence and abundance of epiphytic lichens. We performed the analyses at the patch level using linear regression and multivariate analysis, searching for effects on species richness, life forms, and community compositions. Multivariate analyses were used to study the effect of fragmentation on the structure of lichen vegetation. We investigated the main predictor of lichen species richness in habitat fragmentations and concluded that patch area per se is an important (posi‐ tive) driver of lichen species richness in Mediterranean peri‐urban forests. Keywords: air pollution; epiphytic lichens; landscape ecology; Mediterranean ecosystems; Quercus pubescens forests; species richness.
34484Manojlovic N., Vasiljević P., Nikolić D., Bogdanović-Dušanović G., Marković Z. & Najman S. (2011): The isolation, analytical characterization by HPLC–UV and NMR spectroscopy, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of baeomycesic acid from Thamnolia vermicularis var. subuliformis. - Hemijska industrija, 65: 591-598. doi: 10.2298/HEMIND110414035M.
The aim of this work was the analytical characterization of the β-orcinol depside, baeo-mycesic acid in lichens extracts. The extract of Thamnolia vermicularis var. subuliformis was analyzed by two different methods, namely HPLC–UV and 1 H-NMR analysis. The re-sults showed that baeomycesic acid was the most abundant depside in the lichens. These results could be of use for rapid identification of this metabolite in other lichen species. Be-sides baeomycesic acid, three depsides and one monocyclic phenolic compound were iso-lated from the lichen extract on the chromatographic column. The structure of baeomy-cesic acid was confirmed by HPLC–UV and spectroscopic methods. In addition, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of baeomycesic acid were determined. The result of the testing showed that baeomycesic acid exhibited a moderate radical scavenging activity (IC 50 = = 602.10±0.54 μg/mL) and good cytotoxic activity. This is the first report of detailed ana-lytical characterization and isolation, as well as antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of baeo-mycesic acid from Thamnolia vermicularis. These results may be helpful in future industrial production of herbal medicines that include this important natural product
34483Acharius E. (1796): Anmärkningar rörande Laf-arterne. - Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar, [ser. 2], 17: 206–216. .
34482Ashwell A. (2000): Phylogenetic, ecological and population studies on the genus Diplotomma. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 86: 11-12. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2086%20Summer%202000.pdf.
34481Acharius E. (1795): Nya och mindre kända Svenska Laf-arter, beskrifne; (V:te Fortsaettning). - Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar, [ser. 2], 16[4]: 207–215, tab.. .
34480Trobajo S., Fernández-Salegui A.B, Hurtado P., Terrón A. & Martínez I. (2022): Interspecific and intraspecific variability of water use traits in macrolichen species in a fragmented landscape along a climatic ecotone area. - Fungal Biology, 126: 438–448. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2022.04.008.
Water use traits in lichens are important attributes that determine the duration of hydration and metabolically active periods. In this study, the water holding capacity (WHC) and specific thallus mass (STM) were measured for seven macrolichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Parmelina tiliacea, Evernia prunastri, Ramalina farinacea, Lobaria pulmonaria, Lobarina scrobiculata and Nephroma resupinatum) from a Temperate-Mediterranean fragmented landscape. Twenty Quercus forests with different environmental conditions were selected to gather therein five lichen samples of each species in order to analyse their interspecific and intraspecific variation in WHC and STM. The type of photobiont was mainly responsible for differences in the WHC and the water content per biomass among species. Lichens with cyanobacteria as the main or secondary photobiont showed the highest value for both parameters. However, particular features of species were more important in modulating STM, while growth form had a minor explanatory importance. At the intraspecific level, variation in WHC relied on climatic, microclimatic and forest structure factors, while STM variability was only dependent on the two last predictors. Future research should be focused on other drivers at the microscale to unveil the environmental conditions that shape WHC and STM in lichens. Keywords: Growth form; Photobiont; Specific thallus mass; Temperate-Mediterranean region; Water holding capacity.
34479Allen J.L., Calabria L.M., Braid H.E., Peterson E., Villella J., Sheehy S., Glew K., Graves J.M., Berim A., Bull R.D., Lymbery C.T. & McMullin R.T. (2022): Umbilicaria phaea var. coccinea: conservation status, variety rank, and secondary chemistry. - Bryologist, 125(3): 387–405. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.3.387.
Originally described from a single collection in northern California, Umbilicaria phaea var. coccinea has since been reported from additional sites in California, Oregon and Washington. Although relatively rare in all three states, there is currently no conservation status for U. phaea var. coccinea in California. Developing conservation strategies and status ranks requires a sound understanding of distribution, frequency, habitat requirements and taxonomic placement. Therefore, we evaluated distributions and constructed climate envelope models for both varieties of U. phaea. Umbilicaria phaea var. coccinea appears to be restricted to relatively small habitats within the range of U. phaea var. phaea and is only locally common in portions of the Klamath River watershed. To assess evolutionary relationships between the varieties, we evaluated four molecular loci: ITS2, LSU, Mcm7, and mtSSU. A combined phylogeny using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian inference indicated that U. phaea is monophyletic. Within the U. phaea clade, var. coccinea and var. phaea do not form mutually exclusive, monophyletic clades; instead, individuals are intermixed. Based on variation in pigment production, morphology, and geographic distribution, we recommend continued designation of U. phaea var. coccinea as a variety. To better understand the chemical diversity within U. phaea, we compared qualitative differences between secondary metabolite profiles of U. phaea var. phaea and U. phaea var. coccinea acetone extracts using ultraperformance-liquid chromatography high resolution tandem mass spectrometry in negative ion mode. UV spectroscopy, thin-layer chromatography and chemical spot testing were used to further characterize the compounds present. Overall, ten compounds were detected in extracts of U. phaea var. phaea and U. phaea var. coccinea. Five previously known chemical substances were identified in both U. phaea varieties including: orsellinic acid, lecanoric acid, hiascic acid, gyrophoric acid, and orsellinylgyrophorate, along with four unknown metabolites. One additional unknown substance whose chemical properties are consistent with a polyhydroxylated anthraquinone pigment was detected only in U. phaea var. coccinea. Given its rarity, chemical uniqueness, and distinct ecological association, U. phaea var. coccinea warrants a protected status throughout its range. Keywords: Conservation biology, biodiversity, biogeography, Pacific Northwest, climate change, integrative taxonomy.
34478Komposch H. & Taurer-Zeiner C. (2022): Flechten (Lichenes) – Zunder für die Vegetation. – In: Komposch C., Glatz-Jorde S., Jungmeier M. & Wagner H.C., Biodiversität im Biosphärenpark Kärntner Nockberge. Ergebnisse des 6. GEOTages der Natur 2021 - Am Fuß der Zunderwand. - Carinthia II, 212/132: 67–71. .
Keywords: Biodiversity, species diversity, GEO-Day of Nature, BioBlitz, endemics, calcareous island, silicates, Biosphere Reserve, Central Alps, Carinthia, Austria. 87 lichen species identified.
34477Davydov E.A., Smirnova L.Y., Storozhenko Yu.V., Zyatnina M.V., Ryzhkova P.Y. & Yakovchenko L.S. (2022): New localities of protected lichen species on the Salair Ridge in Altai Territory. - Acta Biologica Sibirica, 8: 143–153. https://doi.org/10.14258/abs.v8.e06.
New localities of eight lichen species included in the Red Data Book of the Altai Territory, Lobaria pulmonaria, Ramalina roesleri, R. sinensis, Graphis scripta, Heterodermia speciosa, Nephroma bellum, Ramalina vogulica, and Usnea longissima are reported for the Salair Ridge. The last five species recorded to the Salair Ridge within Altai Territory for the first time. Localities and ecological preferences are indicated for each species. Keywords: Biodiversity, lichenized fungus, Red Data Book, Salair National Park.
34476Abbot A., Coppins B.J., Cayton P., Hitch C.J.B. & Gilbert O.L. (1985): New, rare or interesting British lichen records. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 56: 31-32. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2056%20Summer%201985.pdf.
34475Anonymous (1986): New evidence for lichens on Mars. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 59: 24-24. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2059%20Winter%201986.pdf.
34474Hale M.E. (1986): Control of lichen growths on Mayan archaeological ruins. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 59: 18-19. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2059%20Winter%201986.pdf.
34473Henderson A. (1986): Etymological notes on lichen names. Part 2. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 59: 15-16. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2059%20Winter%201986.pdf.
34472Dalby C. (1986): Revelations of a Lichen Illustrator. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 59: 1-7. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2059%20Winter%201986.pdf.
34471Coppins, B.J. (ed.) (1985): New, rare or interesting British lichen records. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 56: 33-34. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2056%20Summer%201985.pdf.
34470Anonymous (P.B.T., F.H.B. & O.L.G) (1985): Ursula K. Duncan (1910-1985) remembered. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 56: 19-20. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2056%20Summer%201985.pdf.
biography
34469Rose F. (1985): The old forests of Western Europe and their epiphytic lichens. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 56: 1-8. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2056%20Summer%201985.pdf.
The epiphytic lichen vegetation of British forests is now' quite well known, having received much attention in the last 18 years. Accordingly, I' Have in collaboration with a number of. continental . 1ichenologist friends, been attempting to carry out a survey of the lichen flora of as many as possible of the old forests of western continental Europe. This work began in 1968, and in recent years has covered many regions and' forests; About 260 individual forests have now. been sampled in the epiphyte survey: 105 in most parts of. France, 12 in West Germany, 60 in Denmark, '33 in Norway, 10 in Belgium, 2 in Luxembourg, 1 in Holland, 30 in N and central Italy, and 2 in NE Spain.
34468Anonymous (2022): Recent literature on australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 90: 71-71. .
bibliography
34467McCarthy P.M. & Kantvilas G. (2022): A new species of Dictyomeridium (lichenized Ascomycota, Trypetheliaceae) from Tasmania. - Australasian Lichenology, 90: 10-13. .
Dictyomeridium tasmanicum sp. nov. (Trypetheliaceae) is described from the bark of coastal Allocasuarina verticillata in south-eastern Tasmania. The new lichen has a thin, UV–, epiphloeodal thallus, small but prominent, pleurothelioid ascomata with eccentric to lateral ostioles, and bisporous asci containing comparatively large, muriform-euseptate ascospores
34466McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2022): New species of Megalaria (lichenized Ascomycota, Ramalinaceae) from Queensland, Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island, Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 90: 38-52. .
Four species of Megalaria Hafellner are described as new from tropical and subtropical Australia: M. australiensis from eastern Queensland and Lord Howe Island (corticolous and containing atranorin; excipulum bilayered, internally pale with variously orientated hyphae; epihymenium N+ maroon or blood-red; hymenium 70–100 μm thick; ascospores 12–23 × 4–7.5 μm); M. crystallifera from Lord Howe Island (corticolous and containing atranorin; excipulum internally pale, with tightly packed, radiating hyphae, the oblong to moniliform cells containing K-soluble crystals; epihymenium N+ purple; hymenium 55–90 μm thick; ascospores 10–17 × 4.5–7 μm); M. norfolkensis from Norfolk Island (corticolous and containing atranorin; excipulum bilayered, internally pale with variously orientated hyphae; epihymenium N+ deep maroon; hymenium 100–160 μm thick; ascospores 13–24 × 6–11 μm); and M. stratosa from north-eastern Queensland and Lord Howe Island (saxicolous and lacking lichen substances; excipulum multilayered, internally dense and very dark; epihymenium N+ violet or purple-violet; hymenium 60–100 μm thick; ascospores 9.5–18 × 4–7 μm)
34465McCarthy P.M. (2022): A new species of Leiorreuma Eschw. (lichenized Ascomycota, Graphidaceae) from Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. - Australasian Lichenology, 90: 14-17. .
Leiorreuma norsticticum sp. nov. (Graphidaceae) is described from the bark of a rainforest tree in Christmas Island, an Australian territory in the north-eastern Indian Ocean. The pale olive-green thallus contains norstictic acid, and the simple, adnate to subsessile lirellae have a strikingly pruinose disc and a thin thalline margin. The proper excipulum is brown-black and thickest at the ascomatal base, and the heavily granule-inspersed hymenium contains simple paraphyses, 8-spored asci and brownish, 6-locular, non-amyloid ascospores,19–28 × 5.5–9 μm
34464McCarthy P.M. (2022): A new saxicolous species of Enterographa (lichenized Ascomycota, Roccellaceae) from Lord Howe Island, Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 90: 24-27. .
Enterographa reticulata sp. nov. (Roccellaceae) is described from basalt in Lord Howe Island (New South Wales). In addition, E. ophiolithica Kantvilas, recently described from Tasmania, is reported for the first time from the south coast of New South Wales.
34463Elvebakk A. (2022): Pannaria crispella comb. nov. and P. campbelliana Hue, two overlooked lichens from New Zealand. - Australasian Lichenology, 90: 28-37. .
Psoroma sphinctrinum var. crispellum has been considered a synonym of Pannaria implexa, but it is a distinct species, recombined here as P. crispella. It forms a thin, filmy thallus on tree trunks, and consists of rounded, confluent squamules surrounded by a distinct black prothallus. The apothecia are initially simple with a well-defined central thalline plug. However, the plug soon expands into a labyrinth-like structure with undulate margins, unlike those of any other Pannariaceae. The ascospores are long-tailed, as in P. implexa, but otherwise smooth, and the species contains argopsin, very rarely reported from the family except for the parmelielloid clade. Pannaria campbelliana, previously also considered to be a synonym of P. implexa, is shown here to represent a second well-founded species, characterized by thick, geotropically arranged squamules, a distinct fibrous prothallus, apothecia with a prominent simple thalline plug and short-ellipsoid spores lacking apiculate extensions.
34462Elix J.A. & van den Boom P.P.G. (2022): Three new species of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from Cape Verde. - Australasian Lichenology, 90: 18-23. .
Amandinea santantaoensis Elix & van den Boom, Buellia rugulata Elix & van den Boom and Cratiria capeverdensis Elix & van den Boom, from Cape Verde, are described as new to science.
34461Elix J.A. & McCarthy P.M. (2022): Additional lichen records from Australia 88. - Australasian Lichenology, 90: 57-69. .
Lepra variolina (Nyl.) Q.Ren and Pseudopyrenula papuana Aptroot are reported for the first time from Australia. New State, Territory and oceanic island records are provided for 60 other species.
34460Elix J.A. (2022): Four new species of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 90: 3-9. .
Amandinea meridionalis Elix from the Flinders Ranges in South Australia, A. wagoorooensis Elix from Carnarvon National Park in central Queensland, Buellia gaahnabulensis Elix from Mt Canobolas in central New South Wales, and B. purdieae Elix from southern Northern Territory and northern South Australia, are described as new to science.
34459Øvstedal D.O. (2022): The genera Aspicilia and Oxneriaria (Megasporaceae) in Antarctica. - Australasian Lichenology, 90: 53-56. .
Three species are reported from Antarctica: A. gremmenii Øvstedal sp. nov., A. narssaquensis (Lynge) Thomson, which is new to the Southern Hemisphere, and Oxneriaria virginea (Hue) S.Y.Kondr. & L.Lökös, which is already known from the region.
34458Dohi T., Iijima K., Machida M., Suno H., Ohmura Y., Fujiwara K., Kimura S. & Kanno F. (2022): Accumulation mechanisms of radiocaesium within lichen thallus tissues determined by means of in situ microscale localisation observation. - PLoS ONE, 17(7): e0271035 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0271035.
Many lichens are well known to accumulate radiocaesium and, thus acting as biomonitors of contamination levels. However, the actual localisation and chemical forms of radiocaesium in contaminated lichens have not yet been elucidated because, despite their high radioactivity, these forms are present in trace amounts as chemical entities. Here, we use autoradiography and demonstrate for the first time in situ microscale localisation of radiocaesium within thallus tissues to investigate the radiocaesium forms and their accumulation mechanism. Radiocaesium distributions showed similar trends in lichen tissues collected two and six years after the Fukushima nuclear accident. The radiocaesium was localised in the brown pigmented parts i.e., melanin-like substances, in the lower cortex of lichen thallus. Quantum chemical calculations showed that functional group of melanin-like substances can chelate Cs+ ion, which indicates that the Cs+ ions form complexes with the substances. Based on these findings, we suggest that radiocaesium ions may be retained stably in melanin-like substances for long periods (two to six years) due to steric factors, such as those seen in porphyrin-like structures and via multimer formation in the lower cortex. In addition, electron microscopy and autoradiography were used to observe radiocaesium-bearing microparticles (CsMPs) on/in the upper cortex and around the medullary layer. Micron-sized particles appeared to adhere to the surface tissue of the thallus, as shown by electron microscopy, suggesting that the particles were trapped by development of an adhesive layer; that is, CsMPs were trapped both physically and physiologically. These findings provide information on in situ localisation of two chemical forms of radiocaesium, cations and particles, in lichen thallus tissues and their accumulation mechanisms.
34457Inashvili Ts., Kupradze I. & Batsatsashvili K. (2022): A revised catalog of lichens of Georgia (South Caucasus). - Acta Mycologica, 57: 571 [46 p.]. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0792-9854.
A revised lichen catalog for Georgia, the South Caucasus, the second after 1986, is presented here. It is based on a literature survey and recent study of herbarium material. The list includes 713 species of lichens and nine species of nonlichenized fungi traditionally treated by lichenologists. As a basis for the present catalog, 106 literature sources reporting the first findings of the listed taxa in floristic regions of Georgia were used. The accepted taxa in bold are followed by references from the literature, if applicable, as well as references from herbarium specimens seen by us at local and several foreign herbaria. Specimens of the 547 of the 722 reported species are stored in the local herbaria: 542 at the National Herbarium of Georgia, the Institute of Botany, Ilia State University, Tbilisi (TBI), and 94 in the Herbarium of the State Museum of Georgia, Tbilisi (TGM). In each literature citation and herbarium code, the occurrence of respective species in Georgia’s floristic regions is given. In addition, a short historical background and comprehensive bibliography are provided. Keywords: lichenized fungi; fungi; Ascomycota; biodiversity; the Caucasus.
34456Wurzel W. & Breitfeld M. (2022): Prof. Dr. Eduard Hertel (1938–2021). - Herzogia, 35(1): 1–5. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.1.2022.1.
obituary, biography
34455Fałtynowicz W. (2022): Participation and role of German lichenologists in understanding the lichen biota of the areas currently within the borders of Poland. - Herzogia, 35(1): 6–21. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.1.2022.6.
German naturalists initiated lichenological research in the areas lying within the Polish borders as early as in the 17th century. For over 200 years of their activity, they have published over 100 books and articles on lichens, making a significant contribution to the knowledge of the lichen biota of Poland. The results of their research, together with numerous preserved herbarium collections, constitute important documentation and comparative material, which is still used by Polish lichenologists. Key words: Lichens, German lichenologists in Poland, history of lichenological investigations.
34454Bauer N., Hüvös-Récsi A., Lőkös L. & Farkas E. (2022): A new steppe element in the Vienna Basin, the first record of Xanthoparmelia pulvinaris (Parmeliaceae) for Austria. - Herzogia, 35(1): 22–31. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.1.2022.22.
The first observation of Xanthoparmelia pulvinaris in Austria is reported. The soil-dwelling lichen species was found in significant amounts (~1,000 thalli) in the eastern periphery of the Vienna Basin at two locations in the Hainburg Hills. The typical habitats are basic rocky grassland patches on flat or low-slope plateau areas of dolomite hills. The occurrence of the species is significant from a biogeographical point of view, as it supports the assumption that the region belongs to the Pannonicum floristic province. Key words: Hainburg Hills, nature conservation, biogeography, phytosociology.
34453Christensen S.N. (2022): Umbilicaria subpolyphylla Oxner: notes on its morphology and ecology, and new records for Italy and Greece. - Herzogia, 35(1): 32–40. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.1.2022.32.
Variation in morphology and colour of Umbilicaria subpolyphylla is illustrated and discussed, and its ecology is examined. It is reported from Sicily and Macedonia as new for Italy and Greece, respectively, and its European distribution is mapped. Key words: Greece, Italy, Leptochidium albociliatum, lichen-forming fungi, polymorphism, Umbilicaria.
34452Christensen S.N. (2022): Contribution to the knowledge of the lichenized mycota of the East Aegeanis land Kos, Dodekanisos island group, Greece . - Herzogia, 35(1): 41–60. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.1.2022.41.
One hundred and sixteen taxa are reported from Kos. One species, Candelariella subdeflexa, is new for Greece and 54 are new for Kos. The number of lichen species known from Kos is thus raised from 227 to 282. The distribution in the Aegean of the lichens new for Kos is briefly discussed. Contrary to what is observed for vascular plants, an Asian element among the lichens recorded from Kos is not detected. The species composition of different trees and substrata is presented, including lichens on Pinus halepensis subsp. brutia, Pistacia terebinthus and Prunus dulcis. Key words: Biogeography, Candelariella subdeflexa, lichen biota, morphology of Xanthoria parietina, rural environment, species composition.
34451Türk R., Berger F., Berger A., Berger M., Cezanne R., Dolnik C., Eichler M., Gruber J.P., Grünberg H., Hafellner J., Klüssendorf J., Neumann P., Otte V., Schultz M., Stapper N., Teuber D., Thüs H. & Weber L. (2022): Flechten und lichenicole Pilze im UNESCO-Biosphärenpark Salzburger Lungau (BLAM-Exkursion 2019). - Herzogia, 35(1): 61–104. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.1.2022.61.
The list of lichens and lichenicolous fungi determined in the course of the 2019 BLAM excursion to the Lungau biosphere reserve is presented with their substrates. The high number of detected taxa in the nine study areas – 546 lichen taxa and 69 lichenicolous fungi – indicates the importance of the Lungau as a refuge for lichen taxa endangered elsewhere in Europe. Significant lichen localities for amphibian lichens and Verrucariaceae include the rapids of the Lonka River in the Weißpriach Valley and the forefield areas of the Preberkessel. The following species are new to Austria: Ephebe perspinulosa, Lempholemma cladodes, Polyblastidium japonicum agg., Pyrenopsis sanguinea, Scytinium biatorinum, Verrucaria cernaensis, V. hunsrueckensis, V. pallidomurina and the lichenicolous fungus Crittendenia coppinsii. The following species are new to the province of Salzburg: Absconditella sphagnorum, Absconditella trivialis, Bryobilimbia sanguineoatra, Flavoplaca oasis, Lecanora allophana f. sorediata, Lempholemma dispansum, Lepraria borealis, Placynthium tantaleum, Protothelenella xylina, Ramalina europaea, Scutula dedicata, Scytinium subtile, Spilonema revertens, Staurothele fissa, Trapelia corticola, Usnea wasmuthii, Verrucaria alpicola, V. bryoctona, V. foveolata, V. praetermissa, V. umbrinula and Zahlbrucknerella calcarea and the lichenicolous fungi Arthonia digitatae, Didymocyrtis pseudeverniae, Epicladonia simplex, Epithamnolia rangiferinae, Heterocephalacria bachmannii, Lecanora lecanoricola, Lichenostigma cosmopolites, Muellerella atricola, Neoburgoa freyi, Opegrapha lamyi, Pronectria robergei, Raesaenenia huuskonenii, Sclerococcum parasiticum, Skyttea tephromelarum, Sphaerellothecium leratianum, Stigmidium microcarpum, Tremella cetrariicola, T. cladoniae and T. hypogymniae. Key words: freshwater lichens, Austria, lichenicolous fungi, Verrucariaceae, cyanolichens.
34450Zhurbenko M.P. (2022): Sclerococcum knudsenii (Ascomycota, Sclerococcales), a new lichenicolous fungus on Polycauliona bolacina from California. - Herzogia, 35(1): 131–137. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.1.2022.131.
Sclerococcum knudsenii, a lichenicolous discomycete growing on Polycauliona bolacina, is described as new to science from California. The species is characterized by aseptate ascospores, not previously known in this genus, and polyspored asci. An updated key to the eight accepted polyspored species of Sclerococcum is provided. Key words: key, lichen-dwelling fungi, taxonomy, U.S.A.
34449Halıcı M.G., Möller E., Timdal E., Kahraman Yiğit M. & Bölükbaşı E. (2022): Rhizocarpon ozsoyae sp. nova (Rhizocarpaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes) from James Ross Island (Antarctic Peninsula). - Herzogia, 35(1): 105–114. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.1.2022.105.
The new lichen species Rhizocarpon ozsoyae is described from James Ross Island, located in the north-eastern Antarctic Peninsula region. The nrITS and mtSSU gene regions of the new species are studied and the phylogenetic position of the species is in the Rhizocarpon geographicum group. It differs from the other species of the group by having mostly 1-septate and smaller ascospores, and from nearly all of them by containing norstictic acid. Key words: Antarctica, biodiversity, lichenized fungi, Rhizocarpales.
34448Salih S.A. (2022): New reports of lichens from Mawat and Gapelon districts in northeastern Iraq. - Lindbergia, 45: linbg.01160 [4 p.]. https://doi.org/10.25227/linbg.01160.
As a result of lichenological fieldwork in Mawat and Gapelon locations in the northeast of Iraq, a total of 22 lichens were identified from nine different localities. Acarospora epiaspicilia, Acarospora murorum, Aspicilia contorta subsp. hoffmanniana, Caloplaca saxicola, Caloplaca xantholyta, Caloplaca oblongula, Candelariella coralliza, Immersaria cupreoatra, Immersaria usbekica, Lecaimmeria qinghaiensis, Lecania polycycla, Lecanora gangaleoides, Lepraria membranacea, Lobothallia radiosa, Lobothallia recedens, Parvoplaca tiroliensis, Physcia stellaris, Physconia grisea subsp. algeriensis, Rinodina ascociscana, Rinodina calcarea, Rinodina oleae, Tephromela atra var. calcarea were reported for the first time from Iraq. The substrata and their collecting localities of the newly recorded lichens are presented. Keywords: Immersaria, Iraq, Lecaimmeria, Lobothallia, new records.
34447Shiromi P., Hewawasam R.P., Jayalal R.G.U., Rathnayake H., Wijayaratne W. & Wanniarachchi D. (2021): Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Two Sri Lankan Lichens, Parmotrema rampoddense, and Parmotrema tinctorum against Methicillin-Sensitive and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. - Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2021: 18. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/9985325.
Introduction. Medicinal utility of lichens is ascribed to the presence of various secondary metabolites of low molecular weight and they have been used in traditional medicine including Ayurveda in the treatment of wounds and skin disorders. Despite the urgent need to effectively address the antibiotic resistance worldwide, the discovery of new antibacterial drugs has declined in the recent past. This emphasizes the increasing importance of investigating and developing new classes of antibiotics that can withstand antibiotic resistance. Aims of the study. The present study was conducted to investigate the chemical composition and the antibacterial activity of hexane, ethanol, and aqueous extracts of Parmotrema rampoddense and Parmotrema tinctorum, two lichens collected from Belihuloya, Sri Lanka, against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including twenty clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Materials and methods. Phytochemical analysis, thin layer chromatography (TLC), and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) were performed to determine the chemical composition of the two lichens. Hexane, ethanol, and aqueous extracts of both lichens were tested against clinical isolate of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including twenty clinical isolates of MRSA. Bacterial susceptibility was tested using a disc diffusion assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by a broth microdilution method. Vancomycin was used as the positive control. Results. Alectorialic acid, atranorin, atraric acid, orcinol, and O-orsellinaldehyde were among the secondary metabolites identified by the TLC and GC-MS analysis. None of the lichen extracts were active against Gram-negative bacteria but both lichens showed a concentration-dependent activity against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and MRSA. Ethanol extract of P. rampoddense showed the highest activity against MSSA with the MIC, 0.0192 mg/ml, but all MRSA isolates investigated showed MIC between 0.096 and 2.4 mg/ml for the same extract. Conclusion. Both lichens, P. rampoddense and P. tinctorum, represent potentially important sources of future antimicrobial drugs. Further investigation on the ethanol extract of P. rampoddense will enable us to determine the most active phytoconstituents responsible for the activity, their mechanism of action against bacterial pathogens, and also their cytotoxicity against normal cells
34446Masters K.S. & Bräse S. (2012): Xanthones from Fungi, Lichens, and Bacteria: The Natural Products and Their Synthesis. - Chemical reviews, 112: 3717-76. DOI: 10.1039/C4NP00050A.
Xanthones from fungi, lichens, and bacteria comprise an ever- growing and considerably diverse group of compounds in terms of structure, occurrence, and bioactivity. General biosynthetic pathways have been defined; however, some pathways are complex, and significant pathway branching during the sequence of xanthone synthesis from polyketide through anthraquinone has been described in the primary literature, sometimes even within a single species. Additionally, the biochemical sources of structural components, for example, oxygen or methyl atoms, can differ between molecules, even those that are structurally similar. The xanthones represent attractive targets for both total synthesis and associated exploration of analogues for the purpose of exploiting the plethora of diverse and specific bioactivities that this class of compounds possesses. The syntheses of the more challenging unsaturated xanthone derivatives is an exciting contemporary area of chemical research
34445Guttová A. & Halda J.P. (2022): Dvojhlasne blahoželáme Zdeňkovi Palicemu k jeho päťdesiatym narodeninám [Dvojhlasně gratulujeme Zdeňkovi Palicemu k jeho padesátým narozeninám]. - Bryonora, 69: 56–72. .
biography
34444Palice Z. (2022): Česká a slovenská lichenologická bibliografie XXXIV [Czech and Slovak lichenological bibliography, XXXIV]. - Bryonora, 69: 41–45. .
bibliography
34443Malíček J. (2022): Lišejníky přírodní rezervace Getsemanka v Brdech [Lichens of the Getsemanka Nature Reserve in the Brdy Hills]. - Bryonora, 69: 19-29. .
The Brdy Hills represent an island of submontane landscape in the centre of Bohemia. They are important site for lichen biodiversity and harbour many rare species. The area is quite rich in small fragments of old-growth forests which are important site for epiphytic lichens. One of woodland site is the studied locality – Getsemanka Nature Reserve (56.64 ha). It is covered mainly by planted beech and spruce forests, but small areas are occupied by old-growth beech and scree forests. In total, 140 lichen species and seven non-lichenized fungi have been recorded in the reserve. Micarea perparvula is published here as new for the Czech Republic. Absconditella celata, Alyxoria ochrocheila, Bacidia circumspecta, Brianaria lutulata, Catinaria atropurpurea, Chaenotheca chlorella, Cladonia norvegica, Lecanora intumescens, Parmelia submontana, Pyrenula nitida, Thelotrema lepadinum and Verrucaria cf. maculiformis represent other remarkable records. beech forest, biodiversity, Micarea perparvula, old-growth forest
34442Malíček J., Bouda F., Konečná E., Steinová J. & Syrovátková L. (2022): Lišejníky zaznamenané během bryologicko-lichenologických dní na Kokořínsku [Lichens recorded during the bryological and lichenological days in the Kokořín region]. - Bryonora, 69: 7-18. .
This contribution provides records on 160 lichenized fungi observed during several excursions in the Kokořín region in northern Bohemia. The landscape is dominated by extensive sandstone rock complexes and pine forests, which are generally poor in lichen diversity, but quite rich in the occurrence of some specialized and rare species. Some communities, such as heathlands, rock outcrops and relic pine forests on rocks are even dominated by lichens, mostly by various Cladonia species. For example, local populations of Cladonia portentosa belong to the richest ones within the country. Besides sandstones, we briefly explored also some volcanic rocks. Porpidia cf. pachythallina is published as new for the Czech Republic. Sequenced specimens of Porpidia sp. and Schaereria sp. from acidic sandstones may represent undescribed species. Acarospora versicolor, Aspiciliella intermutans agg., Cladonia strepsilis, Endocarpon adscendens, Fuscidea austera, F. praeruptorum, Hypotrachyna revoluta, Pertusaria amarescens, P. ocellata, Stereocaulon condensatum, and Trapelia involuta s. str. are among additional valuable records. biodiversity, Porpidia pachythallina, sandstones, volcanic rocks
34441Oset M. (2022): Validation of the typifications of Pertusaria atropallida and P. uralensis. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 59: 1–2. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2022.59.01.
The issue of valid publication and typification of Pertusaria atropallida and P. uralensis is discussed. According to Art. F.5.4 ICN the names were published in 2021 invalidly because the author did not provide a registration number in MycoBank. Keywords: Pertusaria, nomenclature, taxonomy.
34440Kossowska M., Kubiak D., Kowalewska A., Fałtynowicz & Kukwa M. (2022): Five lichen species new to Poland. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 59: 3–10. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2022.59.02.
Athallia cerinelloides, Caloplaca ulcerosa, Flavoplaca arcis, Lecanora sinuosa and Sclerophora amabilis are reported for the first time from Poland. Descriptions, notes on similar species, habitat preferences and general distribution are provided for each species. Keywords: lichenized fungi, distribution, Poland.
34439Fayyaz I., Iftikhar F., Afshan N., Niazi A.R., Habib K. & Khalid A.N. (2022): Some new lichen records from Pakistan. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 59: 11–15. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2022.59.03.
During a survey of the lichens in the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, many specimens were collected from the Jhelum and Neelum valley and characterized using morpho-anatomical, molecular and chemical test methods. Two taxa new for Pakistan, i.e., Physciella chloanta and Xanthoparmelia protomatrae s. l., were found in the collection while Physconia enteroxantha represent range extensions within Pakistan. Morpho-anatomical descriptions, ecology and distribution are provided. Keywords: Chikar, lichen biota, mycobiont, phycobiont.
34438Himelbrant D.E., Stepanchikova I.S., Tsurykau A. & Andreev M.P. (2022): New records of lichens and allied fungi from the Leningrad Region, Russia. XII. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 59: 17–22. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2022.59.04.
Three lichen species and eight lichenicolous fungi were recorded for the first time for St. Petersburg or Eastern Leningrad Region. In addition, the protected species Lobaria scrobiculata was rediscovered in the Leningrad Region. The lichenicolous fungus Arthonia parietinaria is new to Russia, and two species, Didymocyrtis melanelixiae and Tremella everniae, are new for European Russia. Keywords: lichen diversity, protected areas, St. Petersburg, Kotlin Island.
34437Popovici V., Bucur L., Gîrd C.E., Popescu A., Matei E., Cozaru G.C., Schröder V., Ozon E.A., Fița A.C., Lupuliasa D., Aschie M., Caraiane A., Botnarciuc M. & Badea V. (2022): Phenolic secondary metabolites and antiradical and antibacterial activities of different extracts of Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H.Wigg from Călimani Mountains, Romania. - Pharmaceuticals, 15(7): 829 [24 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15070829.
Phenolic compounds represent an essential bioactive metabolites group with numerous pharmaceutical applications. Our study aims to identify and quantify phenolic constituents of various liquid and dry extracts of Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg (U. barbata) from Calimani Mountains, Romania, and investigate their bioactivities. The extracts in acetone, 96% ethanol, and water with the same dried lichen/solvent ratio (w/v) were obtained through two conventional techniques: maceration (mUBA, mUBE, and mUBW) and Soxhlet extraction (dUBA, dUBE, and dUBW). High-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) was performed for usnic acid (UA) and different polyphenols quantification. Then, the total phenolic content (TPC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging activity (AA) were determined through spectrophotometric methods. Using the disc diffusion method (DDM), the antibacterial activity was evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria known for their pathogenicity: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 49619), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 13883). All extracts contain phenolic compounds expressed as TPC values. Five lichen extracts display various UA contents; this significant metabolite was not detected in dUBW. Six polyphenols from the standards mixture were quantified only in ethanol and water extracts; mUBE has all individual polyphenols, while dUBE shows only two. Three polyphenols were detected in mUBW, but none was found in dUBW. All U. barbata extracts had antiradical activity; however, only ethanol and acetone extracts proved inhibitory activity against P. aeruginosa, S. pneumoniae, and S. aureus. In contrast, K. pneumoniae was strongly resistant (IZD = 0). Data analysis evidenced a high positive correlation between the phenolic constituents and bioactivities of each U. barbata extract. Associating these extracts’ properties with both conventional techniques used for their preparation revealed the extraction conditions’ significant influence on lichen extracts metabolites profiling, with a powerful impact on their pharmacological potential. Keywords: Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg extracts; phenolic secondary metabolites; usnic acid; polyphenols; DPPH free-radical scavenging activity; antibacterial activity.
34436Valencia-Islas N.A., Arguello J.J. & Rojas J.L. (2021): Antioxidant and Photoprotective Metabolites of Bunodophoron melanocarpum, A Lichen from the Andean Páramo. - Pharm. Sci., 27(2): 281-290. doi:10.34172/PS.2020.83.
Background: Oxidative stress caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation has been associated with dermal problems, including skin cancer. In this study, we determined the photoprotective and antioxidant activity of isolated metabolites from the lichen Bunodophoron melanocarpum (Sphaerophoraceae) to find new sunscreens prototypes. Methods: The constituents of B. melanocarpum were isolated by phytochemical methods and their structures were determined by spectroscopy (IR, 1D and 2D NMR). Antioxidant activity was measured by scavenging DPPH free radicals (EC50), ferric reducing power (FRP), and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (% ILP). The photoprotective capacity against ultraviolet (UVA and UVB) radiations was determined in vitro by calculating their sun protection factor (SPF), critical wavelength and UVA ratio and these values were compared against commercial sunscreens. The lipophilicity and possible skin penetration to the lipid-rich stratum corneum of the isolates, was determined by calculating their octanol/water partition coefficients (Log P) and Gibbs free energy of transfer (ΔtG0 ). Results: Sphaerophorin (1), everninic acid (2), sphaerophorol carboxylic acid (3) and friedelin (4) were isolated from B. melanocarpum. Orsellinic acid-type compounds 1 and 3 are dual agents with antioxidant capacity as free radical scavengers (EC50= 0.0857 and 0.1828 mol compound / mol DPPH•, respectively) and photoprotective properties particularly against UVB radiation (SPF 25.78 ± 0.53 and 22.00 ± 1.03, respectively). In addition, they had lipophilicity (Log P 7.07 ± 0.64 and 4.03 ± 0.32, respectively) and ΔtG0 (-40.32 ± 3.67 and -22.97 ± 1.82 kJmol-1, respectively) suitable to act on the skin Conclusion: Sphaerophorin (1) and sphaerophorol carboxylic acid (3) are dual agents with antioxidant and UVB photoprotective properties and are also lipophilic substances that spontaneously would diffuse across the skin
34435Stojanović I.Z., Stanković M., Jovanović O., Petrović G., Smelcerović A. & Stojanović G.S. (2013): Effect of Hypogymnia physodes extracts and their depsidones on micronucleus distribution in human lymphocytes. - Nat Prod Commun., 8(1): 109-12. PMID: 23472471. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23472471/.
Three lichen depsidones, physodalic acid (1), physodic acid (2), and 3-hydroxy physodic acid (3), were isolated from Hypogymnia physodes diethyl ether extract using column chromatography, and their structures determined by comparing their UV, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic and MS data with those given in the literature, as well as with data computed by CHEM draw ultra 11 software. The contents of 1, 2 and 3 were determined in the methanol (ME), acetone (AE), and diethyl ether (EE) extracts using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The extracts, isolated depsidones 1-3 and EE fraction F23 (consisting of 90% 2 and 3, in the ratio 5.5: 1) were evaluated for their in vitro effects on chromosome aberrations in peripheral human lymphocytes using the cytochalasin-B blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay in doses of 1 microg/mL and 2 microg/mL of final culture solution. The frequency of MN was scored in binucleated cells, and nuclear proliferation index was calculated. It was found that 1, 2, 3, F23, and EE at 1.0 microg/mL exerted a beneficial effect on lymphocyte cells giving a significant decrease of the frequency of MN in comparison with the positive control Amifostin WR-2721.Among the tested depsidones at a concentration of 1 microg/mL, 3 exhibited the most prominent effect decreasing the frequency of MN by 30.3%, followed by 2 (28.2%) and 1 (22.0%). The extracts were less effective than the isolated depsidones
34434Sprengel K. P. J. (1821): Neue Entdeckungen im ganzen Umfang der Pflanzenkunde. - Leipzig, F. Fleischer, 386 p. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/50218.
34433Marshall A.J., Blanchon D.J., Aptroot A., Lücking R. & de Lange P.J. (2022): Five new additions to the lichenized mycobiota of the Aotearoa / New Zealand archipelago. - Український ботанічний журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 79(3): 130–141. https://doi.org/10.15407/ukrbotj79.130.
As part of ongoing studies of the lichenized mycobiota of the Aotearoa / New Zealand archipelago we provide formal documentation of the occurrence of Alyxoria ochrocheila, Anisomeridium anisolobum, Fissurina dumastii, Porina americana and Zwackhia viridis. Through their formal documentation in peer-reviewed literature these species can now be accepted as new additions to the lichenized mycobiota of that region. Keywords: Alyxoria ochrocheila, Anisomeridium anisolobum, Fissurina dumastii, Porina americana, Zwackhia viridis, Aotearoa / New Zealand, lichenized mycobiota, new additions.
34432Dembitsky V.M. (2022): Microbiological aspects of unique, rare, and unusual fatty acids derived from natural amides and their pharmacological profile. - Microbiology Research, 13: 377–417. https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13030030.
In the proposed review, the pharmacological profile of unique, rare, and unusual fatty acids derived from natural amides is considered. These amides are produced by various microor- ganisms, lichens, and fungi. The biological activity of some natural fatty acid amides has been de- termined by their isolation from natural sources, but the biological activity of fatty acids has not been practically studied. According to QSAR data, the biological activity of fatty acids is shown, which demonstrated strong antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory ac- tivities. Moreover, some fatty acids have shown rare activities such as antidiabetic, anti-infective, anti-eczematic, antimutagenic, and anti-psoriatic activities. For some fatty acids that have pro- nounced biological properties, 3D graphs are shown that show a graphical representation of unique activities. These data are undoubtedly of both theoretical and practical interest for chemists, phar- macologists, as well as for the pharmaceutical industry, which is engaged in the synthesis of biolog- ically active drugs. Keywords: fatty acids; bacteria; fungal endophytes; fungi; lichens; amides.
34431Lu Y., Tao Y., Yin B., Li Y., Tucker C., Zhou X. & Zhang Y. (2022): Nitrogen deposition stimulated winter nitrous oxide emissions from bare sand more than biological soil crusts in cold desert ecosystem. - Science of the Total Environment, 841: 156779 [10 p.]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156779.
Dryland ecosystems are often nitrogen-limited, and small nitrogen inputs may produce large responses to dryland ecological processes, such as gaseous nitrogen emission. The effect of increased anthropogenic nitrogen deposition on N2O and NO emissions in desert ecosystems is unclear, especially in non-growing seasons when the surface is covered with snow. In this study, nitrogen applications were performed on biological soil crusts (lichen crust and moss crust, bare sand for control) in the Gurbantunggut Desert, Northwest China. We measured the fluxes of N2O and NO and related nitrogen cycle functional gene abundances in winter for three-years period. Nitrogen addition significantly affected N2O emissions and increased the abundances of key functional gene for nitrogen cycle, while it only slightly influenced NO emissions. These effects of nitrogen addition depended on composition of biological soil crusts. For bare sand and lichen crust, nitrogen addition significantly increased N2O emissions, whereas for moss crust, only a negligible effect was observed. Meanwhile, significant differences in nitrogen cycle functional gene abundances were found among different composition of biological soil crusts. Abundance of amoA, narG, and nosZ genes were highly related to N2O and NO emissions. Thus, our results indicate that gaseous nitrogen emissions were generally increased by nitrogen addition through their effects on related functional microbial groups. The effects were regulated by composition of biological soil crusts which can buffer the effects of increasing nitrogen addition during winter. Keywords: Nitrous oxide; Nitric oxide; Biological soil crust; Nitrogen cycle functional genes; Nitrogen addition.
34430Xiao B., Bowker M.A. , Zhao Y., Chamizo S. & Issa O.M. (2022): Biocrusts: Engineers and architects of surface soil properties, functions, and processes in dryland ecosystems. - Geoderma, 424: 116015 [5 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2022.116015.
Biocrusts are photosynthetic biotic communities of cryptogams and microbes that aggregate minerals at the soil surface in many ecosystems. Due to their high tolerance to harsh environments, biocrusts are present in a wide range of habitats, but are especially representative ground covers in regions with restricted vegetation growth, such as drylands (hyperarid, arid, semiarid, and dry subhumid regions) where water is a limiting factor, or high latitude or altitude regions where cold is a limiting factor. Since biocrusts fulfill a large range of ecological roles particularly in modifying soil properties and regulating functions, their rehabilitation and management is believed to be a promising measure for combating land degradation. We organized this article collection to further highlight the importance of biocrusts and their fundamental roles in reshaping soil properties and multifunctionality in drylands and other ecosystems, and to elucidate the ways in which global change factors are influencing biocrust-soil systems. The special issue brings together 27 research articles pertinent to soil-biocrust interactions or biocrust response to global change and disturbance from 12 countries worldwide (10 papers from China, 6 papers from the USA, 2 papers from Spain, 2 papers from Australia, in addition to studies from Antarctica, Argentina, Brazil, Iceland, Iran, Mexico, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden). The discussed topics include biocrust roles in regulating soil hydrology (6 papers), reducing soil erosion (4 papers), affecting soil carbon fixation and respiration (2 papers), and influencing soil microbial biodiversity (5 papers). The responses of biocrusts themselves and their functions to trampling disturbance (2 papers), land use shifts (2 papers), and climate change (5 papers) are also emphasized. On the whole, we highlight the capability of biocrusts in reshaping most properties of surface soil, acting as engineers and architects of surface soil properties, functions, and processes in dryland or other harsh environments, and we recognize the necessity of their protection and consideration as valuable nature-based measures to combat soil and land degradation. Keywords : Biological soil crust ; Soil multifunctionality ; Dryland hydrology ; Soil erosion ; Soil carbon cycling ; Human disturbance ; Global climate change.
34429Keuler R., Jensen J., Barcena-Peña A., Grewe F., Lumbsch H.T., Huang J.-P. & Leavitt S.D. (2022): Interpreting phylogenetic conflict: Hybridization in the most speciose genus of lichen-forming fungi. - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 174: 107543 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2022.107543.
While advances in sequencing technologies have been invaluable for understanding evolutionary relationships, increasingly large genomic data sets may result in conflicting evolutionary signals that are often caused by biological processes, including hybridization. Hybridization has been detected in a variety of organisms, influencing evolutionary processes such as generating reproductive barriers and mixing standing genetic variation. Here, we investigate the potential role of hybridization in the diversification of the most speciose genus of lichen-forming fungi, Xanthoparmelia. As Xanthoparmelia is projected to have gone through recent, rapid diversification, this genus is particularly suitable for investigating and interpreting the origins of phylogenomic conflict. Focusing on a clade of Xanthoparmelia largely restricted to the Holarctic region, we used a genome skimming approach to generate 962 single-copy gene regions representing over 2 Mbp of the mycobiont genome. From this genome-scale dataset, we inferred evolutionary relationships using both concatenation and coalescent-based species tree approaches. We also used three independent tests for hybridization. Although different species tree reconstruction methods recovered largely consistent and well-supported trees, there was widespread incongruence among individual gene trees. Despite challenges in differentiating hybridization from ILS in situations of recent rapid radiations, our genome-wide analyses detected multiple potential hybridization events in the Holarctic clade, suggesting one possible source of trait variability in this hyperdiverse genus. This study highlights the value in using a pluralistic approach for characterizing genome-scale conflict, even in groups with well-resolved phylogenies, while highlighting current challenges in detecting the specific impacts of hybridization. Keywords: Conflict; Incomplete lineage sorting; Introgression; Phylogenetic incongruence; Phylogenomics; Reticulation.
34428Srimani S., Schmidt C.X., Gómez-Serranillos M.P., Oster H. & Divakar P.K. (2022): Modulation of cellular circadian rhythms by secondary metabolites of lichens. - Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 16: 907308 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2022.907308.
Background: Most mammalian cells harbor molecular circadian clocks that synchronize physiological functions with the 24-h day-night cycle. Disruption of circadian rhythms, through genetic or environmental changes, promotes the development of disorders like obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. At the cellular level, circadian, mitotic, and redox cycles are functionally coupled. Evernic (EA) and usnic acid (UA), two lichen secondary metabolites, show various pharmacological activities including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective action. All these effects have likewise been associated with a functional circadian clock. Hypothesis/Purpose: To test, if the lichen compounds EA and UA modulate circadian clock function at the cellular level. Methods: We used three different cell lines and two circadian luminescence reporter systems for evaluating dose- and time-dependent effects of EA/UA treatment on cellular clock regulation at high temporal resolution. Output parameters studied were circadian luminescence rhythm period, amplitude, phase, and dampening rate. Results: Both compounds had marked effects on clock rhythm amplitudes and dampening independent of cell type, with UA generally showing a higher efficiency than EA. Only in fibroblast cells, significant effects on clock period were observed for UA treated cells showing shorter and EA treated cells showing longer period lengths. Transient treatment of mouse embryonic fibroblasts at different phases had only minor clock resetting effects for both compounds. Conclusion: Secondary metabolites of lichen alter cellular circadian clocks through amplitude reduction and increased rhythm dampening. Keywords: evernic acid, usnic acid, circadian clocks, amplitude, dampening, in vitro models.
34427Evdokimov G., Afonina O., Konoreva L., Obabko R., Mamontov Yu., Chesnokov S., Frolov I.A. & Babiy U.V. (2022): Flora of lichens, mosses and liverworts of Wrangel Island: New records. - Polish Polar Research, 43(2): 145–163. DOI: 10.24425/ppr.2022.140361.
New records to lichen flora and bryoflora of Wrangel Island are presented. The additions to the island cryptogam flora include 32 lichens and one lichenicolous fungus, 26 mosses and eleven liverwort species. Acarospora sinopica, Alectoria gowardii, Austroplaca sibirica, Calogaya bryochrysion, Hymenelia ceracea, Porpidia ochrolemma, and Sagiolechia protuberans are new to the island and to the Russian Far East. Two lichen species (Lecidea lithophila and Rinodina terrestris), as well as two liverwort taxa (Clevea hyaline, Lophoziopsis excisa var. elegans and Pseudolophozia debiliformis), are new to the Chukotka Autonomous Area. Two of the reported moss species (Funaria arctica and Schistidium umbrosum) are extremely rare. Location data and ecological descriptions for the newly reported species are included. Keywords: Arctic, biodiversity, checklist, new records, cryptogams.
34426Alonso-García M., Pino-Bodas R. & Villarreal A.J.C. (2022): Co-dispersal of symbionts in the lichen Cladonia stellaris inferred from genomic data . - Fungal Ecology, 60: 101165 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2022.101165.
We tested the congruence in dispersal patterns of the two main symbionts of the lichen Cladonia stellaris using genotyping-by-sequencing data. Based on 122 samples from eastern Canada, we recovered more than 21000 loci from the photobiont of C. stellaris. We described the population structure and estimate genetic diversity of the photobiont and identified the factors that contribute to explain genetic variation in both lichen partners. We also determined the identity of the dominant photobiont associated to C. stellaris using two molecular markers. Our results showed that C. stellaris is associated with Asterochloris glomerata, A. irregularis, and A. pseudoirregularis. Congruence in the genetic structure of photobiont and mycobiont were confirmed, suggesting co-dispersal of thallus fragments of C. stellaris. Genetic diversity of each symbiont was the factor that explained most of the genetic variation of the other symbiont, whereas geographical location and bioclimatic region seemed to have small or null explanatory power. Keywords: Asexual reproduction ; Asterochloris ; Congruence ; Dispersal ; Eastern Canada ; Genotyping-by-sequencing Reindeer lichen ; Long-distance dispersal ; Spatial genetic structure.
34425Calabon M.S., Hyde K.D., Jones E.B.G., Luo Z.-L., Dong W., Hurdeal V.G., Gentekaki E., Rossi W., Leonardi M., Thiyagaraja V., Lestari A.S., Shen H.-W., Bao D.-F., Boonyuen N. & Zeng M. (2022): Freshwater fungal numbers. - Fungal Diversity, 114: 3–235. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-022-00503-2.
A review paper. A comprehensive account of fungal classification from freshwater habitats is outlined and discussed in the present review based on literature of biodiversity studies and recent morpho-phylogenetic analyses. A total of 3,870 freshwater fungal species are listed with additional details on the isolation source, habitat, geographical distribution, and molecular data. The Ascomycota (2,968 species, 1,018 genera) dominated the freshwater fungal taxa wherein Sordariomycetes (823 species, 298 genera) had the largest number, followed by Dothideomycetes (677 species, 229 genera), Eurotiomycetes (276 species, 49 genera), and Leotiomycetes (260 species, 83 genera). Other phyla included in the updated classification of freshwater fungi are: Chytridiomycota (333 species, 97 genera), Rozellomycota (221 species, 105 genera), Basidiomycota (218 species, 100 genera), Blastocladiomycota (47 species, 10 genera), Monoblepharomycota (29 species, 6 genera), Mucoromycota (19 species, 10 genera), Aphelidiomycota (15 species, 3 genera), Entomophthoromycota (6 species, 4 genera), Mortierellomycota (5 species, 3 genera), Olpidiomycota (4 species, 1 genus), Zoopagomycota (3 species, 2 genera), and Sanchytriomycota (2 species, 2 genera). The freshwater fungi belong to 1,361 genera, 386 families and 145 orders. The Pleosporales and Laboulbeniaceae are the largest freshwater fungal order and family comprised of 391 and 185 species, respectively. The most speciose genera are Chitonomyces (87, Laboulbeniomycetes), Verrucaria (50, Eurotiomycetes), Rhizophydium (52, Rhizophydiomycetes), Penicillium (47, Eurotiomycetes), and Candida (42, Saccharomycetes). Keywords: Fungal classification · Fungal taxonomy · Freshwater fungi · Higher fungi · Molecular taxonomy · Basal clades.
34424Baldrian P., Větrovský T., Lepinay C. & Kohout P. (2022): High‑throughput sequencing view on the magnitude of global fungal diversity. - Fungal Diversity, 114: 539–547. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-021-00472-y.
High-throughput DNA sequencing has dramatically transformed several areas of biodiversity research including mycology. Despite limitations, high-throughput sequencing is nowadays a predominant method to characterize the alpha and beta diversity of fungal communities. Across the papers utilizing high-throughput sequencing approaches to study natural habitats in terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, > 200 studies published until 2019 have generated over 250 million sequences of the primary mycological metabarcoding marker, the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2). Here we show that at a 97% sequence similarity threshold, the total richness of non-singleton fungal taxa across the studies published so far is 1.08 million, mostly Ascomycota (56.8% of the taxa) and Basidiomycota (36.7% of the taxa). The Chao-1 estimate of the total extant fungal diversity based on this dataset is 6.28 million taxa, representing a conservative estimate of global fungal species richness. Soil and litter represent the habitats with the highest alpha diversity of fungi followed by air, plant shoots, plant roots and deadwood with Chao-1 predictions, for samples containing 5000 sequences, of 1219, 569, 392, 228, 215 and 140 molecular species, respectively. Based on the high-throughput sequencing data, the highest proportion of unknown fungal species is associated with samples of lichen and plant tissues. When considering the use of high-throughput sequencing for the estimation of global fungal diversity, the limitations of the method have to be taken into account, some of which are sequencing platform-specific while others are inherent to the metabarcoding approaches of species representation. In this respect, high-throughput sequencing data can complement fungal diversity predictions based on methods of traditional mycology and increase our understanding of fungal biodiversity. Keywords: High-throughput sequencing · Metabarcoding · Internal transcribed spacer · Alpha diversity · Meta-analysis.
34423He M.-Q., Zhao R.-L., Liu D.-M., Denchev T.T., Begerow D., Yurkov A., Kemler M., Millanes A.M., Wedin M., McTaggart A.R., Shivas R.G., Buyck B., Chen J., Vizzini A., Papp V., Zmitrovich I.V., Davoodian N. & Hyde K.D. (2022): Species diversity of Basidiomycota. - Fungal Diversity, 114: 281–325. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-021-00497-3.
A review paper. Fungi are eukaryotes that play essential roles in ecosystems. Among fungi, Basidiomycota is one of the major phyla with more than 40,000 described species. We review species diversity of Basidiomycota from five groups with different lifestyles or habitats: saprobic in grass/forest litter, wood-decaying, yeast-like, ectomycorrhizal, and plant parasitic. Case studies of Agaricus, Cantharellus, Ganoderma, Gyroporus, Russula, Tricholoma, and groups of lichenicolous yeast-like fungi, rust fungi, and smut fungi are used to determine trends in discovery of biodiversity. In each case study, the number of new species published during 2009–2020 is analysed to determine the rate of discovery. Publication rates differ between taxa and reflect different states of progress for species discovery in different genera. The results showed that lichenicolous yeast-like taxa had the highest publication rate for new species in the past two decades, and it is likely this trend will continue in the next decade. The species discovery rate of plant parasitic basidiomycetes was low in the past ten years, and remained constant in the past 50 years. We also found that the establishment of comprehensive and robust taxonomic systems based on a joint global initiative by mycologists could promote and standardize the recognition of taxa. We estimated that more than 54,000 species of Basidiomycota will be discovered by 2030, and estimate a total of 1.4–4.2 million species of Basidiomycota globally. These numbers illustrate a huge gap between the described and yet unknown diversity in Basidiomycota. Keywords: Biodiversity · Fungi · Species number · Taxonomy.
34422Wijayawardene N.N., Phillips A.J.L., Pereira D.S., Dai D.-Q., Aptroot A., Monteiro J.S., Druzhinina I.S., Cai F., Fan X.L., Selbmann L., Coleine C., Castaneda Ruiz R.F., Kukwa M., Flakus A., Fiuza P.O., Kirk P.M., Kumar K.C.R., Arachchi I.S.I., Suwannarach N., Tang L.-Z., Boekhout T., Tan C.S., Jayasinghe R.P.P.K. & Thines M. (2022): Forecasting the number of species of asexually reproducing fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota). - Fungal Diversity, 114: 463–490. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-022-00500-5.
A review paper. Asexually reproducing fungi play a significant role in essential processes in managed and wild ecosystems such as nutrients cycling and multitrophic interactions. A large number of such taxa are among the most notorious plant and animal pathogens. In addition, they have a key role in food production, biotechnology and medicine. Taxa without or rare sexual reproduction are distinguished based on their sporulating structures and conidiomata in traditional morphology-based taxonomy. The number, variation and diversity of asexually reproducing taxa are insufficiently known, even though fungi capable of asexual reproduction may provide an untapped, rich biological resource for future exploitation. Currently, ca. 30,000 asexual species belonging to ca. 3800 genera have been reported (including 1388 coelomycetous and 2265 hyphomycetous genera). Recent reports (2017–2020) reiterate that the number of asexually producing fungi is higher than the number of frequently sexually-reproducing fungi. With the advent of molecular tools and the abandonment of the dual nomenclature system for pleomorphic fungi, priority criteria were established and revisited in the latest outline of fungi and fungus-like taxa. However, species numbers and taxonomic boundaries of pleomorphic taxa and their synanamorphs or synasexual morphs have yet to be addressed. The number of species of speciose genera (e.g. Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cercospora, Fusarium, Phoma and Pseudocercospora), cryptic species, species of pleomorphic genera, less studied life modes (such as lichenicolous taxa, taxa from extreme environments) and species from biodiversity-rich areas still need evaluation to achieve more reliable estimates of their diversity. This paper discusses the current knowledge on the matter, with diversity estimates, and potential obstacles in several chapters on (1) speciose genera; (2) pleomorphic genera; (3) cryptic species; (4) well-studied but insufficiently resolved taxa, e.g. leaf inhabiting species, marine fungi, (5) less studied life modes, e.g. lichenicolous, rock-inhabiting fungi, insect-associated and yeast-forming taxa and (6) species from biodiversity-rich areas. Keywords: Cryptic species · DNA sequences · Morphology · Pleomorphism · Speciose genera · Species identification.
34421Senanayake I.C., Pem D., Rathnayaka A.R., Wijesinghe S.N., Tibpromma S., Wanasinghe D.N., Phookamsak R., Kularathnage N.D., Gomdola D., Harishchandra D., Dissanayake L.S., Xiang M., Ekanayaka A.H., Mckenzie E.H.C., Hyde K.D., Zhang H. & Xie N. (2022): Predicting global numbers of teleomorphic ascomycetes. - Fungal Diversity, 114: 237–278. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-022-00498-w.
A review paper. Sexual reproduction is the basic way to form high genetic diversity and it is beneficial in evolution and speciation of fungi. The global diversity of teleomorphic species in Ascomycota has not been estimated. This paper estimates the species number for sexual ascomycetes based on five different estimation approaches, viz. by numbers of described fungi, by fungus:substrate ratio, by ecological distribution, by meta-DNA barcoding or culture-independent studies and by previous estimates of species in Ascomycota. The assumptions were made with the currently most accepted, “2.2–3.8 million” species estimate and results of previous studies concluding that 90% of the described ascomycetes reproduce sexually. The Catalogue of Life, Species Fungorum and published research were used for data procurement. The average value of teleomorphic species in Ascomycota from all methods is 1.86 million, ranging from 1.37 to 2.56 million. However, only around 83,000 teleomorphic species have been described in Ascomycota and deposited in data repositories. The ratio between described teleomorphic ascomycetes to predicted teleomorphic ascomycetes is 1:22. Therefore, where are the undiscovered teleomorphic ascomycetes? The undescribed species are no doubt to be found in biodiversity hot spots, poorly-studied areas and species complexes. Other poorly studied niches include extremophiles, lichenicolous fungi, human pathogens, marine fungi, and fungicolous fungi. Undescribed species are present in unexamined collections in specimen repositories or incompletely described earlier species. Nomenclatural issues, such as the use of separate names for teleomorph and anamorphs, synonyms, conspecific names, illegitimate and invalid names also affect the number of described species. Interspecies introgression results in new species, while species numbers are reduced by extinctions. Keywords: Ascomycota · Estimates · Habitat diversity · Molecular techniques · Species concepts.
34420Wiersma Y.F. & McMullin R.T. (2022): Are calicioids useful indicators of boreal forest continuity or condition?. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 31: 1647–1664. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-022-02418-5.
Calicioids are a group of lichenized and non-lichenized fungi that are superficially similar to each other in appearance. Many members of this group tend to be restricted to oldgrowth forests, for which they have been used as indicators. However, the definition of old-growth varies among jurisdictions and forest types. In addition, variables other than tree age, which is often used to define old-growth, have been postulated to be important for influencing the presence of calicioids (e.g., continuity, scale, and ecological and structural variability). These variables, in combination, can be taken to indicate something about forest condition, particularly its ecological integrity. To understand better the ability of calicioids to serve as indicators of forest condition, we recorded the number of species in 51 stands across a chronosequence in Canada’s most homogenous forest ecosystem with the most frequent natural disturbance regime; the boreal forest. We restricted our sampling spatially and temporally in stands with similar tree cover and soil type. We recorded the number of species and biomass of all lichens in each stand along with forest stand attributes. We constructed 13 competing models to explain calicioid species diversity and show that stand age is important, but only in combination with stand condition. The strongest positive correlations were between calicioid density and lichen biomass and richness. Therefore, calicioid diversity appears to be a good indicator of habitat condition or conservation value in the boreal forest, which includes continuity. Similar research in other forest types that are more heterogeneous and have longer natural disturbance regimes will help build a better understanding of how calicioids can be reliably used as indicators of forest quality more broadly for conservation purposes. Keywords: Biodiversity · Forest management · Old-growth · Ontario · Bioindicators.
34419Somphong A., Poengsungnoen V., Buaruang K., Suriyachadkun C., Sripreechasak P., Tanasupawat S. & Phongsopitanun W. (2022): Diversity of the culturable lichen‑derived actinobacteria and the taxonomy of Streptomyces parmotrematis sp. nov.. - Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 115: 911–920. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10482-022-01744-6.
A total of 37 actinobacteria were isolated from eighteen lichen samples collected in Thailand. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, they were identified into five genera including Actinoplanes (1 strain), Actinomadura (1 strain), Pseudosporangium (1 strain), Wangella (1 strain) and Streptomyces (33 strains). Among these isolates, strain Ptm05T, Ptm01 and Ptm12 showed low 16S rRNA gene similarity and was selected for the further taxonomic study using the polyphasic approach. These strains showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Streptomyces sparsogenes ATCC 25498T (97.44–97.72%). Strain Ptm05T was selected for the type strain. The chemical cell composition of the strain was similar to the members of Streptomyces genus. LL-diaminopimelic acids were detected in the peptidoglycan. Menaquinones were MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6). Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, one unidentified phospholipid, one unidentified glycolipid and one unidentified lipid were detected as the polar lipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids are anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, iso-C17:0 and C16:0. The dDNA-DNA hybridization values among strain Ptm05T and its closely related Streptomyces type strains were 17.2–18.0%. In addition, the ANIb and ANIm between strain Ptm05T and related Streptomyces type strains were ranged from 75.69 to 76.13% and 85.21 to 85.35%, respectively. Based on phenotypic and genomic evidence, strain Ptm05T (= TBRC 14546T = NBRC 115203T) represents the novel species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces parmotrematis sp. nov. is proposed. This study showed that the lichens are the promising source of the novel actinobacterial taxa. Keywords: Actinobacteria · Actinomycetes · Lichen · Parmotrema · Streptomyces parmotrematis.
34418Kossowska M., Krzewicka B., Kościelniak R., Kukwa M., Kowalewska A., Szymczyk R., Smoczyk M., Markiewicz K. & Adamski M. (2022): Materiały do rozmieszczenia porostów i grzybów naporostowych Polski, 2. - Wiadomości Botaniczne, 66: 661 [26 p.]. DOI: 10.5586/wb.661.
Materials for the Distribution of Lichens and Lichenicolous Fungi in Poland, 2. [in Polish with English abstract: ] The paper presents new localities of 39 species of lichens and 10 species of lichenicolous fungi (marked by an asterisk), which are endangered in Poland or are regionally rare. Didymocyrtis epiphyscia s. l. is reported from Poland for the frst time. The name of each taxon is followed by data on its diagnostic features and distribution in Poland. Provided lists of localities contain geographic coordinates and ATPOL grid squares, modifed by S. Cieśliński and W. Fałtynowicz for the purposes of the Atlas of the Geographical Distribution of Lichens in Poland (published by W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, 1993). Keywords: lichenized fungi; lichenicolous fungi; biodiversity; rare species; distribution in Poland.
34417Kocovic A., Jeremic J., Bradic J., Sovrlic M., Tomovic J., Vasiljevic P., Andjic M., Draginic N., Grujovic M., Mladenovic K., Baskic D., Popovic S., Matic S., Zivkovic V., Jeremic N., Jakovljevic V. & Manojlovic N. (2022): Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Cytotoxic Activity of Different Extracts of Xanthoparmelia stenophylla Lichen from Stara Planina, Serbia. - Plants, 11(13): 1624 [26 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11131624.
The aim of this study was to identify some of the secondary metabolites present in acetonic, methanolic, and hexanic extracts of lichen Xanthoparmelia stenophylla and to examine their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activity. Compounds of the depsid structure of lecanoric acid, obtusic acid, and atranorin as well as usnic acid with a dibenzofuran structure were identified in the extracts by HPLC. The acetone extract was shown to have the highest total phenolic (167.03 ± 1.12 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoid content (178.84 ± 0.93 mg QE/g) as well as the best antioxidant activity (DPPH IC50 = 81.22 ± 0.54). However, the antimicrobial and antibiofilm tests showed the best activity of hexanic extract, especially against strains of B. cereus, B. subtilis, and S. aureus (MIC < 0.08, and 0.3125 mg/mL, respectively). Additionally, by using the MTT method, the acetonic extract was reported to exhibit a strong cytotoxic effect on the HeLa and HCT-116 cell lines, especially after 72 h (IC50 = 21.17 ± 1.85 and IC50 = 21.48 ± 3.55, respectively). The promising antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic effects of Xanthoparmelia stenophylla extracts shown in the current study should be further investigated in vivo and under clinical conditions. Keywords: ethnopharmacology; usnic acid; pharmaceutical potential; biological activities; flavonoid content; phenolic content; DPPH.
34416Arup U. & Ekman S. (1991): Lavfloran på Hallands Väderö [The lichen flora of Hallands Väderö]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 85: 263–308. .
[in Swedish wih English abstract: ] The lichen flora of the island of Hallands Väderö (southernmost Sweden) has been investigated during 1988-90. The island is 3.1 km2 in area. The landscape is dominated by deciduous forests, rock outcrops, grassy and shrubby areas. In comparison with a study published by Ove Almborn in 1955, 36 (13%) of the species have disappeared. Several other species have decreased, and a few have increased. The changes are mainly due to air pollution. The greatest effect can be seen on Pinus mugo, P. nigra, P. sylvestris and Prunus spinosa. Lichens on twigs and thin branches, and on nutrient-rich bark have also been greatly affected. Some corticolous species, although about as common as during Almborn's study, have become confined to fewer substrates. 31 species on the Swedish Red Data List were found by us. The species list comprises 393 species, 346 of which were found during the present investigation. Bacidia delicata, B. vezdae, Cladonia merochlorophaea var. novochlorophaea. Lecania hutchinsiae, L. turicensis, Macentina stigonemoides, Porina borreri and Rinodina parasitica are new to Sweden. Lecanora saxorum H. Magn., L. kauegallensis H. Magn., L. confusa Almb. and Biatora straminea Stenhammar are lectotypified. The taxonomy of Lecanora helicopis, L. salina, the L. umbrina group, L. sublivescens and L. argentata is discussed.
34415Areche C., Parra J.R., Sepulveda B., García-Beltrán O. & Simirgiotis M.J. (2022): UHPLC-MS metabolomic fingerprinting, antioxidant, and enzyme inhibition activities of Himantormia lugubris from Antarctica. - Metabolites, 12(6): 560 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12060560.
Himantormia lugubris is a Chilean native small lichen shrub growing in the Antarctica region. In this study, the metabolite fingerprinting and the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory potential from this species and its four major isolated compounds were investigated for the first time. Using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS), several metabolites were identified including specific compounds as chemotaxonomical markers, while major metabolites were quantified in this species. A good inhibition activity against cholinesterase (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) IC50: 12.38 ± 0.09 µg/mL, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) IC50: 31.54 ± 0.20 µg/mL) and tyrosinase (22.32 ± 0.21 µg/mL) enzymes of the alcoholic extract and the main compounds (IC50: 28.82 ± 0.10 µg/mL, 36.43 ± 0.08 µg/mL, and 7.25 ± 0.18 µg/mL, respectively, for the most active phenolic atranol) was found. The extract showed a total phenolic content of 47.4 + 0.0 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g. In addition, antioxidant activity was assessed using bleaching of DPPH and ORAC (IC50: 75.3 ± 0.02 µg/mL and 32.7 ± 0.7 μmol Trolox/g lichen, respectively) and FRAP (27.8 ± 0.0 μmol Trolox equivalent/g) experiments. The findings suggest that H. lugubris is a rich source of bioactive compounds with potentiality in the prevention of neurodegenerative or noncommunicable chronic diseases. Keywords: Himantormia; phenolics; enzyme inhibition; native lichens; antioxidant; depsides; dibenzofurans; Antarctica; Alzheimer.
34414Jurado V., Cañaveras J.C., Gomez-Bolea A., Gonzalez-Pimentel J.L., Sanchez-Moral S., Costa C. & Saiz-Jimenez C. (2022): Holistic approach to the restoration of a vandalized monument: The cross of the inquisition, Seville City Hall, Spain. - Applied Sciences, 12(12): 6222 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12126222.
The Cross of the Inquisition, sculpted in 1903 and raised on a column with a fluted shaft and ornamented with vegetable garlands, is located in a corner of the Plateresque façade of the Seville City Hall. The Cross was vandalized in September 2019 and the restoration concluded in September 2021. A geological and microbiological study was carried out in a few small fragments. The data are consistent with the exposure of the Cross of the Inquisition to an urban environment for more than 100 years. During that time, a lichen community colonized the Cross and the nearby City Hall façades. The lichens, bryophytes and fungi colonizing the limestone surface composed an urban community, regenerated from the remains of the original communities, after superficial cleaning of the limestone between 2008 and 2010. This biological activity was detrimental to the integrity of the limestone, as showed by the pitting and channels, which evidence the lytic activity of organisms on the stone surface. Stone consolidation was achieved with Estel 1000. Preventol RI80, a biocide able to penetrate the porous limestone and active against bacteria, fungi, lichens, and bryophytes, was applied in the restoration. Keywords: green algae; lichens; Trebouxia aggregata; black fungi; bryophytes; limestone; mineralogy; restoration; Seville City Hall.
34413Jurado V., Cañaveras J.C., Gomez-Bolea A., Gonzalez-Pimentel J.L., Sanchez-Moral S., Costa C. & Saiz-Jimenez C. (2022): Holistic approach to the restoration of a vandalized monument: The cross of the inquisition, Seville City Hall, Spain. - Applied Sciences, 12(12): 6222 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12126222.
The Cross of the Inquisition, sculpted in 1903 and raised on a column with a fluted shaft and ornamented with vegetable garlands, is located in a corner of the Plateresque façade of the Seville City Hall. The Cross was vandalized in September 2019 and the restoration concluded in September 2021. A geological and microbiological study was carried out in a few small fragments. The data are consistent with the exposure of the Cross of the Inquisition to an urban environment for more than 100 years. During that time, a lichen community colonized the Cross and the nearby City Hall façades. The lichens, bryophytes and fungi colonizing the limestone surface composed an urban community, regenerated from the remains of the original communities, after superficial cleaning of the limestone between 2008 and 2010. This biological activity was detrimental to the integrity of the limestone, as showed by the pitting and channels, which evidence the lytic activity of organisms on the stone surface. Stone consolidation was achieved with Estel 1000. Preventol RI80, a biocide able to penetrate the porous limestone and active against bacteria, fungi, lichens, and bryophytes, was applied in the restoration. Keywords: green algae; lichens; Trebouxia aggregata; black fungi; bryophytes; limestone; mineralogy; restoration; Seville City Hall.
34412da Silva M.K., da Silva A.V., Fernandez P.M., Montone R.C., Alves R.P., de Queiroz A.C., de Oliveira V.M., Dos Santos V.P., Putzke J., Rosa L.H. & Duarte A.W.F. (2022): Extracellular hydrolytic enzymes produced by yeasts from Antarctic lichens. - Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 94(Suppl.1): e20210540 [14 p.]. DOI 10.1590/0001-3765202220210540.
In the Antarctic environment, yeasts are versatile eukaryotes that have shown wide dispersion in different substrates, producing active enzymes in extreme conditions, but their relevance in biotechnological applications is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of extracellular hydrolases by yeasts isolated from Antarctic lichens and molecularly identify these isolates. From a total of 144 isolates on the screening, 109 (76%) produced at least one of the hydrolases tested, with most activities for proteases 59 (41%), cellulases 58 (40%), esterases 57 (39%), lipases 29 (20%), amylases 23 (16%) and pectinases 20 (14%). Among these isolates, 76 were identifi ed, most belonged to the phylum Basidiomycota (n=73) with the dominance of Vishniacozyma victoriae (n=27), Cystobasidium alpinum (n=3), Mrakia niccombsii (n=3), Cystobasidium laryngis (n=2), Bannozyma yamatoana (n=2), Holtermanniella nyarrowii (n=2), and Glaciozyma martinii (n=2). This study is the fi rst one reporting extracellular enzyme production by yeasts isolated from thallus of the species of Antarctic lichens Lecania brialmontii, Polycauliona candelaria, Usnea capillacea, Cladonia metacorallifera, and Polycauliona regalis. With these data, it’s possible to confi rm lichens as a source of hydrolase-producing yeasts, reinforcing the potential of these microorganisms in bioprospecting studies of catalytic molecules from polar regions that may be useful in promising biotechnological applications. Key words: Bioprospection, cellulase, fungi, lichensphere, Vishniacozyma.
34411Curtis T. & Lendemer J.C. (2022): Catillaria fungoides (Catillariaceae; Lecanoromycetes) an inconspicuous crustose lichen previously overlooked in eastern North America. - Castanea , 87(1): 12–19. https://doi.org/10.2179/0008-7475.87.1.12.
Catillaria fungoides is newly reported for North America based on collections from the temperate eastern United States. A detailed description based on North American material is provided, the distribution is mapped, and images are provided. The species is likely widespread but overlooked due to its inconspicuous appearance. Key words: Appalachian Mountains, biodiversity, corticolous, floristics, lichenized fungi, new record.
34410Rosli N.S. & Zulkifly S. (2022): Application of Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) along elevation gradients in Gunung Jerai, Kedah, Malaysia. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 194: 496 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-022-10108-6.
The utilisation of biological organisms, especially lichens in the environmental biomonitoring approach, has been proven to be an effective and lowcost technique suitable for developing countries like Malaysia. Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) tracked compositional changes in lichen communities which correlate with changes in levels of atmospheric pollution. Gunung Jerai was formed during the Cambrian Period; thus, it is a biodiversity hotspot ideal for a diverse range of lichens. In the present work, a total of 44 corticolous lichen species were sampled and identified to evaluate the pollution status of Gunung Jerai using IAP, starting from 80 to 1200 m with 300 m intervals. The samples were collected within 10 × 50 cm sampling grids attached to 60 trees, bringing a total of 120 000 cm2 of the sampling area. The air quality of the sampling area was determined by IAP score, a low score indicated by high levels of pollution. Results showed that the lowest IAP score was recorded at 300 m; meanwhile, the highest IAP score was recorded at 900 m elevation. Elevational gradient and pollution have a significant effect on the IAP score of Gunung Jerai. On average, Gunung Jerai is indicated as having a low pollution status. However, several elevations of the rainforest showed high and moderate pollution status. The IAP method is best to assess environmental pollution and provide quicker results than chemical monitoring methods. Further research could be done to evaluate the other sampling sites adjacent to other areas of Gunung Jerai. Keywords: Bioindicator · Ecological index · Elevation gradient · Epiphytic lichens · IAP · Malaysia · Mountain · Pollution.
34409Abas A., Aiyub K. & Awang A. (2022): Biomonitoring potentially toxic elements (PTEs) using lichen transplant Usnea misaminensis: A case study from Malaysia. - Sustainability, 14(12): 7254 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127254.
Urban air pollution has been a major concern due to its impact on global public health. Various techniques for monitoring urban air quality have been developed. However, there is currently a dearth of research on how effective bioaccumulators such as lichen are at monitoring urban air pollution. As a result, the purpose of this research is to investigate the use of U. misaminensis as a biological indicator for biomonitoring urban air quality in Malaysia. Three months were spent exposing lichen samples in three Malaysian cities (Kuala Lumpur, Penang, and Johor Bahru). The trace element content and vitality of the lichens were assessed. The results of this study revealed that U. misaminensis is an effective biological indicator for measuring 25 elements of air pollutants in metropolitan areas. They also revealed that all 25 elements accumulated in the urban area sample were greater than in the control sample. The vitality rate of lichens dropped in the urban area sample when compared with the control sample, indicating that an increase in elements in the air will impact the vitality rate of any biological component. In this study, two arguments are made: (a) Lichen is an excellent biological indicator, particularly for urban air pollutants such as potentially toxic elements; and (b) traffic is the primary contributor to urban air pollution; hence, the local government requires a better plan and design for urban areas to decrease air pollutants build-up. Keywords: ecological indicator; lichens; air pollution; traffic; ecosystem management.
34408Chavarria-Pizarro T., Resl P., Kuhl-Nagel T., Janjic A., Fernandez Mendoza F. & Werth S. (2022): Antibiotic-induced treatments reveal stress-responsive gene expression in the endangered lichen Lobaria pulmonaria. - Journal of Fungi, 8(6): 625 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8060625.
Antibiotics are primarily found in the environment due to human activity, which has been reported to influence the structure of biotic communities and the ecological functions of soil and water ecosystems. Nonetheless, their effects in other terrestrial ecosystems have not been well studied. As a result of oxidative stress in organisms exposed to high levels of antibiotics, genotoxicity can lead to DNA damage and, potentially, cell death. In addition, in symbiotic organisms, removal of the associated microbiome by antibiotic treatment has been observed to have a big impact on the host, e.g., corals. The lung lichen Lobaria pulmonaria has more than 800 associated bacterial species, a microbiome which has been hypothesized to increase the lichen’s fitness. We artificially exposed samples of L. pulmonaria to antibiotics and a stepwise temperature increase to determine the relative effects of antibiotic treatments vs. temperature on the mycobiont and photobiont gene expression and the viability and on the community structure of the lichen-associated bacteria. We found that the mycobiont and photobiont highly reacted to different antibiotics, independently of temperature exposure. We did not find major differences in bacterial community composition or alpha diversity between antibiotic treatments and controls. For these reasons, the upregulation of stress-related genes in antibiotic-treated samples could be caused by genotoxicity in L. pulmonaria and its photobiont caused by exposure to antibiotics, and the observed stress responses are reactions of the symbiotic partners to reduce damage to their cells. Our study is of great interest for the community of researchers studying symbiotic organisms as it represents one of the first steps to understanding gene expression in an endangered lichen in response to exposure to toxic environments, along with dynamics in its associated bacterial communities. Keywords: symbiotic organisms; differential expression; transcriptomic; toxic environments.
34407Nawrot J., Gornowicz-Porowska J., Budzianowski J., Nowak G., Schroeder G. & Kurczewska J. (2022): Medicinal herbs in the relief of neurological, cardiovascular, and respiratory symptoms after COVID-19 infection. A literature review. - Cells, 11(12): 1897 [25 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11121897.
COVID-19 infection causes complications, even in people who have had a mild course of the disease. The most dangerous seem to be neurological ailments: anxiety, depression, mixed anxiety–depressive (MAD) syndromes, and irreversible dementia. These conditions can negatively affect the respiratory system, circulatory system, and heart functioning. We believe that phytotherapy can be helpful in all of these conditions. Clinical trials confirm this possibility. The work presents plant materials (Valeriana officinalis, Melissa officinalis, Passiflora incarnata, Piper methysticum, Humulus lupulus, Ballota nigra, Hypericum perforatum, Rhodiola rosea, Lavandula officinalis, Paullinia cupana, Ginkgo biloba, Murraya koenigii, Crataegus monogyna and oxyacantha, Hedera helix, Polygala senega, Pelargonium sidoides, Lichen islandicus, Plantago lanceolata) and their dominant compounds (valeranon, valtrat, apigenin, citronellal, isovitexin, isoorientin, methysticin, humulone, farnesene, acteoside, hypericin, hyperforin, biapigenin, rosavidin, salidroside, linalool acetate, linalool, caffeine, ginkgolide, bilobalide, mihanimbine, epicatechin, hederacoside C,α-hederine, presegenin, umkaline, 6,7,8-trixydroxybenzopyranone disulfate, fumaroprotocetric acid, protolichesteric acid, aucubin, acteoside) responsible for their activity. It also shows the possibility of reducing post-COVID-19 neurological, respiratory, and cardiovascular complications, which can affect the functioning of the nervous system. Keywords: COVID-19; complications; viral infections; phytotherapy; medicinal herbs.
34406Hemberg J. (2014): SLFs vårexkursion till Blekinge den 26-28 April 2013. - Lavbulletinen, 2-2013: 36–43. .
[in Swedish] Sweden; report on an excursion with photodocumentation by Ulf Arup (Biatoridium delitescens, Bacidia friesiana, Gyalecta derivata, Lecanora sublivescens, Bacidia incompta, Buellia violaceofusca, Lecanora confusa, Bacidia laurocerasi, Megalaria laureri, Phlyctis agelaea, the pyrenomycete Hypoxylon howenum), and by Joakim Hemberg (Diploicia canescens, Arthonia pruinata)
34405Razzaq F., Habib K., Aslam S. & Khalid A.N. (2022): Additions to the list of Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycetes) in Pakistan. - Biology Bulletin, 49(1): 14–20. DOI: 10.1134/S1062359022020066.
As part of comprehensive study of lichen diversity of northern areas of Pakistan using molecular and morphological approaches, we found four species of the family Graphidaceae. The phylogenetic analysis revealed two new records in the lichen biota of Pakistan namely, Diploschistes candidissimus and Xalocoa ocellata while D. scruposus and D. muscorum are new records for state Azad Jammu & Kashmir. Brief descriptions and phylogenetic analyses of the taxa are given. Keywords: AJ&K, Gilgit-Baltistan, taxonomy, phylogeny.
34404de los Ríos A., Garrido‑Benavent I., Limón A., Cason E.D., Maggs‑Kölling G., Cowan D. & Valverde A. (2022): Novel lichen‑dominated hypolithic communities in the Namib Desert. - Microbial Ecology, 83: 1036–1048. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-021-01812-w.
The ventral surfaces of translucent rocks from hot desert pavements often harbor hypolithic microbial communities, which are mostly dominated by cyanobacteria. The Namib Desert fog belt supports extensive hypolithic colonization of quartz rocks, which are also colonized by lichens on their dorsal surfaces. Here, we aim to evaluate whether lichens colonize the ventral surface of the rocks (i.e., show hypolithic lifestyle) and compare the bacterial composition of these coastal hypolithic communities with those found inland. Fungal DNA barcoding and fungal and bacterial Illumina metabarcoding were combined with electron microscopy to characterize the composition and spatial structure of hypolithic communities from two (coastal and inland) areas in the Namib Desert. We report, for the frst time, the structure and composition of lichendominated hypolithic communities found in the coastal zone of the Namib Desert with extensive epilithic lichen cover. Lichen modifed areoles with inverted morphology of the genus Stellarangia (three lineages) and Buellia (two lineages) were the main components of these hypolithic communities. Some of these lineages were also found in epilithic habitats. These lichen-dominated hypolithic communities difered in structural organization and bacterial community composition from those found in inland areas. The hypolithic lichen colonization characterized here seems not to be an extension of epilithic or biological soil crust lichen growths but the result of specifc sublithic microenvironmental conditions. Moisture derived from fog and dew could be the main driver of this unique colonization. Keywords: Cyanobacteria · Lichens · Lithobionts · Habitat specifcity · Dew · Fog · Stellarangia · Buellia.
34403Reddy S.T., Ramakrishna M., Makani V.K.K., Mendonza J.J., Edathara P.M., Bhadra M.P. & Uppuluri V.M. (2022): Synthesis of novel 1,2,3‑triazole hybrids of methyl β‑orsellinate with capabilities to arrest cell cycle and induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells (MCF‑7). - Monatshefte für Chemie - Chemical Monthly, 153: 461–473. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00706-022-02922-y.
A total of eleven novel 1,2,3-triazole hybrids were synthesized in excellent yields from methyl β-orsellinate through a twostep protocol with 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition as the key step. The newly synthesized compounds have been evaluated for their anti-proliferative potential against a panel of cancer cell lines viz. DU-145, MCF-7, PC-3, IMR-32, and HEK-293T. Interestingly, one of the compounds exhibited higher cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 5 µM as compared to noncancerous HEK293T cells (23.28 µM). Flow cytometry analysis and acridine orange/ethidium bromide dual staining have showed the signifcant G0/G1 phase arrest and efective induction of apoptosis, respectively. Furthermore, the inhibition of CDK4/Cyclin D1 complex proteins and thereby downregulation of p-Rb and E2F1 showed that this compound can act as a potent cell-cycle inhibitor. Docking studies also indicated that the compound may act as a strong ATP competitive inhibitor of CDK4/Cyclin D1 complex. Evidently, the methyl β-orsellinate conjugates of 1,2,3-triazole hybrids could be the efective anticancer leads in breast cancer therapeutics. Keywords: Methyl β-orsellinate · 1,2,3-Triazole hybrids · Cell-cycle arrest · Breast cancer · Molecular modelling · Antitumor agents. Parmotrema mesotropum.
34402Phinney N.H., Asplund J. & Gauslaa Y. (2022): The lichen cushion: A functional perspective of color and size of a dominant growth form on glacier forelands. - Fungal Biology , 126: 375–384. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2022.03.001.
Mat-forming lichens dominating high-latitudinal habitats vary in color and geometry. Widespread species are light greenish yellow (usnic acid) and reflect solar radiation, whereas melanic species absorbing most solar wavelengths are spatially more restricted. Color thereby influences lichens’ energy budget and thus their hydration and photosynthetically active periods. By using well-defined cushions from early successional stages on glacier forelands e three melanic(m) and three usnic(u) mat-forming lichens with hair-like branches (Alectoria ochroleuca(u), Gowardia nigricans(m)), hollow terete branches (Cladonia uncialis(u), Cetraria muricata(m)), and flat branches (Flavocetraria nivalis(u), Cetraria islandica(m)) e we quantified hydration traits and analyzed how color and cushion size affect water loss rate (WLR) and duration of active periods. Main findings: 1) WLR declined with cushion size and was highest in melanic lichens. 2) Active periods were longer for usnic than for melanic lichens and increased with size in all groups. 3) Size, color, and taxon nested in color significantly influenced WLR and duration of active periods in linear mixed models. 4) Hair lichen cushions had shorter active periods than growth forms with terete or flat branches due to their more open canopy architecture and lower water holding capacity (WHC). 5) WHC measured for isolated branches highly underestimated WHC for intact cushions. Keywords: Hydration traits; Mat-forming lichens; Size; Thallus color; Water loss rate.
34401Xu M., Oppong-Danquah E., Wang X., Oddsson S., Abdelrahman A., Pedersen S.V., Szomek M., Gylfason A.E., Snorradottir B.S., Christensen E.A., Tasdemir D., Jameson C.J., Murad S., Andresson O.S., Magnusson K.P., de Boer H.J., Thorsteinsdottir M., Omarsdottir S., Heidmarsson S. & Olafsdottir E.S. (2022): Novel methods to characterise spatial distribution and enantiomeric composition of usnic acids in four Icelandic lichens. - Phytochemistry, 200: 113210 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2022.113210.
Usnic acid is an antibiotic metabolite produced by a wide variety of lichenized fungal lineages. The enantiomers of usnic acid have been shown to display contrasting bioactivities, and hence it is important to determine their spatial distribution, amounts and enantiomeric ratios in lichens to understand their roles in nature and grasp their pharmaceutical potential. The overall aim of the study was to characterise the spatial distribution of the predominant usnic acid enantiomer in lichens by combining spatial imaging and chiral chromatography. Specifically, separation and quantification of usnic acid enantiomers in four common lichens in Iceland was performed using a validated chiral chromatographic method. Molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to rationalize the chiral separation mechanism. Spatial distribution of usnic acid in the lichen thallus cross-sections were analysed using Desorption Electrospray Ionization-Imaging Mass Spectrometry (DESI-IMS) and fluorescence microscopy. DESI-IMS confirmed usnic acid as a cortical compound, and revealed that usnic acid can be more concentrated around the algal vicinity. Fluorescence microscopy complemented DESI-IMS by providing more detailed distribution information. By combining results from spatial imaging and chiral separation, we were able to visualize the distribution of the predominant usnic acid enantiomer in lichen cross-sections: (+)-usnic acid in Cladonia arbuscula and Ramalina siliquosa, and (− )-usnic acid in Alectoria ochroleuca and Flavocetraria nivalis. This study provides an analytical foundation for future environmental and functional studies of usnic acid enantiomers in lichens. Keywords: Alectoria ochroleuca ; Cladonia arbuscula ; Flavocetraria nivalis ; Ramalina siliquosa ; Parmeliaceae ; Usnic acid Imaging mass spectrometry ; Fluorescence microscopy ; Enantioseparation ; Molecular dynamics simulation.
34400Kalın Ş.N., Altay A. & Budak H. (2022): Diffractaic acid, a novel TrxR1 inhibitor, induces cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and antimigration in human breast cancer cells. - Chemico-Biological Interactions, 361: 109984 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2022.109984.
Breast cancer represents one of the most frequently encountered cancer types among women worldwide. Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) is a therapeutic target for breast cancer therapy due to its overexpression in tumor cells. The current research aims to determine the anticancer effect of diffractaic acid, a lichen acid, in breast cancer, and research whether the anticancer effect of diffractaic acid occurs through TrxR1 targeting. According to the XTT assay results, diffractaic acid induced cytotoxicity in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-453 cells with IC50 values of 51.32 μg/ml and 87.03 μg/ml, respectively. Flow cytometry and cell migration analyses revealed the apoptotic, necrotic, and antimigratory effects of diffractaic acid. qPCR analysis indicated the upregulation of the BAX/BCL2 ratio and the P53 gene in MCF-7 cells with only the P53 gene in MDA-MB-453 cells. The gene, protein, and enzyme activity of TrxR1 were suppressed in MCF-7 cells, whereas only enzyme activity was suppressed in MDA-MB-453 cells. These findings illustrate the anticancer effect of diffractaic acid on breast cancer targeting TrxR1. In conclusion, these data reveal that diffractaic acid may be considered an effective therapeutic agent for breast cancer treatment. Keywords: Thioredoxin reductase 1 ; Lichens ; Diffractaic acid ; Expression ; Enzyme activity ; Breast cancer.
34399Pinna D. (2022): Can we do without biocides to cope with biofilms and lichens on stone heritage?. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 172: 105437 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2022.105437.
In the past several years, products and methods alternative to conventional biocides, used in the conservation of cultural heritage objects, have been investigated increasingly to eradicate or prevent the growth of microorganisms and lichens on stone artworks. Although some concerns about conventional biocides are legitimate, the “run” to alternative substances is growing concern as well. This review aims at contributing to the interpretation of recent findings in innovative methods and substances focusing on i) resistance of biofilms to environmental stressors, including antimicrobials; ii) metals and metal-based compounds including nanoparticles; iii) mixtures of metal nanoparticles and metal oxides with water repellents and consolidants; iv) natural compounds (essential oils of plants, secondary metabolites of lichens, microbial by-products, microorganisms, extracts from marine organisms); v) toxicity of essential oils; vi) alternative chemicals (Ionic liquids, dimethyl sulfoxide gel, hydrolase enzymes). This review also includes a discussion on the advantages, drawbacks and limitations of the examined studies to encourage a constructive discussion among professionals involved in the field of stone heritage conservation, and to develop a sustainable path for managing the biological colonization. This state-of-the-art review indicates that further research is needed to propose alternative compounds to conventional biocides. Keywords: Stone artworks ; Microbial colonization ; Conventional biocides ; Alternative substances ; Novel control and preventive strategies.
34398Chowaniec K., Latkowska E. & Rola K. (2022): Does long-term salt stress of environmentally relevant concentrations affect the physiology of inland lichens? – The importance of rainfall to restore thallus vitality. - Environmental and Experimental Botany, 200: 104937 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2022.104937.
During winter seasons, sodium chloride is the most widely used de-icing agent for road maintenance. The aim was to determine the effect of long-term spraying with salt solutions of environmentally relevant concentrations on the physiology of two epigeic lichens i.e., Peltigera didactyla and Cladonia rei. We also aimed at studying lichen responses to rainfall simulations between salt treatments to verify whether the liquid water supply would improve the physiological condition of both symbiotic partners. Long-term salt stress led to a gradual loss of cell membrane integrity, but the damage was lower in the case of an experiment in which thalli were treated with salt solutions and water. Salt stress significantly affected the peroxidation of membrane lipids in both studied species, but their responses differed. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level in P. didactyla increased very late in comparison to C. rei, in which the highest TBARS concentrations were observed at the beginning of the experiment, and then decreased over time. This may be associated with the activation of defence mechanisms protecting against reactive oxygen species. The cyanobiont in P. didactyla was more sensitive to salt stress than the green algal photobiont in C. rei. A low possibility of photosynthesis reactivation of P. didactyla at high humidity may explain the earlier decrease in FV/FM compared to C. rei; whereas the stronger reaction of this species may result from irreversible changes associated with ionic effects. Moreover, significantly higher FV/FM values were recorded in the salt-water experiment in both species. Therefore, we conclude that rainfall could cause at least a partial recovery of the water potential by photobionts and trigger the process of photosynthesis. This is of key importance for lichens, which are constantly exposed to salt stress in the winter season, and rainfall may enable them to continue their physiological processes and survival. Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence ; Salt stress ; Lichens ; Cell membrane damage ; Lipid peroxidation ; Road salting.
34397Pakeman R.J., O’Brien D., Genney D. & Brooker R.W. (2022): Identifying drivers of change in bryophyte and lichen species occupancy in Scotland. - Ecological Indicators, 139: 108889 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2022.108889.
The attribution of biodiversity trends to the action of individual drivers is a first step in developing strategies to conserve, enhance and restore that diversity. One approach to that identification is to link information on species trends with information on ecological preferences that relate to the drivers. Long-term and short-term occupancy trends for 326 bryophyte species (1972–2015 and 2005–2015, respectively) and 437 lichen species (1971–2015 and 2005–2015, respectively) for Scotland were linked with appropriate indicators to assess the action of specific drivers. Bryophyte species of heathlands and woodlands showed positive trends, whilst lichen species from these habitats showed negative trends. Bryophytes and lichens of drier habitats and locations tended to have more positive trends whilst those of wetter habitats tended to be negative. Similarly, evidence suggested that bryophytes and lichens of open areas had more negative trends than those of shadier habitats and that species from both groups of higher fertility habitats had more positive trends than those of less fertile ones. Bryophyte species from warmer areas tended to increase in range. Opposite trends for bryophytes and lichens in heathlands and woodlands suggest competition for space or opposite reactions to other drivers, but it is clear that they should not be lumped into a single functional grouping. There were clear trends for suggesting that increased temperatures (bryophytes only), cumulative nitrogen pollution and reduced land use intensity were shifting assemblages. The overall predominance of negative trends for lichens suggests that many species have lost habitat through decreasing light availability and increased dryness, and potentially through competition with bryophytes. Given the international importance of Scotland for both these groups, these trends for lichens are of concern. Keywords: Bryophyte ; Climate Change ; Disturbance ; Ellenberg indicators ; Lichen ; Pollution.
34396Roos R.E., Birkemoe T., Bokhorst S., Wardle D.A. & Asplund J. (2022): The importance of foundation species identity: A field experiment with lichens and their associated micro-arthropod communities. - Basic and Applied Ecology, 62: 45–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2022.04.004.
Foundation species provide habitat and modify the availability of resources to other species. In nature, multiple foundation species may occur in mixture, but little is known on how their interactions shape the community assembly of associated species. Lichens provide both structural habitat and resources to a variety of associated organisms and thereby serve as foundation species. In this study, we use mat-forming lichens and their associated micro-arthropods as a miniature ecosystem to study potential synergies between foundation species diversity and the abundance and functional diversity of higher trophic levels. We created lichen patches with monocultures and mixtures of up to four species, and extracted Collembola (identified to species level), Oribatida, Mesostigmata, Pseudoscorpiones, and Araneae with Tullgren apparatuses after 106 days of incubation within a natural lichen mat. We found that different lichen species supported different arthropod abundances. For 19 out of a total of 55 lichen mixtures and arthropod groups, we found non-additive, synergistic effects on arthropod abundance, although the specific lichen mixture causing synergistic effects differed with arthropod group. In addition, synergistic effects on arthropod abundance were more common for arthropod groups at lower trophic levels. The functional diversity of lichen mixtures explained patterns in Collembola abundance, but in the opposite direction than hypothesized because synergistic responses were more frequent in functionally similar lichen mixtures. Finally, we found few effects of lichen mixture identity or diversity on the functional diversity of Collembola communities. When applied to large-scale ecosystems, our results suggest that understanding interactions between coexisting foundation species and identifying those species that drive synergistic effects of foundation species on consumer biota, is likely to be of importance to biodiversity conservation and restoration efforts. Keywords: Collembola; Community assembly; Habitat heterogeneity; Oribatida; Functional traits; Functional diversity.
34395Schmidt A.R., Steuernagel L., Behling H., Seyfullah L.J., Beimforde C., Sadowski E-M., Rikkinen J. & Kaasalainen U. (2022): Fossil evidence of lichen grazing from Palaeogene amber. - Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 302: 104664 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2022.104664.
Lichens are important in many modern terrestrial ecosystems, but their fossil record has been very sparse. This has limited the chances for finding any evidence of their interactions with animals in past ecosystems. Recently, the fossil record of lichens has improved significantly with the discovery of numerous new inclusions from European Palaeogene ambers. Here, we report the first fossil evidence of animal–lichen interactions from one new fossil from Bitterfeld amber of central Germany. A foliose fossil lichen, possibly belonging to the Physciaceae, exhibits three feeding marks and co-preserved invertebrate faecal pellets. To gain insights into this Palaeogene lichen-invertebrate interaction, we compared the fossil grazing damage and faecal pellets to those obtained from several extant lichen feeders, including mites, collembolans, psocopterans, coleopteran larvae and gastropods. The results of the grazing experiments suggest that gastropods and mites most likely caused the feeding marks preserved in the fossil lichen. Keywords: Animal–lichen interactions; Bitterfeld amber; Fossil lichens; Palaeoecology; Physciaceae.
34394Kantvilas G. (2022): The genus Lambiella Hertel (lichenised fungi) in Tasmania: new combinations, new species and a revised key. - Phytotaxa, 549(2): 209–218. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.549.2.6.
Two new species of Lambiella Hertel from Tasmania are described and illustrated: L. parvipsephota Kantvilas, which is similar to the widespread L. psephota (Tuck.) Hertel but differs by lacking norstictic acid in the thallus and sedifolia-grey pigment in the apothecia, and by having smaller apothecia and ascospores, 8−13 × 5−7.5 μm; and L. plumbea Kantvilas, characterised by a grey thallus lacking lichen substances, minute apothecia 0.075−0.13 mm wide, and small ascospores 4−8.5 × 3−5 μm. Both are currently known only from Tasmania. A further 11 species of Rimularia are transferred to Lambiella: Lambiella albotessellata (Kantvilas) Kantvilas, Lambiella applanata (Kantvilas & Coppins) Kantvilas, Lambiella aspicilioides (Kantvilas) Kantvilas, Lambiella asteriphila (Kantvilas) Kantvilas, Lambiella campestris (Kantvilas & Elix) Kantvilas, Lambiella circumgrisea (Kantvilas) Kantvilas, Lambiella coppinsiana (Kantvilas) Kantvilas, Lambiella exigua (Hertel & Rambold) Kantvilas, Lambiella globulispora (Sipman & Aptroot) Kantvilas, Lambiella ramboldiana (Kantvilas & Elix) Kantvilas and Lambiella umbratilis (Kantvilas & Coppins) Kantvilas. The complexities of assigning many, chiefly Southern Hemisphere taxa to new generic concepts derived essentially from molecular data are discussed briefly. Lambiella is considered to be the genus of best fit for a suite of lichens that share many salient features, particularly with respect to apothecial anatomy and their Trapelia-type asci. An identification key to the 14 species of Lambiella in Tasmania is provided. Keywords: asci, Rimularia, lichens, new species, Trapeliaceae, taxonomy, Xylographaceae.
34393Frolov I.V., Prokopiev I.A., Yakovchenko L.S., Galanina I.A. & Ezhkin A.K. (2022): Coppinsiella extremiorientalis (Teloschistaceae, lichenized Ascomycota), a new species from the Russian Far East and a new genus to the region. - Phytotaxa, 549(2): 219–229. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.549.2.7.
A new epiphytic species of crustose Teloschistaceae, Coppinsiella extremiorientalis, is described from the floodplain forests of the boreal zone of the Russian Far East. It is characterized by its white to whitish grey, thin to disappearing thallus mostly without anthraquinones, dull orange zeorine pruinose apothecia with an anthraquinones composition corresponding to chemosyndrome A. Phylogeny of the genus Coppinsiella, which was previously unknown in the Far East, is discussed, as well as the morphology, ecology and geographical distribution of Coppinsiella species. A new combination for Caloplaca fiumana, an older name for Coppinsiella orbicularis, is also formally proposed. Keywords: Boreal zone, Caloplaca s. lat., Coppinsiella fiumana, floodplain forests, Khabarovsk Territory, new taxa, phylogeny, Sakhalin Region.
34392Joshi Y., Bansal P. & Yadav A.L. (2022): Cercidospora navarroi, a new species of lichenicolous fungus from the Central Himalayan region of India. - Phytotaxa, 549(2): 241–246. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.549.2.10.
Cercidospora navarroi colonizing the thallus and the apothecial discs of Rinodina intermedia is described as new to science from India and is compared with C. exiguella, C. rinodinae, and C. cf. rinodinae which also colonize the lichen genus Rinodina. Keywords: Himalaya, Physciaceae, Rinodina.
34391Fagnani L., Nazzicone L., Bellio P., Franceschini N., Tondi D., Verri A., Petricca S., Iorio R., Amicosante G., Perilli M. & Celenza G. (2022): Protocetraric and salazinic acids as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease: biochemical, cytotoxic, and computational characterization of depsidones as slow-binding inactivators. - Pharmaceuticals, 15: 714 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15060714.
The study investigated the inhibitory activity of protocetraric and salazinic acids against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. The kinetic parameters were determined by microtiter plate-reading fluorimeter using a fluorogenic substrate. The cytotoxic activity was tested on murine Sertoli TM4 cells. In silico analysis was performed to ascertain the nature of the binding with the 3CLpro. The compounds are slow-binding inactivators of 3CLpro with a Ki of 3.95 μM and 3.77 μM for protocetraric and salazinic acid, respectively, and inhibitory efficiency kinact/Ki at about 3 × 10−5 s−1μM−1. The mechanism of inhibition shows that both compounds act as competitive inhibitors with the formation of a stable covalent adduct. The viability assay on epithelial cells revealed that none of them shows cytotoxicity up to 80 μM, which is well below the Ki values. By molecular modelling, we predicted that the catalytic Cys145 makes a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of the cyclic ester common to both inhibitors, forming a stably acyl-enzyme complex. The computational and kinetic analyses confirm the formation of a stable acyl-enzyme complex with 3CLpro. The results obtained enrich the knowledge of the already numerous biological activities exhibited by lichen secondary metabolites, paving the way for developing promising scaffolds for the design of cysteine enzyme inhibitors. Keywords: cysteine enzyme; SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease; lichen secondary metabolites; inhibition assay; slow binding inhibitor; inactivator.
34390Farkas E., Varga N., Veres K., Matus G., Sinigla M. & Lőkös L. (2022): Distribution types of lichens in Hungary that indicate changing environmental conditions. - Journal of Fungi, 8: 600 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8060600.
Distribution data originating from earlier herbarium collections and recent biodiversity records form the basis of distribution analyses in lichen species with different ecological requirements, where the records allowed comparisons or showed clear trends. As the occurrences of lichens are strongly correlated to background environmental conditions (e.g., air pollution, global warming), confirmed byWirth’s ecological indicator values, the analysis of distribution types has a great value for bioindication and the establishment of current and future climatic and pollution situations. Five distribution types were introduced—presented by characteristic examples (13)—according to lichen distribution maps prepared in different periods of time (representing changing environmental conditions): (1) species of decreasing occurrences by time (e.g., Lobaria pulmonaria, Menegazzia terebrata, suboceanic, acidic pollution sensitive species), (2) species with no or few former records but with increasing occurrences in recent decades (e.g., Flavoparmelia soredians, Hyperphyscia adglutinata, Solenopsora candicans, sub-Mediterranean species), (3) species with increasing and then (from c. 2000) decreasing occurrences (e.g., Scoliciosporum chlorococcum, Straminella conizaeoides, acidofrequent species), (4) species with widely increasing occurrences in recent decades (e.g., Physcia aipolioides, Piccolia ochrophora, Xanthoria parietina, nitrofrequent species), and (5) species with rapidly increasing occurrences (e.g., Absconditella lignicola, Coenogonium pineti, Evernia divaricata, rapidly spreading species). The proposed distribution types of lichen species may be applied to wider regions (the European or the global level).
34389Adjiri F. & Ramdani M. (2022): Distribution maps of the fifferent levels of elemental concentrations accumulated by the lichen in the northeast of Algeria. - Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 12(2): 14–22. DOI: 10.7176/JEES/12-2-03.
An evaluation of environmental pollution in the region of Bordj Bou Arreridj (BBA), Algeria according to metallic trace elements has been carried out, to determine the levels of the 10 elements accumulated in lichens and the different sources found in the region. A total of 192 samples of Xanthoria parietina lichen were collected over an area of 3920.42 km². Sampling sites include urban sites, rural sites, green parks, sites near high traffic streets and industrial enterprises. The lichen samples were analyzed by FAAS for the ten elements and their concentrations were mapped. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Sb and Zn were higher at urban sites and increased with proximity to highways and industrial areas. These results suggest that the composition of lichen elements is strongly affected by road traffic. While the sources of the elements Co, Ni, Fe, Mn and Cr probably come from dust from quarrying and contaminated soil deposits in particular, to the north and west of the region. This mapping of metal pollution can establish the first biological monitoring network in the study area. Keywords: Biomonitoring of lichens, Metallic elements, Pollution sources, Distribution maps, BBA.
34388Stapper N. (2022): Exkursion: Düsseldorf, Moose und Flechten entlang eines Transektes durch die Stadt, die Wirkung der Großstadt auf die Natur erleben. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 13: 84–86. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jahrb-Bochumer-Bot-Ver_13_0084-0086.pdf.
Report on excursion
34387Stapper N.J. (2022): Phaeophyscia orbicularis – Kreisförmige Schwielenflechte (Physciaceae), Stadtpflanze des Jahres 2021. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 13: 222–240. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jahrb-Bochumer-Bot-Ver_13_0222-0240.pdf.
34386Боровичев Е.А., Кожин М.Н., Мелехин А.В., Урбанавичюс Г.П., Химич Ю.Р. & Копеина Е.И. [Borovichev E.A., Kozhin M.N., Melekhin A.V., Urbanavichus G.P., Khimich Yu.R. & Kopeina E.I.] (2021): Значимые находки растений, лишайников и грибов на территории Мурманской области. IV [Noteworthy records of plants, lichens and fungi in Murmansk region. IV]. - Труды Карельского научного центра РАН, Серия "Биология", Петрозаводск [Proceedings of the Karelian Research Centre of Russian Academy of Science, ser. Biology, Petrozavodsk], 8: 5–18. DOI: 10.17076/bg1463.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Seventy nine important findings of 46 species of vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens and fungi acquired lately from the Kandalaksha District of the Murmansk Region are reported. The findings were considered important if they were red-listed in Russia and/or Murmansk Region, represented other particularly rare species known from not more than five locations in the Murmansk Region, or came from the northernmost locations in Europe or globally. Six fungal species (Boletopsis grisea, Cystostereum murrayi, Irpex lacteus, Lenzites betulinus, Peniophora erikssonii, Steccherinum fimbriatum) were found in the region for the second time. New locations in the Kandalaksha District were found for four rare fungal species (Crustoderma corneum, Cystostereum murrayi, Phellodon melaleucus, Vuilleminia comedens). New location of 35 species listed in the Red Data Book of the Murmansk Region (Leptoporus mollis, Arctoparmelia subcentrifuga, Bryoria fremontii, Chaenotheca brachypoda, C. chlorella, C. gracillima, C. laevigata, C. subroscida, Chaenothecopsis nigra, Evernia divaricata, Lichenomphalia hudsoniana, Lobaria pulmonaria, Melanohalea exasperata, Pertusaria coronata, Phlyctis argena, Usnea glabrescens, Arnellia fennica, Metzgeria furcata, Scapania spitsbergensis, Crossocalyx hellerianus, Riccardia palmata, Buxbaumia aphylla, Asplenium viride, Botrychium lanceolatum, B. multifidum, Butomus umbellatus, Diplazium sibiricum, Epipogium aphyllum, Isoëtes echinospora, Nymphaea candida, Potamogeton filiformis, P. pectinatus, Ribes nigrum, Salix aurita, Viola selkirkii) were found. Keywords: vascular plants; bryophytes; lichens; fungi; new records; rare species; Red Data Book; Kandalaksha District.
34385Тарасова В.Н., Андросова В.И. & Сонина А.В. [Tarasova V.N., Androsova V.I. & Sonina A.V.] (2021): Лишайники национального парка «Водлозерский» (Россия) [Lichens of the National Park «Vodlozersky», Russia]. - Nature Conservation Research. Заповедная наука, 6(Suppl. 1): 32–46. https://dx.doi.org/10.24189/ncr.2021.003.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Based on long-term (> 25 years) data analysis, the species diversity of lichens of the largest (4683 km2) Protected Area in Northwest Russia, the National Park «Vodlozersky», is presented for the first time. The National Park «Vodlozersky» was established in 1991 to preserve unique natural communities in the basin of Lake Vodlozero and the River Ileksa. The territory of the Protected Area is located along the eastern borders of the Fennoscandian Shield in two administrative regions: the Republic of Karelia and the Arkhangelsk region. This study is the first attempt to generalise all available data on the lichen flora of NP «Vodlozersky». The paper summarises the information from literature and the authors' data on lichen species diversity obtained in 19 expeditions to different parts of the National Park «Vodlozersky» over a 30-year period of study. Field material was collected by combination of floristic (route methods) and geobotanical studies – by the methods of establishing and description of sample plots ranging in size from 400 to 10 000 m2. For a detailed study of the species composition of lichens in the sample plots, all types of substrates were examined: the trunks and branch surface of different tree species under various conditions (living, falling, dead wood), as well as rotting wood, soil and stones. The collection of lichens (565 herbarium specimens) from the National Park «Vodlozersky» deposited in the herbarium of the Helsinki University (H) (H) were revised. A brief history of the lichen study in the Protected Area was described and the dynamics of the accumulation of information on the species diversity of lichens and allied fungi was revealed by years, from 170 species in 1991 to 469 species and 4 subspecies in 2020. The recent studies resulted in a list of 30 new findings, including 13 species for the Karelian part, and 17 for the whole area of the National Park «Vodlozersky». A total of 473 taxa are reported for the National Park «Vodlozersky», including 445 species and 4 subspecies of lichens, 11 species of non-lichenised fungi and 13 species of lichenicolous fungi. The distribution of lichen species number between the two parts of the Protected Area belonging to different regions of the Russian Federation is as follows: 327 are registered on the Karelian territory of the National Park «Vodlozersky», 402 species on the Arkhangelsk part; the number of common species is 259. Among the recorded lichens in the National Park «Vodlozersky» 18 species are listed in the Red Data Book of the Republic of Karelia and 16 species are in the Red Data Book of the Arkhangelsk Region. The obtained data indicate the high potential of the Protected Area in preserving and maintaining the general diversity of lichen species. The number of species found in the Arkhangelsk part of the National Park «Vodlozersky» is 64% of the currently known lichen diversity for the mainland of the Arkhangelsk region. In the Karelian part there are 25% species of lichens known for the Republic of Karelia. The authors emphasise the publication scarcity of accumulated material on the lichen flora of National Park «Vodlozersky», which makes the study relevant. Keywords: Arkhangelsk region, biodiversity, history of the research, intact forest, new species, Republic of Karerlia, taiga.
34384Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N. (2022): First records of lichenised and lichenicolous fungi for the lichen flora of Russia and Eastern Europe. - Nature Conservation Research. Заповедная наука, 7(2): 95–97. https://dx.doi.org/10.24189/ncr.2022.024.
Noteworthy findings of two lichen species and four lichenicolous fungi are presented. Two species, Celothelium ischnobelum collected from the Nizhnii Novgorod Region and Opegrapha reactiva from the Murmansk Region, are reported for the first time for Russia and Eastern Europe. Four species, Arthonia destruens, Lichenochora gal- ligena, and Schizoxylon albescens collected in the Nizhnii Novgorod Region, and Sphaeropezia cucularis in the Murmansk Region, are new for European Russia. The genus Celothelium is reported for the first time for Russia. Key words: Celothelium ischnobelum, Kerzhensky State Nature Reserve, lichens, new records, Opegrapha reactiva.
34383Simon A., Goffinet B., Wang L.-S., Spribille T., Goward T., Pystina T., Semenova N., Stepanov N.V., Moncada B., Lücking R., Magain N. & Sérusiaux E. (2022): Global phylogeny and taxonomic reassessment of the lichen genus Dendriscosticta (Ascomycota: Peltigerales). - Taxon, 71(2): 256–287. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12649.
The genus Dendriscosticta (Ascomycota: Peltigerales) encompasses several distinctive lichen-forming fungal species restricted to the Northern Hemisphere. Most are flagship species of old-growth forests with good air quality. A global phylogeny of the genus based on multilocus sequence data (ITS, RPB1, EF-1α, MCM7), model-based phylogenetic methods, and morphological and chemical assessments, reveals a high level of cryptic speciation often associated with restricted geographical distribution and/or chemical characters. Using sequence-based species delimitation approaches, we circumscribe two main clades referred to as the D. wrightii clade, with five unequivocal species, including D. gelida sp. nov., and the D. praetextata clade, with eight putative species, including D. phyllidiata sp. nov. The absence of recently collected material of D. hookeri comb. nov. from the type locality unfortunately prevents assignment of this epithet to one of the five supported lineages sharing this morphotype. Three new combinations are proposed: D. hookeri, D. insinuans comb. nov. andD. yatabeana comb. nov. Epitypes are designated for D. wrightii and D. yatabeana. Species diversity within the genus increased from four to nine. Our morphological assessment confirmed that Sticta and Dendriscosticta can be readily distinguished by the presence of excipular algae whereas the structure of the lower surface pores is not a reliable diagnostic feature. Keywords: Dendriscocaulon; epitypification; lichenized fungi; Lobariaceae; Lobarioideae; Peltigeraceae; Sticta.
34382Killmann D., Leh B. & Fischer E. (2021): Felsstandorte und Rosselhalden des Nationalparks Hunsrück-Hochwald als Hotspots der Diversität von Flechten und Moosen. - Forschungsband Nationalpark Hunsrück-Hochwald, 1: 158–165. .
34381Fayyaz I., Afshan N.S., Niazi A.R., Khalid A.N. & Orange A. (2022): A new species of Porpidia (Lecideales, Ascomycota) from Pakistan. - Nova Hedwigia, 114: 221–235. DOI: 10.1127/nova_hedwigia/2022/0676.
Porpidia kashmirensis sp. nov. is described from Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. ITS and nrLSU sequences confirm its position within the genus Porpidia and, together with its morphology and chemistry, suggest that it is separate from other species of this genus. The species is characterized by a well-developed, pale grey thallus, up to 2.5 mm thick with areoles, containing confluentic acid, immersed apothecia, ascospores relatively small, 13–16 × 6.3–9.9 µm, paraphyses with relatively wider cap cells, upto 4.5 µm wide; differing from related species. Keywords: Peer chinasi; phylogeny; saxicolous lichens; taxonomy.
34380Nadeem S., Niazi A.R., Habib K. & Khalid A.N. (2022): A new species of Gyalolechia (Teloschistaceae, lichen-forming Ascomycota) from Pakistan. - Nova Hedwigia, 114: 237–249. DOI: 10.1127/nova_hedwigia/2022/0667.
Gyalolechia pakistanica sp. nov. is described and illustrated from dry hot hilly areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The new taxon is characterized by a sublobate thallus with short, indistinct lobes, and by relatively large, 8–20 µm long ascospores with variable shape. According phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences, the new species is sister to G. subbracteata, from which differs by the less distinctly lobed thallus and the larger ascospores. A tabular comparison between the new species and related and similar taxa is provided. Keywords: Caloplacoideae; Fulgensia; Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; taxonomy.
34379Schiefelbein U. & Sheard J.W. (2021): Rinodina capensis and three other Rinodina species from Chile. - Gayana Botanica, 78(2): 156–161. .
Records of four Rinodina species and Orcularia insperata from the Los Lagos region and Aysén Region in Chile are presented. Orcularia insperata and Rinodina capensis are new to Chile. Information on the worldwide distribution of these species and three others is provided. Furthermore, a key is provided to the Rinodina and related species currently known from Chile. Keywords: distribution, lichens, new records, Physciaceae.
34378Lendemer J.C. (2022): Recent literature on lichens—265. - Bryologist, 125(2): 380–386. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.2.380.
Bibliography
34377Mayrhofer H., Mašić E. & Bilovitz P.O. (2019): Additions to the “Catalogue of Lichenized and Lichenicolous Fungi of Bosnia and Herzegovina”. - Phyton (Horn), 59: 55–67. DOI: 10.12905/0380.phyton59-2019-0055.
The additions are based on an evaluation of 53 published sources concerning Bosnia and Herzegovina and on unpublished herbarium specimens. The actual lichen biota of the country includes 648 species (with 4 subspecies and 14 varieties) of lichenized, 13 non-lichenized or doubtfully lichenized, and 26 lichenicolous fungi. Key words: Ascomycota, lichenized fungi, lichenicolous fungi. – Floristics. – Lichen biota of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Balkan Peninsula, Europe.
34376Mollier S., Kunstler G., Dupouey J.-L. & Bergès L. (2022): Historical landscape matters for threatened species in French mountain forests. - Biological Conservation, 269: 109544 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2022.109544.
Ancient forests are known to host a biodiversity of high ecological distinctiveness and are likely to provide habitat for red-listed species. Yet, few studies have investigated the role of forest continuity for the conservation of threatened species. We used species-presence data on red-listed species from 12 taxonomic groups (Spermatophyta, Pteridophyta, Bryophyta, Lichens, Chiroptera, Aves, Squamata, Amphibia, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata and Orthoptera) to ascertain if ancient forests are an important habitat for threatened species in five mountain and subalpine protected areas in France. We compared the effect of the amount of historical forest (1853–1860) with the effect of the amount of current forest on the distribution of red-listed species in six circular landscape buffers ranging in radius from 100 to 1500 m. We showed that the amount of historical forest in the landscape had a positive effect on forest Spermatophyta, Bryophyta, Coleoptera and edge forest Pteridophyta with a better predictive power than current forest area, highlighting a colonization credit in recent forests. Conversely, edge-forest lepidopterans were more negatively affected by historical than by current forest area, highlighting an extinction debt in recent forests. Our findings underline that implementing protective measures of ancient forests would be a better strategy than afforestation to preserve threatened forest species in mountain and subalpine forest landscapes. Keywords: Threatened species ; Colonization credit ; Forest continuity ; Legacy effect ; Conservation biology ; Temperate forests.
34375Roser L.A., Erkoc P., Ingelfinger R., Henke M., Ulshöfer T., Schneider A.-K., Laux V., Geisslinger G., Schmitt I., Fürst R. & Schiffmann S. (2022): Lecanoric acid mediates anti-proliferative effects by an M phase arrest in colon cancer cells. - Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 148: 112734 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2022.112734.
Lichen extracts containing, among other compounds, depsides such as evernic acid, atranorin, and lecanoric acid possess anti-proliferative effects. We aimed to identify lichen metabolites that are responsible for the observed anti-proliferative effects. We performed cytotoxicity, cell colony, cell cycle and apoptosis assays in various cell lines or primary immune cells. We analyzed several cell cycle proteins and apoptosis-related proteins to gain insights into the underlying mechanism. All depsides reduced the viability of the tested cell lines (HCT-116, HEK293T, HeLa, NIH3T3, RAW246.7) in a cell line-dependent manner with lecanoric acid being the most effective. Atranorin did not influence the cell cycle or colony formation in HCT-116 cells, but induced apoptosis in HCT-116 cells. Evernic acid showed no anti-proliferative effects. Lecanoric acid inhibited cell colony formation already at 0.03 µg/ml in HCT-116 cells and induced a G2 cell cycle block in several cell lines. Moreover, lecanoric acid arrested the cell cycle, presumably in the M phase, since expression of cyclin B1 and phosphorylated histone H3 was upregulated, whereas the inactive cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) was reduced in HCT116 cells. Most importantly, cell death induced by lecanoric acid was more prominent in cancer cells than in primary human immune and endothelial cells. In conclusion, lecanoric acid seems to mediate its antiproliferative effects via arrest of cells in the M phase. Our data suggest lecanoric acid may be a potential new candidate for anti-cancer therapy, because it has anti-proliferative effects on cancer cell lines, and does not affect primary immune cells. Keywords: Lecanoric acid; Atranorin; Evernic acid; M cell cycle arrest; Cyclin B1; CDK1; Lichens.
34374Simonyan A.G., Sargsyan R.R., Panosyan H.H. & Trchounian A.H. (2020): Study of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of saxicolous lichen Xanthoparmelia stenophylla. - Proceedings of the Yerevan State University B: Chemical and Biological Sciences, 54(2): 132–137. https://doi.org/10.46991/PYSU:B/2020.54.2.132.
Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of different extracts of saxicolous lichen Xanthoparmelia stenophylla sampled from Norashen, Gegharkunik Province of Armenia were studied. Methanol, ethanol and acetone extracts of lichen thalli were demonstrated to have activity against only tested gram-positive bacteria. Methanol extract of the lichen showed the highest amount of DPPH radical scavenging activity (~68%). Our studies did not reveal any significant antibacterial and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract. Keywords: Xanthoparmelia stenophylla, saxicolous lichens, antibacterial and antioxidant activities.
34373Yazici K., Aslan A. & Etayo J. (2022): Lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the Bingol Province in Turkey. - Phytologia Balcanica, 28(1): 11–38. DOI 10.7546/PhB.28.2022.2.
This study is a contribution to the Lichen Biota of Turkey. As a result of the examination of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from 169 stations, 341 lichens and 23 lichenicolous fungi have been identified. While Sphaerellothecium contextum, a lichenicolous fungus, is new to Turkey, 19 lichenized and three lichenicolous fungi were found for the second time in Turkey. Key words: Ascomycota, Bingöl, biodiversity, lichen, Turkey.
34372Zakeri Z., Junne S., Jäger F., Dostert M., Otte V. & Neubauer P. (2022): Lichen cell factories: methods for the isolation of photobiont and mycobiont partners for defned pure and co-cultivation. - Microbial Cell Factories, 21: 80 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12934-022-01804-6.
Background: Due to their huge biodiversity and the capability to produce a wide range of secondary metabolites, lichens have a great potential in biotechnological applications. They have, however, hardly been used as cell factories to date, as it is considered to be difcult and laborious to cultivate lichen partners in pure or co-culture in the laboratory. The various methods used to isolate lichen fungi, based on either the ascospores, the conidia, or the thallus, have so far not been compared or critically examined. Therefore, here we systematically investigate and compare the known methods and two new methods to identify the most suitable technology for isolation of fungi from lichens. Results: Within this study six lichen fungi species were isolated and propagated as pure cultures. All of them formed colonies within one month. In case of lichens with ascocarps the spore discharge was the most suitable method. Spores were already discharged within 2 days and germinated within only four days and the contamination rate was low. Otherwise, the soredia and thallus method without homogenization, as described in this work, are also well suited to obtain pure fungal cultures. For the isolation of algae, we were also successful with the thallus method without homogenization. Conclusion: With the methods described here and the proposed strategic approach, we believe that a large proportion of the lichen fungi can be cultivated within a reasonable time and efort. Based on this, methods of controlled cultivation and co-cultivation must now be developed in order to use the potential of lichens with regard to their secondary metabolites, but also for other applications. Keywords: Ascomycota, Lichen cultivation, Isolation method, Colony development, Pure culture, Axenic culture, Co-culture, Secondary metabolites, Biotechnology.
34371Yang M.X., Wang L.S., Miao C.C. & Scheidegger C. (2022): From cradle to grave? A global hotspot and new species of the genus Lobaria discovered in the Himalayas and the Hengduan Mountains. - Persoonia, 48: 150–174. https://doi.org/10.3767/persoonia.2022.48.04.
n this study, the East Asian diversity of green-algal Lobaria was evaluated by applying both morphological and phylogenetic approaches. A multi-locus phylogenetic analysis of 72 green-algal Lobaria specimens was performed using a three-locus and time-calibrated species-tree approach. The analyses demonstrate that pairs of sexually and vegetatively reproducing lineages split into highly supported monophyletic clades. Taxonomically, 11 green-algal Lobaria species were identified as new to science, while 10 were previously described species. The species differentiated during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. The coincidence of paleoclimatic events with estimated dates of divergence support a bioclimatic hypothesis for species evolution in the green-algal Lobaria. Molecular phylogenies, a summary of diversity, detailed new species descriptions and geographical analyses are provided. Special recognition of species with a long evolutionary history, which merit high conservation priority, will be critical for preserving geographically restricted endemics in the Himalayas and the Hengduan Mountains, where habitat loss is driving rapid declines. Key words: East Asia; evolution; lichen-forming ascomycetes; Lobaria; multi-locus phylogeny; new taxa.
34370Resl P., Bujold A.R., Tagirdzhanova G., Meidl P., Freire Rallo S., Kono M., Fernández-Brime S., Guðmundsson H., Andrésson Ó.S., Muggia L., Mayrhofer H., McCutcheon J., Wedin M., Werth S., Willis L.M. & Spribille T. (2022): Large differences in carbohydrate degradation and transport potential among lichen fungal symbionts. - Nature Communications, 13: 2634 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-30218-6.
Lichen symbioses are thought to be stabilized by the transfer of fixed carbon from a photosynthesizing symbiont to a fungus. In other fungal symbioses, carbohydrate subsidies correlate with reductions in plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, but whether this is true of lichen fungal symbionts (LFSs) is unknown. Here, we predict genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and sugar transporters in 46 genomes from the Lecanoromycetes, the largest extant clade of LFSs. All LFSs possess a robust CAZyme arsenal including enzymes acting on cellulose and hemicellulose, confirmed by experimental assays. However, the number of genes and predicted functions of CAZymes vary widely, with some fungal symbionts possessing arsenals on par with well-known saprotrophic fungi. These results suggest that stable fungal association with a phototroph does not in itself result in fungal CAZyme loss, and lends support to long-standing hypotheses that some lichens may augment fixed CO2 with carbon from external source.
34369Paukov A., Teptina A., Ermoshin A., Kruglova E. & Shabardina L. (2022): The role of secondary metabolites and bark chemistry in shaping diversity and abundance of epiphytic lichens. - Frontiers in Forests and Global Change, 5: 828211 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/ffgc.2022.828211.
Diversity of secondary lichen metabolites was studied in epiphytic lichens on six phorophytes—spruce, pine, birch, alder, aspen and poplar in the Middle Urals of Russia. Atranorin, usnic, fumarprotocetraric acid, zeorin, and gyrophoric acid were found in 31, 24, 23, 18, and 14 species, respectively, of 237 taxa collected. Seventy-seven species (i.e., 32% of total species documented) contained no secondary metabolites. Spectra of secondary metabolites of fruticose and foliose lichens varied on different phorophytes, while in crustose species the strong dependence on the tree species was not detected. This is different to the pH dependence of saxicolous lichens where crustose lichens were more susceptible to the rock chemistry. The results of Canonical Correspondence Analysis reveal the affinity of species containing depsides, depsidones or usnic acid to acidic substrata and those lacking secondary metabolites or containing terpenes and antraquinones to the pH-neutral bark. We suppose that phenolic compounds and flavonoids, as chemical constituents of bark, may interact with lichen symbioses and elements in phellem, and similarly to the lichen acids shape the affinity of species to the substrata. Keywords: substrate ecology, phorophyte, flavonoids, terpenes, Middle Urals, CCA analysis.
34368Ruas S., Rotchés-Ribalta R., Ó hUallacháin D., Volpato A., Gormally M., White B. & Moran J. (2022): Assessing stone walls habitat quality – Which factors affect bryophytes and macrolichens on farmland stone walls in Ireland?. - Ecological Indicators, 139: 108948 [5 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2022.108948.
Stone walls are ubiquitous field boundaries used to restrict livestock movement or to separate property. Bryophytes and lichens are often the dominant vegetation in dry stone walls and are strongly affected by local microhabitat characteristics. Bryophytes and lichens related metrics can be used to define habitat quality of stone walls. The current study assessed how richness and cover of bryophytes and macrolichens in dry stone walls related to each other and how different environmental variables and farm management descriptors determined richness and cover of both groups in dry stone walls. Bryophytes and macrolichens were sampled in stone walls on sixteen farms across a management intensity gradient in Ireland. Bryophyte cover correlated positively and significantly with bryophyte richness and macrolichen cover and richness, and can thus be used to assess stone walls quality. Farm management intensity emerged as the variable most strongly related with species richness of bryophytes and cover of both groups. Altitude also emerged as a strong predictor of both groups’ richness and cover. This study provides a novel perspective on stone wall habitat quality and results indicate that by promoting extensive farming it is possible to increase stone walls quality. Keywords: Agricultural landscapes; Dry stone walls; Bryophytes; Macrolichens; Farm management intensity.
34367Halda J. (2022): Cryptodiscus foveolaris (Stictidaceae, Lecanoromycetes) z NPR Broumovské stěny. - Mykologické Listy, 151: 53‒56. .
Cryptodiscus foveolaris je nově zaznamenaným druhem mykobioty ČR. V Evropě je známý pouze z několika lokalit. Od lichenizovaných druhů známých z ČR Ramonia interjecta a Cryp­todiscus gloeocapsa se odlišuje stavbou plodnic a tvarem spor
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Toninia coeruleonigricans, Caloplaca fulgens, Dermatocarpon hepaticum
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Cladonia rangiformis
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Parmelia Pokornyi, Cladonia alcicornis, Cl. strepsilis, Cl. rangiformis, Cornicullaria tenuissima, Toninia coeruleonigricans
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34358Pilous Z. (1939): Poslední živé rašeliniště v Brdech. - Krása našeho domova, 31: 2–6. .
Umbilicaria (Gyrophora) cylindrica, Parmelia lanata, Parmelia encausta
34357Pilous Z. (1936): Pozoruhodné nálezy Bryophyt v Brdech. - Časopis Národního musea, sect. natur., Praha, 110: 102–103. .
Parmelia encausta, Parmelia lanata, Umbilicaria cylindrica
34356Los V. (1928): Geobotanický ráz lišejníkové oblasti brdské. - In: Panýrek D. [red.], Věstník VI. sjezdu československých přírodozpytců, lékařů a inženýrů v Praze 25.–30. května 1928, díl II., p. 64, Praha., . .
34355Bajpai R., Shukla V., Raju A., Singh C.P. & Upreti D.K (2022): A geostatistical approach to compare metal accumulation pattern by lichens in plain and mountainous regions of northern and central India. - Environmental Earth Sciences, 81: 203 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-022-10336-6.
Based on the physicochemical characteristics, metals emitted from the source (both natural and anthropogenic) contributes towards spatial continuity at a regional scale. Apart from the intrinsic properties of metals, meteorological conditions and topography of the region are also known to contribute towards spatial continuity. In the present study, a comparative spatial assessment of 12 metals in lichen Phaeophyscia hispidula collected from mountains and plains of northern and north-central India was carried out with the help of the indicator kriging method. The total metal concentration varies between 25.4–429 µgg−1 and 22.8–507 µgg−1 dry weight in plains and mountains, respectively. The ‘Indicator Kriging’, a cokriging non-parametric approach has been applied to predict the total metal load (TML) probability from a regional lichen database derived from the diferent metals in the mountain and plain regions. Cr, Cd, Cu and Pb had higher concentrations having higher coverage area, while metals like Cd and Hg had the highest localized distribution indicating point sources. The probability values of TML are further related with topography, population density and land cover attributes to specifc factors responsible for metal accumulation in the study area. Observations indicated that apart from local sources, topography, population density and land cover, also plays an essential role in the spatial behaviour of the metals, which has been verifed by the bioaccumulation pattern of metals in lichen samples from the mountainous region. Among which three mountainous states of Northern India, Uttarakhand has a higher concentration of metals which may be attributed to the topography and local anthropogenic sources. Keywords: Lichens · Metal accumulation · Biomonitoring · Indicator Kriging · Geostatistical mapping · Bivariate relationship.
34354Zhang Y., Clancy J., Jensen J., McMullin R.T., Wang L. & Leavitt S.D. (2022): Providing scale to a known taxonomic unknown—At least a 70-fold increase in species diversity in a cosmopolitan nominal taxon of lichen-forming fungi. - Journal of Fungi, 8: 490 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8050490.
Robust species delimitations provide a foundation for investigating speciation, phylogeography, and conservation. Here we attempted to elucidate species boundaries in the cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungal taxon Lecanora polytropa. This nominal taxon is morphologically variable, with distinct populations occurring on all seven continents. To delimit candidate species, we compiled ITS sequence data from populations worldwide. For a subset of the samples, we also generated alignments for 1209 single-copy nuclear genes and an alignment spanning most of the mitochondrial genome to assess concordance among the ITS, nuclear, and mitochondrial inferences. Species partitions were empirically delimited from the ITS alignment using ASAP and bPTP. We also inferred a phylogeny for the L. polytropa clade using a four-marker dataset. ASAP species delimitations revealed up to 103 species in the L. polytropa clade, with 75 corresponding to the nominal taxon L. polytropa. Inferences from phylogenomic alignments generally supported that these represent evolutionarily independent lineages or species. Less than 10% of the candidate species were comprised of specimens from multiple continents. High levels of candidate species were recovered at local scales but generally with limited overlap across regions. Lecanora polytropa likely ranks as one of the largest species complexes of lichen-forming fungi known to date. Keywords: alpine/arctic/Antarctic; ASAP; cosmopolitan; cryptic species; genome skimming; species delimitation; symbiotic phenotype.
34353Rodi D. (1974): Trockenrasengesellschaften des nordwestlichen Tertiärhügellandes. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 45: 151–172. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Berichte-Bayerischen-Bot-Ges-Erforschung-Flora_45_0151-0172.pdf.
Phytosociology; terricolous lichens included in the phytosociological relevés
34352Ricek E.W. (1982): Die Flora der Umgebung von Gmünd im niederösterreichischen Waldviertel. - Abhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Österreich, 21: 1–204. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/AZBG_21_0001-0204.pdf.
Upper Austria; vegetation; numerous notes on lichens in various parts of the publication; a sketch ("Abb. 8") of a lichen community on illuminated solitary boulder and surrounding ground at p. 28; a separate commented list of lichens at p. 83–89.
34351Trobajo S., Fernández-Salegui A.B, Terrón A. & Martínez I. (2022): Functional traits of epiphytic lichen communities in a Temperate-Mediterranean fragmented landscape: Importance of patch size, tree diameter and summer rainfall. - Fungal Ecology, 57–58: 101160 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2022.101160.
Functional traits have become important tools for evaluating the response of epiphytic lichens to environmental changes. In this study, we evaluated which predictors related to fragmentation, habitat quality and climate were driving the richness and cover of lichen growth form, type of photobiont and reproduction traits, at both fragment and plot levels in a Temperate-Mediterranean area dominated by Quercus forests. At fragment level, patch size and summer rainfall positively contributed to richness in most of the traits, while tree diameter and slope were the most important drivers, especially for the type of reproduction and growth form at plot scale. High coverage of growth forms especially sensitive to fragmentation were indicative of high values of total species richness, while early-colonizers indicated the opposite. These results provide important information on how lichen traits respond to environmental conditions in an ecotone area where a shift towards a drier climate is more likely to occur. Keywords: Epiphytic lichens ; Fragment size ; Functional traits ; Growth forms ; Photobiont ; Reproduction ; Summer rainfall Temperate-Mediterranean climate ; Total species richness ; Tree diameter.
34350Fayyaz I., Afshan N.S., Niazi A.R. & Khalid A.N. (2022): Aspicilia nigromaculata sp. nov. (Megasporaceae, Pertusariales, Ascomycota) from Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan, evidence from morphology and DNA sequencing data. - Botanica Serbica, 46(1): 105–111. https://doi.org/10.2298/BOTSERB2201105F .
A new species of Megasporaceae, Aspicilia nigromaculata sp. nov. is described and illustrated from Pakistan. A comparative morpho–anatomical study and ITS–LSU-based molecular analyses confirmed its position within the genus Aspicilia. It differs from the other species of the genus by the following set of features: a well–developed, grey to greenish grey frequently black spotted thick thallus, well–developed thicker peripheral and flat to slightly concave areoles, and small conidia 10–15 × 0.5–1 µm. Its positioning in a separate branch in the phylogenetic tree also makes it distinct from the other known species of the genus. Keywords: ITS nrDNA, nrLSU, phylogeny, saxicolous lichens.
34349Sugimoto M. & Ohmura Y. (2022): Pyrgillus mammosus (Pyrenulaceae, lichenized Ascomycota), a new species from Taiwan. - Taiwania, 67(2): 267‒270. DOI: 10.6165/tai.2022.67.267.
Pyrgillus mammosus, a new species from Xitou, Taiwan is described and illustrated. It is similar to P. tibellii and P. rufus but differs in its potassium hydroxide reaction of the thallus (K+ red) as a main distinguishing feature, additional chemical compounds detected by thin layer chromatography, and larger conical to hemispherical ascomata. Morphological and chemical differences among the closely similar taxa are discussed. Key words: Chemistry, eastern Asia, lichenized fungi, mazaedia, morphology, Pyrgillus rufus, P. tibellii, taxonomy, TLC.
34348Fraser R.H., Pouliot D. & van der Sluijs J. (2022): UAV and high resolution satellite mapping of forage lichen (Cladonia spp.) in a rocky Canadian Shield landscape. - Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 48(1): 5–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/07038992.2021.1908118.
Reindeer lichens (Cladonia spp.) are an important food source for woodland and barren ground caribou herds. In this study, we assessed Cladonia classification accuracy in a rocky, Canadian Shield landscape near Yellowknife, Northwest Territories using both Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) sensors and high-resolution satellite sensors. At the UAV scale, random forest classifications derived from a multispectral, visible-near infrared sensor (Micasense Altum) had an average 5% higher accuracy for mapping Cladonia (i.e., 95.5%) than when using a conventional color RGB camera (DJI Phantom 4 RTK). We aggregated Altum lichen classifications from three 5 ha study sites to train random forest regression models of fractional lichen cover using predictor features from WorldView-3 and Planet CubeSat satellite imagery. WorldView models at 6m resolution had an average 6.8% RMSE (R2 ¼ 0.61) when tested at independent study sites and outperformed the 6m Planet models, which had a 9.9% RMSE (R2 ¼ 0.34). These satellite results are comparable to previous lichen mapping studies focusing on woodlands, but the small cover of Cladonia in our study area (11.6% or 16.8% within the barren portions) results in a high relative RMSE (62.2%) expressed as a proportion of mean lichen cover.
34347McNamara J.A., Schaefer J.A., Bastille-Rousseau G. & Mahoney S.P. (2022): Landscape features and caribou harvesting during three decades in Newfoundland. - Écoscience, 29(1): 39–53. https://doi.org/10.1080/11956860.2021.1969825.
Landscapes can influence the distribution of harvesting by influencing animal distribution and hunter access. For species like caribou, Rangifer tarandus, decades-long shifts in abundance and distribution might alter such relationships, but few studies have been conducted at such scales. We examined relationships between landscape features and 21,380 harvest records of migratory caribou in Newfoundland during caribou population growth (1980s), cessation of growth (1990s), and decline (2000s). We focused on features hypothesized to influence the distributions of caribou and hunters: lichen landcover, roads, cutblocks, outfitter camps, power lines, and towns. We uncovered larger harvests by resident hunters of male and female caribou among lichen landcover, likely providing preferred caribou forage, and larger harvests by non-resident hunters of male caribou away from towns, reflecting the locations of outfitter camps. Only during later decades, resident harvests occurred nearer power lines and cutblocks, likely providing hunter access and reflecting risk-prone foraging by caribou. We surmise that the harvest was facilitated by open habitats, preferred by caribou, and anthropogenic features leading to hunter access, especially as the caribou population declined. Such knowledge at broad scales is increasingly important in an era of widespread disruption to landscapes. Keywords: Anthropogenic disturbance; hunting; linear corridors; Rangifer tarandus.
34346Emsen B., Sadi G., Bostanci A. & Aslan A. (2021): In vitro evaluation of cytotoxic, oxidative, genotoxic, and apoptotic activities of physodic acid from Pseudevernia furfuracea in HepG2 and THLE2 cells. - Plant Biosystems, 155(6): 1111–1120. https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2020.1852329.
In the present study, cytotoxic (apoptotic and necrotic), antioxidant, prooxidant, genotoxic, and apoptosis- related genes expression modulatory effects of physodic acid (PA) isolated from Pseudevernia furfuracea on cancerous (HepG2) and healthy (THLE2) human liver cells were evaluated. Cytotoxic effects PA obtained from P. furfuracea on HepG2 and THLE2 cells were tested via MTT and LDH analyses. In order to determine genotoxic effect of PA, 8-OH-dG levels in the cells were measured. In addition, apoptotic or necrotic effects of PA on the hepatic cells were determined by qRT-PCR analysis. Cytotoxicity analyses revealed the cytotoxic effect of PA on HepG2 cells, which is much higher than THLE2 cells. Gene expression studies demonstrated the apoptotic effects of PA on HepG2 cells through both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. PA increased the antioxidant capacity of THLE2 cells with increasing concentrations, which describes its antioxidant power. Additionally, none of the tested levels of PA caused oxidative DNA damage on THLE2 cells, but its high concentration increased genetic damages on HepG2. Taken together, P. furfuracea lichen and its metabolite, PA, would be a promising alternative for complementary treatments against liver cancer. Keywords: 8-Hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine; lactate dehydrogenase; lichen; total antioxidant capacity; total oxidative stress.
34345Dorn R.I. (2021): Assessing biological soil crusts as agents of Ca–Mg silicate dissolution and CO2 sequestration. - Physical Geography, 42(6): 529–541. https://doi.org/10.1080/02723646.2021.1919379.
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) monitored over a 25-year period enhance the dissolution of the Ca-silicate plagioclase and the Mgsilicate olivine at Sonoran Desert and Colorado Plateau, USA, study sites. This first measured biological enhancement of weathering (BEW) for plagioclase is a mean of 2.3±0.4 and 3.0±0.4 for the Organic Pipe, Arizona and Moab, Utah study sites; and it is 4.9±0.8 and 3.9±0.3 for olivine at these respective sites. These BEWs are low compared to other biological agents such as lichens, tree roots, termites and especially ants. If these modern BEW for BCSs reflect the magnitude of BEW in Archean soil crusts, then the presence of abundant BSCs covering an Archean Earth surface would not contradict available evidence for no substantial atmospheric CO2 decline in Earth’s early atmosphere. The relatively low BEW value for BCSs indicates that BSCs would not be a useful geoengineering solution to high levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Keywords: carbon dioxide; drawdown; Earth’s habitability; faint sun hypothesis; in situ weathering.
34344Nugraha A.S., Dayli I.R., Putri C.P.Z.S., Firli L.N., Pratama A.N.W., Triatmoko B., Untari L.F., Wongso H., Keller P.A. & Wangchuk P. (2022): Isolation of antibacterial depside constituents from Indonesian folious lichen, Candelaria fibrosa. - Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature, 12(1): 24–32. https://doi.org/10.1080/22311866.2021.2021986.
There is an urgent need for novel drug leads, especially for microbial infections due to continuing emergence of drug resistance. Natural products are the backbone of modern medicine and the lichens have an important role to play in the discovery of novel drugs. Indonesia is gifted with a diverse array of lichens, which remain underexplored for medicinal applications. In this study, we have collected a lichen, Candelaria fibrosa, and conducted phytochemical and bioactivity studies. Using high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we have isolated and characterised two depside compounds, atraric acid (7) and methyl 3-hydroxy orsellinate (8). These two depsides were reported from this lichen species for the first time. The evaluation of the crude methanol extract against Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, indicated insignificant activity. However, the isolated compounds have been previously reported to possess low antimicrobial activity against common pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) but to show significant anti-legionellosis. Keywords: Candelaria fibrosa, atraric acid, methyl 3-hydroxy orsellinate, antibacterial, Staphylococcus aureus.
34343Huynh B.L.C., Pham N.K.T. & Nguyen T.P. (2022): Paresordin A, a new diphenyl cyclic peroxide from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum. - Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, 24(2): 190–195. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2021.1908271.
From the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum, one new diphenyl peroxide, named praesordin A (1), together with four depsidones, including virensic acid (2), protocetraric acid (3), 8’-O-methylprotocetraric acid (4), and furfuric acid (5) were purified. Their structures were chacracterized using extensive HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopic methods. The isolated compounds (2-5) possessed stronger α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 ¼ 43.7-110.1 µM) than the standard drug acarbose (IC50 ¼ 214.5 µM). Keywords: Parmotrema praesorediosum; Parmeliaceae; diphenyl peroxide; depsidone; α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
34342Huynh B.L.C., Bui V.M., Nguyen K.P.P., Pham N.K.T. & Nguyen T.P. (2022): Three new diphenyl ethers from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale (Parmeliaceae). - Natural Product Research, 36(8): 1934–1940. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1837818.
Three new diphenyl ethers, named praesorethers E, F and G (1, 2 and 3), were isolated from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of extensively spectroscopic analysis including HR-ESI-MS and NMR as well as comparison with previously published data. These compounds were evaluated for the cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines (HeLa, NCI-H460 and MCF-7) using SRB assay. As results, 1 and 2 exhibited weak cytotoxic activity against three tested cancer cell lines with the inhibitive percentage of 64–79.9% at the concentration of 100 µg/mL while 3 was inactive. Keywords: Parmotrema praesorediosum; Parmeliaceae; praesorether; diphenyl ether; cytotoxicity.
34341Huynh B.-L.-C., Nguyen T.-T.-L., Nguyen V.-K., Chavasiri W., Nguyen K.-P.-P. & Duong T.-H. (2022): Three new phenolic compounds from the lichen Ramalina peruviana Ach. (Ramalinaceae). - Natural Product Research, 36(8): 2009–2014. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1839463.
Three new phenolic compounds, peruvinides A-C were isolated from the lichen Ramalina peruviana Ach. (Ramalinaceae). Their structures were unambiguously determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses and comparison with literature data. Peruvinides A and B bearing unusual moieties were found for the first time among lichen metabolites. Keywords: Ramalina peruviana Ach.; Ramalinaceae; lichen; depside; peruvinides A–C.
34340Bui V.-M., Duong T.-H., Chavasiri W., Nguyen K.-P.-P. & Huynh B.-L.-C. (2022): A new depsidone from the lichen Usnea ceratina Arch [sic!]. - Natural Product Research, 36(9): 2263–2269. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1828405.
Chemical investigation of the lichen Usnea ceratina Arch led to the isolation of five depsidones, including one new compound ceratinalone (1) along with four known compounds bailesidone (2), stictic acid (3), 80-O-methylstictic acid (4) and 80-O-ethylstictic acid (5). The structures were determined by analysis of their MS and NMR data as well as by comparison with literature values. Compounds 1 and 4 were evaluated the cytotoxic activity against HeLa (human epithelial carcinoma), NCI-H460 (human lung cancer), HepG2 (liver hepatocellular carcinoma), and MCF-7 (human breast cancer) cell lines, showing the moderate activity. Keywords: Lichen Usnea ceratina Ach.; depsidone; ceratinalone; cytotoxic activity.
34339Nugraha A.S., Untari L.F., Laub A., Porzel A., Franke K. & Wessjohann L.A. (2021): Anthelmintic and antimicrobial activities of three new depsides and ten known depsides and phenols from Indonesian lichen: Parmelia cetrata Ach.. - Natural Product Research, 35(23): 5001–5010. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1761361.
An extensive phytochemical study of a foliose lichen from Indonesia, Parmelia cetrata, resulted in the successful isolation of 13 phenol and depside derivatives (1–13) including the previously unreported depsides 30-hydroxyl-50-pentylphenyl 2,4-dihydroxyl-6- methylbenzoate (7), 30-hydroxyl-50-propylphenyl 2,4-dihydroxyl-6- methylbenzoate (8) and 30-hydroxyl-50-methylphenyl 2-hydroxyl-4- methoxyl-6-propylbenzoate (9). The anti-infective activity of isolated compounds was evaluated against the gram-negative bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. 2,4-Dihydroxyl-6-pentylbenzoate (5) and lecanoric acid (6) induced growth inhibition of A. fischeri with inhibition values of 49% and 100% at a concentration of 100 µM, respectively. The antibacterial activity might be due to their free carboxyl group. A phenolic group at C4 also contributed to the antimicrobial activity of the depsides as shown for compounds 7 and 8, which caused 89% and 96% growth inhibition at 100 µM, respectively. Lecanoric acid (6) in addition possesses significant anthelmintic effects causing 80% mortality of C. elegans at 100 µg/mL. Keywords: Lichen; Parmelia cetrata; antimicrobial; anthelmintic; depsides; Aliivibrio fischeri; Caenorhabditis elegans.
34338Phan H.-V.-T., Devi A.P., Le H.-D., Nguyen T.-T., Nguyen H.-H., Le T.-T.-D., Nguyen T.H., Sichaem J. & Duong T.-H. (2021): Dilatatone, a new chlorinated compound from Parmotrema dilatatum. - Natural Product Research, 35(21): 3608–3612. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1716348.
Chemical investigation of the lichen Parmotrema dilatatum led to the isolation of a new chlorinated compound, named dilatatone (1), along with a known compound, sernanderin (2). Their chemical structures were determined by analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR spectra, HRESIMS, and ECD data. Both compounds showed weak α-glucosidase inhibitor activity. Keywords: Parmotrema dilatatum; lichen; dilatatone; α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
34337Do T.-H., Duong T.-H., Nguyen H.T., Nguyen T.-H., Sichaem J., Nguyen C.H., Nguyen H.-H. & Long N.P. (2022): Biological activities of lichen-derived monoaromatic compounds. - Molecules, 27(9): 2871 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27092871.
Lichen-derived monoaromatic compounds are bioactive compounds, associated with various pharmacological properties: antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral, cytotoxicity, and enzyme inhibition. However, little is known about data regarding alpha-glucosidase inhibition and antimicrobial activity. Very few compounds were reported to have these activities. In this paper, a series of monoaromatic compounds from a lichen source were isolated and structurally elucidated. They are 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (1), 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate methyl (2), 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid (3), 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxylbenzoic acid (4), 3-hydroxyorcinol (5), atranol (6), and methyl hematommate (7). To obtain more derivatives, available compounds from the previous reports such as methyl β-orsellinate (8), methyl orsellinate (9), and D-montagnetol (10) were selected for bromination. Electrophilic bromination was applied to 8–10 using NaBr/H2O2 reagents to yield products methyl 5-bromo-β-orsellinate (8a), methyl 3,5-dibromo-orsellinate (9a), 3-bromo-D-montagnetol (10a), and 3,5-dibromo-D-montagnetol (10b). Compounds were evaluated for alpha-glucosidase inhibition and antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant, pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Compound 4 showed stronger alpha-glucosidase inhibition than others with an IC50 value of 24.0 µg/mL. Synthetic compound 9a exhibited remarkable activity against Staphylococcus aureus with a MIC value of 4 µg/mL. Molecular docking studies were performed to confirm the consistency between in vitro and in silico studies. Keywords: lichen; Parmotrema; Roccella; monoaromatic compounds; antimicrobial activity; alpha-glucosidase inhibition.
34336Aigner S., Arc E., Schletter M., Karsten U., Holzinger A. & Kranner I. (2022): Metabolite profiling in green microalgae with varying degrees of desiccation tolerance. - Microorganisms, 10(5): 946 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10050946.
Trebouxiophyceae are microalgae occupying even extreme environments such as polar regions or deserts, terrestrial or aquatic, and can occur free-living or as lichen photobionts. Yet, it is poorly understood how environmental factors shape their metabolism. Here, we report on responses to light and temperature, and metabolic adjustments to desiccation in Diplosphaera epiphytica, isolated from a lichen, and Edaphochlorella mirabilis, isolated from Tundra soil, assessed via growth and photosynthetic performance parameters. Metabolite profiling was conducted by GC–MS. A meta-analysis together with data from a terrestrial and an aquatic Chlorella vulgaris strain reflected elements of phylogenetic relationship, lifestyle, and relative desiccation tolerance of the four algal strains. For example, compatible solutes associated with desiccation tolerance were up-accumulated in D. epiphytica, but also sugars and sugar alcohols typically produced by lichen photobionts. The aquatic C. vulgaris, the most desiccation-sensitive strain, showed the greatest variation in metabolite accumulation after desiccation and rehydration, whereas the most desiccation-tolerant strain, D. epiphytica, showed the least, suggesting that it has a more efficient constitutive protection from desiccation and/or that desiccation disturbed the metabolic steady-state less than in the other three strains. The authors hope that this study will stimulate more research into desiccation tolerance mechanisms in these under-investigated microorganisms. Keywords: Chlorella; Diplosphaera; Edaphochlorella; green algae; microalgae; metabolite; metabolomics.
34335Koch N.M., Stanton D., Müller S.C., Duarte L., Spielmann A.A. & Lücking R. (2022): Nuanced qualitative trait approaches reveal environmental filtering and phylogenetic constraints on lichen communities. - Ecosphere, 13(4): e4042 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.4042.
We propose that a qualitative trait approach based on more detailed nuanced traits may reveal previously overlooked patterns, especially when combined with phylogenetic perspectives. By sampling epiphytic lichens and using a functional approach based on nuanced qualitative traits, such as a much greater resolution over photobiont identity, type of cortex, and chemical compounds, we evaluated the effects of environmental filtering and phylogenetic constraints on community assembly along a natural succession of Atlantic rainforest. We found changes in taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic composition, structure, and diversity. Functional traits such as photobiont genera, type of cortex, reproductive structures, propagule size, and protection strategies showed strong responses to succession. Mature forests with a closed canopy impose strong environment filtering that is reflected in lichen species turnover, limiting diversity, but also holding different functional and phylogenetic composition. The use of a nuanced qualitative trait approach may overcome some of the limitations of using this type of traits and shows the importance of often-overlooked key lichen functional traits, including the presence of carbon-concentrating mechanisms in photobionts and cortex properties. Furthermore, this is the first study showing how patterns of phylogenetic assembly along forest succession structure lichen communities. Keywords: Atlantic rainforest, community assembly, functional diversity, lichenized fungi, photobiont, phylogenetic composition, turnover.
34334Tunç E. & Çetindemir B. (2022): The effect of lichens on soil aggregate stability. - International Journal of Energy and Engineering Sciences, 7(1): 40–51. .
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of lichens on soil aggregate stability. In the study, lichen and non-lichen soil samples were taken from the forest areas of the Meulenwald region of Germany, consisting of Picea abies (L.) and Pinus sylvestris (L.) species, where lichens of Cladonia furcata, Cladonia coniocraea, Peltigera rufescens and Baeomyces rufus were detected. In this study, soil samples were evaluated in terms of soil pH, organic matter (%) content, soil permeability, texture analysis, and cation exchange capacity. In the study, it has been determined that the aggregate stability and water holding capacity of lichen soil is higher than that of non-lichen soil. Keywords: Aggregate Stability, Cladonia furcata, C. coniocraea, Peltigera rufescens, Baeomyces rufus.
34333Kaufmann M. (2022): Flechtenvegetationskundliche Momentaufnahmen an einem unreifen, karbonatisch zementierten Quarzsandstein (Reiselsberg-Formation; Vorarlberger Flysch) in unterschiedlichen Verwitterungsstadien, mit einem Seitenblick auf die ökologische Standortskonstanz. - inatura – Forschung online, 99: 1–63. .
Das Hauptaugenmerk der flechtensoziologischen Untersuchungen am Reiselsberger-Sandstein der Flyschzone Vorarlbergs galt dem Gesteins-Chemismus, der durch das Verwitterungsgeschehen geprägt ist. Trotz Dominanz von Quarz zeigt der verwitternde Sandstein aufgrund des gelösten carbonatischen Bindemittels die Charakteristika eines Intermediärgesteins. Bearbeitet wurden großflächige, mehr oder weniger steilgestellte Felsplatten, die an Steilabhängen anstehen oder an Felsabbrüchen und Felsgraten der subalpinen Stufe (bis 1960 m SH). Sie sind von einer krustigen Pionierflechtenvegetation, dem III. Acarosporetum badiofuscae (Asta & Roux, 1977) ex M.Kaufmann nov. comb. (hier in ihrem Kernareal, dem eurosibirischen Raum erstmals gültig beschrieben) besiedelt. An Überhängen des zerblockten Gesteins an Graten wurde das IV. Buellio-Xanthorietum elegantis Creveld, 1981 (bis 1955 m SH), und an einem ausgetrockneten, felsigen Bacheinschnitt im Wald (bei 1485 m SH) wurde das Fragment des V. Stenhammarelletum turgidae Hertel, 1967 ex Asta, Clauzade & Roux, 1973 aufgenommen. Daneben wurden zwei silicole Flechtenassoziationen der Fließgewässer auf Bachfelsen erhoben: Einerseits auf einem steilen Abschnitt einer nordseitigen, licht-bewaldeten Bachschlucht und andererseits an einem flachen sonnigen Wiesenbach fanden sich das II. Porpidietum hydrophilae Ullrich, 1962 in hochmontaner Lage (bei 1070 m SH) und das I. Staurotheletum fuscocupreae Coste, 1981 ass. prov. (um 1640 m SH) ausgebildet. Alle diese Gesellschaften werden im Detail beschrieben und ausgewählte, für sie typische Flechtenarten werden diskutiert. Key words: Flechtensoziologie, Flechtengemeinschaften, Lichenes, Standortskonstanz, Sandstein, Flysch, Verwitterung
34332Denchev C.M., Shivarov V.V., Denchev T.T. & Mayrhofer H. (2022): Checklist of the lichenized and lichenicolous fungi in Bulgaria. - Mycobiota, 12: 1–106. doi: 10.12664/mycobiota.2022.12.01. http://www.mycobiota.com/free/1201_Denchev.pdf.
A checklist of all taxa of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi recorded from Bulgaria is presented. The lichen biota as currently known includes 1137 taxa (1115 species, 5 subspecies, and 17 varieties) of lichenized fungi, 46 species of lichenicolous fungi, and 28 non-lichenized fungi traditionally included in lichenological literature. Lepra corallina is reported for the first time from Bulgaria. An index of synonyms based on literature records from Bulgaria is appended. It includes 1761 infrageneric names. Key words: biodiversity, Bulgaria, fungal diversity, lichenicolous fungi, lichenized fungi.
34331Hesse M. (2001): Zum Gedenken an Frau emer. O. Prof. Dr. Elisabeth Woess. - Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 138: 275–278. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/VZBG_138_0275-0278.pdf.
obituary
34330Hruby J. (1924): Adolf Oborny †. - Verhandlungen des naturforschenden Vereines in Brünn, 59[1922]: XXVII–XXX. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Verh-naturf-Ver-Bruenn_59_XXVII-XXX.pdf.
obituary
34329Gerasimova J.V., Beck A., Werth S. & Resl P. (2022): High diversity of Type I polyketide genes in Bacidia rubella as revealed by the comparative analysis of 23 lichen genomes. - Journal of Fungi, 8(5): 449 [26 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8050449.
Fungi involved in lichen symbioses produce a large array of secondary metabolites that are often diagnostic in the taxonomic delimitation of lichens. The most common lichen secondary metabolites—polyketides—are synthesized by polyketide synthases, particularly by Type I PKS (TIPKS). Here, we present a comparative genomic analysis of the TI‐PKS gene content of 23 lichenforming fungal genomes from Ascomycota, including the de novo sequenced genome of Bacidia rubella. Firstly, we identify a putative atranorin cluster in B. rubella. Secondly, we provide an overview of TI‐PKS gene diversity in lichen‐forming fungi, and the most comprehensive Type I PKS phylogeny of lichen‐forming fungi to date, including 624 sequences. We reveal a high number of biosynthetic gene clusters and examine their domain composition in the context of previously characterized genes, confirming that PKS genes outnumber known secondary substances. Moreover, two novel groups of reducing PKSs were identified. Although many PKSs remain without functional assignments, our findings highlight that genes from lichen‐forming fungi represent an untapped source of novel polyketide compounds. Keywords: lichen; secondary compounds; comparative genomics; fungi; polyketide synthases (PKS); Type I PKS.
34328Tanona M. & Czarnota P. (2022): Do the natural dynamics of West Carpathian forests affect the diversity of epiphytic lichens on Norway spruce?. - Acta Oecologica, 115: 103830 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actao.2022.103830.
Over the last decades the West Carpathian spruce and mixed forests with a share of Picea abies, have been undergoing intensified dynamic changes, determined by windstorms and European spruce bark beetle outbreaks. Those changes should have a decisive effect on the survivability of species and shifts in epiphytic lichen communities on this phorophyte. Research conducted in the Gorce Mts (West Carpathians, Poland) in 1993, 2013 and 2018, on the same 186 spruce trees at 33 sites, revealed an increase in the species diversity of lichen communities in a long-term perspective (25 years). At the same time, there was a decrease in the coverage of the dominant species. Such changes are a result of long-term tree composition processes: the natural thinning of upper mountain spruce forests and the increase of lower mountain forests density after a decrease in the share of Norway spruce. The former prefers photophilous epiphytes, and the latter leads to an increase in the share of shade-tolerant species. The analysis of lichen communities by means of the principal components analysis (PCA) method for all three study periods combined showed that long-term changes were the most significant for this lichen biota, and short-term changes had no considerable effect. The conducted Redundancy Analysis (RDA) revealed, that the forest plant association was a stronger factor affecting the lichen community composition and coverage than tree stand density and saplings density in each observation term. The changes taking place in stands under bark beetle and wind disturbances should be treated differently in different types of forest associations, but in both, they cause differentiation of niches used by more specialized species of epiphytic lichens. Keywords: Epiphytic lichens; Forest disturbances; Forest ekology; Lichen community dynamic; Norway spruce; Permanent plots.
34327Wei D.-P., Wanasinghe D.N., Gentekaki E., Thiyagaraja V., Lumyong S. & Hyde K.D. (2021): Morphological and phylogenetic appraisal of Novel and extant taxa of Stictidaceae from northern Thailand. - Journal of Fungi, 7: 880 [20 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7100880.
Stictidaceae comprises taxa with diverse lifestyles. Many species in this family are drought resistant and important for studying fungal adaptation and evolution. Stictidaceae comprises 32 genera, but many of them have been neglected for decades due to the lack of field collections and molecular data. In this study, we introduce a new species Fitzroyomyces hyaloseptisporus and a new combination Fitzroyomycespandanicola. We also provide additional morphological and molecular data for Ostropomyces pruinosellus and O. thailandicus based on new collections isolated from an unidentified woody dicotyledonous host in Chiang Rai, Thailand. Taxonomic conclusions are made with the aid of morphological evidence and phylogenetic analysis of combined LSU, ITS and mtSSU sequence data. Characteristics such as the shape and septation of ascospores and conidia as well as lifestyles among genera of Stictidaceae are discussed. Keywords: lichenization; new species; non-lichenized fungi; Ostropales; phylogeny; taxonomy
34326Popovici V., Bucur L., Gîrd C.E., Calcan S.I., Cucolea E.I., Costache T., Rambu D., Ungureanu-Iuga M., Oroian M., Mironeasa S., Schröder V., Ozon E.-A., Caraiane A. & Badea V. (2022): Advances in the Characterization of Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg from Călimani Mountains, Romania. - Applied Sciences, 12: 4234 [20 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ app12094234.
Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg (U. barbata) is a medicinal representative of the lichens from the Usnea genus (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes), containing bioactive secondary metabolites. The aim of this study is a comparative analysis between two separated parts of the thallus layers: medulla–cortex (mcUB) and central cord (ccUB) and the whole dried U. barbata thallus (dUB). These three samples were examined regarding color differences. The U. barbata thallus morphology was examined through fluorescent microscopy (FM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mineral content was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) preliminarily established the differences in the metabolite content. Finally, extracts in different solvents (ethanol and acetone) were obtained from all studied samples, and their total phenolic content (TPC) and free radical scavenging activity (antiradical activity, AA) were evaluated by spectrophotometry. The ICP-MS results showed that from 23 elements analyzed, 18 minerals were quantified in mcUB, 13 in dUB, and only 12 in ccUB. The ccUB fraction recorded the lowest mineral content, color intensity (chroma), luminosity (L*), and TPC value, followed in increasing order by dUB and mcUB. FT-IR spectra displayed different peaks in ccUB and dUB samples compared to mcUB. The mcUB fraction also showed the highest TPC, significantly correlated with AA. However, dUB had the highest antiradical activity, followed by mcUB and ccUB, with noticeable differences in the acetone extract. The final correlation between all variable data obtained indicates that 99.31% of the total variance was associated with all minerals, total phenolics, and color parameters and was also related to the antiradical activity. These obtained results complete our previous studies on autochthonous U. barbata. Moreover, being a source of bioactive metabolites, extracting them from the mcUB fraction could increase this process’s yield and selectivity. Keywords: Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg; morphology; color; minerals; phenolic secondary metabolites; free radical scavenging activity.
34325Kondratyuk S.Y., Lőkös L., Kondratiuk A.S., Kärnefelt I., Thell A., Farkas E. & Hur J.-S. (2022): Contributions to molecular phylogeny of lichens 3. New monophyletic branches of the Trapeliaceae and Xylariaceae [sic!]. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 64: 97–135. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.64.2022.1-2.6.
Seven new genera, i.e. Brianiopsis for the former ‘Lambiella’ impavida group, Farkasiella for the former ‘Trapeliopsis’ aeneofusca group, Gallowayiopsis for the former ‘Trapelia’ collaris group, Kleopowiella for the former ‘Trapelia’ placodioides group, Trapegintarasia for the former ‘Trapelia’ lilacea group, Trapejamesia for the former ‘Trapelia’ corticola branch, as well as Xyloelixia for the former ‘Xylographa’ isidiosa group are proposed. Isolated position of ‘Lambiella’ caeca, ‘Lambiella’ insularis, ‘Lambiella’ hepaticicola, ‘Lambiella’ sphacellata, ‘Placopsis’ bicolor, ‘Xylographa’ bjoerkii, and ‘Xylographa’ lagoi, is discussed too. Correctness of identification of vouchers of various species of the following genera Placynthiella, Placopsis, Trapelia, and Trapeliopsis is also discussed. New combinations are proposed for the following 27 species: ‘Ainoa’ sphacellata (for Lecidea sphacelata Th. Fr.), Brianiopsis aliphatica (for Lambiella aliphatica T. Sprib. et Resl), Brianiopsis cerebriformis (for Rimularia cerebriformis Kantvilas), Brianiopsis globulosa (for Rimularia globulosa Coppins), Brianiopsis gyrizans (for Lecidea gyrizans Nyl.), Brianiopsis gyromuscosa (for Rimularia gyromuscosa Aptroot), Brianiopsis impavida (for Lecidea impavida Th. Fr.), Brianiopsis mullensis (for Lecidea mullensis Stirt.), Farkasiella aeneofusca (for Lecidea aeneofusca Flörke ex Flot.), Farkasiella gelatinosa (for Lecidea gelatinosa Flörke), Gallowayiopsis collaris (for Trapelia collaris Orange), Gallowayiopsis glebulosa (for Lichen glebulosus Sm.), Gallowayiopsis obtegens (for Biatora coarctata subsp. obtegens Th. Fr.), Gallowayiopsis roseonigra (for Placopsis roseonigra Brodo), Kleopowiella placodioides (for Trapelia placodioides Coppins et P. James), Kleopowiella bisorediata (for Trapeliopsis bisorediata McCune et F. J. Camacho), Kleopowiella thieleana (for Trapelia thieleana Kantvilas, Lumbsch et Elix), Rimularia coreana (for Trapelia coreana S. Y. Kondr., Lőkös et Hur), Trapegintarasia antarctica (for Trapelia antarctica Ertz, Aptroot, G. Thor et Ovstedal), Trapegintarasia lilacea (for Trapelia lilacea Kantvilas et Elix), Trapegintarasia tristis (for Trapelia tristis Orange), Trapejamesia corticola (for Trapelia corticola Coppins et P. James), Trapejamesia hurii (for Placynthiella hurii S. Y. Kondr. et L. Lőkös), Xyloelixia constricta (for Xylographa constricta T. Sprib.), Xyloelixia disseminata (for Xylographa disseminata Willey), Xyloelixia isidiosa (for Hypocenomyce isidiosa Elix), and Xyloelixia septentrionalis (for Xylographa septentrionalis T. Sprib.). Kew words: Ainoa, Brianiopsis, Farkasiella, Gallowayiopsis, Kleopowiella, Korea, Lambiella, Placynthiella, Placopsis, Rimularia, Trapelia, Trapegintarasia, Trapejamesia, Trapeliopsis, Xyloelixia, Xylographa.
34324Kondratyuk S.Y., Popova L.P., Kondratiuk A.S., Lőkös L. & Danylyk I.M. (2022): Regionally unique lichens of the Ukrainian Carpathians and perspectives of their protection. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 64: 73–96. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.64.2022.1-2.5.
The Carpathian Mts, showing the highest lichen biodiversity in Ukraine, i.e. 1,395 species of 2,106 of the total Ukrainian lichens, have been found to contain the highest proportion of regionally unique taxa (i.e. so far recorded only from the Carpathian Mts) (i.e. 551 species, or 39.5% of the Carpathian and 26.2% of the total Ukrainian lichen flora). Species diversity of widely distributed lichens (i.e. which hitherto known from all five macroregions of Ukraine), as well as ‘scarcely distributed’ lichens (i.e. missing at least in one or more macroregions) are also discussed. Representation of these three groups of lichens in the geomorphological districts of the Carpathian Mts and the administrative oblasts Zakarpattia, Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk and Chernivtsi is shown. The Chornohora Mts, a district of the Carpathian Mts, found to show the highest proportion of species so far recorded from this district of the Carpathian Mts, while the Eastern Beskydy and the Gorgany Mts are characterised hitherto by the highest species diversity of lichens. That is established that among geomorphological districts of Zakarpattia oblast, the Eastern Beskydy and the Gorgany Mts parts of Zakarpattia oblast territory are characterised by the highest number of species of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi in the Carpathian macroregion (674 and 611 species, respectively), and the proportion of regionally unique taxa in these two florae is also the highest (483 species or 71.6% and 453 species or 74.1%, respectively). Lichens of the Chyvchyn Mts of Ivano-Frankivsk oblast are found to be the most diverse in this oblast (344 species totally), and they include the highest proportion of regionally unique taxa (171 species or 49.7%). The Eastern Beskydy Mts, part of Lviv oblast territory, the only part of this oblast in the Carpathian Mts, are found to be represented by 224 lichen species of which 32 (i.e. 14.3%) are regionally unique to the Carpathian Mts. List of the rarest taxa of the regionally unique group (hitherto known from single or a few localities) proposed as candidates for including to regional red lists of Zakarpattia, Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk and Chernivtsi oblasts since the whole nature protection activity in Ukraine is done according to oblast division. 254 lichen species are proposed for including in the red list of Zakarpattia oblast, while 44, 4 and 9 species in the red lists of Ivano-Frankivsk, Lviv and Chernivtsi oblasts, respectively. The smallest amount of these taxa is proposed for the red list of Lviv oblast, which includes also the Forest zone of the Ukrainian Plains. Key words: administrative oblast, geomorphological district, nature protection, red list.
34323Lee B.G., Shin H.T. & Hur J.-S. (2022): A new lichen-forming fungus, Aspicilia humida, from a forested wetland in South Korea, with a taxonomic key for aspicilioid species of Korea. - Mycobiology, 50: 20–29. https://doi.org/10.1080/12298093.2021.2021642.
Aspicilia humida Lee is described as a new lichen-forming fungus from a wetland forest, South Korea. The new species is distinguishable from Aspicilia aquatica (Fr.) Körb., the most similar species, by the absence of prothallus, black disk without green color in water, olive-brown epihymenium, shorter hymenium, hymenium I + yellowish blue-green, wider paraphysial tips without a vivid pigment, smaller asci, smaller ascospores, and the presence of stictic acid. Molecular analyses employing internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) sequences strongly support A. humida as a distinct species in the A. cinerea group. A surrogate key is provided to assist in the identification of all 28 aspicilioid species of Korea. Keywords: Biodiversity; Megasporaceae; phylogeny; saxicolous; taxonomy.
34322Webber Q.M.R., Ferraro K.M., Hendrix J.G. & Vander Wal E. (2022): What do caribou eat? A review of the literature on caribou diet. - Canadian Journal of Zoology, 100: 197–207. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjz-2021-0162.
Historically, the study of caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1788)) diet has been specific to herds and few comprehensive circumpolar analyses of Rangifer diet exist. As a result, certain diet items may play an outsized role in the caribou diet Zeitgeist, e.g., lichen. We challenge this notion and test the relevant importance of various diet items within the context of prevailing hypotheses. We provide a systematic overview of 30 caribou studies reporting caribou diet and test biologically relevant hypotheses about spatial and temporal dietary variation. Our results indicate that in the winter caribou primarily consume lichen, but in warmer seasons and when primary productivity is lower, caribou primarily consume graminoids and other vascular plants. In more productive environments, where caribou have more competitors and predators, consumption of lichen increase. Overall, our description of caribou diet reveals that it is highly variable, but in circumstances where caribou can consume vascular plants, then they will. As climate change affects Boreal and Arctic ecosystems, the type and volume of food consumed by caribou have become an increasingly important focus for conservation and management of caribou. Key words: caribou conservation, dietary niche, lichen, niche variation, Rangifer.
34321Strother I.E., Coxson D. & Goward T. (2022): Why is the rainforest lichen Methuselah’s beard (Usnea longissima) so rare in British Columbia’s inland temperate rainforest?. - Botany, 100: 283–299. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjb-2021-0057.
Coastal (CTR) and inland temperate rainforests (ITR) in western North America share a rich oceanic lichen flora. The distinctive Methuselah’s beard lichen (Usnea longissima Ach.) is an exception to this pattern of shared distributions, with very few ITR locations. Does this absence reflect dispersal limitations or climatic intolerance? To answer this question, we transplanted U. longissima thalli from the CTR to three ITR locations, assessing growth rates against reciprocal CTR transplants. Canopy microclimate measurements provided concurrent data on growth conditions. Growth rate responses (length, mass, and area) were evaluated after summer and full-year transplants. Notwithstanding extended drought conditions during the summer period, annual transplants at two of the three ITR locations supported growth rates comparable to those at the CTR source U. longissima population, with summer dewfall and autumn rains being major ITR hydration sources. Thalli transplanted to a third ITR site (summer measurements only) in a location transitional to the drier interior plateau lost both mass and length. Based on these findings, we suggest that the absence of U. longissima from much of the ITR reflects the combined influence of dispersal limitations and requirements for stands with long site continuity and topographically induced summer wetting of thalli by dewfall. Key words: temperate rainforest, lichen biogeography, old-growth forest, lichen growth, transplant, occult precipitation.
34320Fryday A.M. & Dillman K.L. (2022): A preliminary investigation of the lichen biota associated with recently deglaciated terrain in southeastern Alaska. - Botany, 100: 313–328. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjb-2021-0087.
Glaciers worldwide are currently retreating at unprecedented rates, revealing large tracts of newly exposed rock and till. We present the results of a preliminary, qualitative investigation of the lichen diversity of transient habitats near three glaciers in southeastern Alaska: Muir Glacier within Glacier Bay National Park, and Baird and Patterson Glaciers in the Tongass National Forest. This work is noteworthy as it (i) documents previously undescribed lichen species and communities within rapidly changing glacier habitats, (ii) illustrates the importance of cryptogams (lichens, bryophytes, algae, and cyanobacteria) in the primary colonization of recently deglaciated terrain, (iii) sets apart the lichen biota of recently deglaciated terrain in southeastern Alaska from that of other glacial regions worldwide (e.g., the European Alps, Svalbard, and southern South America) and even other parts of Alaska (e.g., Brooks Range), and (iv) emphasizes the importance of more lichen studies that focus on this rapidly changing habitat. The lichen biotas found at different successional stages near these glaciers are described and compared. The role of lichens and other cryptogams in post-glacial vegetation initiation, the threats to the lichen biota, and suggestions for the possible origins of the lichen propagules that colonize these newly exposed surfaces are also discussed. Key words: climate change, maritime glaciers, post-glacial succession, prolonged snow-lie, rare lichen species.
34319Storm C., Cezanne R., Eichler M., Stroh M., Weißmantel B. & Schwabe A. (2022): Restitution von Sandrasen auf ehemaligen Äckern durch Inokulation und Beweidung – eine 16jährige Modellstudie aus Südhessen. - Botanik und Naturschutz in Hessen, 34: 67–114. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Botanik-Naturschutz-Hessen_34_0067-0114.pdf.
Restoration of sandy grassland on former fields by inoculation and grazing – a 16-year model study in southern Hesse. [in German with English summary: ] Base-rich open sandy habitats in the Upper Rhine area of Hesse are wellknown for their highly endangered plant and animal species and vegetation types. Only remnants still exist of habitats that were once widely distributed, prompting initation of nature conservation projects involving installation of stepping stones and corridors to reconnect fragmented sandy habitats. Since 1998, we have developed suitable restoration methods, accompanied by scientific monitoring, for sandy habitats (in cooperation with local authorities in the Darmstadt-Dieburg and Darmstadt districts, and with a landscape management farm) using biotic and/or abiotic improvement measures combined with grazing management strategies. For the first time, we report on development of the vegetation in a former field over 16 years as a model for restoration practice without any abiotic measures. We sampled relevés every year and analysed floral and other structural data. In addition, we compared these relevés with relevés from Griesheimer Düne, a reference site situated nearby. The restoration site in the former field had been inoculated with raked plant material from reference sites and has been grazed continuously by sheep and donkeys. In terms of nature conservation, the vegetation has developed surprisingly well over the 16-year period. Phosphate concentrations in the upper soil layer have decreased but still remain elevated. The number and cover of target species are high, and in the case of Koelerio-Corynephoretea species are higher than in the nearby reference site. We also recorded a high number of species on the Red List. The former field retains a ruderal potential, mainly with the key species of Calamagrostis epigejos and Cynodon dactylon. The grazing management strategy must be continued to control any further increase in these species.
34318Černajová I., Schiefelbein U. & Škaloud P. (2022): Lichens from the littoral zone host diverse Ulvophycean photobionts. - Journal of Phycology, 58: 267–280. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpy.13234.
Crustose Verrucariaceae lichens form a distinctive black belt on seashores all over the world. This lifestyle is apparently enabled by a specific set of photobionts. However, their diversity is understudied. We sampled these lichens from the northern Patagonian Pacific coast of Chile. Using molecular markers, we identified both mycobionts and photobionts. The lichens, belonging to the genus Hydropunctaria and to the Wahlenbergiella group, hosted solely Ulvophycean photobionts. Pseudendoclonium submarinum (Kornmanniaceae, Ulvales) was the most common, but representatives of other closely related, yet undescribed, lineages were also found. Undulifilum symbioticum gen. et sp. nov. is described within Kornmanniaceae based on culture morphology and DNA sequence data. Furthermore, the free-living macroscopic genus Urospora (Acrosiphoniaceae, Ulotrichales) is reported as a lichen photobiont for the first time and is the first of its kind in the order. These results indicate that undescribed algal diversity is waiting to be uncovered in seashore lichens. Key index words: Chile; Hydropunctaria; intertidalrocks; Pseudendoclonium; symbiosis; Undulifilum symbioticum gen. et sp. nov.; Urospora; Verrucaria.
34317Ahmadian N., Abedi M., Escudero A., Sohrabi M. & Luzuriaga A.L. (2022): Artemisia sieberi dominated landscapes of Northeastern Iran host great diversity in lichen and annual plant species. - Flora, 288: 152019 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2022.152019.
In this study, we aim to evaluate the diversity of vascular plants and lichens coexisting in Artemisia sieberi dominated landscapes of northern Iran. Specifically, we wanted to unveil to what extent Artemisia plant cover and soil features affected species diversity and composition of annuals and lichens growing beneath them, and if annual plants and lichen species were associated at fine spatial scales. The study area was located in Artemisia steppes in North-Eastern Iran. Therefore, four localities dominated by Artemisia sieberi in Golestan National Park and Alagol wetland were selected. We quantified plant and lichen species cover in 5 plots in each location, including 25 subplots and five soil samples to characterize edaphic heterogeneity. Data were analyzed using GLM, NMDS, PERMANOVA, and Mantel Tests. We recorded 19 lichen species, three moss species, and 21 annual plant species in the four localities. Alagol and Alikhani had the most similar lichen compositions and Almeh showed great differences with other sites. However, Bagh and Almeh had the most similar and the most different annual species composition comparing the rest locations, respectively. Location explained 50% and 30% of the variance in lichens and annuals species composition, respectively. Soil chemical properties had no significant influences on lichens and annuals parameters except for Mg content in lichen evenness and clay content on total plant cover. We found a highly significant relationship between the lichen composition and annual plant species composition on fine scale (Mantel r: 0.13; p = 0.0003). The cover of Artemisia explained significant but tiny fractions of lichen species composition (1%) and annual plant species composition (2%) at subplot level. Artemisia steppes of northeastern Iran are not homogeneous habitats and shelter high diversity in lichen and annual plant species. Site location conditions may explain the differences among lichens and annuals compositions. Keywords: Steppes ; Golestan National Park ; Patch Soil conditions ; Species composition.
34316Wieder R.K., Vile M.A., Vitt D.H., Scott K.D., Xu B., Quinn J.C. & Albright C.M. (2022): Can plant or lichen natural abundance 15N ratios indicate the influence of oil sands N emissions on bogs?. - Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 40: 101030 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrh.2022.101030.
Highlights: • Oil sands development has led to increasing N emissions and regional N deposition. • Can δ15N of bog plant or lichen tissues indicate an oil sands emission influence? • δ15N (‰) and N (mg/g) in Evernia mesomorpha may suggest an oil sands influence. • Scarce data on oil sands N source δ15N signatures preclude definitive interpretations.
34315Kumari M., Kamat S. & Jayabaskaran C. (2022): Usnic acid induced changes in biomolecules and their association with apoptosis in squamous carcinoma (A-431) cells: A flow cytometry, FTIR and DLS spectroscopic study. - Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 274: 121098 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2022.121098.
Many natural products induce apoptotic cell death in cancer cells, though studies on their interactions with macromolecules are limited. For the first time, this study demonstrated the cytotoxic potential of usnic acid (UA) against squamous carcinoma (A-431) cells and the associated changes in cell surface proteins, lipids and DNA by attenuated total reflection- fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) spectroscopic studies. The IC50 for UA was 98.9 mM after treatment of A-431 cells for 48 h, while the IC50 reduced to 39.2 mM after 72 h of incubation time. UA induced oxidative stress in treated cells as confirmed by DCFHDA flow cytometry assay, depletion in reduced glutathione and increase in lipid peroxidation. The oxidative stress resulted in conformation change in amide I, amide II protein bands and DNA as observed by ATR-FTIR in UA treated A-431 cells. Shift in secondary structures of proteins from a helix to b sheets and structural changes in DNA was observed in UA treated A-431 cells. An increase in the band intensity of phospholipids, increased distribution of lipid and change in membrane potential was noted in UA treated cells, which was confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine to the outer membrane by annexin V-FITC/PI assay. Increase in mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase by flow cytometry and activation of caspase-3/7 dependent proteins confirmed the UA induced apoptosis in treated A-431 cells. FTIR and DLS spectroscopy confirmed the changes in biomolecules after UA treatment, which were associated with apoptosis, as observed by flow cytometry. Keywords: Apoptosis; FTIR; Zeta potential; Natural product; Secondary structure.
34314Heim R.J., Heim W., Bültmann H., Kamp J., Rieker D., Yurtaev A. & Hölzel N. (2022): Fire disturbance promotes biodiversity of plants, lichens and birds in the Siberian subarctic tundra. - Global Change Biology, 28: 1048–1062. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15963.
Fire shapes the world's terrestrial ecosystems and has been influencing biodiversity patterns for millennia. Anthropogenic drivers alter fire regimes. Wildfires can amplify changes in the structure, biodiversity and functioning of the fast-warming tundra ecosystem. However, there is little evidence available, how these fires affect species diversity and community composition of tundra ecosystems over the long term. We studied long-term fire effects on community composition and diversity at different trophic levels of the food web in the subarctic tundra of Western Siberia. In a spacefor-time approach we compared three large fire scars (>44, 28 and 12 years old) to unburnt controls. We found that diversity (measured as species richness, Shannon index and evenness) of vascular and non-vascular plants and birds was strongly affected by fire, with the greatest species richness of plants and birds for the intermediate-age fire scar (28 years). Species composition of plants and birds still differed from that of the control >44 years after fire. Increased deciduous shrub cover was related to species richness of all plants in a hump-shaped manner. The proportion of southern (taiga) bird species was highest in the oldest fire scar, which had the highest shrub cover. We conclude that tundra fires have long-term legacies with regard to species diversity and community composition. They may also increase landscape-scale species richness and facilitate range expansions of more southerly distributed species to the subarctic tundra ecosystem. Keywords: birds, bryophytes, indicator species, lichens, plants, Russia, self-organizing map, shrub cover.
34313Ehlers L., Coulombe G., Herriges J., Bentzen T., Suitor M., Joly K. & Hebblewhite M. (2021): Critical summer foraging tradeoffs in a subarctic ungulate. - Ecology and Evolution, 11: 17835–17872. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.8349.
Summer diets are crucial for large herbivores in the subarctic and are affected by weather, harassment from insects and a variety of environmental changes linked to climate. Yet, understanding foraging behavior and diet of large herbivores is challenging in the subarctic because of their remote ranges. We used GPS video-camera collars to observe behaviors and summer diets of the migratory Fortymile Caribou Herd (Rangifer tarandus granti) across Alaska, USA and the Yukon, Canada. First, we characterized caribou behavior. Second, we tested if videos could be used to quantify changes in the probability of eating events. Third, we estimated summer diets at the finest taxonomic resolution possible through videos. Finally, we compared summer diet estimates from video collars to microhistological analysis of fecal pellets. We classified 18,134 videos from 30 female caribou over two summers (2018 and 2019). Caribou behaviors included eating (mean = 43.5%), ruminating (25.6%), travelling (14.0%), stationary awake (11.3%) and napping (5.1%). Eating was restricted by insect harassment. We classified forage(s) consumed in 5,549 videos where diet composition (monthly) highlighted a strong tradeoff between lichens and shrubs; shrubs dominated diets in June and July when lichen use declined. We identified 63 species, 70 genus and 33 family groups of summer forages from videos. After adjusting for digestibility, monthly estimates of diet composition were strongly correlated at the scale of the forage functional type (i.e., forage groups composed of forbs, graminoids, mosses, shrubs and lichens; r = 0.79, p < .01). Using video collars, we identified (1) a pronounced tradeoff in summer foraging between lichens and shrubs and (2) the costs of insect harassment on eating. Understanding caribou foraging ecology is needed to plan for their long-term conservation across the circumpolar north, and video collars can provide a powerful approach across remote regions. Keywords: animal-borne video cameras, behavior patterns, caribou, citizen-science, insect harassment, summer diet.
34312Asplund J., van Zuijlen K., Roos R.E., Birkemoe T., Klanderud K., Lang S.I. & Wardle D.A. (2022): Divergent responses of functional diversity to an elevational gradient for vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 33(1): e13105 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvs.13105.
Question: Cold environments are stressful for vascular plants, and stress-tolerant non-vascular photoautotrophs, e.g. bryophytes and lichens, become relatively more important as competition from vascular plants decreases towards higher elevations. Under increasingly stressful climatic conditions, species assembly of vascular plants is commonly driven more by environmental filtering, and abiotic constraints may lead to increased similarity between species and thus low functional diversity. Because bryophytes and lichens are less constrained by harsh environments, environmental filtering may be less strong. Instead, reduced competition from vascular plants can potentially free up niche space for non-vascular vegetation. Therefore, we hypothesized that functional diversity of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens are likely to show contrasting responses to elevation. Location: Finse Alpine Research Centre, Southern Norway. Methods: We utilized measurements of species abundance and functional traits of the three groups along a 500-m elevational gradient in alpine southern Norway and calculated multi-trait and single-trait functional dispersion. Results: Functional diversity of vascular plants declined with elevation, indicating increased environmental filtering. By contrast, functional diversity of lichens and bryophytes increased along the same gradient, suggesting they are less exposed to environmental filtering, in line with our hypothesis. Instead, they likely benefit from the lower abundance of vascular plants at higher elevation. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that different photoautotroph groups vary in how they respond to the same environmental gradient, which may contribute to contrasting community assembly processes across groups. These divergent responses likely occur because non-vascular vegetation differs from vascular plants in terms of nutrient acquisition and water economy strategies, meaning that they respond differently to the same factors. This highlights the need to explicitly consider bryophytes and lichens in community-level studies whenever these groups are abundant. Keywords: alpine ecology, bryophytes, community assembly, functional dispersion, functional diversity, functional traits, lichens, stress gradient, vascular plants.
34311Reinhardt S., Aartsma P., Skøyen K. & Renssen H. (2022): Shrub encroachment interacts with environmental variation to reduce the albedo of alpine lichen heaths: an experimental study. - Nordic Journal of Botany, 2021: e03314 [6 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/njb.03314.
Global warming causes the replacement of lichens by shrubs in alpine and Arctic ecosystems. Since shrubs have lower albedo than lichens, this shrub encroachment can lead to a positive climatic feedback, resulting in higher temperatures in the surroundings. Therefore, gaining knowledge on the surface albedo of shrubs and lichens is important. Environmental factors also influence the surface albedo, but have often been neglected, potentially leading to biased results. In an experimental setup, we analyzed albedos of the lichen species Cladonia stellaris, Flavocetraria nivalis and Cetraria islandica, and how albedo changes with a stepwise replacement by the dwarf shrub Empetrum nigrum. Albedo was measured with radiometers in a paired set up. By setting certain environmental variables and species composition (monocultures) to be constant, we quantified the impact of environmental factors such as cloud cover, aspect and zenith angle on the surface albedo of two lichen species. Surface albedo (mean values ± SD) differed between C. islandica (0.155 ± 0.015), C. stellaris (0.364 ± 0.019), F. nivalis (0.350 ± 0.022) and E. nigrum (0.154 ± 0.016), and an increase in shrub cover at the expense of lichen cover led to a corresponding decrease in albedo. A 0.6 reduction in clearness index (more clouds) produced a 0.054 albedo decline. On the north-facing aspect, albedo was 0.023 lower than on the south-facing aspect. Albedo increased by 0.032 with an increase in zenith angle of 15°. Albedo variations caused by these studied environmental factors significantly affect the radiation budget of alpine and Arctic vegetation. We therefore stress the importance of considering environmental factors when surface albedos are estimated. Likewise, our species-specific measurements can be a basis for further studies of the impact of climate change on alpine and Arctic vegetation and species-related feedback mechanisms. Keywords: alpine and Arctic ecosystems, climate change, radiation budget, radiometer, surface albedo, vegetation.
34310Nelson P.R., Maguire A.J., Pierrat Z., Orcutt E.L., Yang D., Serbin S., Frost G.V., Macander M., Thompson D.R., Wang J.A., Oberbauer S.F., Vargas Zesati S., Davidson S.J., Epstein H.E., Unger S., Campbell P.K.E., Carmon N., Velez-Reyes M. & Huemmrich K.F. (2022): Remote sensing of tundra ecosystems using high spectral resolution reflectance: Opportunities and challenges. - Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 127: e2021JG006697 [32 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JG006697.
Observing the environment in the vast regions of Earth through remote sensing platforms provides the tools to measure ecological dynamics. The Arctic tundra biome, one of the largest inaccessible terrestrial biomes on Earth, requires remote sensing across multiple spatial and temporal scales, from towers to satellites, particularly those equipped for imaging spectroscopy (IS). We describe a rationale for using IS derived from advances in our understanding of Arctic tundra vegetation communities and their interaction with the environment. To best leverage ongoing and forthcoming IS resources, including National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Surface Biology and Geology mission, we identify a series of opportunities and challenges based on intrinsic spectral dimensionality analysis and a review of current data and literature that illustrates the unique attributes of the Arctic tundra biome. These opportunities and challenges include thematic vegetation mapping, complicated by low-stature plants and very fine-scale surface composition heterogeneity; development of scalable algorithms for retrieval of canopy and leaf traits; nuanced variation in vegetation growth and composition that complicates detection of long-term trends; and rapid phenological changes across brief growing seasons that may go undetected due to low revisit frequency or be obscured by snow cover and clouds. We recommend improvements to future field campaigns and satellite missions, advocating for research that combines multi-scale spectroscopy, from lab studies to satellites that enable frequent and continuous long-term monitoring, to inform statistical and biophysical approaches to model vegetation dynamics. A subchapter dealing with lichens at p. 7-10.
34309Esseen P.-A., Ekström M., Grafström A., Jonsson B.G., Palmqvist K., Westerlund B. & Ståhl G. (2022): Multiple drivers of large-scale lichen decline in boreal forest canopies. - Global Change Biology, 28: 3293–3309. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.16128.
Thin, hair-like lichens (Alectoria, Bryoria, Usnea) form conspicuous epiphyte communities across the boreal biome. These poikilohydric organisms provide important ecosystem functions and are useful indicators of global change. We analyse how environmental drivers influence changes in occurrence and length of these lichens on Norway spruce (Picea abies) over 10 years in managed forests in Sweden using data from >6000 trees. Alectoria and Usnea showed strong declines in southern-central regions, whereas Bryoria declined in northern regions. Overall, relative loss rates across the country ranged from 1.7% per year in Alectoria to 0.5% in Bryoria. These losses contrasted with increased length of Bryoria and Usnea in some regions. Occurrence trajectories (extinction, colonization, presence, absence) on remeasured trees correlated best with temperature, rain, nitrogen deposition, and stand age in multinomial logistic regression models. Our analysis strongly suggests that industrial forestry, in combination with nitrogen, is the main driver of lichen declines. Logging of forests with long continuity of tree cover, short rotation cycles, substrate limitation and low light in dense forests are harmful for lichens. Nitrogen deposition has decreased but is apparently still sufficiently high to prevent recovery. Warming correlated with occurrence trajectories of Alectoria and Bryoria, likely by altering hydration regimes and increasing respiration during autumn/winter. The large-scale lichen decline on an important host has cascading effects on biodiversity and function of boreal forest canopies. Forest management must apply a broad spectrum of methods, including uneven-aged continuous cover forestry and retention of large patches, to secure the ecosystem functions of these important canopy components under future climates. Our findings highlight interactions among drivers of lichen decline (forestry, nitrogen, climate), functional traits (dispersal, lichen colour, sensitivity to nitrogen, water storage), and population processes (extinction/colonization). Keywords: climate change, colonization, epiphytic lichens, extinction, forestry, long-term monitoring, microclimate, nitrogen deposition.
34308Kater I. & Baxter R. (2022): Abundance and accessibility of forage for reindeer in forests of Northern Sweden: Impacts of landscape and winter climate regime. - Ecology and Evolution, 12: e8820 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.8820.
he survival of reindeer during winter, their period of greatest food stress, depends largely on the abundance and accessibility of forage in their pastures. In Northern Sweden, realized availability of forage is notably affected by snow conditions and the impacts of forestry. While these factors have been examined in isolation, their combined effect has, to the best of our knowledge to date, not been researched. In this study, vegetation surveys and analysis of snow conditions were undertaken in forest stands at various stages of recovery from clear-cutting. The variation in abundance and growth of understory species edible by reindeer, such as lichen, was noted as forests matured. The barrier effect of ice lenses in the snow was also measured in these stands. Lichen biomass was significantly affected by a combination of stand maturity, understory vegetation height, and lichen height. Soil disturbance from the processes of felling and competition in the vegetation communities recovering from this disturbance were identified as key drivers of change in lichen biomass. Overall, clear-cut forests had some of the greatest prevalence of ice lenses in the snow column, and forage availability at these sites was up to 61% less than in mature stands over 58 years in age. It is suggested that alternative silviculture methods are investigated for use in this reindeer herding region, as frequent clear-cutting and consequent reduction in the average forest stand age and maturity class may be detrimental to reindeer grazing, reducing both abundance of forage, and access to it during winter. Keywords: competition, forestry, grazing, ice, reindeer, snow.
34307Nokes L.F., Haelewaters D. & Pfister D.H. (2022): Exploration of marine lichenized fungi as bioindicators of coastal ocean pollution in the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area. - Rhodora, 122(992): 251–273. https://doi.org/10.3119/20-10.
This preliminary exploration of marine lichenized fungi (lichens) as bioindicators of water pollution examined the distribution of intertidal lichen communities in the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area with respect to recorded pollution throughout the harbor. We found significant negative associations between pollution measurements and the health of the lichen community based on cover and species richness. We also observed significant differences in species composition between areas of higher pollution and areas of lower pollution, though not enough data are available to establish the pollution sensitivity or tolerance of individual species. We note that difficulties in the collection and identification of marine lichens hamper efforts to use them broadly as bioindicators. This study suggests that marine lichens could prove useful as bioindicators, but more research is needed to understand the differential effects of pollution on individual species as well as to establish practical procedures both for quantifying marine lichen community health and for widespread bioindication using marine lichens. Finally, one species collected during this study, Verrucaria ceuthocarpa, represents a first report for the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area. Key words: environmental impact, intertidal zone, lichen diversity, marine ecology, ocean health, water pollution.
34306Berend K., Amatangelo K.L., Weihrauch D., Norment C. & Penberthy M. (2022): Plant traits and community metrics across a snowmelt gradient at alpine snowbank sites on Mt. Washington, New Hampshire. - Rhodora, 122(992): 290–320. https://doi.org/10.3119/20-14.
In northeastern North America, alpine snowbank communities are rare plant assemblages that form in sheltered sites above treeline where latelying snow provides insulation from late-season frosts and a longer-lasting source of water. We measured snowpack and studied community composition and plant traits at the species and community scales across the snowmelt gradient at snowbank sites on Mt. Washington, New Hampshire. We used nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination and analysis of similarity to examine community composition across the snowmelt gradient and measured plant traits (height, leaf dry matter content, leaf area, and specific leaf area) of four focal species (Carex bigelowii, Chamaepericlymenum canadense, Clintonia borealis, and Maianthemum canadense). We assessed trait variability of the four focal species across the snowmelt gradient and evaluated community-weighted mean trait values and phenotypic plasticity between snowbank core and edge habitats. Analysis of similarity indicated that vascular plant diversity increased (p < 0.001), lichen and bryophyte cover decreased (p < 0.001; p < 0.025), and community-weighted mean leaf area increased (p < 0.001) in the core of snowbank communities where melting dates were later. Analysis of similarity indicated that vascular plant communities varied significantly across the snowmelt gradient. The transition in community composition and trait values across the snowmelt gradient are indicative of changing environmental conditions and ecosystem functions, though more research is needed to determine the extent to which phenotypic plasticityand ecotypic uniqueness influence trait expression of snowbank species. Genetic analysis may be necessary to evaluate population dynamics among isolated alpine communities, which may be vulnerable to climate change or displacement by exotic or lowland species. Key words: adaptation, climate change, community-weighted mean, diversity, plasticity, snowbed.
34305Schulte F. (1905): Zur Anatomie der Flechtengattung Usnea. - Beihefte zum Botanischen Centralblatt, 18: 1–22. .
34304Post E., Pedersen C. & Watts D.A. (2022): Large herbivores facilitate the persistence of rare taxa under tundra warming. - Scientific Reports, 12: 1292 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-05388-4.
Ecological rarity, characterized by low abundance or limited distribution, is typical of most species, yet our understanding of what factors contribute to the persistence of rare species remains limited. Consequently, little is also known about whether rare species might respond diferently than common species to direct (e.g., abiotic) and indirect (e.g., biotic) efects of climate change. We investigated the efects of warming and exclusion of large herbivores on 14 tundra taxa, three of which were common and 11 of which were rare, at an inland, low-arctic study site near Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Across all taxa, pooled commonness was reduced by experimental warming, and more strongly under herbivore exclusion than under herbivory. However, taxon-specifc analyses revealed that although warming elicited variable efects on commonness, herbivore exclusion disproportionately reduced the commonness of rare taxa. Over the 15-year duration of the experiment, we also observed trends in commonness and rarity under all treatments through time. Sitewide commonness increased for two common taxa, the deciduous shrubs Betula nana and Salix glauca, and declined in six other taxa, all of which were rare. Rates of increase or decline in commonness (i.e., temporal trends over the duration of the experiment) were strongly related to baseline commonness of taxa early in the experiment under all treatments except warming with grazing. Hence, commonness itself may be a strong predictor of species’ responses to climate change in the arctic tundra biome, but large herbivores may mediate such responses in rare taxa, perhaps facilitating their persistence. p. 4: "The interaction between warming and herbivore exclusion infuenced commonness of five taxa: B. nana, S. glauca, Aulacomnium sp., S. longipes, and Peltigera sp. (Supplemental Table S1)." ...; "and warming reduced commonness of the lichen Peltigera sp. under herbivore exclusion but increased its commonness under grazing (Fig. 2)."
34303Vicol I. & Mihăilescu S. (2022): A biogeographical study of red listed lichen species at temporal and spatial scales within protected and non‑protected areas. - Scientific Reports, 12: 898 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-04872-1.
The present study is focused on the temporal and spatial distribution of red listed lichen (RLL) species identifed in both non-protected areas (NPAs) and protected areas (PAs) in Romania. This study revealed diferent scenarios of RLL based on two major patterns: (1) the fate of RLL before and after their designation in the red list in Romania and (2) the fate of RLL before and after the designation of PAs in Romania. Generally, the occurrences of RLL were well represented in time and space in both NPAs and PAs through geomorphological and biogeographical units. In particular, the occurrences of RLL were well represented, especially in hilly areas within PAs before and after their ofcial designation, and this was an important aspect over a long period of time. Although NPAs were not less important regarding the occurrences of RLL species, it was observed that they followed the same pattern as PAs, namely, they were well represented in hilly areas and over a long period of time. The bioregions were signifcant for RLL species in both NPAs (continental and stepic) and PAs (continental, panonic, and stepic). As a signifcant fnding of this study, NPAs and PAs should be subjected to an adequate conservation regime due to their biotical traditional heritage.
34302Elečko J., Vilková M., Frenák R., Routray D., Ručová D., Bačkor M. & Goga M. (2022): A comparative study of isolated secondary metabolites from lichens and their antioxidative properties. - Plants, 11(8): 1077 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081077.
Free radicals play a critical role in the chemical processes that occur in all cells. Pharmaceutical companies manufacture a variety of synthetically prepared antioxidants, but it is known that many of these can be carcinogenic. As a result, efforts are being made to find natural antioxidants that do not have these side effects. Lichens may be suitable candidates because they contain secondary metabolites with proven antioxidant properties. This could be explained by the presence of compounds with phenolic groups in lichens. The radical scavenging reaction is a chemical reaction governed by stoichiometry, and our aim is to determine the efficacy of these reactions. The aim of this study is to compare metabolite activity based on the same amount of substance involved in radical scavenging, calculated in micromoles rather than weight concentration. This provides an accurate way of comparing radical scavenging activity. We tested superoxide anion scavenging activity and free radical scavenging activity of isolated lichen secondary metabolites and their mixtures in different ratios. The following compounds were isolated and tested for antioxidant activity: gyrophoric acid (Umbilicaria hirsuta), evernic acid (Evernia prunastri), physodic acid, 3-hydroxyphysodic acid, physodalic acid and atranorin (Hypogymnia physodes), and usnic acid (as a synthetic compound). Of all the tested compounds, 3-hydroxyphysodic acid, as well as mixtures containing this metabolite, showed the strongest scavenging activity. The results also demonstrated that calculation by amount of substance leads to a new consideration of antioxidant activity. Keywords: superoxide anion; DPPH; antioxidant activity; secondary metabolites; lichens; NMR.
34301Saag A., Randlane T., Thell A. & Obermayer W. (2002): Phylogenetic analysis of cetrarioid lichens with globose ascospores. - Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences: Biology, Ecology, 51(2): 103–123. .
The group of cetrarioid lichens with globose ascospores includes 37 species from eight genera. Phylogenetic analysis, using program PAUP 3.1.1, was carried out on two different data sets – morphological (incl. anatomical and chemical) and molecular characters (ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2 rDNA sequences) – to verify the correspondence of current taxonomy to the probable evolution of the taxa involved. The paraphyletic nature of the genus Allocetraria in regard to two species of Dactylina is assumed based on morphological characters. Still, the separation of these genera is strongly supported by the analysis of molecular data. The genus Tuckermannopsis (11 species) is paraphyletic in regard to Esslingeriana idahoensis and “Nephromopsis” weii. Monophyletic origin can be declared only for the Tuckermannopsis ciliaris group. The analysis based on molecular characters exhibits the monophyletic origin of the group including three Tuckneraria species. Monophyly of the genus Ahtiana was not supported by the analysis of morphological data. Key words: cetrarioid lichens, Parmeliaceae, Ahtiana, Allocetraria, Dactylina, Esslingeriana, “Nephromopsis” weii, Tuckneraria, Tuckermannopsis, Vulpicida, ITS rDNA sequences, cladistic analysis.
34300Lee B.G. & Hur J.-S. (2022): A new lichenized fungus, Psoroglaena humidosilvae, from a forested wetland of Korea, with a taxonomic key to the species of Psoroglaena. - Journal of Fungi, 8(4): 392 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8040392.
Psoroglaena humidosilvae Lee is described as a new lichen species from a wetland forest in South Korea. The new species is distinct from P. stigonemoides (Orange) Henssen by little projections locally present on the thallus; smaller, paler, and globose perithecia; smaller asci; and smaller ascospores generally 3-septate. Molecular analyses employing internal transcribed spacer (ITS), mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU), and nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU) sequences strongly support P. humidosilvae as a nonidentical species in the genus Psoroglaena. A surrogate key is provided to assist in the identification of all 22 species of Psoroglaena. Keywords: biodiversity; corticolous; phylogeny; taxonomy; Verrucariaceae.
34299Diederich P., Millanes A.M., Etayo J., van den Boom P.P.G. & Wedin M. (2022): Finding the needle in the haystack: a revision of Crittendenia, a surprisingly diverse lichenicolous genus of Agaricostilbomycetes, Pucciniomycotina. - Bryologist, 125(2): 248–293. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.2.248.
While most lichenicolous fungi belong to the Ascomycota, c. 5% of them are members of the Basidiomycota. Among these, the poorly known genus Crittendenia in the Pucciniomycotina has recently been described for lichenicolous fungi with minuscule needle-like synnematous basidiomata. Although only two species were hitherto known, the wide observed host-spectrum suggested a larger number of mainly host-specific species. A classical revision using morphological characters alone proved to be virtually impossible, because of the large variability of the material from each host genus, and the scant morphological differences between hypothetically distinct species from different hosts. We studied over sixty specimens and made a large number of measurements of the available morphological characters. We additionally generated 18 ITS and 21 nuLSU rDNA sequences and conducted maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. We also performed one species delimitation analysis (bPTP-ML). By combining sometimes subtle morphological differences, host choice and phylogenetic results, we were able to accept eighteen morphologically and/or genetically distinct species, all confined to a single host genus or to several closely related host genera. Two further putative species are left unnamed, as richer material is needed and molecular data are missing. Sixteen new species are described: Crittendenia absistentis (on Bacidia absistens), C. bacidinae (on Bacidina apiahica), C. bryostigmatis (on Bryostigma muscigenum), C. byssolomatis (on Byssoloma maderense), C. crassitunicata (on Melanohalea ushuaiensis), C. heterodermiae (on Heterodermia comosa), C. hypotrachynae (on Hypotrachyna), C. kakouettae (on ‘Byssoloma’ kakouettae), C. lecanorae (on Lecanora), C. lecidellae (on Lecidella elaeochroma), C. lopadii (on Lopadium disciforme), C. parvispora (on Bacidia), C. physciiphila (on Phaeophyscia, Physcia and Physciella), C. physconiae (on Physconia distorta), C. stictae (on Sticta fuliginosa) and C. teloschistis (on Teloschistes). Further, a ML analysis of the Agaricostilbomycetes using ITS and nuLSU sequences suggested that Crittendenia cannot be included in any known family, and the new family Crittendeniaceae is therefore described for the genus. Keywords: Basidiomycetes, Chionosphaera, Crittendeniaceae, heterobasidiomycetes, lichenicolous fungi, phylogeny, taxonomy.
34298Shevkar C., Armarkar A., Weerasinghe R., Maduranga K., Pandey K., Behera S.K., Kalia K., Paranagama P. & Kate A.S. (2022): Cytotoxic bioxanthracene and macrocyclic polyester from endolichenic fungus Talaromyces pinophilus: In-vitro and in-silico analysis. - Indian Journal of Microbiology, 62(2): 204–214. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12088-021-00994-8.
Lichens are used in folklore medicines across the globe for wound healing and to treat skin disorders and respiratory diseases. They are an intricate symbiosis between fungi and algae with the domination of fungal counterparts. Recent research studies pointed out that yeast is a third major partner in lichens. Endolichenic fungi (ELF) are also a part of this complex miniature ecosystem. The highly competitive environment of lichens compels ELF to produce toxic metabolites which are comparatively less explored for their chemical diversity and use. Here, we investigated 31 ELF isolated from 32 lichens found on mangrove plants at Puttalam Lagoon of Sri Lanka to find cytotoxic molecules by applying LC-UV-HRMS analysis and in vitro bioassays. The studies resulted in the identification of three potent cytotoxic molecules from endolichenic fungi Talaromyces pinophilus isolated from host lichen Porina tetracerae. The ethyl acetate extract of this fungus showed moderate cytotoxicity against the breast cancer cell line. Chemical characterization of ethyl acetate extract of T. pinophilus produced peniazaphilin B, 152G256a-1, and ES-242-3. The structures of these molecules were confirmed by NMR and MS data. We are reporting ES-242-3 for the first time from the genus Talaromyces and peniazaphilin B and 152G256a-1 from T. pinophilus. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their anticancer potential against breast, oral and cervical cancer cell lines. Compound 152G256a-1 showed potent cytotoxicity against oral cancer (CAL-27 cell line) with an IC50 value of 2.96 ± 0.17 lM while ES-242-3 showed the best activity against breast cancer (MCF-7 cell line) and cervical cancer (HeLa cell line) with IC50 value 14.08 ± 0.2 lM and 4.46 ± 0.05 lM respectively. An insilico analysis was carried out to predict the mechanism of in-vitro activity, drug likeliness, and pharmacokinetic profile of the isolated compounds. The study confirms the potential of ELF T. pinophilus to produce diverse bioactive scaffolds and encourages the researchers to further explore the fungus and its metabolites with newer technologies to produce potent anticancer leads. Keywords: Talaromyces pinophilus ; Peniazaphilin B ; 152G256a-1 ; ES-242-3 ; Cytotoxic ; Anticancer.
34297Dal Forno M., Lawrey J.D., Moncada B., Bungartz F., Grube M., Schuettpelz E. & Lücking R. (2022): DNA barcoding of fresh and historical collections of lichen‐forming basidiomycetes in the genera Cora and Corella (Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae): A success story?. - Diversity, 14(4): 284 [34 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d14040284.
Lichen collected worldwide for centuries have resulted in millions of specimens deposited in herbaria that offer the potential to assess species boundaries, phenotypic diversification, ecology, and distribution. The application of molecular approaches to historical collections has been limited due to DNA fragmentation, but high-throughput sequencing offers an opportunity to overcome this barrier. Here, we combined a large dataset of ITS sequences from recently collected material and historical collections, obtained through Sanger, 454, or Illumina Sequencing, to test the performance of ITS barcoding in two genera of lichenized Basidiomycota: Cora and Corella. We generated new sequence data for 62 fresh specimens (from 2016) and 274 historical collections (collected between 1888 and 1998), for a dataset of 1325 sequences. We compared various quantitative approaches to delimit species (GMYC, bPTP, ASAP, ABGD) and tested the resolution and accuracy of the ITS fungal barcoding marker by comparison with a six-marker dataset. Finally, we quantitatively compared phylogenetic and phenotypic species delimitation for 87 selected Cora species that have been formally described. Our HTS approach successfully generated ITS sequences for 76% of the historical collections, and our results show that an integrative approach is the gold-standard for understanding diversity in this group. Keywords: ASTRAL; biological collections; cryptic species; diversification; fungal barcoding; fungarium; historical specimens; natural history collections; phenotype.
34296Xavier-Leite A.B., Cáceres M.E.S., Aptroot A., Moncada B., Lücking R. & Goto B.T. (2022): Phylogenetic revision of the lichenized family Gomphillaceae (Ascomycota: Graphidales) suggests post-K–Pg boundary diversification and phylogenetic signal in asexual reproductive structures. - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 168: 107380 [23 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2021.107380.
We present the first broad molecular-phylogenetic revision of the lichenized family Gomphillaceae, based on 408 newly generated sequences of the mitochondrial SSU rDNA and nuclear LSU rDNA, representing 342 OTUs. The phylogenetic analysis of 20 out of the 28 currently accepted genera resulted in 48 clades. Twelve genera were resolved as monophyletic: Actinoplaca, Arthotheliopsis, Bullatina, Caleniopsis, Corticifraga, Gomphillus, Gyalectidium, Gyalidea, Jamesiella, Rolueckia, Rubrotricha, and Taitaia. Two genera resulted paraphyletic, namely Aulaxina (including Caleniopsis) and Asterothyrium (including Linhartia). Six genera were in part highly polyphyletic: Aderkomyces, Calenia, Echinoplaca, Gyalideopsis, Psorotheciopsis, and Tricharia. While ascoma morphology and anatomy has traditionally been considered as main character complex to distinguish genera, our study supported the notion that the characteristic asexual anamorph of Gomphillaceae, the so-called hyphophores, are diagnostic for most of the newly recognized clades. As a result, we recognize 26 new genus-level clades, three of which have names available (Microxyphiomyces, Psathyromyces, Spinomyces) and 23 that will require formal description as new genera. We also tested monophyly for 53 species-level names for which two or more specimens were sequenced: 27 were supported as monophyletic and representing a single species, 13 as monophyletic but with an internal topology suggesting cryptic speciation, four as paraphyletic, and nine as polyphyletic. These data suggest that species richness in the family is higher than indicated by the number of accepted names (currently 425); they also confirm that recently refined species concepts reflect species richness better than the broad concepts applied in Santesson’s monograph. A divergence time analysis revealed that foliicolous Gomphillaceae diversified after the K–Pg-boundary and largely during the Miocene, a notion supported by limited data available for other common foliicolous lineages such as Chroodiscus (Graphidaceae), Pilocarpaceae, and Porinaceae. This contradicts recent studies suggesting that only macrofoliose Lecanoromycetes exhibit increased diversification rates in the Cenozoic. Keywords: Cretaceous; Foliicolous lichens; Jurassic; Mesozoic; Wet tropical forests.
34295Veres K., Csintalan Y., Laufer Y., Engel R., Szabó K. & Farkas E. (2022): Photoprotection and high-light acclimation in semi-arid grassland lichens – a cooperation between algal and fungal partners. - Symbiosis, 86: 33–48. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-021-00823-y.
Abstract In lichens, each symbiotic partner cooperates for the survival of the symbiotic association. The protection of the susceptible photosynthetic apparatus is essential for both participants. The mycobiont and photobiont contribute to the protection against the damaging effect of excess light by various mechanisms. The present study investigated the effect of seasonality and microhabitat exposure on photoprotection and photoacclimation in the photo- and the mycobiont of six lichen species with different thallus morphology in inland dune system in the Kiskunság region (Hungary) with shaded, more humid and exposed, drier dune sides. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, spectrophotometry, chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetic technique were used, and micrometeorological data were collected. The four years data series revealed that the north-eastfacing side was characterized by higher relative humidity and lower light intensities compared to the south-west-facing drier and more exposed sides. The south-west facing side was exposed to direct illumination 3–4 hours longer in winter and 1–2 hours shorter in summer than the north-east facing side of the dune, influencing the metabolism of sun and shade populations of various species. Because rapid desiccation caused short active periods of lichens during bright and drier seasons and on exposed microhabitats, the rapid, non-regulated non-photochemical quenching mechanisms in the photobiont had a significant role in protecting the photosynthetic system in the hydrated state. In dehydrated conditions, thalli were mainly defended by the solar screening metabolites produced by the mycobiont and curling during desiccation (also caused by the mycobiont). Furthermore, the efficacy of light use (higher chlorophyll and carotenoid concentration) increased because of short hydrated periods. Still, a lower level of received irradiation was appropriate for photosynthesis in dry seasons and on sun exposed habitats. In humid seasons and microhabitats, more extended active periods lead to increased photosynthesis and production of solar radiation protectant fungal metabolites, allowing a lower level of photoprotection in the form of regulated non-photochemical quenching by the photobiont. Interspecific differences were more pronounced than the intraspecific ones among seasons and microhabitat types. Keywords: photoacclimation · seasonality · microhabitat · species-specific response · lichen secondary metabolites · plastid pigments.
34294Nekhoroshev S.V., Leonov V.V., Nekhorosheva A.V., Gornikov N.V., Kot M.F. & Karpova Ya.A. (2022): Antimicrobial activity of some lichen extracts. - Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal, 55(11): 1190–1195. DOI 10.1007/s11094-022-02557-7.
[Translated from the Russian original published in Khimiko-Farmatsevticheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 55, No. 11, pp. 22–27, November, 2021.] Cladonia rangiferina is a bushy lichen of the genus Cladonia and has a multi-regional distribution. This plant contains usnic acid as the main biologically active substance and has been tested against some opportunistic microorganisms. Among the studied C. rangiferina extracts, only glycerol extracts obtained at an extraction temperature of 40°C were biologically active and only against Gram-positive microorganisms (S. aureus) and fungi (C. albicans). The antimicrobial activity of the extracts decreased if the extraction temperature was raised to 90°C. The results showed that C. rangiferina lichen could be a potential rich source of effective antimicrobial agents.
34293McDonough A.M., Bird A.W., Luciani M.A. & Todd A.K. (2022): Establishing trace element concentrations for lichens and bryophytes in the ring of fire region of the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Ontario, Canada. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 194: 226 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-022-09890-0.
Peatlands dominate the landscape of the Hudson Bay Lowlands in Ontario, Canada. Recently, mineral deposits of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and copper (Cu) were discovered in the region and anticipated future industrial mining operations have the potential to impact the environment. Lichens and bryophytes are considered excellent biomonitors and indicators of deposition, deriving their nutrients directly from the atmosphere. Trace element concentrations in lichens and bryophytes have not been reported in the Hudson Bay Lowlands. Here, we seek to determine the baseline trace element concentrations of six non-vascular species (Evernia mesomorpha, Bryoria spp., Cladonia stellaris, Cladonia stygia, Sphagnum fuscum, and Sphagnum capillifolium) common to the region, explore linear relationships of trace elements with iron (Fe) as a signature of particulates with geogenic origin, and calculate trace element enrichment factors. Thalli, foliage, and peat (0–30 cm) were collected from 55 locations between 2013 and 2018 and analyzed for trace elements. Thalli and foliar concentrations are among the lowest reported in the broader literature and differ substantially from peat. Fe concentrations were significantly correlated (Pearson’s r ≥ 0.8) with aluminum (Al), titanium (Ti), and vanadium (V) in all six species. Enrichment factors show some anthropogenic deposition effects non-vascular organism chemistry. Most trace element concentrations in lichens and bryophytes are indicative of long-range atmospheric transport of dust, but some is attributed to industry, with only minimal inclusions from the local area. Epiphytic lichens are well suited for ongoing atmospheric biomonitoring as industrialization commences. Keywords: Non-vascular · Plants · Bog · Fen · Enrichment · Deposition · Background · Iron · Peatlands.
34292Fujii K. & Hayakawa C. (2022): Recalcitrance of lichen and moss litters increases soil carbon storage on permafrost. - Plant and Soil, 472: 595–608. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-021-05273-5.
Aims Climate warming is predicted to increase permafrost degradation and soil carbon (C) loss, while changes in microrelief and vegetation cover can also influence soil C storage at local scale. Black spruce forests develop lichen/moss-covered organic mounds on permafrost. Recalcitrance of lichen and moss litters, as well as cold climate, is hypothesized to increase C storage in hummocky soils. Methods We compared the decomposition rates of lichen and moss litters, spruce root litter, and cellulose at hummocky clayey soils, non-hummocky clayey soils, and non-hummocky sandy soils in northwest Canadian subarctic. Results Lichen/moss-covered hummocky clayey soils displayed greater C stocks than non-hummocky clayey and sandy soils. Lichen and moss litters decomposed more slowly than did spruce root litter and cellulose. Recalcitrant litter inputs of lichen and moss contributed to greater C stocks of hummocky clayey soils, compared to non-hummocky clayey and sandy soils. Lower temperature dependency of lichen and moss litter decomposition, compared to vascular plant litter, suggests stronger resistance of lichen and moss litters to decomposition. Conclusion Permafrost degradation by climate warming would reduce hummocky microrelief covered by lichen and moss, major contributors to soil C, and decrease the high potential for C storage of black spruce forests on permafrost. Keywords: Active layer · Decomposition · Gelisol · Hummocky soil · Soil organic matter.
34291Galanina I.A. & Ohmura Y. (2022): Rinodina endospora and R. macrospora (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) new to Japan. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 56(1): 97–102. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2022.56.1.97.
Rinodina endospora and R. macrospora are reported as new to Japan. These species are known to be rare in Northeastern Asia and have a disjunctive distribution. Rinodina endospora was collected on bark of Alnus sp. and Salix sp. at 290 m a. s. l. in Hokkaido, and R. macrospora was on bark of Abies mariesii at elevation between 1960 and 2000 m a. s. l. in Toyama Prefecture of central Honshu. The paper provides data on morphology, ecology, differentiation and distribution of two Rinodina species. Keywords: biodiversity, biogeography, lichens, new records, North-East Asia.
34290Himelbrant D.E., Stepanchikova I.S., Gagarina L.V., Tsurykau A.G. & Konoreva L.A. (2022): Remarkable lichen diversity in the old manor park Osinovaya Roscha (St. Petersburg, Russia) . - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 56(1): 103–124. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2022.56.1.103.
The revealed lichen diversity of the historical territory Osinovaya Roscha has a total of 230 species, including 206 lichenized, 17 lichenicolous, and seven non-lichenized saprobic fungi. Epithamnolia xanthoriae is new to North-Western European Russia; Arthonia vinosa, Caloplaca ahtii, Cladonia merochlorophaea, Hawksworthiana peltigericola, Lecania erysibe, Rinodina pityrea, Roselliniella cladoniae, Taeniolina scripta, and Trichonectria rubefaciens are new to St. Petersburg. In total, eight lichen species reported from Osinovaya Roscha are red-listed in St. Petersburg. In spite of small size of this area, the lichen diversity of Osinovaya Roscha is high compared to other territories in the city, and is worthy of protection. Keywords: lichen biota, lichenicolous fungi, new records, protected species, North-West European Russia.
34289Жданов И.С. [Zhdanov I.S] (2022): Ревизия лишайников рода Hypotrachyna s. l. (Parmeliaceae) в России с ключом для определения видов [A revision of the lichen genus Hypotrachyna s. l. (Parmeliaceae) in Russia, with a key to the species]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 56(1): 125–140. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2022.56.1.125.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The survey of eight Russian species of the genus Hypotrachyna is presented, including H. afrorevoluta, H. cirrhata, H. endochlora, H. koyaensis, H. laevigata, H. pseudosinuosa, H. revoluta, and H. sinuosa. Descriptions of the species, data on their ecology, distribution in Russia and in the world, and a key to species are provided. Keywords: biodiversity, lichens, systematics, Russian Far East, Caucasus.
34288Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2022): К лихенофлоре Северо-Осетинского заповедника (Северная Осетия — Алания). II. Кластер «Карца» [Contributions to the lichen flora of the North Ossetia Nature Reserve (Republic of North Ossetia — Alania). II. Cluster “Kartsa”]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 56(1): 141–159. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2022.56.1.141.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] New data on the lichen flora of the North Ossetia Nature Reserve from the cluster “Kartsa” are provided. This cluster is located in Kartsinskii Range slopes, Central Caucasus. The specimens of lichens and lichenicolous fungi were collected near the top of Ol’dukhankhokh Mt. in cluster “Kartsa” in June 2016. In total, 115 lichen species and 15 lichenicolous fungi were recorded. Among them, 128 species are new to the cluster “Kartsa”. Of these, 77 species are new for the North Ossetia Nature Reserve, including 71 species new for the Republic of North Ossetia — Alania, 36 species new for the Central Caucasus, and 5 species new for the Caucasus. The genus Poeltinula and three species (Arthonia punctella, Opegrapha hellespontica, Poeltinula cerebrina) are reported for the first time from Russia. The representative specimens of new for Russia and rare species are kept in the Lichenological Herbarium of the Komarov Botanical Institute RAS (LE). Keywords: Arthonia punctella, Opegrapha hellespontica, Poeltinula cerebrina, lichenicolous fungi, lichens, new records, Central Caucasus, Russia.
34287Kotkova V.M., Beljakova R.N., Gorin K.K., Himelbrant D.E., Khanov Z.M., Kolganikhina G.B., Moroz E.L., Notov A.A., Novozhilov Yu.K., Popova N.N., Stepanchikova I.S., Zhdanov I.S. & Zholobova Zh.O. (2022): New cryptogamic records. 9. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 56(1): 203–220. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2022.56.1.203.
First records of cyanoprokaryotic species for the Russian part of the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea, aphyllophoroid fungi for the Yaroslavl Region, myxomycetes for the Republic of Belarus, lichens and allied fungi for the Tver Region, lichens for the Nizhny Novgorod Region, Kabardino- Balkarian and Karachayevo-Circassian republics, and Perm Territory, mosses for the Kursk, Lipetsk and Saratov regions are presented. The data on their localities, habitats, distribution are provided. The specimens are kept in the herbaria of the Komarov Botanical Institute RAS (LE), Department of Botany of St. Petersburg State University (LECB), Kuprevich Institute of Experimental Botany NAS of Belarus (MSK-F), Francisk Skorina Gomel State University of Belarus (GSU), National Research Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (NNSU), Galichya Gora Reserve of the Voronezh State University (VU). Keywords: Acrocordia gemmata, Antrodiella faginea, Antrodiella leucoxantha, Antrodiella pallescens, Arthrorhaphis aeruginosa, Basidiomycota, Biatora sphaeroidiza, Candelariella xanthostigma, Catillaria chalybeia var. chloropoliza, Chaenotheca subroscida, Chaenothecopsis haematopus, Cladonia monomorpha, Cyanoprokaryota, Diachea subsessilis, Dicranum tauricum, Diderma hemisphaericum, Fontinalis antipyretica, Frutidella caesioatra, Fuscidea arboricola, Gloeocapsopsis crepidinum, Gloeocystidiellum convolvens, Gloeocystidiellum luridum, Herzogiella seligeri, Isothecium alopecuroides, Kneiffia subalutacea, Lecania turicensis, Lecanora compallens, Lecidella stigmatea, Leptoporus mollis, Monodictys epilepraria, Myriospora rufescens, Niphotrichum canescens, Phanerochaete laevis, Placynthium asperellum, Plagiothecium nemorale, Pterigynandrum filiforme, Rhizocarpon lavatum, Romjularia lurida, Sarcogyne hypophaea, Sciuro-hypnum populeum, Staurothele frustulenta, Strigula jamesii, Syntrichia virescens, Toninia squalida, Xylodon radula, algae, fungi, lichenicolous fungi, lichens, mosses, mycobiota, myxomycetes, Baltic Sea, Caucasus, European Russia, Gulf of Finland, Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, Karachayevo-Circassian Republic, Kursk Region, Leningrad Region, Lipetsk Region, National Park “Narochansky”, Nizhny Novgorod Region, North Caucasus, Northern Urals, Perm Territory, Republic of Belarus, Russia, Russian Caucasus, Saratov Region, St. Petersburg, Tver Region, Yaroslavl Region.
34286Anderson F., Bouchard M., Boudreault C., McCarthy J. & Hanel C. (2022): Noteworthy range extensions of two lichens in Eastern Canada: Erioderma pedicellatum (Pannariaceae) new to Québec and Parmelia fraudans (Parmeliaceae) new to Nova Scotia. - Evansia, 39(1): 20–28. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-39.1.20.
The globally rare epiphyte Erioderma pedicellatum is reported for the first time from Québec and the saxicolous Parmelia fraudans, uncommon in eastern North America, is reported for the first time from Nova Scotia. Key words. Biogeography, Atlantic provinces, Eastern Canada, lichen species at risk.
34285Perlmutter G.B. (2022): Lichens and allied fungi of Mitchell Mill State Natural Area, North Carolina, USA. - Evansia, 39(1): 43–53. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-39.1.43.
One hundred five species of lichenized and allied fungi are reported from recent and historical collections made in the Mitchell Mill State Natural Area in northeastern Wake County, North Carolina, USA. Mitchell Mill is unique among granitic flatrock communities in the southeastern United States by having riparian elements from the Little River, which flows directly over the flatrock, supporting semi-aquatic lichen communities along creek edges represented by species in Dermatocarpon, Verrucaria, and Lichinales. Recently described or renamed species Cladonia ignatii, Lecanora provertula and Phyllopsora isidiosa were found in recent collections. Compared to historical records, 38 taxa including five of six species of large cyanolichen were not found in recent visits, indicating a loss of diversity over the past 100 years, likely due to human activities. Key words. Lichen biodiversity, conservation, granitic flatrock.
34284Cannon P., Coppins B., Fletcher A., Sanderson N., Simkin J. & van den Boom P. (2022): Caliciales: Leprocaulaceae, including the genera Halecania and Leprocaulon. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 23: 1–8. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/leprocaulaceae.pdf.
34283Cannon P., Orange A., Aptroot A., Coppins B., Fletcher A., Fryday A., Sanderson N., Simkin J. & van den Boom P. (2022): Caliciales: Catillariaceae, including the genera Catillaria and Solenopsora. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 22: 1–13. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/catillariaceae.pdf.
34282Zhurbenko M. (2022): Two new species of Lichenotubeufia (Dothideomycetes, Tubeufiales) from Chile and New Zealand, with a revised key to the genus. - Lichenologist, 54(2): 117-122. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000081.
Two species of lichenicolous fungi are described as new to science: Lichenotubeufia etayoi Zhurb. (on Trachyderma), with light orange peri- thecia up to 360 μm diam., non-fasciculate excipular hairs, and 10–13-septate ascospores, 110–162 × 3–5 μm; and L. tibellii Zhurb. (on Coccocarpia), with light orange perithecia up to 275 μm diam., non-fasciculate excipular hairs, and 5–12-septate ascospores, 50–100 × 3– 4.5 μm. An updated key to the species of Lichenotubeufia is provided. Australasian biogeographical realm, lichen parasites, taxonomy, Valdivian temperate rainforests
34281Nilsson A., Solhaug K. & Gauslaa Y. (2022): The globally threatened epiphytic cyanolichen Erioderma pedicellatum depends on a rare combination of habitat factors . - Lichenologist, 54(2): 123-136. doi:10.1017/S002428292200007X.
Lichen extinction occurs at rapid rates as a result of human activity, although species could potentially be rescued by conservation management based on ecophysiological knowledge. The boreal old forest cyanolichen Erioderma pedicellatum currently occurs in few sites worldwide. To protect it from extinction, it is essential to learn more about it. The last remaining good European site is a canyon with a waterfall, in a low- rainfall region of Norway. Here, a spatially restricted population of 1500–2000 thalli dominates the epiphytic vegetation of a small number of Picea abies canopies. We were able to document that 1) E. pedicellatum grew on thin branches with higher bark pH than is normal for P. abies in a canyon that provided an unusual combination of very high light, high air humidity, and cool temperatures in the growing season. However, the species did not inhabit the main waterfall spray zone. 2) Erioderma pedicellatum had a high light saturation point, high CO2 uptake at high light (≥ 600 μmol m−2 s−1) and cool temperatures (5–20 °C), and experienced strong suprasaturation depression of photosynthesis when fully hydrated. 3) It showed good tolerance of desiccation and high light; it was slightly more tolerant than the morphologically similar, but more common cyanolichen Pectenia plumbea. 4) The European population in its sunny habitat had higher water holding capacity than previously recorded in slightly shaded rainforest populations in Newfoundland, consistent with acclimation to compensate for high evaporative demands. Understanding the ecological niche and responses to critical environmental factors is essential for action plans to avoid extinction of E. ped- icellatum. Methods used in this study could also be applicable for ecological understanding of other threatened lichen species. bark pH, CO2 uptake, desiccation tolerance, ecophysiology, hydration traits, Pectenia plumbea
34280Rodrigues A., Da Costa P., Lorenz A. & Jungbluth P. (2022): Hypotrachyna neohorrescens, a new species in the subgenus Parmelinopsis (Parmeliaceae) from Brazil. - Lichenologist, 54(2): 107-115. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000020.
This study describes a new species of Hypotrachyna subgenus Parmelinopsis from the south-eastern Cerrado (Brazilian savannah), a bio- diversity hotspot. The species is especially common in open vegetation, including urban environments. Hypotrachyna neohorrescens sp. nov. is morphologically and chemically similar to H. horrescens. Nevertheless, phylogenetic analyses of the nuITS and mtSSU regions revealed that H. neohorrescens is a distinct species and closely related to the North American H. mcmulliniana, differing by the size of the laciniae and ascospores. Cerrado, lichenized fungi, phylogeny, taxonomy
34279Lepista Z. & Aptroot A. (2022): Five further species of Graphis reported new to Europe from Portugal. - Lichenologist, 54(2): 101-106. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000093.
Five Graphis species are reported as new to Europe from the Mata Nacional do Buçaco, a region in Portugal where graphidoid Graphidaceae are abundant and diverse. The following species were identified: Graphis dendrogramma, G. duplicata, G. gonimica, G. librata and G. pyr- rhocheiloides. An updated key is given to the Graphis species known from Europe. All those newly reported were identified with names corresponding to tropical species. Allographa, Graphidaceae, graphidoid, Mata Nacional do Buçaco
34278Feuerstein S., Aptroot A., Da Silveira R., Lücking R. & Cáceres M. (2022): An updated world key to the species of Acanthothecis s. lat. (Ascomycota: Graphidaceae), with ten new species from Brazil . - Lichenologist, 54(2): 87-99. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000019.
As part of a revision of the genus Acanthothecis s. lat. (Graphidaceae) in Brazil, an updated world key to the known species of the genus is presented. From Brazil, the following ten new species are described: A. latispora, with single-spored asci, large, muriform ascospores, and norstictic and stictic acids; A. megalospora, with single-spored asci, very large, transversely septate ascospores, and norstictic and protoce- traric acids; A. multiseptata, with 8-spored asci, medium-sized and narrow, transversely multiseptate ascospores, and lacking secondary sub- stances except terpenoids; A. norstictica, with 1–2-spored asci, large, muriform ascospores, and norstictic acid; A. oryzoides, with 8-spored asci, medium-sized, transversely septate ascospores, and norstictic acid; A. rimosa, with 2-spored asci, small to medium-sized, muriform ascospores, and stictic acid; A. roseola, with 1–2-spored asci, large, muriform ascospores, and norstictic, stictic and subnorstictic acids; A. saxicola, with 8-spored asci, small, 3-septate ascospores, and norstictic acid; A. subfarinosa, with 8-spored asci, small, 6–8-septate ascos- pores, and norstictic acid; and A. submuriformis, with 8-spored asci, small, submuriform ascospores, and lichexanthone. In addition, three further species are formally validated, namely A. bicellulata, A. farinosa and A. subabaphoides, and the new combination A. bicellularis is proposed, based on Acanthotrema bicellularis Amazonia, Atlantic Forest, Cerrado, Graphidoideae, lichens, periphysoids
34277Richardson D. (2022): Urban Lichens: A Field Guide for Northeastern North America By Jessica L. Allen and James C. Lendemer. 2021. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. Pp 158, 121 colour photographs and illustrations. 20.3 x 12.7 cm. ISBN 9780300252996. Flexibound. Widely available, including from www.nhbs.com (£24.99 postage) and www.amazon.com ($19.87 postage) . - Lichenologist, 54(2): 137-138. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000068.
book review
34276Phi K.-H., Shin M.-J., Lee S., So J.E., Kim J.H., Suh S.-S., Koo M.H., Shin S.C., Kim J.-H., Lee J.H. & Youn U.J. (2022): Bioactive terphenyls isolated from the Antarctic lichen Stereocaulon alpinum. - Molecules, 27(7): 2363 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27072363.
Three p-terphenyls (2–4)—2-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-p-terphenyl (2), 2-hydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy-p-terphenyl (3), and 2,3,5,6-tetramethoxy-p-terphenyl (4)—were isolated for the first time as natural products along with seven known compounds (1, 5–10) from the Antarctic lichen Stereocaulon alpinum. Structures of the new compounds were elucidated by comprehensive analyses of 1D and 2D NMR and HREIMS experiments. Compound 3 exhibited cytotoxicity against HCT116 cells with the IC50 value of 3.76 ± 0.03 μM and also inhibited NO production in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages with the IC50 value of 22.82 ± 0.015 μM. Keywords: Stereocaulon alpinum; Antarctic lichen; terphenyl; cytotoxicity; anti-inflammation.
34275Acharius E. (1795): Nya och mindre kända Svenska Lafarter beskrifne; (Fortsaettning). - Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar, [ser. 2], 16[3]: 127–142, tab. .
Lichen luridus, Lichen microphyllus, Lichen cartilagineus, Lichen citrinellus, Lichen corticola, Lichen abietinus, Lichen scalaris,
34274Acharius E. (1795): Nya och mindre kända Svenska Laf-arter, beskrifne; (Fortsaettning). - Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar, [ser. 2], 16: 3–21, tab.. .
Collema, Lichen crispus, Lichen cristatus, Lichen marginalis, Lichen sinuatus, Lichen tenax, Lichen fascicularis, Lichen plicatilis, Lichen muscicola, Lichen nigrescens, Lichen flaccidus, Lichen discolor, Lichen tunaeformis, Lichen lacerus
34273Schiefelbein U. & Sipman H.J.M. (2022): Johann Heinrich Sandstedes Flechtenaufsammlungen von seiner Reise nach Vorpommern. - Archiv Natur- und Landeskunde Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, 57: 104–129. DOI 10.30819/anlk.57.06.
The lichen collections of Johann Heinrich Sandstede from his travel to Western Pomerania. Lichen specimens have been revised that had been collected by Johann Heinrich Sandstede 1902 on his field trip to the islands Rügen, Vilm and Greifswalder Oie, and are deposited in the herbarium of the Überseemuseum Bremen. A total of 219 species (196 lichens, 23 lichenicolous fungi) have been identified. Not previously known from Mecklenburg-West Pomerania were Skyttea tephromelarum Kalb & Hafellner being new for entire Germany, Arthonia epiphyscia Nyl., Arthonia varians (Davies) Nyl., Bachmanniomyces uncialicola (Zopf) D. Hawksw., Endococcus propinquus agg., Intralichen lichenicola (M. S. Christ. & D. Hawksw.) D. Hawksw. & M. S. Cole, Ochrolechia alboflavescens (Wulfen) Zahlbr., Polycoccum pulvinatum (Eitner) R. Sant., Scytinium pulvinatum (Hoffm.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin, Toninia subfuscae (Arnold) Timdal, Verrucaria fusconigrescens Nyl., Weddellomyces epicallopisma (Wedd.) D. Hawksw. and Zwackhiomyces coepulonus (Norm.) Grube & R. Sant.. Keywords: biodiversity, lichenized fungi, lichenicolous fungi, collections, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.
34272Ertz D. & Diederich P. (2022): Unravelling the diversity of the lichen genus Porina (Porinaceae) in Mauritius. - Plant Ecology and Evolution, 155(1): 123–152. https://doi.org/10.5091/plecevo.84545.
Background and aims – Despite the publication of a recent checklist for Mauritius, a small archipelago in the south-western Indian Ocean, our knowledge of the lichen flora of this region remains incomplete. The present contribution is part of an ongoing study of lichen diversity of the islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues. It aims to unravel the diversity of the genus Porina s.l. on these islands and to improve the taxonomy and the phylogeny of the family Porinaceae following the morphological study and the sequencing of recently collected material. Material and methods – Lichens were collected in 2016 and 2019 in a range of environments, from lowland dry habitats up to dense evergreen upland forests on the islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues. In total, 85 samples of Porina were examined using light microscopy. A molecular study using mtSSU sequences was performed in order to investigate the phylogenetic position of the species of Porina occurring in the study area. Key results – The analyses revealed the presence of 23 species of Porina s.l. in Mauritius, while only four were previously accepted for this country. Five new species are described: Porina covidii, P. griffithsii, P. mauritiana, P. nuculoides, and P. rupicola, while two sterile species remain unidentified. The mtSSU phylogenetic tree includes 19 of the 23 species occurring in Mauritius. These species are dispersed throughout the phylogenetic tree, in at least eight main and strongly supported lineages, suggesting multiple colonizations of Mauritius. A new lineage only including Paleotropical and mainly foliicolous species (P. epiphylloides, P. longispora, P. mauritiana, and P. mazosioides) is revealed. Pseudosagedia crocynioides, a species that was previously known only from Florida, is newly reported from Mauritius, highlighting a remarkable disjunct distribution. Photos of each taxon are provided, along with an identification key to all species. Conclusion – The study of the genus Porina in Mauritius highlights a rich flora. The true diversity of Porina species in the south-western Indian Ocean is certainly underestimated and in need of further investigation, while a taxonomic-phylogenetic revision of tropical Porina at a broader geographical scale is highly desirable. The identity of several Mauritian specimens remains uncertain despite the use of molecular data. Keywords – Forest; Gyalectales; foliicolous; lichens; Mascarene Islands; phylogenetic analysis; Pseudosagedia; south-western Indian Ocean.
34271Fryday A.M., Søchting U., Bungartz F. & Perlmutter G. (2022): (2872) Proposal to conserve the name Huea (Ascomycota: Teloschistales) with a conserved type. - Taxon, 71(2): 465–466. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12695.
34270Giordani P., Benesperi R. & Nascimbene J. (2022): Lung lichens face challenges from climate change. - Frontiers for Young Minds, 10: 659341 [6 p.]. doi: 10.3389/frym.2022.659341.
Lichens are a type of fungi that live in close relationships with algae or bacteria. Unfortunately, the future is not looking very bright for these organisms, because they have no protective structures and are sensitive to environmental change. The lung lichen is a large species that, in the upcoming years, will find itself in trouble. Climate change will reduce the amount of available water and increase air temperatures. Global warming is also expected to change the environments where the lung lichen lives. One of the main threats will be the expansion of some very competitive trees. Among them, the black locust has become invasive, forming dense woods that will replace the native tree species. Even though it seems like the situation is bad, there is still hope! Lichen scientists are trying to figure out how to prepare suitable shelters to save lung lichen from climate change.
34269Gorshkova N.A., Brovko O.S., Palamarchuk I.A. & Bogolitsyn K.G. (2022): Influence of the structure of alginate-chitosan materials on the kinetics of usnic acid release. - Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, 58(2): 110–117. DOI: 10.1134/S0003683822020089.
[Original Russian Text published in Prikladnaya Biokhimiya i Mikrobiologiya, 2022, Vol. 58, No. 2, pp. 123–131] Porous materials, cryogels and aerogels, were synthesized based on a sodium alginate–chitosan interpolymer complex via freeze-drying and supercritical drying. It was shown that the specific surface area of aerogels was approximately ten times higher than that of cryogels due to the developed mesoporous structure and amounted to 260 m2 /g. The polyelectrolyte nature of the obtained materials, their dimensional stability, and their high water absorption (15 and 45 g/g for cryogel and aerogel, respectively) allowed us to use the obtained materials for sorption-application therapy. To impart antimicrobial properties, the materials were impregnated with usnic acid isolated from the lichen Usnea subfloridana, which has antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli bacteria and the microorganism species Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. It was shown that the minimum inhibitory concentration of usnic acid for these test cultures was 0.03 mg/mL. The resulting materials are capable of a slow release of usnic acid over 5 h, while its maximum release was 60% for aerogel and 30% for cryogel. The kinetics of usnic acid release of from both materials is adequately described by the Korsmeyer–Peppas equation. Keywords: chitosan, alginate, aerogel, wound dressing, usnic acid, lichen, Usnea subfloridana, supercritical drying, freeze-drying, antibacterial activity.
34268Pankratov T.A., Nikitin P.A. & Patutina E.O. (2022): Genome analysis of two lichen bacteriobionts, Lichenibacterium ramalinae and Lichenibacterium minor: Toxin‒antitoxin systems and secretion proteins. - Microbiology, 91(2): 160–172. DOI: 10.1134/S0026261722020096.
[Original Russian Text published in Mikrobiologiya, 2022, Vol. 91, No. 2, pp. 191–203.] The genomes of two bacteriobionts of the fruticose lichen Ramalina pollinaria, Lichenibacterium ramalinae and L. minor, were analyzed. Genetic determinants potentially determining the integration and adaptation of these bacteria in the lichen thallus were identified. This is the first report on assessment of genetic determinants of the stress reaction factors and secretion systems of lichen bacteriobionts. The genes encoding the proteins of the VapCB toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems exhibited >60% homology with the genes of the known plant symbionts Bradyrhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium, Mesorhizobium, and Ralstonia, as well as with those of a human pathogen Bartonella. The genes encoding the proteins of type II secretion system were found in the genomes of both species. The genes encoding type IV secretion proteins were found only in the genome of L. ramalinae; they were homologous to those of epiphytic Methylobacterium, plant pathogens Agrobacterium, and plant root symbionts Rhizobium and Neorhizobium. Homology between the genes encoding TA system and secretion system proteins and the genes of plant-associated bacteria was over 60%. This may indicate that green algae are the main target for invasion. Detection of the urease synthesis genes in the genomes of lichen bacteriobionts suggested the hypothesis that urea decomposition results in an additional supply of ammonium and bicarbonate to the symbiosis. The latter may potentially be utilized by phototrophic eukaryotes and prokaryotes as an additional carbon source. Analysis of the genomes of lichen bacteriobionts L. ramalinae and L. minor revealed the possible differences in their survival strategies, with L. ramalinae more integrated into the symbiosis, while L. minor is characterized by more autonomous features. Keywords: Lichenibacterium, genome analysis, virulence, adaptation, lichens.
34267Rosqvist G.C., Inga N. & Eriksson P. (2022): Impacts of climate warming on reindeer herding require new land-use strategies. - Ambio, 51: 1247–1262. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-021-01655-2.
Climate in the Arctic has warmed at a more rapid pace than the global average over the past few decades leading to weather, snow, and ice situations previously unencountered. Reindeer herding is one of the primary livelihoods for Indigenous peoples throughout the Arctic. To understand how the new climate state forces societal adaptation, including new management strategies and needs for preserved, interconnected, undisturbed grazing areas, we coupled changes in temperature, precipitation, and snow depth recorded by automatic weather stations to herder observations of reindeer behaviour in grazing areas of the Laevas Sa´mi reindeer herding community, northern Sweden. Results show that weather and snow conditions strongly determine grazing opportunities and therefore reindeer response. We conclude that together with the cumulative effects of increased pressures from alternative land use activities, the nonpredictable environmental conditions that are uniquely part of the warming climate seriously challenge future reindeer herding in northern Sweden. Keywords Climate warming  Indigenous knowledge  Land use  Northern Sweden  Reindeer herding  Snow conditions.
34266Churakova E.Yu., Mizin I.A. & Rozhnov V.V. (2022): Summer feeding of the Novaya Zemlya reindeer (Rangifer tarandus pearsoni). - Doklady Biological Sciences, 502: 36–41. DOI: 10.1134/S0012496622010033.
[Original Russian Text published in Doklady Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk. Nauki o Zhizni, 2022, Vol. 502, pp. 93–99.] New data on the diet of the wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus pearsoni) on the Yuzhny Island of the Novaya Zemlya archipelago in the summer are presented. The coprological method shows the predominance of vascular plants in the studied samples of reindeer feces. The selectivity of reindeer in relation to pasture habitats and forage groups of plants indicates that the area and variety of forage lands in the summer are sufficient for the reindeer and are not limiting factors for it. Keywords: Novaya Zemlya wild reindeer, Rangifer tarandus pearsoni, Novaya Zemlya archipelago, Yuzhny Island, grazing, cuticular analysis, mosses, vascular plants. The obtained results of coprological analysis are presented in Table 1. ...the share of lichens was only about 2% (Fig. 3).
34265Kosecka M., Kukwa M, Jabłońska A., Flakus A., Rodriguez-Flakus P., Ptach Ł. & Guzow-Krzemińska B. (2022): Phylogeny and ecology of Trebouxia photobionts from Bolivian lichens. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 13: 779784 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.779784.
In the past few years, new phylogenetic lineages in Trebouxia were detected as a result of molecular approaches. These studies included symbiont selectivity in lichen communities, transects along altitudinal gradients at local and global scales and the photobiont diversity in local populations of lichen-forming fungal species. In most of these studies, phylogenetic and haplotype analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus have continuously allowed the recognition of new monophyletic lineages, which suggests that still numerous undiscovered Trebouxia lineages can be hidden in lichens from unexplored areas, especially in the tropics. Here, we estimated the biodiversity of photobionts in Bolivian Andean vegetation and assessed their specificity. About 403 lichen samples representing 42 genera, e.g., Haematomma, Heterodermia, Hypotrachyna, Lecanora, Lepra, Leucodermia, Parmotrema, Pertusaria, Polyblastidium, and Usnea, containing Trebouxia photobionts, were analyzed. ITS ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and rbcL markers were used. We obtained Trebouxia sequences from Bolivian samples belonging to already described clades A, C, I, and S. Thirtynine Trebouxia lineages were distinguished within these clades, while 16 were new. To reveal the structure of the community of Bolivian photobionts and their relationships with mycobionts, the comparative effects of climate, altitude, geographical distances, substrate, and habitat type, as well as functional traits of lichens such as growth forms, propagation mode and secondary metabolites, were analyzed. Furthermore, new Bolivian records were included in analysis on a global scale. In our study, the mycobiont genus or even species are the most important factors correlated with photobiont identity. Moreover, we revealed that the community of Bolivian photobionts is shaped by altitude. Keywords: biodiversity, secondary metabolites, selectivity, specificity, symbiosis.
34264De Carolis R., Cometto A., Moya P., Barreno E., Grube M., Tretiach M., Leavitt S.D. & Muggia L. (2022): Photobiont diversity in lichen symbioses from extreme environments. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 13: 809804 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.809804.
Fungal–algal relationships—both across evolutionary and ecological scales—are finely modulated by the presence of the symbionts in the environments and by the degree of selectivity and specificity that either symbiont develop reciprocally. In lichens, the green algal genus Trebouxia Puymaly is one of the most frequently recovered chlorobionts. Trebouxia species-level lineages have been recognized on the basis of their morphological and phylogenetic diversity, while their ecological preferences and distribution are still only partially unknown. We selected two cosmopolitan species complexes of lichen-forming fungi as reference models, i.e., Rhizoplaca melanophthalma and Tephromela atra, to investigate the diversity of their associated Trebouxia spp. in montane habitats across their distributional range worldwide. The greatest diversity of Trebouxia species-level lineages was recovered in the altitudinal range 1,000–2,500 m a.s.l. A total of 10 distinct Trebouxia species-level lineages were found to associate with either mycobiont, for which new photobionts are reported. One previously unrecognized Trebouxia species-level lineage was identified and is here provisionally named Trebouxia “A52.” Analyses of cell morphology and ultrastructure were performed on axenically isolated strains to fully characterize the new Trebouxia “A52” and three other previously recognized lineages, i.e., Trebouxia “A02,” T. vagua “A04,” and T. vagua “A10,” which were successfully isolated in culture during this study. The species-level diversity of Trebouxia associating with the two lichen-forming fungi in extreme habitats helps elucidate the evolutionary pathways that this lichen photobiont genus traversed to occupy varied climatic and vegetative regimes. Keywords: chloroplast morphology, culture, phylogeny, Rhizoplaca, Tephromela, Trebouxia.
34263Biju H., Sabeena A. & Nayaka S. (2021): New records of Graphidaceae (lichenized fungi) from the Western Ghats of Kerala state, India. - Studies in Fungi, 6(1): 213–223. Doi 10.5943/sif/6/1/14.
In the present paper, 15 lichenized fungal species belonging to family Graphidaceae are described, of which Ocellularia albomaculata, O. ascidioidea, O. kanneliyensis, O. monosporoides, O. pertusariiformis and O. rhicnopora are new records to Indian lichen biota and Pallidogramme chrysenteron is new to Peninsular India, whereas Asteristion alboolivaceum, Chapsa hiata, Diploschistes rampoddensis, Fissurina rubiginosa, Pseudochapsa phlyctidioides, Thelotrema canarense, T. piluliferum and T. subtile are new to lichen biota of Kerala state. Keywords – Ascomycota – Biodiversity – Taxonomy.
34262Yakovchenko L.S., Davydov E.A. & Ohmura Y. (2022): Candelariella xanthostigmoides (Candelariaceae, Ascomycota) – a new lichen record to East Asia from Japan. - Turczaninowia, 25(1): 124–128. https://doi.org/10.14258/turczaninowia.25.1.10.
Candelariella xanthostigmoides is newly reported from East Asia. It was collected on bark of Tsuga diversifolia in Honshu (Japan) at elevations between 900 and 1100 m. Characteristic features of the species, distribution and the comparison with the closest species are given. Keywords: distribution, Far East, new records, sorediate crust, thin layer chromatography.
34261Acharius E. (1795): Anmaerkningar och Foerbaettringar vid Afhandlingen om Lafvarnes Indelning infoerd uti desse Handlingars 4:de Quartal foer år 1794. - Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar, [ser. 2], 16: 66–71. .
Verrucaria, Patellaria, Platisma, Peltidia, Endocarpon, Umbilicaria, Cladonia, Cornicularia, Stereocaulon, Filaria, Usnea
34260Nusbaumer L., Cáceres M. E. S., Aptroot A., Gibertoni T. B. & Horak E. (2015): Fungos e Liquens da Reserva Biológica de Pedra Talhada. – In: Studer, A., Nusbaumer, L. & Spichiger, R. (Eds.). Biodiversidade da Reserva Biológica de Pedra Talhada (Alagoas, Pernambuco - Brasil). - Boissiera, 68: 137–151. .
Brasil
34259Curtis T.J. & Lendemer J.C. (2022): A new species of Halecania (Leprocaulaceae, Lecanoromycetes) from eastern North America. - Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 149(1): 79–85. doi: 10.3159/TORREY-D-21-00037.1.
Halecania robertcurtisii is described as new to science from dry sandstone cliffs and overhangs in Ohio, USA, in eastern North America. It has a smooth and continuous to rimose-areolate thallus, pseudolecanorine apothecia with reddish to rust colored disks, and lacks lichen substances. The species is similar to Halecania subsquamosa but lacks the diagnostic unidentified terpenoid present in that taxon. Key words: Biodiversity, crustose lichens, endemism, Halecania punctata.
34258Baradaran B., Saadatmand S., Haji Moniri M. & Asri Y. (2020): New lichen records from north-east of Iran. - Iranian Journal of Botany, 26(2): 166–171. DOI: 10.22092/ijb.2020.351116.1293.
Samples of lichens were collected in North-East (NE) of Iran (Khorasan Razavi Province, Torghabeh city) and studied with morphological, anatomical and ecological characteristics. Accordingly, Anema prodigulum (Nyl.) Henssen (Lichinaceae) and Pyrenodesmia microstepposa (Frolov, Nadyeina, Khodos. & Vondrák) Hafellner & Türk (Teloschistaceae) are reported for the first time from Iran.
34257Pérez Catán S., Bubach D., Messuti M.I., Arribére M.A. & Ribeiro Guevara S. (2022): Mercury and REE contents in fruticose lichens from volcanic areas of the south volcanic zone. - Atmospheric Pollution Research, 13: 101384 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apr.2022.101384.
Volcanic eruptions represent one of the natural sources of Hg along with evasion from the oceans. This work evaluates the influence of these sources on the Hg bioaccumulation by fruticose lichens. The sampling areas were located in nearby sites affected by recent volcanic activity in the Patagonia Andean range. Geological techniques such as the study of REE and multi-element patterns were used to identify the volcanic ash sources. The rela- tionship among Hg and semi volatile elements with the distance to the emitting points were considered. In general, the results found in the lichens were in agreement with the provenance of glass fractions from volcanic eruptions in the influenced zone. The diagrams of lichen multi-elements concentration showed similar patterns for lichens taken from locations further south (near Hudson volcano) which were different from the lichens taken from the northern area (near Puyehue, Calbuco and Copahue volcanoes). The average values of LREE/MREE showed similar values in lichen samples taken from the north and south areas from Puyehue Cordon Caulle Volcanic Complex and the ranges of the volcanic glass particles expelled during the 2011 eruption. The results suggest that normalized patterns of the REEs in fruticose lichens might provide a proxy record of the elements released from a volcanic source. Correlations of concentration of semi volatile elements to the volcanic distances and to the Pacific Ocean showed that Hg and Sb bioaccumulation in lichens had one or both contributions. Keywords: Bio-monitors ; Atmospheric mercury ; Volcanic mercury ; Elemental composition ; Patagonian Andes ; South American Andes.
34256Pardo-De la Hoz C.J., Medeiros I.D., Gibert J.P., Chagnon P.-L., Magain N., Miadlikowska J. & Lutzoni F. (2022): Phylogenetic structure of specialization: A new approach that integrates partner availability and phylogenetic diversity to quantify biotic specialization in ecological networks. - Ecology and Evolution, 12: e8649 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.8649.
Biotic specialization holds information about the assembly, evolution, and stability of biological communities. Partner availabilities can play an important role in enabling species interactions, where uneven partner availabilities can bias estimates of biotic specialization when using phylogenetic diversity indices. It is therefore important to account for partner availability when characterizing biotic specialization using phylogenies. We developed an index, phylogenetic structure of specialization (PSS), that avoids bias from uneven partner availabilities by uncoupling the null models for interaction frequency and phylogenetic distance. We incorporate the deviation between observed and random interaction frequencies as weights into the calculation of partner phylogenetic α-diversity. To calculate the PSS index, we then compare observed partner phylogenetic α-diversity to a null distribution generated by randomizing phylogenetic distances among the same number of partners. PSS quantifies the phylogenetic structure (i.e., clustered, overdispersed, or random) of the partners of a focal species. We show with simulations that the PSS index is not correlated with network properties, which allows comparisons across multiple systems. We also implemented PSS on empirical networks of host–parasite, avian seed-dispersal, lichenized fungi–cyanobacteria, and hummingbird pollination interactions. Across these systems, a large proportion of taxa interact with phylogenetically random partners according to PSS, sometimes to a larger extent than detected with an existing method that does not account for partner availability. We also found that many taxa interact with phylogenetically clustered partners, while taxa with overdispersed partners were rare. We argue that species with phylogenetically overdispersed partners have often been misinterpreted as generalists when they should be considered specialists. Our results highlight the important role of randomness in shaping interaction networks, even in highly intimate symbioses, and provide a much-needed quantitative framework to assess the role that evolutionary history and symbiotic specialization play in shaping patterns of biodiversity. PSS is available as an R package at https://github.com/cjpardodelahoz/pss.
34255Masumoto H. & Degawa Y. (2022): Cyphellostereum ushimanum sp. nov. (Hygrophoraceae, Agaricales) described from Amami‑Oshima Island (Kagoshima Prefecture, Ryukyu Islands), Japan, with ultrastructural observations of its Rhizonema photobiont flaments penetrated longitudinally by a central haustorium. - Mycological Progress, 21: 167–179. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-021-01766-w.
We collected a resupinate fungus lichenized with flamentous Rhizonema cyanobacteria in Amami-Oshima Island, Japan. Microscopic observations and molecular phylogenetic analyses of both the basidioma and the lichenized thallus indicated afnities within Cyphellostereum, the frst record of this basidiomycete genus from Japan. Its unique combination of structural characters and ITS rDNA sequences suggests a new species, described here as C. ushimanum. Light and transmission electron microscopic observations revealed tubular intracellular haustoria penetrating longitudinally within the cyanobacterial cells, a feature typically seen in the related genus Dictyonema, but unusual in Cyphellostereum. The generic circumscription of Cyphellostereum was therefore emended to include features of C. ushimanum and other recently described species that deviate from the conventional defnition of the genus. Ultrastructural details of symbiont interactions are provided for the frst time in this genus. We also succeeded in cultivating the fungus from hyphae regenerated from thallus fragments, and include a brief description of those results. Keywords: Athelia · Culture · Haustorium · Lichenized basidiomycetes · Rhizonema · TEM.
34254Vondrák J., Svoboda S., Malíček J., Palice Z., Kocourková J., Knudsen K., Mayrhofer H., Thüs H., Schultz M., Košnar J. & Hofmeister J. (2022): From Cinderella to Princess: an exceptional hotspot of lichen diversity in a long-inhabited central-European landscape. - Preslia, 94: 143–181. doi: 10.23855/preslia.2022.143.
Biodiversity is a key criterion in nature protection and often indicates habitats and localities rich in endangered species. Our research, using 48 one-man one-day field trips, located an exceptional lichen diversity hotspot and refugium for rare species, the Týřov National Nature Reserve (Czech Republic, central Bohemia). Within its 410 hectares, we detected 787 species of lichens and related taxa (675 lichens, 35 semilichens, 58 lichenicolous fungi and 19 bark microfungi). This is more species of these organisms than has ever been recorded from such a small area, up to 10 km2, anywhere in Europe (and probably anywhere in the world). The species richness is positively correlated with the habitat heterogeneity within Týřov, which is very far from uniform. In most of the reserve, the species richness is fairly typical for the broader region, and only three sites, with an overall area of a mere 80 hectares, have distinctly higher species richnesses. The most species-rich site, with 502 species, is only about 25 hectares and is distinctly more diverse in habitats than other sites. The enormous importance of Týřov for biodiversity protection is emphasized by the nine species described as new to science: Acarospora fissa, Bacidia hyalina, Buellia microcarpa, Micarea substipitata, Microcalicium minutum, Rufoplaca griseomarginata, Verrucaria substerilis, V. tenuispora and V. teyrzowensis. Three species are new to Europe, 55 to the Czech Republic and 191 species are included in the national Red-list. Keywords: biodiversity hotspot, DNA barcoding, lichenized fungi, Verrucaria.
34253Schindler H. (1983): Über den Nachweis der Diffractasäure in der Flechte Usnea ceratina Ach. aus dem Schwarzwald. - Andrias, 2: 5–8. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Andrias_2_0005-0008.pdf.
In the lichen Usnea ceratina Ach. (mostly from the Black Forest, Germany) diffractaic acid were identified by thin-layer chromatographic method; microcrystal tests (Asahina) were used to confirm the results of TLC. Pure diffractaic acid for comparison were extracted from the lichen Alectoria ochroleuca (Hoffm.) Massal. In all proved specimens diffractaic acid is present.
34252Nusbaumer L., Cáceres M.E.S., Aptroot A., Gibertoni T.B. & Horak E. (2018): Inventaire de la Réserve Biologique de Pedra Talhada: Champignons et lichens. - In: Studer A., Nusbaumer L. & Spichiger R. (eds), Biodiversité de la Réserve Biologique de Pedra Talhada (Alagoas, Pernambuco - Brésil), p. 567–582, Nordesta & Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève. .
book chapter; Brazil; list and photodocumentation of fungi and lichen species in a reserve [in French]