33687Habib K., Zulfiqar R. & Khalid A.N. (2021): Additions to the lichen genus Rhizocarpon in Pakistan and their comparative analysis. - Webbia, 76(1): 123–134. doi: 10.36253/jopt-9889.
As part of a comprehensive study of lichen diversity of northern areas of Pakistan using molecular and morphological approaches, we found four species of the genus Rhizocarpon. The analysis revealed two new species in the lichen biota of Pakistan namely, Rhizocarpon lavatum and Rhizocarpon petraeum, while the other two, Rhizocarpon disporum and Rhizocarpon geminatum are reported for the second time, from new localities. In comparison to literature information and GenBank sequences of the same taxa, variation in the morpho-anatomical features and nucleotide differences in the ITS marker of nrDNA have been documented. Descriptions and phylogenetic analysis of the taxa are given, along with information on ecology and distribution. Keywords: Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Lichens, Rhizocarpaceae, Taxonomy.
33686Muhoro A.M. & Farkas E.É. (2021): Insecticidal and antiprotozoal properties of lichen secondary metabolites on insect vectors and their transmitted protozoal diseases to humans. - Diversity, 13(8): 342 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13080342.
Since the long-term application of synthetic chemicals as insecticides and the chemotherapy of protozoal diseases have had various negative effects (non-target effects, resistance), research on less harmful biological products is underway. This review is focused on lichens with potential insecticidal and antiprotozoal activity. Literature sources (27) were surveyed from five bibliographic databases and analyzed according to the taxonomic group of the insect, the protozoal disease and the lichen, the type of bioactive compounds (including method of application and mount applied), and the potential bioactivity based on mortalities caused after 24 h of exposure on insects and on parasitic protozoa. Six species of protozoa and five species of mosquitoes, three kinds of larval stages of insects and three protozoa stages were tested. Insecticidal and antiprotozoal effects of crude extracts and seven lichen secondary metabolites (mostly usnic acid) of 32 lichen species were determined. Physiological and morphological changes on parasitic protozoa were observed. Mortality rates caused by LSMs on insect vectors closer to (or somewhat above) the WHO threshold were considered to be insecticides. The results are based on laboratory experiments; however, the efficacy of metabolites should be confirmed in the field and on non-human primates to control the insect vectors and human protozoal diseases transmitted by insects. Keywords: antiprotozoal; bioactivity; insect bite; human illnesses; human infections; insecticidal; larvicidal; lichens; literature survey; secondary substances.
33685Dal Forno M., Lawrey J.D., Sikaroodi M., Gillevet P.M., Schuettpelz E. & Lücking R. (2021): Extensive photobiont sharing in a rapidly radiating cyanolichen clade. - Molecular Ecology, 30: 1755–1776. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.15700|.
Recent studies have uncovered remarkable diversity in Dictyonema s.lat. basidiolichens, here recognized as subtribe Dictyonemateae. This group includes five genera and 148 species, but hundreds more await description. The photobionts of these lichens belong to Rhizonema, a recently resurrected cyanobacterial genus known by a single species. To further investigate photobiont diversity within Dictyonemateae, we generated 765 new cyanobacterial sequences from 635 specimens collected from 18 countries. The ITS barcoding locus supported the recognition of 200 mycobiont (fungal) species among these samples, but the photobiont diversity was comparatively low. Our analyses revealed three main divisions of Rhizonema, with two repeatedly recovered as monophyletic (proposed as new species), and the third mostly paraphyletic. The paraphyletic lineage corresponds to R. interruptum and partnered with mycobionts from all five genera in Dictyonemateae. There was no evidence of photobiont-mycobiont co-speciation, but one of the monophyletic lineages of Rhizonema appears to partner predominantly with one of the two major clades of Cora (mycobiont) with samples collected largely from the northern Andes. Molecular clock estimations indicate the Rhizonema species are much older than the fungal species in the Dictyonemateae, suggesting that these basidiolichens obtained their photobionts from older ascolichen lineages and the photobiont variation in extant lineages of Dictyonemateae is the result of multiple photobiont switches. These results support the hypothesis of lichens representing "fungal farmers," in which diverse mycobiont lineages associate with a substantially lower diversity of photobionts by sharing those photobionts best suited for the lichen symbiosis among multiple and often unrelated mycobiont lineages. Keywords: fungi, lichens, pantropic, species interactions, symbiosis.
33684Vaez M. & Davarpanah S.J. (2021): New insights into the biological activity of lichens: bioavailable secondary metabolites of Umbilicaria decussata as potential anticoagulants. - Chemistry and Biodiversity, 18: e2100080 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202100080.
This study reports the in vitro anticoagulation activity of acetonic extract (AE) of 42 lichen species and the identification of potential bioavailable anticoagulant compounds from Umbilicaria decussata as a competent anticoagulant lichen species. Lichens’ AEs were evaluated for their anticoagulant activity by monitoring activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) assays. A strong, positive correlation was observed between total phenolics concentration (TPC) of species and blood coagulation parameters. U. decussata was the only species with the longest clotting time in both APTT and PT assays. The research was moved forward by performing in vivo assays using rats. The results corroborated the dose-dependent impact of U. decussata’s AE on rats’ clotting time. Major secondary metabolites of U. decussata and their plasma-related bioavailability were also investigated using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Atranol, orsellinic acid, D-mannitol, lecanoric acid, and evernic acid were detected as possible bioavailable anticoagulants of U. decussata. Our findings suggest that U. decussata might be a potential anticoagulant lichen species that can be used for the prevention or treatment of coagulation-related issues such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Keywords: Umbilicaria decussata, clotting time, natural products, metabolic profiling, biological activity. .
33683Wu H.-X., Ren W.-B., Li X.-H. & Yang Z.-X. (2021): A new species of foliicolous lichenized fungi from southwest China: Calopadia ruiliensis sp. nov.. - Turkish Journal of Botany, 45: 371–377. doi:10.3906/bot-2101-32.
Calopadia ruiliensis, found on living leaves in southwest China, is described as a new species, based on morphology and phylogenetic analysis. It is characterized by a foliicolous thallus with yellow greenish to creamy yellow color, rounded apothecia with nonpruinose to thinly pruinose disc, a dark olive-green hypothecium and black-brown subhymenium, and 1-spored asci producing muriform ascospores. Phylogenetic analysis of LSU sequence data shows that the new species clusters in the genus Calopadia with high bootstrap support. The new species is compared with closely related and similar species of Calopadia and a comprehensive description and micrographs are provided. Key words: Pilocarpaceae, new taxon, morphology, phylogeny, taxonomy.
33682Jeong M.-H., Park C.-H., Kim J.A., Choi E.D., Kim S., Hur J.-S. & Park S.-Y. (2021): Production and activity of cristazarin in the lichen-forming fungus Cladonia metacorallifera. - Journal of Fungi, 7(8): 601 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7080601.
Lichens are a natural source of bioactive compounds. Cladonia metacorallifera var. reagens KoLRI002260 is a rare lichen known to produce phenolic compounds, such as rhodocladonic, thamnolic, and didymic acids. However, these metabolites have not been detected in isolated mycobionts. We investigated the effects of six carbon sources on metabolite biosynthesis in the C. metacorallifera mycobiont. Red pigments appeared only in Lilly and Barnett’s media with fructose at 15 °C after 3 weeks of culture and decreased after 6 weeks. We purified these red pigments using preparative-scale high performance liquid chromatography and analyzed them via nuclear magnetic resonance. Results indicated that 1% fructose-induced cristazarin and 6-methylcristazarin production under light conditions. In total, 27 out of 30 putative polyketide synthase genes were differentially expressed after 3 weeks of culture, implying that these genes may be required for cristazarin production in C. metacorallifera. Moreover, the white collar genes Cmwc-1 and Cmwc-2 were highly upregulated at all times under light conditions, indicating a possible correlation between cristazarin production and gene expression. The cancer cell lines AGS, CT26, and B16F1 were sensitive to cristazarin, with IC50 values of 18.2, 26.1, and 30.9 μg/mL, respectively, which highlights the value of cristazarin. Overall, our results suggest that 1% fructose under light conditions is required for cristazarin production by C. metacorallifera mycobionts, and cristazarin could be a good bioactive compound. Keywords: Cladonia metacorallifera; cristazarin; lichen bioresource; polyketide synthase (PKS) genes; secondary metabolites.
33681Svensson M. & Owe-Larsson B. (2021): Synonymizations and lectotypifications of some lecideoid lichens (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes) described from Finland or Sweden. - Nordic Journal of Botany, 39(7): e03236 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/njb.03236.
Between 1850 and 1950, hundreds of lecideoid lichen-forming fungi were described from Fennoscandia, mainly in the genus Lecidea. The status of many of these species is still uncertain and some have not been revised since their description. We examined types and nomenclature of nine such lecideoid taxa, and found that they represent synonyms of earlier described species: Bacidia dolera (= Lecidea albofuscescens), Lecidea aviaria (= Rhizocarpon richardii), L. cavernarum (= Porpidia soredizodes), L. cuculi (= Schaereria fuscocinerea), L. frustulenta (= Micarea subnigrata), L. ivalensis (= Carbonea vorticosa), L. melaphanoides (= Scoliciosporum intrusum), L. mustialensis (= L. albofusces-cens) and L. submilvina (= Miriquidica leucophaea). In addition, we examined types and nomenclature of three synonyms of Lecanora cadubriae: Biatora admixta, B. pinicola and Lecidea subinsequens. Lectotypes are designated for the basionyms Biatora admixta Th.Fr., Biatora pinicola Th.Fr. ex Hellb., Lecidea cuculi Vain., Lecidea fuscocinerea Nyl., Lecidea ivalensis Vain., Lecidea melaphanoides Nyl. and Lecidea subinsequens Nyl.bKeywords: Fennoscandia, fungi, lichens, nomenclature, taxonomy.
33680Martins C.C., de Abreu-Mota M.A., do Nascimento M.G., Dauner A.L.L., Lourenço R.A., Bícego M.C. & Montone R.C. (2021): Sources and depositional changes of aliphatic hydrocarbons recorded in sedimentary cores from Admiralty Bay, South Shetland Archipelago, Antarctica during last decades. - Science of the Total Environment, 795: 148881 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148881.
Organic biomarkers, as aliphatic hydrocarbons, are present in sedimentary organic matter and have been largely applied to the evaluation of recent environmental changes in the marine environment around the globe, including the Antarctic continent. Five sediment cores were taken in the Admiralty Bay, South Shetland Archipelago, Antarctica to evaluate changes in the signature of aliphatic hydrocarbons such as n-alkanes (n-C10 to n-C40) and isoprenoids as pristane and phytane, over the last decades. The total n-alkanes concentration ranged from 0.17 to 1.67 μg g−1 (mean = 0.74 ± 0.42) which is considered low and similar to pristine sediments. Aliphatic hydrocarbons present in the sedimentary pool came mostly from terrestrial sources as Antarctic lichens and mosses, and frommarine sources as the macroalgae forest debris and emergent macrophytes. Anthropogenic inputs of aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g., petroleum and their by-products) may be neglected based on the multiproxy approach used to distinct sources of these organic compounds. In general, no significant changes in the sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons were observed along the sediment cores; however, an increased aliphatic hydrocarbons input registered between 1975 and 1992 may be related to the increase in meltwater runoff and the relatively high abundance of marine producers more adapted to increased sea temperatures. Keywords: Sediments; n-Alkanes; Pristane; Phytane; Organic matter; Proxies; King George Island. Highlights: • Aliphatic hydrocarbons were studied in sediment cores from a marine Antarctic region. • Lichens, mosses, macroalgae forest debris and macrophytes are main sources of n-alkanes. • Meltwater runoff contributed to the increased n-alkanes input between 1975 and 1992. • Petroleum and related sources inputs may be neglected based on the multiproxy applied.
33679Goodenough U., Wagner R. & Roth R. (2021): Lichen 4. The Algal Layer. - Algal Research, 58: 102355 [53 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2021.102355.
A lichen is a slow-growing niche-constructing organism that forms a thallus via scripted symbiotic/mutualist relationships between fungi, algae, and bacteria. Here we use quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy (QFDEEM) and light microscopy to probe a hallmark lichen construction wherein clusters of algae and hyphae, inter-connected by wall-to-wall junctions, form stable consortia that we call green modules. These assemble in the pseudo-meristem and then localize to the algal layer of the thallus. In the foliose lobes of Candelaria concolor, the cells in each module are enveloped in a continuous 10-nm-thick film of hydrophobin proteins, which binds to wall and matrix surfaces on its hydrophilic side and faces air or water on its hydrophobic side. We document patterned relationships between modules and associated cords of hyphae destined for the outer layers, and propose ways that these relationships could form the structural foundation for water and air regulation within foliose lobes. Keywords: Lichen; Ascomycete; Alga; Green module; Hydrophobin; Fungal secondary products; Quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy.
33678Kakeh J., Gorji M., Mohammadi M.H., Asadi H., Khormali F., Sohrabi M. & Eldridge D.J. (2021): Biocrust islands enhance infiltration, and reduce runoff and sediment yield on a heavily salinized dryland soil. - Geoderma, 404: 115329 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2021.115329.
Salinity and sodicity are major forms of land degradation in drylands worldwide, reducing soil function, and threatening pastoral livelihoods. Dryland soils are often dominated by biocrusts, surface aggregations of lichens, bryophytes, fungi and other minute organisms that stabilize surface soils. Biocrusts could have a role in maintaining hydrological functions in heavily salinized areas, but there have been few studies, and the mechanisms are poorly understood. We tested whether biocrust mosses and lichens enhanced infiltration, and reduced runoff and sediment yield, on biocrusted islands scattered among extensive patches of bare highly saline soils in northeaster Iran. Biocrusted soils had greater cumulative infiltration and hydraulic conductivity, less runoff, which commenced later, and lower sediment yields than bare soils. The water content of biocrusted soils was greater than bare soils, but only at low matric potentials. Biocrusted surfaces were alkaline, more sandy, had lower levels of sodium, chloride, and calcium-plus-magnesium ions, and a lower sodium absorption ratio than bare soils. Structural equation modelling showed that increasing salinity was associated with a suppression of the negative effect of biocrusts on runoff. Potential mechanisms for reduced runoff likely relate to enhanced soil aggregation and porosity of biocrusted soils leading to greater retention of soil water content at low matric potentials, as well as an ability of mosses and lichens to capture and store surface water or to permit infiltration into the uppermost surface layers. Overall, our findings reveal a strong association between moss- and lichendominant biocrusts and soil hydrological processes, and suggest that these crusts play an important role in maintaining hydrological function in heavily salinized soils. Keywords: Biological soil crusts; Hydrological function; Runoff; Sediment yield; Soil salinity.
33677Agnelli A., Corti G., Massaccesi L., Ventura S. & D’Acqui L.P. (2021): Impact of biological crusts on soil formation in polar ecosystems. - Geoderma, 401: 115340 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2021.115340.
We tested the impact of biological soil crusts (BSC) at different degrees of development on soil formation in Polar ecosystems, specifically in two Arctic sites, Svalbard Island (Norway) and Tarfala (Sweden), and in an Antarctic site, Apostrophe Island (Victoria Land). In each site, slightly developed BSC (thin and made by green algae and cyanobacteria associations – SD-BSC) highly developed BSC (thick and dominated by green algae and cyanobacteria associations with/without mosses and/or lichens – HD-BSC), and moderately developed BSC (MD-BSC) with intermediate characteristics between the slightly and the highly developed, were sampled together with the AC and A horizons immediately under the crust. After separating the organic residue of the biocrust from the mineral phase by density fractionation, in the heavy fractions obtained from HD-BSC, MD-BSC and SD-BSC we determined the amount of soil organic carbon and its radiocarbon natural abundance, total nitrogen content, mineralogical assemblage by x-ray diffraction, and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) by infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). We found that when BSC were able to develop on stable ice-free surfaces, they modified the soil by supplying new organic substances. These new substances, in addition to diluting the old C inherited from the substrate and darkening the upper mineral horizon, promoted acidification, which is responsible for mineral weathering and neogenesis of clay minerals. With their development, BSC act as ecosystem engineers and promote soil formation in Polar ecosystems by increasing soil stability, organic matter content and nutrient availability, which indirectly improve aggregation, water holding capacity, and soil heating. Keywords: Gelisols; Biocrusts; Soil organic C; Weathering; Radiocarbon; Infrared photoacoustic spectrometry (FTIRPAS).
33676Looney C.E., D’Amato A.W. & Jovan S. (2021): Investigating linkages between the size-growth relationship and drought, nitrogen deposition, and structural complexity in western U.S. Forests. - Forest Ecology and Management, 497: 119494 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2021.119494.
Understanding how stand structure responds to stresses such as drought and pollution could aid forest managers in evaluating silvicultural treatment success, predicting treatment durability, and designing adaptive management approaches. The size-growth relationship (SGR), a measure of growth partitioning among different size trees in a stand, may provide a means of linking stresses impacting individual trees to forest stand development and growth. No study to date has tested SGR’s response to drought and pollution, specifically N deposition, across landscapes. We combined Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) stand development and plot-level lichen bioindicator data on N deposition with climate data denoting moisture availability. Using linear regression, we examined SGR, stand structural complexity, individual tree growth and mortality in largely multi-aged, mixed species stands in California, Oregon, and Washington, USA, coniferous and pine-oak forests. Our goals were to determine a) the influence of moisture availability and/or N deposition on SGR, b) whether SGR translates to differences in stand structural complexity over time, and c) the extent to which SGR mediates the impacts of abiotic stress on tree growth and mortality. Consistent with previous research, our results indicated that SGR increased with stand density, indicative of larger trees possessing a disproportionate advantage in aboveground competition for light. SGR declined linearly with stand age, trending over time towards disproportionately slow large-tree growth. SGR strongly increased with low-moderate bioindicated N deposition, which is consistent with past findings that SGR increases with site quality and suggests that N deposition disproportionately increases growth in larger trees. We did not find evidence that drought stress (as indicated by the Palmer Drought Severity Index) influenced SGR. Stands that were already more structurally complex showed further gains in complexity under high SGR (disproportionately rapid large-tree growth), whereas stands that were initially structurally simpler increased in complexity under low SGR (disproportionately slow large tree growth). As such, individualtree growth and mortality may drive changes in complexity. Our results support the utility of SGR as a predictor of how stress impacts stand structure, but only when accounting for initial structural complexity. Our findings also have implications for the design and durability of silvicultural treatments, given that silvicultural prescriptions often involve the manipulation of tree size distributions. Moreover, these findings underscore the importance of accounting for the historical influence of N deposition on stand development during treatment planning, as well as the likelihood of socioeconomic changes altering N deposition in the future. Keywords: Growth dominance; Climate change; Air pollution; Competition symmetry; Structural heterogeneity; Lichen bioindicator.
33675McCann E., Reed S.C., Saud P., Reibold R.H., Howell A. & Faist A.M. (2021): Plant growth and biocrust-fire interactions across five North American deserts. - Geoderma, 401: 115325 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2021.115325.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are communities predominately comprised of lichens, bryophytes, fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria that form at the soil surface in dryland ecosystems worldwide. Biocrusts can influence the vascular plant community by altering surface hydrology, nutrient cycling, and the availability of microsites suitable for germination. Fire frequency has increased in many dryland systems, but the potential impacts of fire on biocrust-plant interactions remains unclear. Our study explores how biocrusts and the heating associated with fire affect plant growth across five North American desert sites: the Chihuahuan, Colorado Plateau, Great Basin, Mojave, and Sonoran. Using field-collected biocrusts and mineral soil samples from each of these five deserts, we investigated soil biogeochemical differences and the implications of soil heating and biocrust cover on greenhouse grown Elymus elymoides plants. Results showed plant biomass and leaf production were largely determined by the desert where soils originated, and that the soils collected from the Great Basin site, whether heated or not, were generally higher in nutrients and distinct from the other North American desert sites. In contrast, the Chihuahuan site was lower in nutrients and plant biomass growth compared with the other desert sites. In the short term, biocrusts and heating did not significantly affect the biogeochemical profile of individual desert site soils. However, biocrusts and soil heating positively influenced plant growth, and the combination of these factors influenced plants more strongly than either factor considered separately. These findings highlight the importance of biocrusts in mediating resources and suggest additional mechanisms through which fire may alter or accentuate dynamics between biocrusts and vascular plants. Keywords: Biological soil crusts; Drylands; Ecosystem recovery; Great Basin; First order fire effects; North American deserts; Plant biomass; Elymus elymoides.
33674Chaparro M.A.E. (2021): Airborne particle accumulation and loss in pollution-tolerant lichens and its magnetic quantification. - Environmental Pollution, 288: 117807 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117807.
Pollution-tolerant lichens are recognized ecological indicators of air pollution in cities, which can also collect airborne anthropogenic particles in their tissues. Harmful (sub)micron-sized magnetites are a ubiquitous component of air particle pollution, adversely impacting human health. In this work, in situ magnetic susceptibility κis of well-characterized ultrafine magnetite and lichen thalli were measured to quantify the amount of airborne magnetic particles (AMP) after calibration and to assess the lichen’s decontamination over time. Up to 2850 magnetic measurements were carried out in twenty-nine transplanted lichens (collected in urban and clean areas) from winter 2020 to winter 2021. Before the transplants, their initial κis values were 0.23–9.45 × 10
33673Dietrich M., Krekeler M.P.S., Kousehlar M. & Widom E. (2021): Quantification of Pb pollution sources in complex urban environments through a multi-source isotope mixing model based on Pb isotopes in lichens and road sediment. - Environmental Pollution, 288: 117815 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117815.
Despite a growing focus on anthropogenic toxic metal pollution in urban environments, few studies have addressed the problem of quantification when more than two pollution sources are likely present, particularly within complex urban settings in the United States (U.S.). In this study, we utilize the MixSIAR package in R for source apportionment based on Pb isotopic signatures in lichen and road sediment in two urban-industrial centers in SW Ohio (OH). We show that ranges of pollutant contributions are more useful than only visualizing mean or raw values of source apportionment, because this avoids overinterpretation of data when certain sources have a large range of uncertainty. We point out both the dominance of industrial pollution as well as the legacy of leaded gasoline pollution in typical mid-sized U.S. cities, which is evident in both road sediment and lichens. Leaded gasoline contribution to Pb in Middletown, OH lichens mostly vary between ~10 and 25%, while in Hamilton, OH the contribution to lichens and road sediment tends to be relatively negligible except for two road sediment samples and one lichen sample, where median contributions are ~20–30%. Industrial combustion pollution source contributions vary between ~25 and 75% in Hamilton, and ~50–100% in Middletown, OH. Furthermore, comparing pollution sources in lichens to modern particulate matter can provide a record of how pollutant sources change over time, such as our traffic lichen (Sample Li-9) plotting closer to leaded gasoline on a bivariate mixing diagram than modern traffic particulate matter, or our coke plant lichen containing slightly less Pb contribution from industrial combustion sources relative to modern coke plant particulate matter. Lastly, when applicable, multi-source mixing models should be complimented in future studies with additional isotopic source tracers such as Cu, Zn, Nd, and Os to further elucidate unique sources of metal pollutants in addition to Pb. Keywords: Pb isotopes; Pollution source apportionment; MixSIAR; Urban pollution; Road dust; Lichens.
33672Pino-Bodas R. & Stenroos S. (2021): Global biodiversity patterns of the photobionts associated with the genus Cladonia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota). - Microbial Ecology, 82: 173–187. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-020-01633-3.
The diversity of lichen photobionts is not fully known. We studied here the diversity of the photobionts associated with Cladonia, a sub-cosmopolitan genus ecologically important, whose photobionts belong to the green algae genus Asterochloris. The genetic diversity of Asterochloris was screened by using the ITS rDNA and actin type I regions in 223 specimens and 135 species of Cladonia collected all over the world. These data, added to those available in GenBank, were compiled in a dataset of altogether 545 Asterochloris sequences occurring in 172 species of Cladonia. A high diversity of Asterochloris associated with Cladonia was found. The commonest photobiont lineages associated with this genus are A. glomerata, A. italiana, and A. mediterranea. Analyses of partitioned variation were carried out in order to elucidate the relative influence on the photobiont genetic variation of the following factors: mycobiont identity, geographic distribution, climate, and mycobiont phylogeny. The mycobiont identity and climate were found to be the main drivers for the genetic variation of Asterochloris. The geographical distribution of the different Asterochloris lineages was described. Some lineages showed a clear dominance in one or several climatic regions. In addition, the specificity and the selectivity were studied for 18 species of Cladonia. Potentially specialist and generalist species of Cladonia were identified. A correlation was found between the sexual reproduction frequency of the host and the frequency of certain Asterochloris OTUs. Some Asterochloris lineages co-occur with higher frequency than randomly expected in the Cladonia species. Keywords: Asterochloris . Lichens . Specificity . Symbiosis . Trebouxiophyceae.
33671Lyanguzova I.V. (2021): Airborne heavy metal pollution and its effects on biomass of ground vegetation, foliar elemental composition and metabolic profiling of forest plants in the Kola Peninsula (Russia). - Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 68, Suppl. 1: S140–S149. DOI: 10.1134/S1021443721070086.
In this work a quantitative estimation of biomass accumulation in the ground cover of pine forests of northern taiga in the background area of the Kola Peninsula (Russia) and in the territory of the buffer and impact zones of non-ferrous metallurgical plant, producing air emissions containing sulfur dioxide and polymetallic dust, was carried out. It was found that under the influence of airborne pollution in the first place the moss–lichen layer is destroyed with elimination of sensitive species of mosses and lichens; the structure of biomass changes and both the total stock of aboveground biomass and stocks of individual components decrease. The results of studying the elemental composition of dominant species of plants (Vaccinium myrtillus L., V. vitis-idaea L., V. uliginosum L., Empetrum hermaphroditum Hagerup), mosses (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt.) and lichens (Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouza et Vĕzda) of northern taiga forests revealed an imbalance in their mineral nutrition. Using metabolomic analysis, the macroprofile of the component composition of the secondary metabolites in the leaves of 3 species of the Vaccinium genus was characterized, the specificity of the composition of metabolites in each studied species was revealed. Despite the reduction in atmospheric emissions by Severonickel Combine, the restoration of the ground cover in pine forests is inhibited (buffer zone) or it cannot even begin (impact zone) due to the high level of soil contamination with heavy metals. The mineral nutrition of higher plants, mosses and lichens is disturbed: as one approaches the source of pollution, the accumulation of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Co, Fe) increases; their ratio changes; the content of micro- (Mn) and essential macroelements (Ca, Mg) decreases in the leaves of the dwarf shrubs and the moss. The changes in the metabolite profiles of the leaves of the genus Vaccinium are due to both the plant species and the level of airborne pollution. Keywords: Vaccinium genus, Empetrum hermaphroditum, Pleurozium schreberi, Cladonia stellaris, heavy metals, airborne technogenic pollution, biomass, mineral composition, metabolic profiling, northern pine forests, Kola Peninsula.
33670Trindade D.P.F., Pärtel M., Carmona C.P., Randlane T. & Nascimbene J. (2021): Integrating dark diversity and functional traits to enhance nature conservation of epiphytic lichens: a case study from Northern Italy. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 30: 2565–2579. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-021-02211-w.
Mountains provide a timely opportunity to examine the potential effects of climate change on biodiversity. However, nature conservation in mountain areas have mostly focused on the observed part of biodiversity, not revealing the suitable but absent species—dark diversity. Dark diversity allows calculating the community completeness, indicating whether sites should be restored (low completeness) or conserved (high completeness). Functional traits can be added, showing what groups should be focused on. Here we assessed changes in taxonomic and functional observed and dark diversity of epiphytic lichens along elevational transects in Northern Italy spruce forests. Eight transects (900–1900 m) were selected, resulting in 48 plots and 240 trees, in which lichens were sampled using four quadrats per tree (10 × 50 cm). Dark diversity was estimated based on species co-occurrence (Beals index). We considered functional traits related to growth form, photobiont type and reproductive strategy. Linear and Dirichlet regressions were used to examine changes in taxonomic metrics and functional traits along gradient. Our results showed that all taxonomic metrics increased with elevation and functional traits of lichens differed between observed and dark diversity. At low elevations, due to low completeness and harsh conditions, both restoration and conservation activities are needed, focusing on crustose species. Towards high elevations, conservation is more important to prevent species pool losses, focusing on macrolichens, lichens with Trentepohlia and sexual reproduction. Finally, dark diversity and functional traits provide a novel tool to enhance nature conservation, indicating particular threatened groups, creating windows of opportunities to protect species from both local and regional extinctions. Keywords: Biodiversity conservation · Climate change · Crustose · Functional diversity · Macrolichens · Species pool.
33669Huynh B.L.C. (2021): A new diphenyl ether from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum . - Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 57(4): 667–669. DOI 10.1007/s10600-021-03446-3.
A new diphenyl ether, named praesorether P (1), was isolated from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale. Its chemical structure was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis including HR-ESI-MS and NMR as well as comparison with previously published data. Keywords: Parmotrema praesorediosum, diphenyl ether, praesorether.
33668Rabahi‑Touloum N., Brara A. & Dessandier D. (2021): Weathering patterns of the hard grey‑striped limestone in the typical Mediterranean climate of northeastern Algeria at the Roman city of Djemila. - Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 80: 6003–6022. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-021-02344-w.
The ancient ruins of Djemila, located in northeastern Algeria, represent the most important Roman archaeological site in North Africa. Originally named “Cuicul” in 96 or 97 A.D./C.E. when the Roman emperor Nerva built and established it as a Roman colony, Djemila (“beautiful” in Arabic) has been included on the UNESCO World Heritage list since 1982. The primary research objective at these ruins was to explain the major decay patterns observed, and the related processes affecting the hard grey-striped limestone widely used in the construction of the city. Mineralogical, petrophysical, and mechanical tests were performed on samples of this limestone collected from both the ancient city and the original quarry using different tools (XRD, XRF, SEM-EDX, etc.) and methods. Results obtained show that this stone has a high compressive strength with very low porosity and capillary absorption. The linear thermal coefficient showed a marked difference between the matrix and the veinlet of the same sampled stone. Hence, exposure over many centuries to strong climatic variations due to the typical Mediterranean climate of Northeastern Algeria naturally resulted in the characteristic yet spectacular decay patterns exhibited on the stone, namely cracks, fractures, contour scaling, large fragmentation, and delamination, as well as orange patina and lichens. The main effective parameters involved are temperature variations (thermal gradient), along with the wet–dry cycles resulting from climatic changes, and insolation decay due to the extreme radiant energy. These factors work in conjunction with the heterogeneity of the stone (presence of the calcite veinlets on the matrix) causing a fatigue phenomenon which, in turn, catalyzes deterioration patterns. Keywords: Djemila · Stone decay · Micritic limestone · Mediterranean climate.
33667Hintz L., Fischer D., Ferrari N. & Crisafulli C.M. (2021): Vegetation dynamics under residual large trees following a volcanic eruption in a Valdivian temperate rainforest. - Plant Ecology, 222: 915–931. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-021-01151-3(0123456789.
Airborne volcanic ejecta (tephra) can strongly influence forest ecosystems through initial disturbance processes and subsequent ecological response. Within a tephra-disturbed forest, large trees may promote plant growth and create favorable sites for colonization. Three primary ways trees can influence posteruption vegetation response include: (1) amelioration of volcanic substrates, (2) providing source propagules from the tree or from associated epiphytes, and (3) sheltering understory vegetation, thereby increasing the rate of recovery near tree bases. Here, we evaluate Valdivian temperate rainforest understory vegetation responses in close proximity to large trees that survived the 2015 eruption of Calbuco Volcano. Understory vegetative cover was higher near the base of trees for mosses, many epiphytes, and some herbaceous, shrub, and trees species. However, significant interactions with year of measurement, and individualistic responses by many species made generalizations more difficult. Shrubs and trees in particular demonstrated patterns of recovery that were frequently independent of distance. In some cases, percent cover of colonizing vegetation actually increased away from trees by 2019. The soil surface was similarly variable where bare soil cover was associated with locations proximal to tree bases, but material shed from living and dead standing vegetation increased wood and litter abundances on the soil surface away from the base of trees. Soils near trees had lower pH, elevated organic matter, and higher nitrogen and carbon. Our results support the assertion that in this temperate rainforest ecosystem large trees may provide important early refugia for vegetative regrowth following a tephra-fall event with altered edaphic conditions. Nevertheless, individualistic dynamics of different species and growth forms suggest the influence of large trees on nearby understory plants is more complex than a simple facilitative model might suggest. Keywords: Calbuco Volcano;  Chile;  Patagonia; Tephra;  Disturbance ecology;  Vegetation.
33666Aoussar N., Achmit M., Es‑sadeqy Y., Vasiljević P., Rhallabi N., Mhand R.A., Zerouali K., Manojlović N. & Mellouki F. (2021): Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and antistaphylococcal activities of Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach., Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf. and Ramalina farinacea (L.) Ach. from Morocco. - Archives of Microbiology, 203: 2887–2894. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-021-02288-5.
The purpose of this work was to assess chemical composition, antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus isolates from catheter-associated infections and antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of three lichens collected from Morocco. The phytochemical analysis of the methanol extracts of these lichens was performed by HPLC–UV method, the predominant phenolic compounds were evernic acid, physodalic acid and usnic acid for Evernia prunastri, Pseudevernia furfuracea and Ramalina farinacea, respectively. Total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid content of all extracts were also determined. As a result, Pseudevernia furfuracea extract had the strongest effect and the highest phenolic compounds content. All extracts showed antibacterial activity against all tested strains (MIC values ranging from 0.078 to 0.625 mg/mL), the strongest inhibition was obtained with the extract of Evernia prunastri. Keywords: Antioxidant activity · Antibacterial activity · Evernia prunastri · Pseudevernia furfuracea · Ramalina farinacea · Staphylococcus aureus.
33665Saini K.C., Bast F., Nayaka S. & Gautam A.K. (2021): Morpho‑molecular characterization of rock‑inhabiting lichen Dermatocarpon miniatum (Verrucariaceae, Ascomycota) and its symbiont in Indian Himalayas. - Nucleus, 64: 193–202. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13237-021-00349-0.
The genus Dermatocarpon (Verrucariaceae) is a rock-inhabiting lichen, mostly grows along the edges of lakes, rivers, streams, and watercourses. Dermatocarpon species are widely distributed from the tropics to the polar regions. In present study, D. miniatum samples were collected from the Indian Himalayas; the mycobiont and their photobionts are identified using morphological and molecular methods. The ITS rDNA markers was amplified for the DNA extracted from cultured photobiont isolates and mycobiont. The light and confocal laser scanning microscope were used for morphological evaluation of the photobionts. The nuclear ITS rDNA gene of the mycobionts and photobionts were sequenced to confirm identity. The phylogenetic trees of mycobionts and photobionts were constructed using the Maximum likelihood method that revealed an evolutionary affinity of lichen D. miniatum and photobiont Diplosphaera chodatii with similar taxa. The D. chodatii (Trebouxiophyceae) was associated with all samples of D. miniatum. This study concludes that Diplosphaera chodatii is the primary photobiont associated with D. miniatum. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of diversity for the photobiont associated with D. miniatum from India. Keywords: Diplosphaera · ITS rDNA · Mycobionts · Phylogeny · Symbionts.
33664Lechat C., Gardiennet A. & Fournier J. (2017): First report of a lichenicolous species of Hypomyces (Hypocreaceae), H. peltigericola sp. nov.. - Ascomycete.org, 9(2): 23–26. https://ascomycete.org/Portals/0/Archives/AscomyceteOrg%2009-02%2023-26.pdf.
Hypomyces peltigericola sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on material collected in France on thalli of the lichen Peltigera canina. In culture the ascospores yielded a cladobotryum-like asexual morph that was sequenced. The placement of this new species in the aurofusarin-group of the genus Hypomyces is based on the combination of morphological characters of sexual and asexual morphs as well as the comparison of its ITS rDNA sequence with those of this group available in GenBank. Keywords: Ascomycota, aurofusarin, Hypocreales, ribosomal DNA, taxonomy.
33663Etayo J. (2018): Hongos liquenícolas de las islas Azores. I. Terceira. - Ascomycete.org, 10(3): 107–116. https://ascomycete.org/Portals/0/Archives/AscomyceteOrg%2010-03%20107-116.pdf.
A total of 66 different lichenicolous fungi have been found in Terceira (Azores Islands) of which 55 have been named at least to genus. A new species is described: Arthonia albotrachynae on Hypotrachyna endochlora. A further 20 species are recorded first time in the Azores islands. Keywords: Arthonia, new species, taxonomy.
33662van den Boom P.P.G. & Etayo J. (2017): Further interesting lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Fuerteventura, Canary Islands (Spain), with three new species and notes on Mixtoconidium. - Ascomycete.org, 9(4): 124–134. https://ascomycete.org/Portals/0/Archives/AscomyceteOrg%2009-04%20124-134.pdf.
Fifty-two taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Fuerteventura (Canary Islands) are presented as a result of recent fieldwork. For each taxon, information about habitat and substrata is given. Forty-seven species are newly recorded from the island, including the rare lichenicolous fungi Arthonia follmanniana and Stigmidium epistigmellum, the latter previously only known from America, and three new species described here: Lecania euphorbiae, Staurothele alboterrestris and Stigmidium seirophorae. The new combination Variospora fuerteventurae is proposed for Caloplaca fuerteventurae. In a revision of the genus Mixtoconidium the new combinations Mixtoconidium insidens and M. nashii are proposed. Keywords: biodiversity, Macaronesia, mycoflora, new records, taxonomy.
33661van den Boom P.P.G., Sipman H.J.M., Divakar P.K. & Ertz D. (2018): New or interesting records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Suriname, with descriptions of eight new species. - Ascomycete.org, 10(6): 244–258. https://ascomycete.org/Portals/0/Archives/AscomyceteOrg%2010-06%20244-258.pdf.
Altogether 193 taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are reported from Suriname of which many are new records for the country. These include eight species which are described as new to science: Bacidia fellhaneroides, B. multicarpa, B. surinamensis, Bactrospora ochracea, Cryptolechia submyriadella, Graphis triseptata, Lasioloma pauciseptatum and Zwackhiomyces parmotrematis. notes on morphology, chemistry and ecology are given. Keywords: biodiversity, chemistry, ecology, lichenized Ascomycetes, South America, taxonomy.
33660Popovici V., Bucur L., Vochita G., Gherghel D., Mihai C.T., Rambu D., Calcan S.I., Costache T., Cucolea I.E., Matei E., Badea F.C., Caraiane A. & Badea V. (2021): In vitro anticancer activity and oxidative stress biomarkers status determined by Usnea barbata (L.) F.H. Wigg. dry extracts. - Antioxidants, 10(7): 1141 [27 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10071141.
Lichens represent an important resource for common traditional medicines due to their numerous metabolites that can exert diverse pharmacological activities including anticancer effects. To find new anticancer compounds with fewer side effects and low tumor resistance, a bioprospective study of Usnea barbata (L.) F.H. Wigg. (U. barbata), a lichen from the Călimani Mountains (Suceava county, Romania) was performed. The aim of this research was to investigate the anticancer potential, morphologic changes, wound healing property, clonogenesis, and oxidative stress biomarker status of four extracts of U. barbata in different solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate), and also of usnic acid (UA) as a positive control on the CAL-27 (ATCC® CRL-2095™) oral squamous carcinoma (OSCC) cell line and V79 (ATCC® CCL-93™) lung fibroblasts as normal cells. Using the MTT assay and according to IC50 values, it was found that the most potent anticancer property was displayed by acetone and ethyl acetate extracts. All U. barbata extracts determined morphological modifications (losing adhesion capacity, membrane shrinkage, formation of abnormal cellular wrinkles, and vacuolization) with higher intensity in tumor cells than in normal ones. The most intense anti-migration effect was established in the acetone extract treatment. The clonogenic assay showed that some U. barbata extracts decreased the ability of cancer cells to form colonies compared to untreated cells, suggesting a potential anti-tumorigenic property of the tested extracts. Therefore, all the U. barbata extracts manifest anticancer activity of different intensity, based, at least partially, on an imbalance in antioxidant defense mechanisms, causing oxidative stress. View Full-Text Keywords: Usnea barbata dry extracts; usnic acid; CAL-27 cancer cells; V79 healthy cells; cytotoxicity; clonogenesis; wound healing assay; antioxidant enzymes activity.
33659Castellani M.B., Bianchi E., Coppi A., Nascimbene J. & Benesperi R. (2021): Revision of the Parmelia saxatilis group in Italy based on morphological, chemical, and molecular data. - Phytotaxa, 512(1): 28–40. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.512.1.2.
Recent molecular studies on Parmelia revealed several new semi-cryptic and cryptic species, suggesting the existence of considerable genetic diversity within this genus that may not yet be expressed at the phenotypic level. This is the case of the two species Parmelia ernstiae and P. serrana that have been described in the P. saxatilis group from Europe and that are still poorly known in Italy. The main aim of this study is to shed light into the Italian distribution of these cryptic species on the basis of a systematic and taxonomic revision of exiccata and new specimens of the Parmelia saxatilis group collected along a biogeographical gradient through the Italian peninsula. In this revision, we combined morphological, chemical, and molecular data and evaluated their reliability for identification at the species level. Results indicate that P. saxatilis is the most widespread species and that P. ernstiae is much more widespread than previously thought. In contrast, P. serrana seems to be a rare species in Italy. Our results also indicate that the combined use of morphological and chemical data does not provide a reliable tool to discriminate the cryptic species of this group and that molecular data are thus indispensable for identification at the species level. Finally, our phylogenetic analysis supports the existence of an unrecognized diversity in parmelioid lichens that should be further investigated. Keywords: parmelioid lichens, Parmelia ernstiae, Parmelia serrana, phylogeny, secondary metabolites, taxonomy.
33658Käffer M.I., Piasa V., Weber D.D., Araújo J.F. & Martins S.M.A. (2020): Composição da comunidade liquênica na área da nascente do Rio dos Sinos, Caraá, RS, Brasil. - Pesquisas, Botânica, 74: 383–397. .
[in Portuguese with English abstract: ] The conservation units are areas that hold an expressive number of species, including lichens. The objective of this study was to verify the lichen composition around Rio dos Sinos source, which can be found at the Environmental Protection Area of Caraá, RS. Samples were collected from tree trunks, branches/leaves, and from the soil, in the interior of the forest and at its edge. The identification of species was carried out through usual identification techniques for lichens. One hundred and thirty-three species were recorded, being Lobaria asperula (Stirt.) Yoshim. a new occurrence for Brazil. Leptogium, Parmotrema and Heterodermia were the most representative genera. And, the foliose and crustose morphological groups were more predominant. Over 50% the species of genus Leptogium recorded within the area are reported to Rio Grande do Sul State. Recording the different organisms composing the ecosystem is essential, considering the fragility of the environment such as water sources, as well as to know the ecological role that they play in the environment, which can help decision taking on conservation and protection of the areas inserted in conservation units. Key-words: Lichenized fungi. Atlantic Forest. Hydrographic Basin. Conservation Unit.
33657Habib K., Firdous Q., Sohrabi M. & Khalid A.N. (2021): Aspiciliella pakistanica a new lichen species (Megasporaceae, Pertusariales, Ascomycota) from Pakistan. - Phytotaxa, 511(2): 175–182. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.511.2.5.
A new species in Megasporaceae, Aspiciliella pakistanica is described and illustrated from Pakistan. A comparative morpho– anatomical study and ITS–based molecular analysis confirmed its position within the recently resurrected genus Aspiciliella. The taxon is characterized by whitish–grey thalli having large and thick areoles without pale lines on the surface, and a discontinuous algal layer arranged in groups of vertical rows. Its positioning in a separate branch in the phylogenetic tree also makes it distinct from the other known species of the genus. Keywords: Azad Jammu & Kashmir, lichenized fungi, new species, Pakistan, taxonomy.
33656Malíček J., Bouda F., Hlisnikovský D., Konečná E., Peksa O. & Syrovátková L. (2021): Lišejníky zaznamenané během bryologicko-lichenologických dní ve Spáleném Poříčí. - Bryonora, 65: 8–23. https://botanospol.cz/sites/default/files/2021-07/BRYONORA_67_2021_06_02.pdf.
This contribution provides records on 224 lichenized fungi and one non-lichenized fungus observed during several excursions in the Brdy highlands and the Příbram region in central Bohemia. Uranium spoil heaps in the surroundings of the town of Příbram harbour many rare species such as lichens adapted to metal-rich substrates or early succession stages. Acarospora rugulosa, A. sinopica, Bacidina brandii, Leptogium subtile and Rhizocarpon ridescens are the best examples. Lecanora flavoleprosa, traditionally known as an arctic-alpine species, is locally common in the Příbram region on siliceous stones in screes. The specific and valuable habitats on uranium spoil heaps are currently endangered by restoration activities. The localities visited in the Brdy highlands included boulder screes, a valley of a brook and avenues. Bellemerea sanguinea, Cetraria sepincola, Cladonia amaurocraea, C. bellidiflora, C. stellaris, Rhizocarpon postumum, R. timdalii represent the most important records. Surprisingly, the pyrenocarpous lichen Porina rivalis was collected in the valley of the Klabava brook at its first locality outside of Great Britain, where the species has recently been described. Key words: biodiversity, boulder screes, Porina rivalis, uranium spoil heaps.
33655Palice Z. (2021): Česká a Slovenská lichenologická bibliografie XXXIII [Czech and Slovak lichenological bibliography, XXXIII]. - Bryonora, 65: 36–41. https://botanospol.cz/sites/default/files/2021-07/BRYONORA_67_2021_06_04.pdf.
bibliography; Czech Republic, Slovakia
33654Yang M.-X., Devkota S., Wang L.-S. & Scheidegger C. (2021): Ethnolichenology—The use of lichens in the Himalayas and southwestern parts of China. - Diversity, 13(7): 330 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070330.
Lichens are used in traditional medicine, food and various other ethnic uses by cultures across the Himalayas and southwestern parts of China. Evidence-based knowledge from historical and modern literatures and investigation of ethnic uses from 1990 proved that lichen species used as medicine in the Himalayas and southwestern parts of China totaled to 142 species; furthermore, 42 species were utilized as food. Moreover, some lichens are popularly used for lichen produce in ethnic and modern life. An understanding and clarification of the use of lichens in the Himalayas and southeastern parts of China can therefore be important for understanding uses of lichens elsewhere and a reference for additional research of lichen uses in the future. Keywords: lichen; ethnic use; medicinal; edible species; Himalayas; southwestern China.
33653Kalra R., Conlan X.A. & Goel M. (2021): Lichen allelopathy: a new hope for limiting chemical herbicide and pesticide use. - Biocontrol Science and Technology, 31(8): 773–796. https://doi.org/10.1080/09583157.2021.1901071.
Agriculture development remains the most significant and integral part of the economic growth of any country with pests, such as plant pathogens, weeds, insects, nematodes and animal, imposing a major threat to the overall productivity. Approximately 25% of the total crop production worldwide is damaged due to these weeds, animal and microbial pest attacks and thus application of agrochemicals to enhance crop productivity has become an integral part of agriculture practices. Beyond their desired activity these chemical pesticides have been associated with side effects that their direct impact on human health, soil and water quality and the residue having immensurable impact on the environment. Due to the severe side effects associated with synthetic pesticides, integrated pest management crop health practices have been developed to use biological products with allelopathic activity as pesticides. Here, we review lichen diversity, allelopathic potential from different lichen species and the lichen metabolites involved in allelopathic interactions. This review also highlights the various modes of actions of lichen metabolites, which include the lichenplant, lichen-herbivore, lichen-insect and lichen-microbe interactions. Furthermore, a crisp swot on the most promising lichen-derived allelochemical metabolites, their biosynthetic pathways and scope of metabolomics in lichenological research has been discussed. Keywords: Allelochemicals allelopathy; anti-herbivorous; lichen.
33652Bennett K.L., Skiles-Jones S.L. & Strawn S. (2021): Efficacy of commercial-grade materials for thin-layer chromatography (TLC). - Evansia, 38(2): 73–83. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-38.2.73.
Identification of many lichens require determination of their chemical constituents. Thin-layer chromatography is a chemical method for separating out chemicals by their solubility in organic solvents. We present here a tested, simplified protocol for performing thin-layer chromatography using locally available materials and reagents, based on solvent system C of standard lichen chromatographic protocols. Adapting Solvent System C, commercial-grade reagents were substituted and the protocol modified to be performed outside of a laboratory without the need of a special license for purchasing laboratory-grade chemicals and without special handling of hazardous chemicals and waste. Commercial-grade materials and chemicals were exchanged step-wise throughout the process. Trials completed using commercial-grade materials and chemicals were successfully compared to using labgrade materials and chemicals. Key words: Crowdsourcing, biodiversity, monitoring, species identification, TLC.
33651St. Clair L.L., Leavitt S.D., St. Clair S.B., Newberry C.C. & Rosentreter R. (2021): Lichen checklist for the Jarbidge Wilderness Area and adjacent Forest Service Lands in northeastern Nevada, USA. - Evansia, 38(2): 43–59. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-38.2.43.
Based on field collections made during the summers of 1987, 1988, and 1989, we report 159 species of lichens in 69 genera for the Jarbidge Wilderness Area (JWA) and adjacent Forest Service lands, located in the northern Great Basin, USA. Specimens were collected at 25 sites, distributed across the JWA along with two additional sites north of the wilderness boundary on Forest Service land. Collections were made from all available substrates, including rocks, bark, lignum, mosses, soil, and from the thalli of various saxicolous lichens. All basic growth forms were found, especially crustose and foliose species. Umbilicate species (Dermatocarpon spp., Rhizoplaca spp., and Umbilicaria spp.) were commonly found on rocks, while a limited number of fruticose species (Letharia spp. and Bryoria spp.) were found on bark and lignum substrates. A single, fruticose species was found on rocks (Pseudephebe minuscula). Saxicolous substrates supported the richest lichen communities, followed by corticolous and lignicolous substrates. Specifically, cottonwood spp., various conifer species, and curled leaf mountain mahogany were important bark and lignum substrates. Other taxa occurred on soil/bryophyte/detritus substrates with one species commonly collected on the thalli of various saxicolous lichens (i.e., Caloplaca epithallina). The JWA lichen flora is richer than other Nevada wilderness areas so far surveyed, with 33 putative new species records for the state of Nevada. Species richness and abundance in the JWA is likely due in part to the more mesic conditions found in the wilderness as well as its proximity to the more abundant and diverse lichen communities found in the Northern Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Northwest. Samples of two sensitive indicator species (Rhizoplaca melanophthalma and Letharia lupina) were analyzed to determine thallus concentrations of three potential air pollutants (sulfur, copper, and lead). All pollutant element concentrations were within background levels except for percent sulfur in two samples of Letharia lupina from Hummingbird Ridge (0.226%) and Emerald Lake (0.215%). Both sites are upper elevation (˃ 2700 m ASL) suggesting possible accumulation due to long-range transport of sulfur species from large urban areas in the Pacific Northwest. Key words. Air quality bio-monitoring, biodiversity inventory, collections-based research, Great Basin.
33650DeBolt A. (2021): Transplant success of Cladonia perforata (Florida perforate cladonia) at the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Outstanding Natural Area. - Evansia, 38(2): 32–42. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-38.2.32.
At the 120-acre Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Outstanding Natural Area (ONA) located in southeast Florida, 30 Cladonia perforata thalli were translocated in 2009. Thalli were transplanted from an area with a large C. perforata population, where sand pine fuels had accumulated and were at risk of a fire, to an area that had either been recently burned, or where no fuel treatments were planned in the near future. There was no C. perforata at or near the four transplant recipient locations, which were selected for habitat suitability and their protected locations within the ONA. The four C. perforata recipient sites have been monitored annually since 2009. Across the four transplant locations, C. perforata thalli have increased, numbering 173 in 2015 and 443 in 2020. Based on our findings, translocation of C. perforata was highly successful at the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse ONA, with an over 14-fold increase in number of individuals in an 11-year period, assisting the colonization of new sites and buffering the lichen’s vulnerable population at this location. Larger thallus size, transplant recipient site protection, and site characteristics that facilitated thalli stabilization probably contributed to this success. While habitat conservation of in situ populations is the preferred management practice for species conservation, it is encouraging to know that, with proper methodology and timing, translocation can be a tool for certain species. Key words. Lichen conservation, translocation, Florida scrub, natural area, species recovery.
33649Urbanavichene I.N. & Urbanavichus G.P. (2021): Additions to the lichen flora of the Kologriv Forest Reserve and Kostroma Region. - Turczaninowia, 24(2): 28–41. https://doi.org/10.14258/turczaninowia.24.2.4.
As a result of determining the lichens collected in summer 2020 in the territory of the Kologriv Forest State Nature Reserve (Kostroma Region), 57 species (44 lichens, 5 non-lichenized and 8 lichenicolous fungi) new to the lichen flora of the Reserve were identified. Among them, 49 species and 17 genera ( Acrocordia, Allocalicium, Aca - rospora, Biatoridium, Catinaria, Cryptodiscus, Didymocyrtis, Fellhanera, Inoderma, Intralichen, Lichenoconium, Melaspileella, Rebentischia, Schismatomma, Sclerococcum, Thelidium, and Tremella ) are new for the Kostroma Re - gion. Micarea melanobola is new for Russia. The genus Rebentischia with species R. massalongii as well as Ramalina vogulica are published for the first time for the European Russia. Five species: Allocalicium adaequatum, Bryoria glabra, Japewia subaurifera, Sclerococcum simplex, and Tremella hypogymniae – are reported as new records for the Middle Russia. Information on habitats, substrates and distribution in the neighboring regions is provided. Keywords : diversity, European Russia, Micarea melanobola , Nature Reserve, new records.
33648Belguidoum A., Lograda T. & Ramdani M. (2021): Ability of metal trace elements accumulation by Lichens, Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea, in Megres area (Setif, Algeria). - Acta Scientifica Naturalis, 8(1): 91–108. DOI: 10.2478/asn-2021-0008.
The accumulating ability of the atmospheric Metal Trace Elements (MTE) of two lichenic species thalli; Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea were evaluated in the region of Megres. The recorded concentrations of MTE (Fe, Cu, Mn, Cd, and Pb) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AASF). The ability to accumulate MTE in X. parietina thalli is considerably greater than that of the fruticulous lichen R. farinacea in all stations studied. The general pattern of the elements accumulated in the thalli of the two species in decreasing order of their concentrations was Fe> Mn> Pb> Cu> Cd. The Fe values are very high in X. parietina thalli with an average of 35237.5 ± 3394.2 mg/kg dry wt. In contrast, the Pb concentrations are high, especially in the southern station of the Megres region. The results showed that X. parietina is a hyper-accumulating species of MTE, compared to R. farinacea. This work highlights the ecological importance of this species as a stable and resistant pioneer in this fragile region. Keywords: Air pollution; Biomonitoring; Ramalina farinacea; Xanthoria parietina; Megres; Algeria.
33647Gerasimova J., Ruthensteiner B. & Beck A. (2021): MicroCT as a useful tool for analysing the 3D structure of lichens and quantifying internal cephalodia in Lobaria pulmonaria. - Applied Microbiology, 1(2): 189–200. https://doi.org/10.3390/applmicrobiol1020015.
High-resolution X-ray computer tomography (microCT) is a well-established technique to analyse three-dimensional microstructures in 3D non-destructive imaging. The non-destructive three-dimensional analysis of lichens is interesting for many reasons. The examination of hidden structural characteristics can, e.g., provide information on internal structural features (form and distribution of fungal-supporting tissue/hypha), gas-filled spaces within the thallus (important for gas exchange and, thus, physiological processes), or yield information on the symbiont composition within the lichen, e.g., the localisation and amount of additional cyanobacteria in cephalodia. Here, we present the possibilities and current limitations for applying conventional laboratory-based high-resolution X-ray computer tomography to analyse lichens. MicroCT allows the virtual 3D reconstruction of a sample from 2D X-ray projections and is helpful for the non-destructive analysis of structural characters or the symbiont composition of lichens. By means of a quantitative 3D image analysis, the volume of internal cephalodia is determined for Lobaria pulmonaria and the external cephalodia of Peltigera leucophlebia. Nevertheless, the need for higher-resolution tomography for more detailed studies is emphasised. Particular challenges are the large sizes of datasets to be analysed and the high variability of the lichen microstructures. Keywords: X-ray computer tomography; 3D image analysis; Bacidia rubella; Evernia divaricata; Hypogymnia physodes; Lobaria pulmonaria; Peltigera leucophlebia; Xanthoria parietina.
33646Cornet L., Magain N., Baurain D. & Lutzoni F. (2021): Exploring syntenic conservation across genomes for phylogenetic studies of organisms subjected to horizontal gene transfers: A case study with Cyanobacteria and cyanolichens. - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 162: 107100 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2021.107100.
Understanding the evolutionary history of symbiotic Cyanobacteria at a fine scale is essential to unveil patterns of associations with their hosts and factors driving their spatiotemporal interactions. As for bacteria in general, Horizontal Gene Transfers (HGT) are expected to be rampant throughout their evolution, which justified the use of single-locus phylogenies in macroevolutionary studies of these photoautotrophic bacteria. Genomic approaches have greatly increased the amount of molecular data available, but the selection of orthologous, congruent genes that are more likely to reflect bacterial macroevolutionary histories remains problematic. In this study, we developed a synteny-based approach and searched for Collinear Orthologous Regions (COR), under the assumption that genes that are present in the same order and orientation across a wide monophyletic clade are less likely to have undergone HGT. We searched sixteen reference Nostocales genomes and identified 99 genes, part of 28 COR comprising three to eight genes each. We then developed a bioinformatic pipeline, designed to minimize inter-genome contamination and processed twelve Nostoc-associated lichen metagenomes. This reduced our original dataset to 90 genes representing 25 COR, which were used to infer phylogenetic relationships within Nostocales and among lichenized Cyanobacteria. This dataset was narrowed down further to 71 genes representing 22 COR by selecting only genes part of one (largest) operon per COR. We found a relatively high level of congruence among trees derived from the 90-gene dataset, but congruence was only slightly higher among genes within a COR compared to genes across COR. However, topological congruence was significantly higher among the 71 genes part of one operon per COR. Nostocales phylogenies resulting from concatenation and species tree approaches based on the 90- and 71-gene datasets were highly congruent, but the most highly supported result was obtained when using synteny, collinearity, and operon information (i.e., 71-gene dataset) as gene selection criteria, which outperformed larger datasets with more genes. Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Lichen; Horizontal gene transfers; Phylogenomics.
33645Dembicz I., Dengler J., Steinbauer M.J., Matthews T.J., Bartha S., Burrascano S., Chiarucci A., Filibeck G., Gillet F., Janišová M., Palpurina S., Storch D., Werner U., Aćić S., Boch S., Campos J.A., Cancellieri L., Carboni M., Ciaschetti G., Conradi T., De Frenne P., Dolezal J., Dolnik C., Essl F., Fantinato E., García-Mijangos I., del Galdo G.P.G., Grytnes J.-A., Guarino R., Güler B., Kapfer J., Klichowska E., Kozub Ł., Kuzemko A., Löbel S., Manthey M., Marcenò C., Mimet A., Naqinezhad A., Noroozi J., Nowak A., Pauli H., Peet R.K., Pellissier V., Pielech R., Terzi M., Ugurlu E., Valkó O., Vasheniak I., Vassilev K., Vynokurov D., White H.J., Willner W., Winkler M., Wolfrum S., Zhang J. & Biurrun I. (2021): Fine-grain beta diversity of Palaearctic grassland vegetation. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 32: e13045 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvs.13045.
Questions: Which environmental factors influence fine-grain beta diversity of vegetation and do they vary among taxonomic groups? Location: Palaearctic biogeographic realm. Methods: We extracted 4,654 nested-plot series with at least four different grain sizes between 0.0001 m² and 1,024 m² from the GrassPlot database, covering a wide range of different grassland and other open habitat types. We derived extensive environmental and structural information for these series. For each series and four taxonomic groups (vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, all), we calculated the slope parameter (z-value) of the power law species–area relationship (SAR), as a beta diversity measure. We tested whether z-values differed among taxonomic groups and with respect to biogeographic gradients (latitude, elevation, macroclimate), ecological (site) characteristics (several stress–productivity, disturbance and heterogeneity measures, including land use) and alpha diversity (c-value of the power law SAR). Results: Mean z-values were highest for lichens, intermediate for vascular plants and lowest for bryophytes. Bivariate regressions of z-values against environmental variables had rather low predictive power (mean R² = 0.07 for vascular plants, less for other taxa). For vascular plants, the strongest predictors of z-values were herb layer cover (negative), elevation (positive), rock and stone cover (positive) and the c-value (U-shaped). All tested metrics related to land use (fertilization, livestock grazing, mowing, burning, decrease in naturalness) led to a decrease in z-values. Other predictors had little or no impact on z-values. The patterns for bryophytes, lichens and all taxa combined were similar but weaker than those for vascular plants. Conclusions: We conclude that productivity has negative and heterogeneity positive effects on z-values, while the effect of disturbance varies depending on type and intensity. These patterns and the differences among taxonomic groups can be explained via the effects of these drivers on the mean occupancy of species, which is mathematically linked to beta diversity. Keywords: disturbance, elevation, fine-grain beta diversity, heterogeneity, land use, macroecology, mean occupancy, Palaearctic grassland, productivity, scale dependence, species–area relationship (SAR), z-value.
33644Zhong Q., Zhang Y., Wang X., Timdal E., Gong H., Wang Z. & Wang L. (2021): Phaeorrhiza (Physciaceae), a new lichen genus record to China. - Phytotaxa, 510(3): 228–238. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.510.3.3.
The genus Phaeorrhiza is reported as new for the Chinese lichen biota, including the two species, Phaeorrhiza nimbosa (Fr.) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt and P. sareptana var. sphaerocarpa. (Tr. Fr.) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt. The genus grows on soil in alpine meadows, morphologically characterized by a squamulose to subfoliose thallus, rhizohyphae, and Beltraminia-type ascospores. P. nimbosa has cryptolecanorine to eulecanorine apothecia, while P. sareptana var. sphaerocarpa has lecideine apothecia. Descriptions, a key and a phylogram of these species are provided. Keywords: Fungi, lichenized fungi, Tibetan Plateau, taxonomy, phylogeny, alpine biota.
33643Mitchell R.L., Strullu-Derrien C., Sykes D., Pressel S., Duckett J.G. & Kenrick P. (2021): Cryptogamic ground covers as analogues for early terrestrial biospheres: Initiation and evolution of biologically mediated proto-soils. - Geobiology, 19: 292–306. https://doi.org/10.1111/gbi.12431.
Modern cryptogamic ground covers (CGCs), comprising assemblages of bryophytes (hornworts, liverworts, mosses), fungi, bacteria, lichens and algae, are thought to resemble early divergent terrestrial communities. However, limited in situ plant and other fossils in the rock record, and a lack of CGC-like soils reported in the pre-Silurian sedimentological record, have hindered understanding of the structure, composition and interactions within the earliest CGCs. A key question is how the earliest CGC-like organisms drove weathering on primordial terrestrial surfaces (regolith), leading to the early stages of soil development as proto-soils, and subsequently contributing to large-scale biogeochemical shifts in the Earth System. Here, we employed a novel qualitative, quantitative and multi-dimensional imaging approach through X-ray micro-computed tomography, scanning electron, and optical microscopy to investigate whether different combinations of modern CGC organisms from primordial-like settings in Iceland develop organism-specific soil forming features at the macro- and micro-scales. Additionally, we analysed CGCs growing on hard rocky substrates to investigate the initiation of weathering processes non-destructively in 3D. We show that thalloid CGC organisms (liverworts, hornworts) develop thin organic layers at the surface (<1 cm) with limited subsurface structural development, whereas leafy mosses and communities of mixed organisms form profiles that are thicker (up to ~ 7 cm), structurally more complex, and more organic-rich. We term these thin layers and profiles proto-soils. Component analyses from X-ray micro-computed tomography data show that thickness and structure of these proto-soils are determined by the type of colonising organism(s), suggesting that the evolution of more complex soils through the Palaeozoic may have been driven by a shift in body plan of CGC-like organisms from flattened and appressed to upright and leafy. Our results provide a framework for identifying CGC-like proto-soils in the rock record and a new proxy for understanding organism–soil interactions in ancient terrestrial biospheres and their contribution to the early stages of soil formation. Keywords: palaeobotany, plant evolution, soil development, plant-soil interactions, weathering, X-ray computed tomography.
33642Stark S., Ylänne H. & Kumpula J. (2021): Recent changes in mountain birch forest structure and understory vegetation depend on the seasonal timing of reindeer grazing. - Journal of Applied Ecology, 58(5): 941–952. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13847.
Subarctic forest‐tundra ecotones dominated by mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) are an important habitat for semi‐domestic reindeer Rangifer tarandus. The seasonal timing of reindeer grazing may direct vegetation trajectories in these systems, because in the summer ranges, mountain birches are subjected to browsing, while in the winter ranges, reindeer feed on understorey vegetation and arboreal lichens but leave the mountain birches intact. Based on earlier research, we predicted that (a) summer browsing dampens ongoing vegetation ‘shrubification’ in semi‐dry and dry mountain birch forests and (b) ‘shrubification’ is accompanied by a decline in lichens. We tested these predictions through re‐analysing forest structure and understorey vegetation after 12 years in areas where winter and summer ranges had been separated since the 1980s. We also tested how changes in lichen abundances align with changes in shrub abundances through correlation analyses. The number of tall mountain birch seedlings had increased twice as fast in winter than summer ranges, while big mountain birches had increased in summer ranges. The dominant evergreen dwarf shrub mountain crowberry (Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum) had increased to a greater extent in winter ranges in a semidry habitat, and to a greater extent in summer ranges in a dry habitat. Deciduous dwarf shrub and graminoid biomass had increased similarly in summer and winter ranges. We found no evidence to support that increasing shrub abundances had contributed to a decline in lichens; instead, the lichen cover increased with increasing number of mountain birch seedlings. Synthesis and application. The vegetation trajectories of dry and semi‐dry subarctic mountain birch forests depend greatly on whether the area is used as a winter or a summer range for the reindeer. The recent changes in vegetation are likely to lead to improved summer forage availability for the reindeer, while the opposite may be true for the winter forage availability. Keywords: Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii; Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum; browsing; lichens; reindeer; subarctic.
33641Johansson N.R., Kaasalainen U. & Rikkinen J. (2021): Woodpeckers can act as dispersal vectors for fungi, plants, and microorganisms. - Ecology and Evolution, 11(12): 7154–7163. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.7648.
Bird‐mediated dispersal is presumed to be important in the dissemination of many different types of organisms, but concrete evidence remains scarce. This is especially true for biota producing microscopic propagules. Tree‐dwelling birds, such as woodpeckers, would seem to represent ideal dispersal vectors for organisms growing on standing tree trunks such as epiphytic lichens and fungi. Here, we utilize bird natural history collections as a novel source of data for studying dispersal ecology of plants, fungi, and microorganisms. We screened freshly preserved specimens of three Finnish woodpecker species for microscopic propagules. Samples were taken from bird feet, and chest and tail feathers. Propagules were extracted using a sonication–centrifugation protocol, and the material obtained was studied using light microscopy. Diverse biological material was recovered from all specimens of all bird species, from all positions sampled. Most abundant categories of discovered biological material included bryophyte fragments, fungal spores, and vegetative propagules of lichens. Also, freshwater diatoms, bryophyte spores, algal cells, testate amebae, rotifers, nematodes, pollen, and insect scales were identified. The method developed here is applicable to living specimens as well, making it a versatile tool for further research. Our findings highlight the potential of bird‐mediated dispersal for diverse organisms and showcase the use of natural history collections in ecological research. Woodpeckers are ideal candidates for bird‐mediated dispersal for a diverse set of organisms, especially epiphytes. We report high loads of diverse biological propagules extracted from feathers and feet of woodpecker specimens from natural history collections. The study highlights the potential of birds as dispersal vectors of lichens, fungi, bryophytes, and more. Keywords: collection‐based research; dispersal; epizoochory; lichen; spore; woodpecker.
33640Molins A., Moya P., Muggia L. & Barreno E. (2021): Thallus growth stage and geographic origin shape microalgal diversity in Ramalina farinacea lichen holobionts. - Journal of Phycology, 57(3): 975–987. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpy.13140.
Lichen symbioses are microecosystems hosting many other living organisms besides the two major lichen symbionts (i.e., lichenized fungi [the mycobiont] and green microalgae or cyanobacteria [the photobiont]). Recent investigations evidenced that other fungi, non‐photosynthetic bacteria, and microalgae co‐inhabit within the lichen thalli, but their diversity and their roles are still underinvestigated. Here we present an ad hoc stratified sampling design and in‐depth Illumina paired‐end metabarcoding approach to explore microalgal diversity in lichen thalli of the model species Ramalina farinacea from different ecologies. Lichen thalli were surveyed according to three different sizes, and different thallus parts were considered for molecular, bioinformatics, and community diversity analyses. The results revealed that microalgal diversity strongly depends on the growth stage of the thalli, the geographic area, and the habitat type. The results also show that microalgal diversity does not vary along the thallus branches (lacinias)—that is, it does not correlate with the apical growth and founder effects—and that there is no balanced co‐presence of two main photobionts as previously established in R. farinacea. The sampling design performed here minimizes bias in the assessment of photobiont diversity in lichens and is proposed to be reliable and applicable to further study microalgal diversity in lichen symbioses. Keywords: Trebouxia; high‐throughput sequencing; metabarcoding; mycobiont; photobiont; symbiosis.
33639Ulus G. (2021): Antiangiogenic properties of lichen secondary metabolites. - Phytotherapy Research, 35(6): 3046–3058. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.7023.
[Review] Lichens are symbiotic organisms which are composed fungi and algae and/or cyanobacteria. They produce a variety of characteristic secondary metabolites. Such substances have various biological properties including antimicrobial, antiviral, and antitumor activities. Angiogenesis, the growth of new vessels from pre-existing vessels, contributes to numerous diseases including cancer, arthritis, atherosclerosis, infectious, and immune disorders. Antiangiogenic therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of such diseases by inhibiting the new vessel formation. Technological advances have led to the development of various antiangiogenic agents and have made possible antiangiogenic therapy in many diseases associated with angiogenesis. Some lichens and their metabolites are used in the drug industry, but many have not yet been tested for their antiangiogenic effects. The cytotoxic and angiogenic capacities of lichen-derived small molecules have been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro experiments. Therefore, some of them may be used as antiangiogenic agents in the future. The secondary compounds of lichen whose antiangiogenic effect has been studied in the literature are usnic acid, barbatolic acid, vulpinic acid, olivetoric acid, emodin, secalonic acid D, and parietin. In this article, we review the antiangiogenic effects and cellular targets of these lichen-derived metabolites.
33638Liu Y.-R., Eldridge D.J., Zeng X.-M., Wang J., Singh B.K. & Delgado‐Baquerizo M. (2021): Global diversity and ecological drivers of lichenised soil fungi. - New Phytologist, 231(3): 1210–1219. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.17433.
Lichens play crucial roles in sustaining the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems; however, the diversity and ecological factors associated with lichenised soil fungi remain poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we used a global field survey including information on fungal sequences of topsoils from 235 terrestrial ecosystems. We identified 880 lichenised fungal phylotypes across nine biomes ranging from deserts to tropical forests. The diversity and proportion of lichenised soil fungi peaked in shrublands and dry grasslands. Aridity index, plant cover and soil pH were the most important factors associated with the distribution of lichenised soil fungi. Furthermore, we identified Endocarpon, Verrucaria and Rinodina as some of the most dominant lichenised genera across the globe, and they had similar environmental preferences to the lichenised fungal community. In addition, precipitation seasonality and mean diurnal temperature range were also important in predicting the proportion of these dominant genera. Using this information, we were able to create the first global maps of the richness and the proportion of dominant genera of lichenised fungi. This work provides new insight into the global distribution and ecological preferences of lichenised soil fungi, and supports their dominance in drylands across the globe. Keywords: aridity; biodiversity; drylands; environmental DNA; fungi; lichen.
33637Lagostina E., Andreev M., Dal Grande F., Grewe F., Lorenz A., Lumbsch H.T., Rozzi R., Ruprecht U., Sancho L.G., Søchting U., Scur M., Wirtz N. & Printzen C. (2021): Effects of dispersal strategy and migration history on genetic diversity and population structure of Antarctic lichens. - Journal of Biogeography, 48(7): 1635–1653. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.14101.
Aim: The homogenisation of historically isolated gene pools has been recognised as one of the most serious conservation problems in the Antarctic. Lichens are the dominant components of terrestrial biotas in the Antarctic and in high mountain ranges of southern South America. We study the effects of dispersal strategy and migration history on their genetic structure to better understand the importance of these processes and their interplay in shaping population structure as well as their relevance for conservation. Location: Maritime Antarctic and southern South America. Methods: Populations of three fruticose lichen species, Usnea aurantiacoatra, U. antarctica and Cetraria aculeata, were collected in different localities in the Maritime Antarctic and southern South America. Usnea aurantiacoatra reproduces sexually by ascospores, whereas the other two species mostly disperse asexually by symbiotic diaspores. Samples were genotyped at 8–22 microsatellite loci. Different diversity and variance metrics, Bayesian cluster analyses and Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC) were used to study population genetic structure. Historical migration patterns between southern South America and the Antarctic were investigated for U. aurantiacoatra and C. aculeata by approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). Results: The two vegetative species display lower levels of genetic diversity than U. aurantiacoatra. Antarctic populations of C. aculeata and South American populations of U. aurantiacoatra display much stronger genetic differentiation than their respective counterparts on the opposite side of the Drake Passage. Usnea antarctica was not found in South America but shows comparably low levels of genetic differentiation in Antarctica as those revealed for U. aurantiacoatra. Phylogeographic histories of lichens in the region differ strongly with recent colonisation in some instances and potential in situ persistence during Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in others. Patterns of genetic diversity indicate the presence of glacial refugia near Navarino Island (South America) and in the South Shetland Islands. ABC analyses suggest that C. aculeata colonised the Antarctic from Patagonia after the LGM. Results for U. aurantiacoatra are ambiguous, indicating a more complex population history than expressed in the simplified scenarios. Main Conclusions: Mode of propagation affects levels of genetic diversity, but the location of glacial refugia and postglacial colonisation better explains the diversity patterns displayed by each species. We found evidence for glacial in situ survival of U. aurantiacoatra on both sides of the Drake Passage and postglacial colonisation of Antarctica from South America by C. aculeata. Maintaining the strong genetic differentiation of Antarctic populations of C. aculeata requires strict conservation measures, whereas populations of U. aurantiacoatra are exposed to a much lower risk due to their higher diversity and connectivity. Keywords: Cetraria aculeata; Parmeliaceae; U. aurantiacoatra; Usnea antarctica; approximate Bayesian computation; biodiversity; climate change; conservation; microsatellites.
33636Sohrabi M., Esmaeillou M., Fadaei H., Talebian M.H. & Noohi N. (2020): The field monitoring of influential biodeteriogenic agents on the historic rock surfaces in Persepolis-UNESCO World Heritage Site. - Journal of Research on Archaeometry, 6(1): 175–192. http://jra-tabriziau.ir/article-1-236-en.html.
[in Persian with English abstract: ] Cultural heritage has always been the focus of many civilizations and therefore, it needs to be preserved for future generations. From prehistoric times, when grandeur and beauty were the aims of architecture, stone was the most widely used durable material. Biodeterioration of the stone monuments, one of the most important causes for the loss of the cultural heritage, is defined as any undesirable change in the properties of a material caused by the action of biological agents such as fungi, bacteria, cyanobacteria, lichens and plants, as well as animals such as insects. The world heritage of Persepolis, for example, has been unprotected from biodeterioration for the centuries, and has unfortunately not been addressed during this time. The purpose of this study is to provide a new perspective on the study of the destructive biological factors affecting this historic site to provide a framework for future studies and serious consideration of the biological debate in conservation and restoration issues. Therefore, the presence of various factors possibly derived from the action of animals, vascular plants, mosses, fungi, lichens, green microalgae, and photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic bacteria were investigated. Based on objective observations, the presence of biodegradation factors affecting floors and the all sides of walls of various buildings in Persepolis was qualitatively investigated. Based on the results, the studied areas were classified into four classes with very high, high, medium and low risk. In addition to the initial estimate of biodiversity, the factors affecting the biodegradation of Persepolis were presented for the first time and the critical points for the presence of destructive factors were determined. Lichens exist throughout Persepolis and have proved useful in archaeological studies, since their growth can be chronologically employed to measure the age of rocks and indeed ancient monuments, their radial growth increasing logarithmically over time based on the assumed specific rate. In this study, the presence of lichens has been investigated from the perspective of biodeterioration, their presence at the microscopic scale can intensify the weathering and biodeterioration of the rock. Such action is not visible to the naked eye but leaves irreparable damage to the stone surface. It was estimated that this complex process at Persepolis is the result of more than 15 different Vascular plant species and 5 Non-vascular plant (mosses), 16 or 17 different species of birds, 3 to 5 species of snails and 2 to 4 species of reptiles and insects. It was shown that the establishment of a biomonitoring laboratory at Persepolis is the important task of studying the action of microorganisms since it is estimated that more than 20 strains of non-photosynthetic bacteria, more than 10 taxa of cyanobacteria, about 15 plants and mosses, more than 130 lichen species and 20 species of non-lichen fungi are involved in the biodegradation of Persepolis. The results are the estimative and provide the basis for more detailed studies to monitor the factors involved in biodegradation, which is one of the necessities of this World Heritage Site. Keywords: Persepolis, Biodeterioration, Conservation and Restoration, World Cultural Heritage, Critical points, Biodiversity.
33635Scholz P. (1992): Bestand und Wandel in der Flechtenflora des Harzes. - Bryonora, 9: 33–35. http://botanika.prf.jcu.cz/BLS/english/files/bryonora9_10.pdf.
m Rahmen der Dissertation des Autors (Scholz 1992) wurden im Ergebnis der Auswertung vorhandener Literatur, Herbarstudien und eigener Geländearbeit für den Harz 748 Taxa (736 Arten) lichenisierter oder mit diesen verwandter Pilze akzeptiert 408 Taxa (399 Arten) wurden nach 1980 nachgewiesen. 162 weitere Arten konnten an Herbarmaterial überprüft werden, während für die verbleibenden 175 Arten bisher keine Belege gefunden werden konnten. Den aktuellen Durchforschungsgrad bezogen auf ein Viertel der Topographischen Karte 1: 25 000 (sogenannte MTB-quadranten, was etwa 5,5 x 5,5 km entspricht) zeigt Abb. 1
33634Liška J. (1992): The distribution of epiphytic lichen species in Bohemia: preliminary results. - Bryonora, 9: 26–32. http://botanika.prf.jcu.cz/BLS/english/files/bryonora9_9.pdf.
Project of mapping the present distribution of epiphytic lichens started in Czechoslovakia in the sevennes: in Slovakia by LPišút in 1975, in Bohemia and Moravia by JJLiška in 1978. In both cases records from 1970 onwards were regarded. Method of grid mapping was used and coordinate aid squares of 10* to 6’ (MTB grid) were chosen following with the mapping in FJLG. and Austria (Wirth 1984, 1987; Türk & Wittmann 1984). Czechoslovak national project on lichen mapping progressed rapidly namely in Slovakia where field work was finished in 1981 (Pišút 1985). In the Czech Republic field investigations have not proceeded as fast and therefore I decided to concentrate my efforts on Bohemia. The mapping of this territory has finished and preliminary results are presented. Distribution maps are the basic result of the grid mapping. Further, the time factor can be taken into account and a comparison with old records can demonstrate remarkable decline (e.g. Lobaria pulmonaria - see liška & Pišút 1990). Among various causes of lichen decline, air pollution impact is the most important factor responsible for deterioration of tide epiphytic flora in Central Europe. A comparison of the average year concentrations of sulphur dioxide with distribution maps of selected lichens is demonstrated. Only few species are distributed all over investigated area (e.g. Lecanora conizaeoides, Hypocenomyce scalaris, Hypogymnia physodes, Bueilia punctata). Distribution maps of many lichens show good correspondence with various levels of sulphur dioxide concentrations (see Fig. 1). White spots in distributions of relatively less sensitive species, e.g. Parmelia sulcata, Xanthoria parietina and Pseudeventia furfuracea (Fig. 2) show heavy polluted areas as well as sources of medium pollution levels. Presence of damaged thalli on the margins of lichen deserts of these species (open circles with cross) is also typical. Other more sensitive but still frequent species, e.g. Usnea spp. (Fig. 2), Parmelia acetabulum and Ramalina fasúgiata (Fig. 3) are present only in areas with low concentration levels of sulphur dioxide. On the other hand, sensitive species as Parmelia caperata and Anaptychia ciliaris (Fig. 3) demonstrate only relics of relatively rich epiphytic lichen flora and are scattered in areas with the lowest air pollution levels. These species often occur in isolated locality or are often represented by one thallus only. Relic character of habitat (e.g. old tree in park) also plays a role
33633Liška J. (1992): Two hundred years of lichenology in Czechoslovakia. - Bryonora, 9: 20–25. http://botanika.prf.jcu.cz/BLS/english/files/bryonora9_8.pdf.
Investigation of lichens in Czechoslovakia has a relatively long tradition. In 1991 there was the 200th anniversary of the first two published records on lichens from the territory of present Czechoslovakia, one from the Czech Republic, and the other from the Slovak Republic. In spite of differences in further history of investigations in the western ana eastern part of Czechoslovakia, the origin was strikingly coincidental. In 1791 Tadeáš Haenke published a report on his journey to Krkonoše (Riesengebirge) in which some lichen species from Mt Sněžka were mentioned (Haenke 1791). In the same year, Štefan Lumnitzer published floristic data from the vicinity of Bratislava with a list of 55 lichen species (Lumnitzer 1791). Both papers dealt chiefly with flowering plants, but lists of some cryptogams including Sehens were added. The first purely lichenological publication was the list of lichens from the territory of Bohemia by Mann (1825). In Slovakia (Upper Hungary that time), the first purely lichenological papers were published by Hazslinszky (1859a, b, c), dealing with lichens of the High Tatra Mts. and other mountain ranges. Catalogue by Vězda (1980 - manuscript) excerpted 777 publications by Czechoslovak as well as foreign lichenologists and reported 1833 lichen species in 201 genera from the present territory of Czechoslovakia. I used this catalogue for an estimation of intensity of lichenological investigations in different time periods separately for the Czech and Slovak republics. This intensity is expressed as the total number of floristic and taxonomic papers by Czechoslovak and foreign lichenologists concerning Czechoslovak lichen flora in each decade (Le. ecological papers, taxonomic monographs, exsiccata etc. are not included). In a figure concerning Bohemia and Moravia, Le. the Czech republic today (Fig. 1), three peaks in the nineteenth centuty are visible: the twenties (period ot W.Mann and Ph.M.Opiz), the fifties (Ph.M.Opiz, G.W.Koerber, J.von Flotow etc.) and the eighties (EJSayer, P-Hora, J.Novák, V.Spitzner etc.) - see Bayer (1922). In the first half of the twentieth cenmry, intensive investigation of Bohemia and Moravia was done by well known lichenologists: JAnders, F.Kovář, V.Kuťák, AHilitzer, J.Podzimek, J.Suza, M.Servít, J-Nádvomík and Z.Čemohorský. The highest intensity was in the twenties; a distinct decline of the activity later was due to a) death of the old lichenological generation (F.Kovář, JAnders, AHilitzer and later VjCuťák, J.Podzunek, jTSuza and M.Servit), b) concentration of the Czech lichenologists on investigations in Slovak mountains (J.Suza, AVězda), c) specialization, Le. a shift from floristic to taxonomic studies (M.Servit, J.Nádvomík, Z.Černohorský, AVězda). Likewise a significant decline in the activity of lichenological amateurs after the 2nd World War was important The most obvious decrease took place in two last decades. A way how to change this trend would be to stimulate interest in lichens among amateurs and especially students. Hopefully the Bryological and Lichenological Section of the Czechoslovak Botanical Society established in 1988 will play a role.
33632Lipnicki L. (1992): Motive und die erste Ergebnisse des praktischen Flechtenschutzes in Polen. - Bryonora, 9: 17–19. http://botanika.prf.jcu.cz/BLS/english/files/bryonora9_7.pdf.
Wir wissen, dass Flechten aussterben, wir kennen auch den Umfang und die Ursache dieser Erscheinung sehr gut Jeder Biologe muss sich deshalb deutlich ins Bewusstsein bringen, dass aas Ausscheiden irgendeines Elements aus der Umwelt, sogar eines scheinbar sehr geringen, sehr gefährliche Folgen für das gesamte ökologische System in naher oder ferner Zukunft hervomifen kan. Die Flechten sterben leider aus. Diese Tatsache muss sofort Reflexionen erwecken, um sie noch rechtzeitig zu retten. Est ist unmöglich, für diese Gruppe von Organismen spektakuläre Rettungsaktionen durchzufuhren, wie zum Beispiel durch Zucht in von der Umwelt abgeschlossenen Laboratorien oder Gärten. Die fundamentale und wahrscheinlich die einzige Methode des Schutzes ist die Absicherung ihrer Biotope. Wenn beispielsweiseeine Art in einem grossen Raum auf sehr deutliche Art und Weise ausstirbt, es aber Enklaven gibt (z.B. in weiten Wäldern) in denen ihre Entwicklung normal verläuft, dann muss man alles mögliche tun, um solche Gebiete vor dem Untergang zu schützen. Die Konzentration von SOj in der Luft übersteigt sowohl in Polen, als auch in vielen anderen Ländern Europas die zulässige Normen. Dieses Gift eliminiert die Flechten sehr wirksam aus ihrer Umwelt Zur Zeit beobachten wir in den Ländern Mitteleuropas wichtige politische und ökonomische Veränderungen, darunten solche, die mit der Verwendung der Naturschätze verbunden sind. Wir hoffen, dass die Veränderungen in der Industrie auch zur Reduzierung der Luftverschmutzung beitragen werden. Es gibt in diesem Fall auch eine Chance für die Pflanzenwelt also auch für die Flechten, denen man bessere Lebensbedingungen schaffen kann. Diese Prozess erfolgt nicht von einem Tag zum anderen. Aller Wahrschenlichkeit nach werden auch noch in den nächsten Jahren die Flechten an ihren Standorte wird immer geringer werden. Einige Standorte von Rechten unter Schutz stellend, muss man damit rechnen, dass denoch über 90% der Flechten zugrunde geht Manche werden sich jedoch an wenigen Standorten erhalten könen und sich wahrscheinlich unter besseren Bedingungen wiedemim fortpflanzen. Wir sollten es uns zur Pflicht machen, den Flechten eine Lebensgrundlage zu geben, was - und dies möchte ich besonders unterstreichen - nicht allzu kostspielig ist
33631Lackovičová A. & Pišút I. (1992): Flechtenbioindikation im Gebiet von Spišská Nová Ves (Nordostslowakei). - Bryonora, 9: 13–16. http://botanika.prf.jcu.cz/BLS/english/files/bryonora9_6.pdf.
Die Industrie-Agglomeration im Bereich der Stadt Spišská Nová Ves in der Nordostslowakei gehört zu den Gebieten, die sehr tiefgreifend durch Schadstoffe betroffen sind. Dies wird durch die Wirkung bedeutender Immissionsquellen in Spišská Nová Ves und in den ostwärts liegenden Städtchen Rudnany und Krompachy verursacht In der Eisenerzhütte in Rudöany werden ausser Eisenerzkonzentraten auch Kupfer- und Barytkonzentrate, Quecksilber und reines Kupfer produziert Ausser SOj (1 700 Tonnen jährlich) emitieren die Betriebe beträchtliche Mengen von Schwermetallen, insbesondere Quecksilber. Im Städtchen Krompachy werden reines Kupfer und Kupferkonzentrate erzeugt In die Luft gelangen neben SO? (20 000 Tonnen) auch hohe Mengen von Schwermetallen (1 800 Tonnen fester Substanzen) und AsjOj (107 Tonnen). Ein Heizkraftwerk in Spišská Nová Ves emittiert ca 2 000 Tonnen SOj (nach Babuiik & aL 1984).
33630Kyselová Z. (1992): Epiphytische Flechten und Immissionsbelastung in der Tatra. - Bryonora, 9: 9. http://botanika.prf.jcu.cz/BLS/english/files/bryonora9_5.pdf.
Die steigende regionale Luftverschmutzung, in deren Rahmen sich immer mehr entfernte Quellen durchsetzen, stellt das Hauptproblem für die Tatra und umliegende Regionen dar. Für das Tatragebiet sind die Quellen im Sektor vom Westen bis zum Norden, die in einer Entfernung von 150-200 km liegen (Ostrava- Gebiet, Schlesisches Becken, Krakow-Gebiet), von grösster Bedeutung wie Rak & aL (1982) anführen. Der wichtigste Faktor bei der Luftverschmutzung sind die orographischen und klimatischen Verhältnisse des Untersuchungsgebietes. Die Tatra bildet den höchsten Teil des Westkarpatenbogens. Der Hauptkamm verläuft etwa in West-Ost- Richtung. Die klimatischen Verhältnisse sind in der Tatra sehr eigenartig. Die qro e Höhe bewirkt ein häufiges Auftreten von Winden. Auf der Südseite des Gebirges überwiegen grösstenteils Nordwestwinde und ihnen nahestehende Windrichtungen, auf der gegenüberliegenden Seite der Tatra wieder Südwest- und Südwinde. Die Gesamtorientierung des Gebirges in Richtung der überwiegenden Nordwestwinde, die eine erhöhte Niederschlagsmenge zur Folge haben, verursacht grosse Unterschiede in der räumlichen Verteilung der Niederschläge. Die dem Winde ausgesetzten Nord- und Nordwesthänqe der Tatra haben erhönte, während die Süd- und Südosthänge unter dem Durchsdinitt liegende Niederschlagsmengen aufweisen (Konček & aL 1979). Die hohe Empfindlichkeit vieler Flechten gegenüber Einflüssen von Schadgasen ist allgemein bekannt Arbeitsziel ist es, durch quantitative und qualitative Analysen des Flechtenbewuchsen Aussagen über die biologische Wirksamkeit und die flächenmässige Ausbreitung von Immissionen zu treffen und die Ergebnisse in Form einer Zonierungskarte darzustellen. Aus Gründen der Vergleichbarkeit beschränkten sich die Untersuchungen auf die Baumart Fichte (Picea abies Karst.) als Porophyt, die in der Tatra im ganzen Profil der Waldstufe überwiegt (mehr als 70%). Weiterhin erfolgte die Auswahl der Fichtenbestände nach bestimmten, vorgegebenen Kriterien an den durch das 2x2-km Raster festgelegten Stationen. An jeder Station wurde die Makroflechtenvegetation an 5-11 Bäumen an einem Streifen von 03 -13 m. Höhe und 035 m Breite ausgewertet. Für jede Hechtenart wurden der Deckungsgrad und die Vitalität nach einer fünfstofigen Skala zugeordnet Es wurde für jeden Standort (Baum) der L-Lndex (Hechtenindex) wie folgt errechnet
33629Farkas E. & Lökös L. (1992): Mapping of lichens in Hungary - its role in conservation. - Bryonora, 9: 8. http://botanika.prf.jcu.cz/BLS/english/files/bryonora9_4.pdf.
The first lichen maps in Hungary were prepared with the aim of air pollution mapping. Only zone maps of Debrecen (Felföldy 1942), Szeged (Gallé 1979) and Budapest (Farkas 1982) are available. Dot maps have been prepared at the area of the Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Pilis Biosphere Reserve (Farkas 1988, 1990). These maps represent a relatively small area of Hungary. Since these areas are affected by a great amount af air pollution, they are poor in lichen species. During their lichenological exploration of Hungary Antos, Boros, Fóris, Gallé, Gyelnik, Hazslinszky, Kiss, Kizseiv-Vámosi, Koren, Pokorný, Sántha, Solymosi, Szatala, Timkó and Verseghy collected a large amount of lichenological data Serbarium and published records). The mapping of lichens in the entire area of ungary has been started just recently. It was already known that a number of lichen species have become endangered or extinct Our aim is to prepare a database of the herbarium and published records including the grid reference numbers as well as the Ha«Hral collecting data. The international specifications of the UTM- grid have been successfully applied in the Flora Europaea project (using ca. 25x25 km2 squares). We will therefore use this system and one of the Central European Flora project for our lichen database. During the first period of the mapping project the International Lichen Mapping Committee compiled a list of 42 species to map urgently throughout Europe. We are responsible for mapping the European distribution of Cladonia magyarica and SolormeUa asteriscus. From the bioindication point of view it is necessary to separate the data from before and after 1975. Seven of these 42 lichen species are known to occur in Hungary. Seven of them are known only from data older than 15 years. If these species are not found during resurvey of the original habitat, it is necessary to register them as being extinct in Hungary. There is only a slight hope of finding them at a locality where they were unknown before. Studying areas of little known lichen flora, lichens regarded as absent in Hungary or overlooked might be found
33628Bartók K. (1992): European lichen mapping project in Romania. - Bryonora, 9: 7. http://botanika.prf.jcu.cz/BLS/english/files/bryonora9_3.pdf.
Understanding the importance of the "lichen mapping in Europe" programme, I engaged myself to map the species Gyalecta jenensis and Synalissa symphorea in Romania. Not being able to be present at the Congress of Regensburg in 1990,1 did not understand that actually the question was to map 42 lichen species. In Romania this type of mapping was not used in lichenological studies. There is only one work of 1988, the mapping of Diploschistes genus, based on the UTM wide. The problems are the following; - most of the data on lichen distribution are old (before 1974) but the great majority go back to before the World War II or even World War L I have not the necessary time and possibilities to check whether these species still exist in the mentioned places; - not all Romanian regions have been studied from a lichenological point of view, so that the map of the distribution of species does not give the true picture. Practically, the maps will reflect at the same dme the different knowledge of the Romanian lichen flora. Up to now I succeeded mapping the lichen species only for the neighbouring countries, namely; Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, the USSR, Yugoslavia and of course Romania. Out of these 12 studied species, two of them were not found in the country: Cladonia magyanca and Calidum adspermm. After 1974, data on six species only are available. The social and political changes in Romania have put basic research in a new light, so that we hope that the number of the Romanian lichenologists will increase and that we shall have more possibilities to take part in different international programmes and meetings
33627Bartók K. (1992): Lichenological problems in Romania. - Bryonora, 9: 5–6. http://botanika.prf.jcu.cz/BLS/english/files/bryonora9_2.pdf.
In order to understand the lichenologicai problems in Romania today, I should like to present briefly some aspects of its history. In Romania, as in most European countries, no works exclusively concerning lichens were published before 1900; they were treated together with the higher plants, bryophytes, pteridophytes, as components of the vegetal cover. In Transylvania, which belonged to Austro-Hungary before 1918, the first works also containing data about lower plants, are those published by Heufler (1853), Schur (1859), Csemi (1877-78) and Simonkai (1893). Between the years 1862-1878 Fuss M. published over 150 lichen species in the journal Verh. u. Mitt. Siebenbürg. Ver. Naturwiss^ where the works of another well-known Transylvanian botanist Barth (1877-1905) appeared; following his excursions in different mountains, he collected and determined over 100 lichen species, besides higher plants. Hazslinszk/s book (1884) "A Magyar Birodalom zuzmóflórája" in the first one dealing with the lichen distribution in the territory of Hungary of that time; it also comprises the results of Transylvanian collectings, first of all the great material of H. Lojka (1873-1885) and M. Fuss which also comprised such new species as; Opegraphafarinosa Hepp. from Baile Herculas, Opegrapha diaphora var. calcicola, from Portile de Fier. Before 1900, there were two known specialists collecting lichens in Romania; A. Kanitz (1879-1881) after a trip to the mountains of Bucegi and Ceahlaujjublished a paper where he also mentions 22 lichen species; and Loitlesberger (1897) collected a great number of lichens in the Bucegi mountains; they were published by Zanlbruckner in Vienna, where Catiilaria vemicaroides A.Zahlbr. and Toninia bitlesbergi are described. In the 20th century the number of the researches on lichens increased. In Moldavia, M. Stamatin (1904-1907) was the first to study lichens; he collected materials in Iasi, Vasiui and Suceava departments and enumerated over 100 lichen species. Of these, 74 species have been checked up and revised by the best expert of the time, Zahlbruckner. Between the years 1910-1913 H. Zschacke studied the lichens of Transylvania. He published a great number of new taxa; Microglaena butschetschensis Zsch., Thehdium (Amphoroblastia) rodnensis Zsch., Involucrothele transsilvanicum (Zsch.) Servit, etc. After the World War I F. Foriss (1928-1937) and V. Gyelnik (1930-1935) contributed to the knowledge of the lichen flora of Romania Ö. Szatala’s work "lichenes Hungariae" (1927-1937) is fundamental even today, being used in mapping
33626Alstrup V. (1992): Effects of pesticides on lichens. - Bryonora, 9: 2-4. http://botanika.prf.jcu.cz/BLS/english/files/bryonora9_1.pdf.
Lichens are among the most threatened organisms in Denmark. Out of about 900 lichen species 372 are either extinct, endangered, vulnerable or care-demanding. A further 264- are rare and the status of 110 is uncertain. The reason for this situation are diverse. Air pollution with SO2 is responsible for a dramatic reduction of epiphytic lichen vegetation in towns and along roads. Modem forestry methods are a great danger to forest lichens, both epiphytic and the soil-inhabiting. In the agricultural landscape lichens are found on trees in windbreaks, on buildings and especially on stone fences. Stone fences have been built by farmers during centuries to protect forests and cultivated fields against domestic animals, and are now the most important habitat for stone-lichens in most parts of Denmark. The total length of the fences has been reduced by more than 80 % in this century, but probably still exceeds 10.000 km. Pesticides are widely used in agriculture to eliminate weeds and to control attacks of fungi and insects on the crops. As literature records on the effects of pesticides on lichens were not available, small-scale experiments with the application of 2 fungicides and 2 herbicides to stone-inhabiting lichens were performed, and the effects studied for almost a year
33625Lopez-Ramirez M.R., Sancho L.G., de Vera J.P., Baqué M., Böttger U., Rabbow E., Martínez-Frías J. & de la Torre Noetzel R. (2021): Detection of new biohints on lichens with Raman spectroscopy after space- and Mars like conditions exposure: Mission Ground Reference (MGR) samples. - Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 261: 120046 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.120046.
 First report of the Raman spectroscopy study of Mission Ground Reference (MGR) sample of Circinaria gyrosa.  First use of the term ‘‘biohint” to describe what we are detecting in a more ethical way.  Discussion based on Raman results from Space and Mars-like exposure conditions of Circinaria gyrosa.  Dolomite together with whewellite have been identified in the medulla of Circinaria gyrosa.  Prolonged exposure to UV radiation affects the photobiont and crystal structure of whewellite. The extremophile lichen Circinaria gyrosa (C. gyrosa) is one of the selected species within the BIOMEX (Biology and Mars Experiment) experiment. Here we present the Raman study of a biohint found in this lichen, called whewellite (calcium oxalate monohydrate), and other organic compounds and mineral products of the biological activity of the astrobiologically relevant model system C. gyrosa. Samples were exposed to space- and simulated Mars-like conditions during the EXPOSE-R2 mission parallel ground reference experiment MGR performed at the space- and planetary chambers of DLR-Cologne to study Mars’ habitability and resistance to real space conditions. In this work, we complete the information of natural C. gyrosa about the process of diagenesis by the identification of carbonate crystals in the inner medulla together with the biomineral whewellite. The analysis by Raman spectroscopy of simulated Space and Mars exposed samples confirm alterations and damages of the photobiont part of the lichen and changes related to the molecular structure of whewellite. Keywords: Circinaria gyrosa; Biohint; Mars environment; Extremotolerance; Lichens; Raman spectroscopy.
33624Chamizo S., Rodríguez-Caballero E., Moro M.J. & Cantón Y. (2021): Non-rainfall water inputs: A key water source for biocrust carbon fixation. - Science of the Total Environment, 792: 148299 [6 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148299.
• NRWI was measured with automated microlysimeters in different biocrust types. • NRWI deposition increasedwith greater biocrust development. • The effect of NRWI on biocrust CO2 fluxes depended on the main NRWI source. • Dew mainly stimulated biocrust photosynthesis, resulting in a net CO2 uptake. Links between water and carbon (C) cycles in drylands are strongly regulated by biocrusts. These widespread communities in the intershrub spaces of drylands are able to use non-rainfall water inputs (NRWI) (fog, dewfall and water vapour) to become active and fix carbon dioxide (CO2), converting biocrusts into the main soil C contributors during periods in which vegetation remains inactive. In this study, we first evaluated the influence of biocrust type on NRWI uptake using automated microlysimeters, and second, we performed an outdoor experiment to examine how NRWI affected C exchange (photosynthesis and respiration) in biocrusts. NRWI uptake increased from incipient cyanobacteria to well-developed cyanobacteria and lichen biocrusts. NRWI triggered biocrust activity but with contrasting effects on CO2 fluxes depending on the main NRWI source. Fog mainly stimulated respiration of biocrust-covered soils, reaching net CO2 emissions of 0.68 μmol m−2 s−1, while dew had a greater effect stimulating biocrust photosynthesis and resulted in net CO2 uptake of 0.66 μmol m−2 s−1. These findings demonstrate the key role that NRWI play in biocrust activity and the soil C balance in drylands. Keywords: Dew; Fog; Lichen; Biocrust photosynthesis; Dark respiration; Net CO2 uptake.
33623Déleg J., Gradstein R, Aragón G., Giordani P. & Benítez Á. (2021): Cryptogamic epiphytes as indicators of successional changes in megadiverse lowland rain forests of western Amazonia. - Ecological Indicators, 129: 107890 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.107890.
The Amazonian rain forests of Yasuni National Park, Ecuador (YNP), count among the world’s forests regions with highest biodiversity, but are strongly threatened by deforestation. Cryptogams (bryophytes and lichens) are common and characteristic organisms in these forests, are sensitive to environmental changes, and are considered effective ecological indicators. The objective of this study was to explore the response of epiphytic cryptogams to forest succession in the Amazonian forests of YNP. We hypothesized that alteration of structural and micro-environmental characteristics of the forest, including reduction of canopy cover and lowering of tree species richness, lead to a reduction of species richness and changes in species composition of epiphytic cryptogams. We assessed species richness and composition of cryptogams on the bases of 442 trees in three stage of forest succession (early, intermediate, late), using generalized linear mixed models, multivariate analysis, beta diversity components and Mantel test. We registered 146 species of cryptogams, including 50 of lichens and 96 of bryophytes (39 mosses, 57 liverworts). Diversity of epiphytic cryptogams was highest in late succession forest, and lowest in early succession forest. Major changes in species richness and composition correlated with changes in canopy openness relative to the shift from early to late stages of forest succession. The results demonstrate for the first time the importance of tree species richness for cryptogamic epiphyte richness in Amazonian rain forests. Maintenance of high tree species diversity and structural heterogeneity in late succession forests can considerably contribute to the conservation of the cryptogamic epiphytes of Amazonian rain forests. Keywords: Alpha diversity; Beta diversity; Bryophytes; Yasuni National Park; Lichens; Tropical forests.
33622Goodenough U. & Roth R. (2021): Lichen 5. Medullary and bacterial biofilm layers. - Algal Research, 58: 102333 [37 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2021.102333.
A lichen is a slow-growing niche-constructing organism that form a thallus via scripted symbiotic/mutualist relationships between fungi, algae, and bacteria. In preceding papers we have presented quick-freeze deep-etch EM (QFDEEM) images of the algal and outer layers of squamulose, foliose and fruticose lichens. Here we examine the remaining layers, one occupied by medullary fungal hyphae, and the others including a stunning variety of bacterial biofilms and novel extracellular matrix (ECM) materials. We document that the medullary compartment is filled with an ECM wherein fungal hyphae and secondary metabolites, many crystalline, are suspended in a ground substance that we call fog. We propose that fog is a liquid-glass-like mixture of secondary metabolites (synthesized by the fungi), polyols (synthesized by the algae), and polyol-sequestered water. Bacteria are described in several contexts. In the outer cortical layers of foliose Candelaria and Physcia lobes, they form patchy biofilm islands atop the fungal walls and the polysaccharide-based ECM. In the inner surface of Cladonia podetia they form long heterospecific biofilms at the lichen/external water boundary and at the fog boundary, reinforcing the intrinsic fog/water phase separation and preventing the fog from leaking out. In the outer layer of Usnea fibrils and the inner cortex of foliose lobes, they join fungi and extracellular materials to form surface boundaries. Hence lichenized bacteria not only participate in metabolic exchange but also serve architectural roles in lichen construction and maintenance. Keywords: Lichen; Ascomycete; Alga; Bacterial biofilm; Medullary fog; Polyol; Fungal secondary products; Quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy.
33621Miralles I., Trasar-Cepeda C., Soria R., Ortega R. & Lucas-Borja M.E. (2021): Environmental and ecological factors influencing soil functionality of biologically crusted soils by different lichen species in drylands. - Science of the Total Environment, 794: 148491 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148491.
• Rainfall in drylands modifies the functional response of biocrusts and underlying soil. • Biocrusts affect N and C cycling and modulate response to seasonal climatic conditions. • The extent of biocrusts response to rainfall events varied with the dominant lichen. • Biocrust-induced changes in soil physicochemical factors affect soil microbial activity. • Biocrusts showed higher functionality than the underlying soil layers. Biocrusts are an essential soil surface cover at drylands where ecosystems are especially fragile to soil degradation processes due to climatic peculiarities. In the present work, (micro)biological and physicochemical properties indicative of soil functionality were studied in two different biocrust types dominated by Dipolschistes diacapsis and Lepraria isidiata and in underlying soil at two different depths (SL1, soil layer right below the biocrusts, and SL2, soil layer underlying SL1) at the Tabernas desert (southeast Spain). The influence of climatic factors (rainfall and temperature) and general soil properties on the (micro)biological properties were also analyzed in different environmental (climatic) conditions over a period of two years. PERMANOVA analyses showed significant statistical differences (Pseudo-F = 63.9; P (perm) = 0.001) among biocrust and soil layers. Throughout the study period, enzyme activities involved in C, N, and P cycles; microbial biomass-C; basal respiration; and several properties directly related to ecosystem productivity (total organic carbon, total nitrogen, concentration of ammonium and nitrate) were higher in both biocrust types than in the underlying soil layers, showing that biocrusts improved soil functions related to nutrient cycling. These properties progressively diminished in successive soil layers under the biocrusts (biocrusts > SL1 > SL2). Biocrusts showed greater similarity to each other and to SL1 than to SL2 in (micro)biological properties. A distance-based linear model analysis showed that total organic carbon, rainfall, pH, mineralized N-NH4+, and total nitrogen were the most important variables for predicting (micro)biological soil properties in biocrusts. Different biochemical behavior between the biocrusts and successive underlying soil layers has been found in wet periods. After rainfall periods, the biocrusts showed important peaks in basal soil respiration and in enzyme activities involved in C and P cycles. Nevertheless, soil biochemical properties hardly showed any peak in SL1 and did not change in SL2 despite soil moisture being higher in the soil layers below the biocrusts. Correlation analyses corroborated the existence of different relationships between soil moisture and enzymatic activities. In biocrusts, soil moisture showed a greater number of significant positive correlations with enzymes such as β-glucosidase, invertase, and phosphomonoesterase among others, whereas in SL1 it was only correlated with cellulase and in SL2 with dehydrogenase. A change in rainfall regime, as predicted by models based on climate change in arid and semiarid zones, could affect the activity of soil enzymes in the biocrusts and underlying layers, thus aggravating the degradation of these fragile dryland ecosystems. Keywords: Lichen biocrusts; Enzyme activities; Soil respiration; N mineralization; Microbial biomass-C; Climatic factors.
33620Roth R. & Goodenough U. (2021): Lichen 1. Solo fungal and algal partners. - Algal Research, 58: 102334 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2021.102334.
Lichens are slow-growing niche-constructing organisms that form a thallus via scripted symbiotic/mutualistic relationships between fungi, algae, and bacteria, and that are distributed across nearly all terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy (QFDEEM) to probe the ultrastructure of a lichenforming fungus, Cladonia grayi, and its partner alga, Asterochloris glomerata, grown separately (solo) in the laboratory. The solo fungus resembles its lichenized counterpart in: a) general cellular organization; b) the capacity to form lateral branches; c) the production of extracellular materials; and d) the generation of acellular hyphae that we call struts. It differs in carrying a fibrillar coat on its wall exterior and in often adopting two novel plasma-membrane configurations called pleated and pitted. The solo alga also resembles its lichenized counterpart in general cellular organization, but its algaenan-based wall carries a fibrillar coat not evident in the lichen, and its pyrenoid and plastoglobule endowments are less well developed. These findings are followed by four reports on the QFDEEM ultrastructure of four species of lichens, where we describe the differentiations that occur when the fungi and algae are living together in community with bacteria. Keywords: Lichen; Ascomycete; Alga; Hyphal branching; Quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy.
33619Zhang Y., Wu F., Su M., He D., Gu J.-D., Guo Q., Kakakhel M.A., Yang Y., Wang W. & Feng H. (2021): Spatial and temporal distributions of microbial diversity under natural conditions on the sandstone stelae of the Beishiku Temple in China. - International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 163: 105279 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2021.105279.
•Illumina MiSeq was used for analysis of biofilm on the stelae of the Beishiku Temple. •The microbial communities colonizing the stelae including lichen, bacteria, fungi, algae were characterized. •Temporal variation in bacterial community was mainly driven by climate factors (temperature, precipitation and wind speed). •Some fungi were lichenized type and related to lichens. •The pH correlated with increased diversity of bacteria and algae. Climate and environmental conditions are the main driving factors that are responsible for the biological colonization and deterioration of stone heritage materials, especially for open-air sites. It is critical to determine the relationships among climate, microbial communities, and potential biodeterioration to conserve stone relics. In this study, samples were collected from two severely biodeteriorated stelae that are located in the open air at the Beishiku Temple, China. The genes of 16S/p23S rRNA targeting bacteria and algae and of the ITS1 region for fungi were analysed by using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Additionally, lichens were examined and described. The results showed that the bacterial community compositions varied with seasonal variations and that the dominant phyla were Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Most of the fungi were affiliated with Ascomycota, and some of them were lichenized types and were related to the lichens that had already formed on the stelae. Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria were the dominant algal groups that inhabited the stelae surfaces. Xanthoria and Lecanora were the most dominant genera, which belong to foliose lichen and crust-like lichen, respectively. PCoA analysis showed that the bacterial and algal community structures, rather than those of fungi, were closely correlated with climate parameters. Temperature, precipitation, and wind speed were the main factors that were associated with changes in bacterial communities, while pH was closely associated with increased diversity of bacteria and algae. This study presents basic insights into the lithic microbial ecology in open-air stone monuments and may guide management decisions for their protection and preventative conservation. Keywords: Climate parameters; Historical stone; Biodeterioration; Bacteria; Fungi; Algae; Lichens.
33618Zhang T., Wang N. & Yu L. (2021): Host-specificity of moss-associated fungal communities in the Ny-Ålesund region (Svalbard, High Arctic) as revealed by amplicon pyrosequencing. - Fungal Ecology, 53: 101092 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2021.101092.
Fungal communities play a significant role in regulating ecological processes in the Arctic tundra. However, the extent to which the Arctic moss species and host types (moss, lichen and vascular plant) determine the richness, diversity, and composition of fungal communities at a local scale has not been quantitatively explored. Using 454 pyrosequencing in the current study, we characterized the fungal communities associated with six moss species (Andreaea rupestris, Bryum pseudotriquetrum, Hymenoloma crispulum, Polytrichastrum alpinum, Racomitrium lanuginosum, and Sanionia uncinata) and compared them with fungal communities associated with lichens and vascular plants in the Ny-Ålesund region (High Arctic). Host-species preference had greater explanatory power than geographical factors (longitude, latitude, elevation) in shaping moss-associated fungal communities. Fungal communities associated with mosses differed significantly from those associated with vascular plants and lichens, suggesting specificity of the fungal communities among three host types. Pairwise comparison analysis also indicated that the relative abundance of many taxonomic groups (e.g., Chaetothyriales, Leotiales, Catenulifera, Alatospora, and Toxicocladosporium) significantly differed between mosses and the other two host types. These results suggest host factors significantly affect the distribution of the fungal species associated with these moss species in the local-scale Arctic tundra. Keywords: Fungal diversity; Community composition; High-throughput sequencing; Geographical factor; Moss.
33617Tinya F., Kovács B., Bidló A., Dima B., Király I., Kutszegi G., Lakatos F., Mag Z., Márialigeti S., Nascimbene J., Samu F., Siller I., Szél G. & Ódor P. (2021): Environmental drivers of forest biodiversity in temperate mixed forests – A multi-taxon approach. - Science of the Total Environment, 795: 148720 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148720.
• Forest biodiversity conservation needs knowledge about the environmental drivers. • We studied forest stand, microclimate, soil, litter, landscape, and land-use history. • The response of eleven forest-dwelling organism groups was evaluated. • Stand structure and tree species composition were the most important drivers. • Management has the potential to ensure favorable conditions for biodiversity. Harmonization of timber production and forest conservation is a major challenge of modern silviculture. For the establishment of ecologically sustainable forest management, the management-related environmental drivers of multi-taxon biodiversity should be explored. Our study reveals those environmental variables related to tree species diversity and composition, stand structure, litter and soil conditions, microclimate, landscape, and land-use history that determine species richness and composition of 11 forest-dwelling organism groups. Herbs, woody regeneration, ground-floor and epiphytic bryophytes, epiphytic lichens, terricolous saprotrophic, ectomycorrhizal, and wood-inhabiting macrofungi, spiders, carabid beetles, and birds were sampled in West Hungarian mature mixed forests. The correlations among the diversities and compositions of different organism groups were also evaluated. Drivers of organism groups were principally related to stand structure, tree species diversity and composition, and microclimate,while litter, soil, landscape, and land-use historical variableswere less influential. The complex roles of the shrub layer, deadwood, and the size of the trees in determining the diversity and composition of various taxawere revealed. Standswithmore tree species sustained higher stand-level species richness of several taxa. Besides, stands with different dominant tree species harbored various species communities of organism groups. Therefore, landscape-scale diversity of dominant tree species may enhance the diversity of forestdwelling communities at landscape level. The effects of the overstory layer on forest biodiversity manifested in many cases via microclimate conditions. Diversity of organism groups showed weaker relationship with the diversity of other taxa than with environmental variables. According to our results, themost influential drivers of forest biodiversity are under the direct control of the actual silvicultural management. Heterogeneous stand structure and tree species composition promote the different organismgroups in various ways. Therefore, the long-term maintenance of the structural and compositional heterogeneity both at stand and landscape scale is an important aspect of ecologically sustainable forest management. Keywords: Forest organism groups; Litter; Microclimate; Soil; Stand structure; Tree species composition.
33616Yao Z.-T., Jiang S.-H. & Jia Z.-F. (2021): Mazosia weii sp. nov. (Roccellaceae) from China, a new species supported by molecular data. - Bryologist, 124(3): 335–342. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.3.335.
During a study of the genus Mazosia in China, a new species, named here M. weii, was found. Its position was found to be supported by molecular data of the mtSSU and nuLSU markers. The new species is characterized by a pilose thallus with brown verrucae and 3-septate ascospores measuring 22.5–35 × 4–6.25 µm. The morphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics are described in detail and a key to Mazosia with pilose thalli is added. Keywords: Genotype, new species, phenotype, taxonomy.
33615Shcherbakova A., Strömstedt A.A., Göransson U., Gnezdilov O., Turanov A., Boldbaatar D., Kochkin D., Ulrich‑Merzenich G. & Koptina A. (2021): Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Evernia prunastri extracts and their isolates. - World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 37: 129 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-021-03099-y.
Lichens are symbiotic organisms formed by a fungus and one or more photosynthetic partners which are usually alga or cyanobacterium. Their diverse and scarcely studied metabolites facilitate adaptability to extreme living conditions. We investigated Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach., a widely distributed lichen, for its antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. E. prunastri was sequentially extracted by hexane (Hex), dichloromethane (DCM) and acetonitrile (ACN) that were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial (against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans) activities. The Hex extract possessed the highest antioxidant capacity (87 mg ascorbic acid/g extract) corresponding to the highest content of phenols (73 mg gallic acid/g extract). The DCM and Hex extracts were both active against S. aureus (MICs of 4 and 21 µg/ml, respectively) but were less active against Gram-negative bacteria and yeast. The ACN extract exhibited activity on both S. aureus (MIC 14 µg/ml) and C. albicans (MIC 38 µg/ml) and was therefore further fractionated by silica gel column chromatography. The active compound of the most potent fraction was subsequently characterized by 1 H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy and identifed as evernic acid. Structural similarity analyses were performed between compounds from E. prunastri and known antibiotics from diferent classes. The structural similarity was not present. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of E. prunastri extracts originate from multiple chemical compounds; besides usnic acid, most notably evernic acid and derivatives thereof. Evernic acid and its derivatives represent possible candidates for a new class of antibiotics. Keywords: Antimicrobial activity · Anti-oxidative activity · Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. · Evernic acid · Lichen · Usnic acid.
33614Rodrigues A.S., Canêz L.S. & Lorenz A.P. (2021): Canoparmelia amazonica, Myelochroa lindmanii and Parmelinella salacinifera belong to Parmelinella (Parmeliaceae). - Bryologist, 124(3): 352–361. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.3.352.
The lichen family Parmeliaceae is among the best studied groups of lichens. Canoparmelia amazonica, Myelochroa lindmanii, and Parmelinella salacinifera are species of Parmeliaceae that have yet to be studied in detail with molecular methods. This study used analyses of ITS sequences to examine the phylogenetic position of these three species. Canoparmelia amazonica and M. lindmanii were recovered within Parmelinella rather than the genera to which they are currently assigned. While for the P. salacinifera we confirmed its phylogenetic position within the genus. Chemical and morphological descriptions of species are provided, generic placement is discussed, and new combinations are proposed as needed. These results highlight the need for morphological revision of the delimitation of Parmelinella, a small genus of Parmeliaceae that has been considered well-defined morphologically and is phylogenetically closely related to Bulbothrix s.l. Keywords: Lichens, taxonomy, ITS, restinga vegetation, Cerrado vegetation, Brazil.
33613Prieto M., Etayo J. & Olariaga I. (2021): A new lineage of mazaediate fungi in the Eurotiomycetes: Cryptocaliciomycetidae subclass. nov., based on the new species Cryptocalicium blascoi and the revision of the ascoma evolution. - Mycological Progress, 20: 889–904. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-021-01710-y.
The class Eurotiomycetes (Ascomycota, Pezizomycotina) comprises important fungi used for medical, agricultural, industrial and scientific purposes. Eurotiomycetes is a morphologically and ecologically diverse monophyletic group. Within the Eurotiomycetes, different ascoma morphologies are found including cleistothecia and perithecia but also apothecia or stromatic forms. Mazaediate representatives (with a distinct structure in which loose masses of ascospores accumulate to be passively disseminated) have evolved independently several times. Here we describe a new mazaediate species belonging to the Eurotiomycetes. The multigene phylogeny produced (7 gene regions: nuLSU, nuSSU, 5.8S nuITS, mtSSU, RPB1, RPB2 and MCM7) placed the new species in a lineage sister to Eurotiomycetidae. Based on the evolutionary relationships and morphology, a new subclass, a new order, family and genus are described to place the new species: Cryptocalicium blascoi. This calicioid species occurs on the inner side of loose bark strips of Cupressaceae (Cupressus, Juniperus). Morphologically, C. blascoi is characterized by having minute apothecioid stalked ascomata producing mazaedia, clavate bitunicate asci with hemiamyloid reaction, presence of hamathecium and an apothecial external surface with dark violet granules that becomes turquoise green in KOH. The ancestral state reconstruction analyses support a common ancestor with open ascomata for all deep nodes in Eurotiomycetes and the evolution of closed ascomata (cleistothecioid in Eurotiomycetidae and perithecioid in Chaetothyriomycetidae) from apothecioid ancestors. The appropriateness of the description of a new subclass for this fungus is also discussed. Keywords: Ascomycota . Cryptocaliciales ord. nov. . Cryptocaliciaceae fam. nov. . Ascoma evolution . Calicioid . Hemiamyloid asci . Spain.
33612Aptroot A., Souza M.F. & Spielmann A.A. (2021): Two new crustose Cladonia species with strepsilin and other new lichens from the Serra de Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 42(8): 137–148. https://doi.org/10.5252/cryptogamie-mycologie2021v42a8.
Five species of lichens are described as new from the Serra de Maracaju in Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil): Cladonia gumboskii Aptroot, M.F. Souza & Spielmann, sp. nov. (also reported from five other states in Brazil), C. zebrathallina Aptroot & Spielmann, sp. nov., Lecanora fluoroxylina Aptroot & M.F.Souza, sp. nov. (also reported from Mato Grosso and Paraná), L. lichexanthoxylina Aptroot & M.F. Souza, sp. nov., and Trypethelium muriforme Aptroot & M.F.Souza, sp. nov.. A further 123 species are reported new to the area, of which ten are first records for Brazil and a further 41 are first records for the state. Key words: Lecanora, Trypethelium, Cerrado, new species.
33611Jozdani S., Chen D., Chen W., Leblanc S.G., Prévost C., Lovitt J., He L. & Johnson B.A. (2021): Leveraging deep neural networks to map caribou lichen in high-resolution satellite images based on a small-scale, noisy UAV-derived map. - Remote Sensing, 13(14): 2658 [24 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13142658.
Lichen is an important food source for caribou in Canada. Lichen mapping using remote sensing (RS) images could be a challenging task, however, as lichens generally appear in unevenly distributed, small patches, and could resemble surficial features. Moreover, collecting lichen labeled data (reference data) is expensive, which restricts the application of many robust supervised classification models that generally demand a large quantity of labeled data. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential of using a very-high-spatial resolution (1-cm) lichen map of a small sample site (e.g., generated based on a single UAV scene and using field data) to train a subsequent classifier to map caribou lichen over a much larger area (~0.04 km2 vs. ~195 km2) and a lower spatial resolution image (in this case, a 50-cm WorldView-2 image). The limited labeled data from the sample site were also partially noisy due to spatial and temporal mismatching issues. For this, we deployed a recently proposed Teacher-Student semi-supervised learning (SSL) approach (based on U-Net and U-Net++ networks) involving unlabeled data to assist with improving the model performance. Our experiments showed that it was possible to scale-up the UAV-derived lichen map to the WorldView-2 scale with reasonable accuracy (overall accuracy of 85.28% and F1-socre of 84.38%) without collecting any samples directly in the WorldView-2 scene. We also found that our noisy labels were partially beneficial to the SSL robustness because they improved the false positive rate compared to the use of a cleaner training set directly collected within the same area in the WorldView-2 image. As a result, this research opens new insights into how current very high-resolution, small-scale caribou lichen maps can be used for generating more accurate large-scale caribou lichen maps from high-resolution satellite imagery. Keywords: remote sensing; lichen mapping; deep learning; semi-supervised learning; teacherstudent learning; WorldView-2; unmanned aerial vehicle.
33610Muggia L., Quan Y., Gueidan C., Al-Hatmi A.M.S., Grube M. & de Hoog S. (2021): Sequence data from isolated lichen-associated melanized fungi enhance delimitation of two new lineages within Chaetothyriomycetidae. - Mycological Progress, 20: 911–927. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-021-01706-8.
Lichen thalli provide a long-lived and stable habitat for colonization by a wide range of microorganisms. Increased interest in these lichen-associated microbial communities has revealed an impressive diversity of fungi, including several novel lineages which still await formal taxonomic recognition. Among these, members of the Eurotiomycetes and Dothideomycetes usually occur asymptomatically in the lichen thalli, even if they share ancestry with fungi that may be parasitic on their host. Mycelia of the isolates are characterized by melanized cell walls and the fungi display exclusively asexual propagation. Their taxonomic placement requires, therefore, the use of DNA sequence data. Here, we consider recently published sequence data from lichenassociated fungi and characterize and formally describe two new, individually monophyletic lineages at family, genus, and species levels. The Pleostigmataceae fam. nov. and Melanina gen. nov. both comprise rock-inhabiting fungi that associate with epilithic, crust-forming lichens in subalpine habitats. The phylogenetic placement and the monophyly of Pleostigmataceae lack statistical support, but the family was resolved as sister to the order Verrucariales. This family comprises the species Pleostigma alpinum sp. nov., P. frigidum sp. nov., P. jungermannicola, and P. lichenophilum sp. nov. The placement of the genus Melanina is supported as a lineage within the Chaetothyriales. To date, this genus comprises the single species M. gunde-cimermaniae sp. nov. and forms a sister group to a large lineage including Herpotrichiellaceae, Chaetothyriaceae, Cyphellophoraceae, and Trichomeriaceae. The new phylogenetic analysis of the subclass Chaetothyiomycetidae provides new insight into genus and family level delimitation and classification of this ecologically diverse group of fungi. Keywords: Black yeast . Fungal lifestyles . Melanina . Ribosomal RNA . nucLSU . Pleostigma.
33609Tsurykau A.G., Golubov V.V., Persson P.-E. & Thell A. (2021): The red-listed Cetrelia cetrarioides (Parmeliaceae) is confirmed by molecular data in Belarus. - Известия Гомельского государственного университета имени Ф. Скорины, 3: 152–153. .
The new locality of the Red-listed lichen Cetrelia cetrarioides was discovered in Belovezhskaya Puscha National Park. The occurrence of this species was confirmed by the sequence of the ITS region. Keywords: biodiversity, distribution, Red Data Book, lichens, ITS.
33608Fritz Ö. & Larsson K. (1996): Betydelsen av skoglig kontinuitet för rödlistade lavar. En studie av halländsk bokskog [The significance of long forest continuity to red-listed lichens. A study of beech forest in the province of Halland, SW Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 91: 241–262. .
The significance of long forest continuity to the occurrence of red-listed lichens was investigated in Halland, southwestern Sweden. The location of all localities known to harbour at least 5 red-listed species of epiphytic lichens was compared to the distribution of forest in 1650 and 1850 according to historical maps. Long forest continuity (i.e. deciduous forest occurring around 1650, 1850 and in 1995) was detected in 36 out of 38 localities (95 %) with 10 species or more, and in at least 66 out of 83 localities (79 %) with 5–9 species . Due to the used methods, the actual number of sites with long forest continuity was probably underestimated. Out of the 38 top localities, as many as 31 represented former common grazing lands, mostly those of former manors. In another investigation, all localities known to harbour any one of 29 selected species growing on beech Fagus sylvatica (27 red-listed lichens or lichens used as indicators of stands with conservation values, and 2 rare bryophytes) were checked for long forest continuity. Continuity of old deciduous trees was more or less strongly indicated by all species. For species occurring on beech, the percentage of localities with long forest continuity varied between species from 68 % to 100 %, for most species it was higher than 80 %. For species occurring on oak, the percentage was generally lower, from 33 % to 79 %. In a closer investigation of 307 deciduous forest stands (mostly beech) within a 250 km2-area, only 17 % of the stands turned out to have long forest continuity. Same of the investigated species are suggested to be useful as indicators of different leveIs of conservation value of beech forest stands. The results strongly indicate that long forest continuity is important for many red-listed lichen species in nemoral forest. Biological or ecological continuity seems to be an important aspect of continuity of forest species. The history and present distribution of beech forest in Halland area are also discussed.
33607Gaya E., Vasco-Palacios A.M., Vargas-Estupiñán N., Lücking R., Carretero J., Sanjuan T., Moncada B., Allkin B., Bolaños-Rojas A.C., Castellanos-Castro C., Coca L.F., Corrales A., Cossu T., Davis L., dSouza J., Dufat A., Franco-Molano A.E., García F, Gómez-Montoya N., González-Cuellar F.E, Hammond D., Herrera A., Jaramillo-Ciro M.M., Lasso-Benavides C. Mira M. P., Morley J., Motato-Vásquez V., Niño-Fernández Y., Ortiz-Moreno M.L., Peña-Cañón E.R., Ramírez-Castrillón M., Rojas T., Ruff J., Simijaca D., Sipman H.J.M., Soto-Medina E., Torres G., Torres-Andrade P.A., Ulian T., White K. & Diazgranados M. (2021): ColFungi: Colombian resources for Fungi Made Accessible. - Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 34 p. .
popular bilingual booklet (English and Spanish) with numerous high quality photographs; Colombia; biodiversity; databases
33606von Brackel W. (2021): Lichenicolous fungi from Campania (Italy). - Borziana, 2: 31–68. https://doi.org/10.7320/Borz.002.031.
During a two weeks excursion to Campania in 2016, 36 lichenologically interesting sites were visited. The results of these field studies with special emphasis on lichenicolous fungi are presented, completed with data from the literature. The resulting list comprises 56 species based on original data (own recent records) and 29 species known only from literature ; now 85 species of lichenicolous fungi are known from Campania (80 non-lichenized, obligatory lichenicolous fungi). Among these, one species (Microsphaeropsis lichenicola) is new to Europe, one species (Feltgeniomyces luxemburgensis) is new to Italy and 47 species are new to Campania. The new species Endococcus collematis Brackel is described. Provisional descriptions are given for Arthonia sp. (on Pannaria conoplea), Capronia lecanorae ad int. (on Lecanora horiza), Lichenopeltella lecanoricola ad int. (on L. horiza), Polycoccum sp. (on Romjularia lurida) and Stigmidium sp. (on Xanthoparmelia conspersa). In the Table 1, a list of all noted lichens from the 36 visited sites is given. Key words: Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina, lichens, Endococcus, Lichenopeltella, Mediterranean Introduction.
33605Weber L., Printzen C., Bässler C. & Kantelinen A. (2021): Seven Micarea (Pilocarpaceae) species new to Germany and notes on deficiently known species in the Bavarian Forest. - Herzogia, 34: 5–17. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.5.
We report new records of 19, predominantly rare, Micarea species, mostly from dead wood in mixed montane forests characterized mainly by Norway spruce, European beech and silver fir in the Bavarian Forest National Park on the German-Czech border. Their ecology and key morphological features are discussed. Micarea contexta, M. fallax, M. melanobola, M. pseudomicrococca, M. pusilla, M. soralifera and M. tomentosa are reported for the first time from Germany. Micarea anterior, M. byssacea, M. elachista, M. laeta, M. micrococca and M. nowakii, in addition to the aforementioned, are reported as new for the Bavarian Forest National Park. Key words: Bohemian Forest, dead wood, lignicole, microlichens.
33604Konoreva L.A., Chesnokov S.V., Stepanchikova I.S., Spribille T., Björk C. & Williston P. (2021): Nine Micarea species new to Canada including five species new to North America. - Herzogia, 34: 18–37. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.18.
Nine species of the genus Micarea are reported for the first time from Canada including five (M. contexta, M. fallax, M. pseudomicrococca, M. pusilla, M. tomentosa) which are new to North America. Most of them are part of the Micarea prasina complex. Canadian records of further rare or taxonomically challenging species (M. botryoides, M. inopinula, M. prasina s. str.) are revised. The Canadian records are discussed in the context of their wider distribution, and differences to related or morphologically similar species are indicated. Key words: Biogeography, British Columbia, Pacific Northwest, Pilocarpaceae, taxonomy.
33603Malíček J., Bouda F., Konečná E., Sipman H. & Vondrák J. (2021): New country records of lichenized and non-lichenized fungi from Southeastern Europe. - Herzogia, 34: 38–54. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.38.
One hundred and ten lichenized and three non-lichenized fungi are reported from southeastern Europe, mostly from the Balkan Peninsula. Caloplaca phaeothamnos is new to Europe. Caloplaca brachyspora, Chaenotheca cinerea, Gyalecta liguriensis, Peltula placodizans, Pleurosticta koflerae, Polyblastia forana, Protoparmelia oleagina, Protoparmeliopsis achariana, P. vaenskaei and Verrucaria breussii are new to southeastern Europe. New country records are reported for Albania (57 species), Bosnia and Herzegovina (4), Bulgaria (15), Croatia (3), Greece (14), Kosovo (6), Montenegro (1), North Macedonia (5), Romania (1) and Serbia (12). Many of these records are from old-growth and primeval forests. They underline the high potential for nature and biodiversity protection of many localities on the Balkan Peninsula. Key words: Bredhi i Hotovës-Dangëlli, Llogara, Orlovo Brdo, Paklenica, Mt Smolikas, Thethit.
33602Zakeri Z., Yazizi K. & Aptroot A. (2021): Lecidea soredioatrobrunnea sp. nov. from Turkey, the first saxicolous true Lecidea with soredia. - Herzogia, 34: 55–61. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.55.
The new sterile saxicolous species Lecidea soredioatrobrunnea is described. It is characterized by a greenish grey, areolate thallus with distinct soralia. The new species is known from Turkey. Phylogenetic analysis with the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) sequences revealed that it clustered with a high degree of certainty inside Lecidea s. str., but it differs from all other Lecidea species by bearing soredia. Key words: taxonomy, mtSSU, Lecideaceae.
33601Tumur A., Mamut R. & Seaward M.R.D. (2021): An updated checklist of lichens of Xinjiang Province, China. - Herzogia, 34: 62–92. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.62.
The earliest list of 67 species, 19 varieties and 17 forms of lichens for Xinjiang Province in northwestern China by Wei in 1991 was extended by Abbas in 2002 to 278 species, 3 subspecies, 15 varieties and 17 forms, and by Xahidin in 2005 to c. 398 species. The present study of the largest province in China, based on a comprehensive literature survey supported by a study of herbarium material, lists 596 taxa composed of 580 species, 4 subspecies and 12 varieties; of the 160 lichen genera, Cladonia has the highest number of species with 40, followed by Acarospora (30), Aspicilia (24) and Peltigera (24). Key words: Lichenicolous fungi, tundra lichens, Tianshan, arid zone, Northwest China.
33600Xie C.-M., Zhao Z.-T., Cheng P.-F. & Zhang L.-L. (2021): Additional species of Pyrenula (Pyrenulaceae) from China. - Herzogia, 34: 93–100. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.93.
Pyrenula acutispora, P. adacta, P. aggregata, P. cayennensis and P. confoederata are new to China. Pyrenula dermatodes and P. fetivica are new to Heilongjiang Province and P. fetivica and P. mamillana are new to Guangxi Province. Except for the two species reported from Taoshan National Forest Park in the cool-temperate province of Heilongjiang, all records originate from a virgin forest at Mt. Shengtang in the subtropical province of Guangxi. Detailed taxonomic descriptions with illustrations are provided. Key words: taxonomy, tropical lichens, new records.
33599Shivarov V.V., Varga N., Lőkös L., von Brackel W., Ganeva A., Natcheva R. & Farkas E. (2021): Contributions to the Bulgarian lichenicolous mycota – an annotated checklist and new records. - Herzogia, 34: 142–153. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.142.
An annotated checklist of 45 taxa of lichenicolous fungi from Bulgaria is presented. Arthonia parietinaria, Athelia arachnoidea, Cercidospora caudata, C. epipolytropa, Didymocyrtis cladoniicola, Endococcus verrucosus, Illosporiopsis christiansenii, Lichenoconium erodens, L. lecanorae, Pronectria subimperspicua, Pyrenochaeta xanthoriae and Stigmidium tabacinae are reported for the first time from Bulgaria. To assess the expected diversity of lichenicolous fungi in Bulgaria, we applied a Lichenicolous Index (LI) to compare with other regions with better knowledge about lichenicolous mycota. At the current stage of the known number of lichens in Bulgaria we expect between 225 and 315 lichenicolous fungi for the country. Key words: Biodiversity, Bulgaria, distribution, lichenicolous fungi.
33598Zhurbenko M.P. (2021): New species of lichenicolous fungi on Solorina. - Herzogia, 34: 127–137. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.127.
Three species of lichenicolous fungi growing on Solorina are described as new to science: Acaroconium lavrinenkoae, with pale orange, ±superficial pycnidia with a medium brownish orange ostiolar area, and light or greyish orange, comparatively long, mainly oblong conidia, occasionally truncated at one end; Didymellopsis solorinae, with 2(– 4)-spored asci; and Thamnogalla episolorina, with fusiform to subcylindrical, comparatively long ascospores. Additionally, one discocarpous and two pyrenocarpous ascomycetes found on Solorina are informally described. Key words: Arctic, Asia, Europe, Kyrgyz Republic, lichen parasites, taxonomy.
33597Berger F. & von Brackel W. (2021): Lichenohendersonia physciicola sp. nov., a new coelomycete on Physcia. - Herzogia, 34: 138–141. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.138.
The lichenicolous coelomycete Lichenohendersonia physciicola, growing on Physcia is described as new from Austria and Bavaria and compared with the other species of the genus Lichenohendersonia. Key words: Lichenicolous fungi, Ascomycota.
33596Diederich P. (2021): Notes on lichenicolous taxa of the asexual fungal genera Intralichen and Trimmatostroma, with a revised key and descriptions of four new species. - Herzogia, 34: 101–126. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.101.
The genus Intralichen comprises several mainly intrahymenial lichenicolous species of unknown phylogenetic affinities, each reported from a very large host-spectrum, with many reports obviously representing wrong identifications. We suggest restricting the use of each of these species names to collections growing on the same host genus as the type specimen, i.e., all other reports from different hosts are considered uncertain. Intralichen christiansenii is considered as a synonym of I. lichenicola, a species confined to Candelariella species. Intralichen lichenum s. str. is a poorly known and rarely collected species from Arthoniales hosts, while similar populations on Strangospora are treated as I. aff. lichenum. Intralichen baccisporus has not been revised, as sufficient material from the many Teloschistaceae genera was not available. Morphologically similar species growing on the thalli, not in the hymenium, of various lichen hosts are included in the genus Trimmatostroma, although most lichenicolous species do not seem to be related to the generic type. The new species Trimmatostroma acetabuli (on Pleurosticta acetabulum), T. denigrans (on Lecanora horiza), T. rouxii (on Opegrapha durieui and other saxicolous Arthoniales) and T. vandenboomii (on Myriolecis albescens) are described. Fertile material of T. arctoparmeliae has been studied, with the result that this species is combined as Sphaerellothecium arctoparmeliae. A revised key to all known lichenicolous species of Intralichen and Trimmatostroma is given. Key words: Bispora, hyphomycetes, lichenicolous fungi, Sphaerellothecium.
33595Berger F. & Türk R. (2021): Franz Priemetzhofer (1951–2020). - Herzogia, 34: 1–4. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.1.
obituary; biography; bibliography
33594Diederich P. & Schultz M. (2021): The identity of Verrucaster lichenicola Tobler. - Herzogia, 34: 203–207. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.203.
The genus and species Verrucaster lichenicola, described by Tobler in 1913 for waxy pycnidia with hyaline, aseptate conidia on Cladonia bacillaris, was poorly known, as the type was missing and no additional similar specimen available. The recent discovery of the type in HBG allowed us to understand that it represents pycnidia of Cladonia, not of a lichenicolous fungus. The names thus become younger synonyms of Cladonia and C. macilenta. Key words: Cladonia, coelomycetes, lichenicolous fungi, pycnidia.
33593Wagner B., Němcová L. & Wirth V. (2021): Lecanora ochroidea in der Tschechischen Republik aufgefunden. - Herzogia, 34: 216–218. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.216.
In the course of a lichenological study of the mountain Kamenná hůra near Merboltice, the lichen Lecanora ochroidea was found. This lichen has an otherwise Subatlantic distribution and is new to the Czech Republic. Kamenná hůra is a basalt hill in the České Středohoří Mountains and is protected as a nature reserve. It is known for its abundance of boulders and for ice caves at the northern base of the mountain. The Lecanora ochroidea population occurs on boulders on a south-facing slope. Böhmisches Mittelgebirge, Kamenná hůra.
33592Cameron R.P. (2021): GIS-based modeling to assess ecological niche differentiation in four species of sympatric lichens at risk in Nova Scotia, Canada. - Bryologist, 124(3): 323–334. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.3.323.
Species distribution models (SDMs) rely on the concept of niche theory that suggests that individual species live within definable ranges of environmental conditions. Comparisons of SDMs between species can help further the understanding of competitive exclusion and niche differentiation. SDMs were created for Erioderma pedicellatum, E. mollissimum, Pectenia plumbea and Pannaria lurida, four sympatric species that occur in Nova Scotia, Canada. Logistic regression was used to create SDMs using nine environmental explanatory variables and presence of the modeled species as the response variable. There was significant overlap in environmental space between species, but each species tended to occupy a unique combination of environmental attributes. The Erioderma pedicellatum model from this study suggests this species occurs in cooler wet climate at mid-elevations in older closed canopy coniferous forest. Results from this study indicate Erioderma mollissimum occurs in old to mature deciduous forests at low to mid-elevation in warm, moderately wet climates. Pectenia plumbea tended to be found at low to mid-elevations in areas with moderately cool temperature with mid to high mean annual precipitation. Pannaria lurida tended to occupy mature to old forests occurring in areas with mid-range mean annual precipitation at higher elevations. Since this study examined a relatively small number of environmental variables, further study at different scales and with more extensive datasets would likely reveal further insights into competitive exclusion among these four cyanolichens. Keywords: Species distributions model, sympatric cyanolichens, niche differentiation, Nova Scotia.
33591Mark C.J., Painting C.J., O’Hanlon J.C. & Holwell G.I. (2021): Lichen moths do not beneft from ‘element imitation’ masquerade in the absence of a matching background. - Evolutionary Ecology, 35: 401–412. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10682-021-10110-3.
Predation places signifcant selection pressures on prey species and many have evolved incredible and diverse colour patterns in response. A fascinating example of such adaptive colouration and morphology is masquerade, a camoufage strategy in which organisms resemble innocuous and inedible objects, such as leaves or twigs. Masquerading prey avoid predation by being misclassifed as irrelevant parts of the environment, rather than as food. Here we assess a putative case of masquerade in the North Island lichen moth, Declana atronivea (Geometridae), an endemic New Zealand species with intricate black and white forewings that appear to resemble lichen. Lichen masquerade is a type of ‘element imitation’ in which the object being mimicked forms a common element of the environmental pattern. However, unlike discrete objects, such as leaves and twigs, lichen may be difficult to distinguish as a distinct entity. This raises the question of whether D. atronivea can be said to look like ‘a’ lichen, or whether its body colouration appears as a component of a larger patch of lichen. In this case, does the lichen resemblance function as a form of masquerade, or is it an example of background matching? Using laboratory experiments with domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) as predators, we investigated whether D. atronivea moths avoid predation by being misclassifed as lichen. We exposed naïve and experienced chicks to D. atronivea and compared their responses, predicting that if the moths do beneft from masquerade, chicks with previous experience of lichen would take longer to attack. Our hypothesis was not supported; there was no signifcant diference in predator interaction regardless of prior experience, suggesting that, in the absence of a matching background, D. atronivea do not beneft from masquerading as lichen. Rather, this may be a case of context-dependent misclassifcation, or perhaps the forewing colouration promotes concealment through crypsis. Keywords: Camoufage · Element imitation · Lichen · Moth · Masquerade · Crypsis.
33590Suresh A.B. & Nadumane V.K. (2021): The metabolite 5‑methyl‑1,3‑benzenediol and its derivative methyl‑2,4‑dihydroxy‑6‑methylbenzoate from the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum with potent apoptotic and anti‑angiogenesis effects. - 3 Biotech, 11: 346 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-021-02883-9.
Nature has been a rich resource of novel anticancer agents, one such source being lichens, which represent the symbiosis between algae and fungi with diverse range of secondary metabolites having therapeutic signifcance. With respect to this, the present study evaluates the in vitro apoptogenic profle of secondary metabolites from the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum towards cancer cell lines. Treatment with TLC-purifed fraction 1 from P. tinctorum resulted in signifcant reduction in the cell viabilities of cancer cells with IC50 values ranging between 1.2 and 12.8 μg/ml. The potential anticancer efect of the bioactive fraction was further supported by Trypan blue cell viability, LDH and DNA fragmentation assays. At the cellular level, induction of apoptosis was confrmed through the activation of the caspase cascade and apoptotic cells accumulating in the Sub-G1 phase of cell cycle. Angiogenesis being one of the major characteristics needed for cancer growth, the ability of the lichen fraction to inhibit angiogenesis was checked through in ovo Yolk Sac Membrane (YSM) assay and was found to be signifcant. The study also verifed the non-toxic nature of the bioactive fraction towards normal human peripheral lymphocytes. HPLC analysis and GC–MS characterisation of the bioactive fraction indicated the presence of 5-methyl1,3-benzenediol and its derivative methyl-2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoate. Keywords: Anti-angiogenesis · Apoptosis · Lichens · In ovo · In vitro · High-performance liquid chromatography · Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry.
33589Broome A., Inchboard L.L., Perks M., Clarke T.-K., Park K.J. & Thompson R. (2021): Can epiphytic lichens of remnant Atlantic oakwood trees in a planted ancient woodland site survive early stages of woodland restoration?. - Annals of Forest Science, 78: 58 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13595-021-01069-w.
Key message: Epiphytic lichens of remnant Atlantic oakwood trees, enclosed within a recently planted conifer matrix, show ability to survive early stages of woodland restoration (conifer removal). Context: Atlantic oakwood, ancient semi-natural woodland (ASNW), supports important epiphytic lichens. Fragmented ASNW, historically in-filled with conifers, are now being restored to reflect ASNW tree and ground flora character. Concerns exist that sudden and total removal of the conifer matrix will be detrimental to the epiphyte diversity of remnant trees retained within the former plantation. Aims: Here, we ask whether an unintended consequence of habitat restoration is the loss of epiphyte populations on remnant trees. Methods: Dynamics of ground flora development were studied at one 50-ha site on the west coast of Scotland using indicator species occurrence and species traits. Change in cover of lichen species was determined and lichen vitality was assessed in two Lobaria species using chlorophyll fluorescence as a proxy. Assessments pre-, post- and nine years after conifer removal were made in plantation areas (containing remnant oak trees) and ASNW areas. Results: Re-vegetation of the ground flora was predominantly by ASNW vegetation. Species richness and occurrence of native woodland indicator species increased and the community showed stronger competitor traits. Lichen vitality was initially reduced but recovered. Tests showed change in the abundance of key lichen species and lichen community diversity was non-significant despite the loss of four lichen species on remnant trees. Conclusion: Ground flora dynamics indicate site recovery was underway within eight years of restoration activities and epiphytic lichens although variable in response were in this study largely unaffected, this restoration approach could be appropriate for other Atlantic oakwoods where lichen conservation is an objective. Keywords: ASNW . PAWS . Restoration . Lichen . Conservation . Species traits.
33588Chen X., Bai F., Huang J., Lu Y., Wu Y., Yu J. & Bai S. (2021): The organisms on rock cultural heritages: Growth and weathering. - Geoheritage, 13: 56 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12371-021-00588-2.
Weathering represents severe destruction to outdoor cultural rock heritages. In the process, biological weathering caused by microorganisms is known to be the key process. With abundantly available nutrients and a suitable climate, there is a higher abundance and diversity of microorganisms in moss and lichen biocrusts than on bare rock surfaces. However, few studies have been conducted on weathering in these microhabitats. In this review, we emphasize the role of microorganisms, mosses, and lichens in weathering; expound the various bioweathering phenomena on rock cultural heritages; discuss the major pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and archaea on rock cultural heritages; and compare the diferent bioweathering mechanisms on calcareous and siliceous rock substrates. More deeply, we explain the interaction between mosses and microorganisms and the weathering processes and mechanisms in these microhabitats and analyze why the weathering will be intensifed in moss and lichen habitats. Finally, we provide a reference to establish a practical and efective method to protect rock cultural heritages from microbial destruction. Keywords: Moss · Lichen · Biological weathering · Rock cultural heritage · Corrosion · Crust.
33587An D.-F., Jiang L.-Q., Zhang K., Li G.-D., Wang X.-Y., Jiang M.-G., Lang L., Wang L.-S., Imhof J.F., Jiang C.-L. & Jiang Y. (2021): Glaciibacter favus sp. nov., isolated from a lichen sample. - Archives of Microbiology, 203: 2439–2444. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-021-02247-0.
A novel Actinobacterium strain YIM 131861 T, was isolated from lichen collected from the South Bank Forest of the Baltic Sea, Germany. It was Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, catalase positive and oxidase negative, yellow pigmented. Cells were motile with a polar fagellum, irregular rod shaped and did not display spore formation. The strain grew at 15−30 °C (optimum 25 °C), at pH 6.0−10.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0−1.5% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1%). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain YIM 131861 T belonged to the genus Glaciibacter, and exhibited a high sequence similarity (96.4%) with Glaciibacter superstes NBRC 104264 T. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain YIM 131861 T was 68.2 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA–DNA hybridization (dDDH) values between strain YIM 131861 T and Glaciibacter superstes NBRC 104264 T were 73.2 and 19.9% based on the draft genome sequence. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was B2γ and contained the 2, 4-diaminobutyric acid as the diagnostic amino acid. Whole cell sugars were galactose, rhamnose, ribose and glucose. It contained MK-12 and MK-13 as the predominant menaquinones. The major cellular fatty acids (>10%) were identifed as anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and two unknown glycolipids. Based on the results of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, strain YIM 131861 T should belong to the genus Glaciibacter and represents a novel species of the genus Glaciibacter, for which the name Glaciibacter favus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 131861 T (=CGMCC 1.16588 T=NBRC 113572 T). Keywords: Glaciibacter · Glaciibacter favus sp. nov. · Lichen.
33586Chae H.-J., Kim G.-J., Deshar B., Kim H.-J., Shin M.-J., Kwon H., Youn U.-J., Nam J.-W., Kim S.-H., Choi H. & Suh S.-S. (2021): Anticancer activity of 2-O-caffeoyl alphitolic acid extracted from the lichen, Usnea barbata 2017-KL-10. - Molecules, 26(13): 3937 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133937.
Colorectal cancer is one of the life-threatening ailments causing high mortality and morbidity worldwide. Despite the innovation in medical genetics, the prognosis for metastatic colorectal cancer in patients remains unsatisfactory. Recently, lichens have attracted the attention of researchers in the search for targets to fight against cancer. Lichens are considered mines of thousands of metabolites. Researchers have reported that lichen-derived metabolites demonstrated biological effects, such as anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, analgesic, antipyretic, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic, on various cell lines. However, the exploration of the biological activities of lichens’ metabolites is limited. Thus, the main objective of our study was to evaluate the anticancer effect of secondary metabolites isolated from lichen (Usnea barbata 2017-KL-10) on the human colorectal cancer cell line HCT116. In this study, 2OCAA exhibited concentration-dependent anticancer activities by suppressing antiapoptotic genes, such as MCL-1, and inducing apoptotic genes, such as BAX, TP53, and CDKN1A(p21). Moreover, 2OCAA inhibited the migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these data suggest that 2OCAA is a better therapeutic candidate for colorectal cancer. Keywords: colorectal cancer; 2-O-caffeoyl alphitolic acid; lichen; Usnea barbata; apoptosis; HCT116.
33585Wethalawe A.N., Alwis Y.V., Udukala D.N. & Paranagama P.A. (2021): Antimicrobial compounds isolated from endolichenic fungi: A review. - Molecules, 26(13): 3901 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133901.
A lichen is a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism, which is algae or cyanobacteria. Endolichenic fungi are a group of microfungi that resides asymptomatically within the thalli of lichens. Endolichenic fungi can be recognized as luxuriant metabolic artists that produce propitious bioactive secondary metabolites. More than any other time, there is a worldwide search for new antibiotics due to the alarming increase in microbial resistance against the currently available therapeutics. Even though a few antimicrobial compounds have been isolated from endolichenic fungi, most of them have moderate activities, implying the need for further structural optimizations. Recognizing this timely need and the significance of endolichenic fungi as a promising source of antimicrobial compounds, the activity, sources and the structures of 31 antibacterial compounds, 58 antifungal compounds, two antiviral compounds and one antiplasmodial (antimalarial) compound are summarized in this review. In addition, an overview of the common scaffolds and structural features leading to the corresponding antimicrobial properties is provided as an aid for future studies. The current challenges and major drawbacks of research related to endolichenic fungi and the remedies for them have been suggested. Keywords: endolichenic fungi; antibacterial; antifungal; antiviral; antiplasmodial; secondary metabolites.
33584Chi J., Lee H., Hong S.G. & Kim H.-C. (2021): Spectral characteristics of the Antarctic vegetation: A case study of Barton Peninsula. - Remote Sensing, 13(13): 2470 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13132470.
Spectral information is a proxy for understanding the characteristics of ground targets without a potentially disruptive contact. A spectral library is a collection of this information and serves as reference data in remote sensing analyses. Although widely used, data of this type for most ground objects in polar regions are notably absent. Remote sensing data are widely used in polar research because they can provide helpful information for difficult-to-access or extensive areas. However, a lack of ground truth hinders remote sensing efforts. Accordingly, a spectral library was developed for 16 common vegetation species and decayed moss in the ice-free areas of Antarctica using a field spectrometer. In particular, the relative importance of shortwave infrared wavelengths in identifying Antarctic vegetation using spectral similarity comparisons was demonstrated. Due to the lack of available remote sensing images of the study area, simulated images were generated using the developed spectral library. Then, these images were used to evaluate the potential performance of the classification and spectral unmixing according to spectral resolution. We believe that the developed library will enhance our understanding of Antarctic vegetation and will assist in the analysis of various remote sensing data. Keywords: Antarctic vegetation; Barton Peninsula; field spectroscopy; King George Island; lichen; moss; spectral characteristics; spectral library.
33583Simijaca D., Lücking R. & Moncada B. (2021): Two new species of Astrothelium (Trypetheliaceae) with amyloid ascospores inhabiting the canopy of Quercus humboldtii trees in Colombia. - Phytotaxa, 508(2): 229–234. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.508.2.12 .
Subandine and high Andean forests are often dominated by oak trees and these are recognized as suitable phorophytes for diverse epiphyte communities. Among the latter, lichens in the upper strata appear to be understudied. Here, we report the discovery of two new species of Astrothelium (Trypetheliaceae), a diverse genus of tropical crustose lichens, both with the unusual feature of muriform, amyloid ascospores. Astrothelium mordonialensis is characterized by an olive-green thallus with solitary ascomata producing muriform and amyloid ascospores with tightened center and A. rogitamae by a light brownish to greenish grey thallus with yellow pigmented solitary ascomata, producing muriform and amyloid ascospores. Keywords: Epiphyte lichens, oak forest, pyrenocarpous, taxonomy, Lichens.
33582Brodo I.M., Lee R.E., Freebury C., Wong P.Y., Lewis C.J. & McMullin R.T. (2021): Additions to the lichens, allied fungi, and lichenicolous fungi of the Ottawa region in Ontario and Quebec, with reflections on a changing biota. - Canadian Field-Naturalist, 135(1): 1–27. https://doi.org/10.22621/cfn.v135i1.2557 .
The inventory of lichens, allied fungi, and their parasites in the Ottawa region has grown from 391 in 1988 to 543 today, almost entirely because of the discovery of species overlooked in previous years and the inclusion of fungal parasites. In addition, almost 140 names have changed with reclassifications and re-identifications. These changes are presented here together with a list of synonyms updating the 1988 list. Vouchers are cited for all new records, and notes are presented for many species neither described nor keyed out in easily accessible literature. Reference is made to the new, complete list of lichens and lichenicolous fungi available online. The new checklist includes one species new for North America (Tremella christiansenii); five species and one variety new for Canada (Caloplaca parvula, Caloplaca reptans, Cladonia petrophila, Enchylium tenax var. ceranoides, Leprocaulon adhaerens, and Merismatium peregrinum); four new for Ontario (Caloplaca reptans, Kiliasia tristis, Lempholemma chalazanum, and Rinodina fimbriata); and nine new for Quebec (Arthonia helvola, Arthonia hypobela, Caloplaca parvula, Cladonia petrophila, Lempholemma chalazanum, Leprocaulon adhaerens, Merismatium peregrinum, Rimularia badioatra, and Tremella christiansenii). Although the climate of the region is warming, especially with higher minimum temperatures in winter, the lichen biota has not increased as a result but, in fact, may be threatened by the effects of climate change on the health of the forests and the trees that support lichens. Air quality has improved in recent decades, allowing numerous lichens to again become established in urban areas. Local areas of especially rich lichen diversity can be found on both the Ontario and Quebec sides of the region, and some of these “hot-spots” are mentioned. Other factors influencing the decrease or increase of lichen cover are also discussed. Keywords: lichens, eastern Ontario, western Quebec, Ottawa, climate change.
33581Bell-Doyon P., Selva S.B. & McMullin R.T. (2021): Calicioid fungi and lichens from an unprotected intact forest ecosystem in Québec. - Écoscience, 28(2): 127–136. https://doi.org/10.1080/11956860.2021.1885804.
Calicioid lichens and fungi form a diverse polyphyletic group whose species richness is often associated with old-growth forests and ecological continuity. One of the last intact forest landscapes south of the 50th parallel in Québec includes the Ya’nienhonhndeh territory, which has been the focus of a protected area project directed by the Huron-Wendat First Nation for more than ten years. To contribute to the characterization of its conservation value, we report the calicioids from the area. We identified 34 species in eight genera from 187 samples collected in old-growth stands of balsam fir, black spruce and yellow birch. Our four most remarkable discoveries are Chaenotheca nitidula Tibell (n = 11), Chaenothecopsis australis Tibell (n = 1), and C. tsugae Rikkinen (n = 2), which are reported for the first time from the province, as well as Sclerophora coniophaea (Norman) Mattsson & Middelb. (n = 18), which is rare in North America and was previously reported only once in Québec. As a result of this inventory, the Ya’nienhonhndeh is now the second richest area known for calicioids in Québec, after Parc national de la Gaspésie. We conclude that it is an ancient forest ecosystem whose conservation value is high based on its unique biodiversity, and that it warrants protection. Keywords: Boreal conservation; Calicium; Coniocybaceae; Mycocaliciaceae; Phaeocalicium; Stenocybe.
33580Vust M. (2020): Découvertes lichéno-floristique dans le canton de Vaud. - Meylania, 65: 17–24. http://www.bryolich.ch/pdfs/meylania/Meylania%2065%20p.17-24.pdf.
Several mandates made it possible to review known localities of rare or threatened lichens in the canton of Vaud between 2016 and 2018. These studies have Meylania 18 made it possible not only to confirm several of the species examined, but also to discover other unexpected species. New localities of Chaenotheca chlorella, Inoderma byssaceum, Cetraria sepincola, Coenogonium luteum, Lobaria pulmonaria, Scytinium teretiusculum, Sticta fuliginosa and Thelotrema lepadinum are thus documented.
33579Zimmermann E. (2020): Lichenicole Pilze der Schweiz II: Bemerkenswerte Funde lichenicoler Pilze am Crap Sogn Gion (Flims, Graubünden, Schweiz). - Meylania, 65: 29–36. http://www.bryolich.ch/pdfs/meylania/Meylania%2065%20p.29-36.pdf.
Twenty-three lichenicolous fungi were recorded during the excursions at the annual meeting of the Bryolich (Swiss Association of Bryology and Lichenology) 2019 in alpine habitats at 2300 m a.s.l. near Flims (Graubünden, Switzerland). Among these, 14 species are published for the first time for Switzerland. Caeruleoconidia biazrovii is recorded for the first time in the Alps. A potentially undescribed Pronectria sp. on Cladonia stellaris is outlined.
33578Shishido T.K., Wahlsten M., Laine P., Rikkinen J., Lundell T. & Auvinen P. (2021): Microbial communities of Cladonia lichens and their biosynthetic gene clusters potentially encoding natural products. - Microorganisms, 9(7): 1347 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9071347.
Lichens have been widely used in traditional medicine, especially by indigenous communities worldwide. However, their slow growth and difficulties in the isolation of lichen symbionts and associated microbes have hindered the pharmaceutical utilisation of lichen-produced compounds. Advances in high-throughput sequencing techniques now permit detailed investigations of the complex microbial communities formed by fungi, green algae, cyanobacteria, and other bacteria within the lichen thalli. Here, we used amplicon sequencing, shotgun metagenomics, and in silico metabolomics together with compound extractions to study reindeer lichens collected from Southern Finland. Our aim was to evaluate the potential of Cladonia species as sources of novel natural products. We compared the predicted biosynthetic pathways of lichen compounds from isolated genome-sequenced lichen fungi and our environmental samples. Potential biosynthetic genes could then be further used to produce secondary metabolites in more tractable hosts. Furthermore, we detected multiple compounds by metabolite analyses, which revealed connections between the identified biosynthetic gene clusters and their products. Taken together, our results contribute to metagenomic data studies from complex lichen-symbiotic communities and provide valuable new information for use in further biochemical and pharmacological studies. Keywords: nonribosomal peptides; polyketides; small molecules; shotgun metagenomics; Cladonia; lichen.
33577Isocrono D., Gheza G., Giordani P., Matteucci E., Nascimbene J., Ongaro S., Ravera S. & Vallese C. (2020): Lichenes Italici Exsiccati ex Società Lichenologica Italiana. Fascicle IV (Nos. 37-48). - Notiziario della Società Lichenologica Italiana, 33: 111–114. .
The fourth issue of Lichenes Italici exsiccati ex Società Lichenologica Italiana, the series of exsiccata distributed by the ltalian Lichen Society (Società Lichenologica Italiana, SLI), is presented. The labels of 37-48 numbers are listed. Key words: Lichens, exsiccata.
33576Caporale S., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Fačkovcová Z., Favero-Longo S.E., Giordani P., Gheza G., Isocrono D., Matteucci E., Munzi S., Paoli L., Puntillo D., Ravera S., Vannini A. & Catalano I. (2016): Contributo alle conoscenze lichenologiche della RNR Cascate del Verde e del bosco di Montalto (Borrello, Chieti). - Notiziario della Società Lichenologica Italiana, 29: 87–94. .
33575Barcenas-Peña A., Leavitt S.D., Grewe F. & Lumbsch H.T. (2021): Diversity of Xanthoparmelia (Parmeliaceae) species in Mexican xerophytic scrub vegetation, evidenced by molecular, morphological and chemistry data. - Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid, 78(1): e107 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3989/ajbm.2564.
The genus Xanthoparmelia is the largest genus of lichen- forming fungi with about 800 species worldwide. Xanthoparmelia is also common in the deserts of central Mexico, but only a few molecular studies exist on its species’ diversity in this region. In this study, we sampled 38 Xanthoparmelia species from around the world including species from the xerophytic scrubs of central Mexico to assess the di-versity using an integrative approach. Molecular phylogenetic analyses were performed using a combination of the ITS, mtSSU and nuLSU genetic markers. We evaluated our phylogenetic results in a context of traditional morphological and chemical characters. The combined evidence of molecular, morphological, and chemical data identified a total of 18 Xanthoparmelia species-level lineages occurring in central Mexico. However, numerous traditionally circumscribed species did not form monophyletic groups in the molecular phylogenetic recon-structions. This conflict indicates that taxonomy and species delimi-tation in the genus Xanthoparmelia requires revision and emphasizes the importance of molecular evidence for more robust species delim-itations in this genus. Keywords. Cryptic species, biodiversity, secondary metabolites, lichens, Mexico.
33574Mead O.L. & Gueidan C. (2020): Complete genome sequence of an Australian strain of the lichen-forming Fungus Endocarpon pusillum (Hedwig). - Microbiology Resource Announcements, 9(50): e01079-20 [2 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1128/MRA.01079-20.
The cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungus Endocarpon pusillum (Hedwig) has previously been used as a model for the study of symbiosis and drought resistance. Here, we present the annotated genome of the Australian strain Endocarpon pusillum EPUS1.4. This genome sequence provides additional information on the ability of this species to produce secondary metabolites.
33573Stordeur R. & Kison H.-U. (2016): Flechten (Lichenes) und flechtenbewohnende (lichenicole) Pilze. Bestandsentwicklung. Stand: März 2016. - In: Frank D. & Schnitter P. (eds), Pflanzen und Tiere in Sachsen-Anhalt. Ein Kompendium der Biodiversität, p. 59–101, Landesamt für Umweltschutz Sachsen-Anhalt, Rangsdorf. https://lau.sachsen-anhalt.de/fileadmin/Bibliothek/Politik_und_Verwaltung/MLU/LAU/Naturschutz/Publikationen/Dateien/sonstige_Publikationen/pfl-tiere-st_Flechten.pdf.
33572Purvis O.W., Aminov P.G., Dolgopolova A., Mikhailova I., Udachin V. & Williamson B.J. (2015): Lichens on Betula in the Ural Mountains; relationships with bark acidity and element concentrations as indicators of geology and anthropogenic influences. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 117: 15–28. .
Understanding geological, anthropogenic influences and bark pH on epiphytic lichen species richness is important in conservation, pollution monitoring and for assessing environmental health. Hypogymnia physodes and other lichens were found abundantly colonising birch twigs in June 2011 at Nyazminsky Ridge, 40 km SW (downwind) from Karabash, South Urals of Russia and 6 km north of Zlatoust city. A biogeochemical lichen study was carried out along a SW-NE transect centred in Karabash valley in 2001 and a second transect running WNW – ESE established in September 2011 within intermediate forests between taiga and forest-steppe zone. Hypogymnia is well known to be sensitive to a range of factors, including bark pH, but the extent to which bark acidity and element concentrations influence H. physodes and other lichen species richness on twigs is unknown. As a first step towards understanding its occurrence, the present study aims to investigate the links between Hypogymnia frequency and lichen species richness on Betula twigs and trunks (recorded in 2001) and indicators of geology and anthropogenic impacts. Impacts were assessed from selected element content, notably Sr (an analogue for Ca analysed previously) and S (a potential pollutant) and bark pH. Hypogymnia frequency and twig lichen richness confirm a point source influence The study highlighted the sensitivity of bark pH to assess S deposition from smelter-derived aerosols in response to weather over short (<3 month) time periods. The high Ca content recorded in Hypogymnia at Novoandreevka suggests geology also influences species assemblage composition on Betula here. The outlier appears to represent a lichen ‘oasis’ and provides a refugium enabling future lichen re-colonisation elsewhere under favourable atmospheric conditions.
33571Orange A. (2015): I denounce: binomial nomenclature!. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 117: 45–46. .
We name species so that we can retrieve and communicate information about them. The lure of the binomial is that a group of similar species share part of their name, that of the ‘genus’. Thus Sticta is a recognisable genus of lichens, and Sticta limbata and Sticta sylvatica are different kinds of stictas. This is helpful to memory. The fatal flaw in the system is that the binomial is not only a label for a species, but carries information on perceived (close) relatedness. If opinions on the degree of relatedness change, as they always have, then the label will change, and the primary function of the name is impaired.
33570Jones T. (2015): Lichenised leafhopper. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 117: 40-41. .
On a recent field meeting in Pod’s Wood, Essex, while looking at Fuscidea lightfootii on an oak branch, I noticed a very odd-looking insect. It is the nymph stage of the Leafhopper Ledra aurita, supposedly the only member of the subfamily Ledrinae found in Europe. The texture and coloration of the pronotum afford it a remarkable degree of crypsis against branches covered in algae and lichen, upon which it feeds. It is interesting to hypothesise about the selection pressures that resulted in its exceptional camouflage: Those individuals that most resembled the lichen against which they spend a large amount of their time, feeding, were less likely to be detected and selected as prey. This increased chance of survival, multiplied over evolutionary timescales, has resulted in a curious-looking animal that has, in a fanciful sense, become lichenised, just like the fungus it feeds on. I couldn’t find much in the way of published literature on the species, but an image search reveals a certain degree of intraspecific variation in colour in both the adults and the nymphs. This raises a number of questions: Are there various morphotypes that feed on different lichen? If so, how does their distribution and abundance correlate with that of their food lichen? It has only been recorded in 71 grid squares (10km) on the NBN gateway suggesting that it has been under-recorded; unsurprising given its singular ability to blend in to the background! However, if anyone is likely to encounter this interesting species, it is the lichenologists, who are well-equipped (and perhaps inclined!) to reveal more about the ecology of L. aurita
33569Hitch C. (2015): New, rare and interesting lichens. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 117: 61-72. .
Lecidea huxariensis, Ceratobasidium bulbillifaciens, Catillaria fungoides, Thelidium rehmii
33568Gagnon J. & Richardson D. (2015): Lichen leaf miners. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 117: 42-43. .
In January, 2014, while participating in a research project at La Fortuna Cloud Forest in Panama (alt. 1200 m), Jean Gagnon observed miner insects making burrows in a Sticta sp. (Figure 1). This foliose lichen has both photobionts (green algae & cyanobacteria), but the miner appeared to prefer those parts containing cyanobacteria.Dr Donald Windsor, entomologist at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama City, who has been studying miner insects in vascular plants for over 30 years in Panama, told us that he has never observed this in lichens before
33567Bajpai R. & Upreti D.K. (2015): Lichens on man-made substrates. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 117: 33-37. .
It is well known that the surface of all materials exposed to the environment will, sooner or later, become colonized by different groups of living organisms. The extent of colonization will depend on the environmental conditions and on the characteristics of the substratum. Lichens are well adapted to colonize bare and stable surfaces in many climatic conditions, giving rise to a biological mosaic of colours and textures. In addition to natural substrata, these include a host of human- manipulated or manufactured ones (i.e. artifacts), including fashioned stonework, asphalt, glass, concrete, cement, plaster, ceramic and terracotta tiles, bricks, processed wood products, and various types of metals (Brightman & Seaward 1977). Peculiarities and colonization of lichens Growth on external surfaces, whether natural or man-made, presents challenges especially of water availability. Owing to their poikilohydric nature lichens can survive in various climatic conditions. Many lichens have limited mechanisms to prevent desiccation; they dehydrate and remain dormant when their environment dries out, but can rehydrate when water becomes available again. Lichens usually absorb water directly into the thallus through aerosol, mist and water vapors, due to this nature lichens can live long in dry areas
33566Bailey J. (2015): Luffia ferchaultella - the moth in lichen clothing. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 117: 38-39. .
On 30 May 2015 my brother drew my attention to some tiny cones, about 6mm long, on his garden seat in Hartpury, West Gloucestershire. In warm conditions they were quite active, moving faster than a snail, when you could see their little dark heads and legs, but clamping down when threatened. They were covered in bits of lichen, obtained, no doubt, from his bench which has a beautiful covering including Candelariella vitellina, Flavoparmelia caperata, F . soredians, Hypogymnia tubulosa, Lecanora expallens, L. pulicaris, Lepraria incana, Melanelixia subaurifera, Parmelia sulcata, Punctelia jeckeri and P. subrudecta
33565Aguirre-Hudson B. & Earland-Bennet P. (2015): Current status of the genus Leptorhaphis in the British Isles. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 117: 29-32. .
A detailed description of the genus Leptorhaphis is available in the extended edition of the Lichens of Great Britain and Ireland by Smith et al. (2009), based on the modern circumscription of the genus introduced by Aguirre-Hudson (1991). The genus is only facultatively lichenised, i.e. the thallus consists of fungal hyphae loosely associated to clusters of chlorococcoid - and more rarely - trentepohlioid algae. This can be confirmed in squash mounts and microscope sections of the ascomata. It is distinguished from similar perithecial microfungi with bitunicate asci, by the narrowly fusiform to filiform and arcuate, 1–3 septate, always colourless ascospores. Its current systematic placement in the family Naetrocymbaceae was first suggested by Harris (1995: 59), on the basis that Arthopyrenia, and therefore the Arthopyreniaceae as understood until then, contained two unrelated groups based on the morphology of the hamathecial filaments: i.e. pseudoparaphyses versus paraphysoids. Also, as a result of the proposal to typify Arthopyrenia with A. analepta, which was later rejected in favour of A. cerasi [see Proposal to Conserve and Reject names no. 933 in Taxon 48: 807 (1999)], some species formerly in Arthopyrenia are now referred elsewhere; e.g. the ubiquitous and pioneer species on smooth bark Naetrocymbe punctifomis. Leptorhaphis, as with species of the genus Naetrocymbe possesses pseudoparaphyses, which according to Eriksson (1981) consist of cellular, richly branched filaments, with cells constricted at the septum. The filaments originate from the upper part of the hymenium and grow downwards, attaching themselves to the base of the ascomal cavity, and afterwards often become detached in the upper part. This type of development is difficult to interpret from squash mounts, but the almost moniliform appearance of the interthecial filaments is diagnostic
33564Darmostuk V.V. [Дармостук В.В.] (2020): Darmostuk V.V. Lichenicolous fungi of the steppe zone of Ukraine [Ліхенофільні гриби степової зони України. – Кваліфікаційна наукова праця на правах рукопису]. - Qualifying scientific work as manuscript, . .
Дисертаційна робота присвячена вивченню видового та таксономічного багатства, особливостей вибору лишайника-господаря, відношення у системі «паразит-господар» та поширенню ліхенофільних грибів (включаючи ліхенофільні лишайники) на території степової зони України. Встановлено особливості росту окремих модельних видів ліхенофільних грибів на агаризованих живильних середовищах, проведено критико-таксономічний аналіз представників трьох родів, а також проаналізовано сучасні тенденції охорони ліхенофільних грибів відповідно до біотопічних поглядів на збереження видів. За результатами аналізу літературних джерел, критичної ревізії гербарних колекцій CWU, KHER та KW-L, даних з відкритих ресурсів (GBIF, iNaturalis, UkrBin тощо), а також власних зборів автора, встановлено, що на території степової зони України наразі виявлено 155 видів ліхенофільних грибів та 13 ліхенофільних лишайників, які належать до 75 родів, 41 родини, 24 порядків та 7 класів відділу Ascomycota, а також 8 родів, 6 родин, 5 порядків та 2 класів відділу Basidiomycota. Вперше для регіону дослідження зареєстровано трапляння 92 видів ліхенофільних грибів та 4 види ліхенофільних лишайників, що становить 57,1 % від їх загальної кількості. Описано як нові для науки 5 видів ліхенофільних грибів (Didymocyrtis trassii, Pleospora xanthoriae, Roselliniella lecideae, Trichoconis hafellneri, Zwackhiomyces polischukii). Три види наведено як нові для Європи, 9 видів – нові для Східної Європи, а 41 вид ліхенофільних грибів та 2 види 3 ліхенофільних лишайників (21,3 % від загальної кількості відомих в Україні) наведено як нові для території України. Результати аналізу систематичної структури дали змогу встановити, що на території степової зони України найбільше різноманіття видів демонструє клас Dothideomycetes (80 видів). Найбільшими за кількістю виявлених видів є порядки Arthoniales, Dothideales, Collemopsidiales, Hypocreales, Lichenotheliales, Mycosphaerellales, Pleosporales та Verrucariales. Встановлено, що провідними родами ліхенофільної мікобіоти степової зони України є Stigmidium (10), Zwackhiomyces (8), Lichenostigma (7), Lichenoconium (7), Pronectria (6) та Arthonia (5). Значне видове представлення родів Lichenostigma та Lichenoconium може вказувати на регіональні особливості мікобіоти, що визначаються несприятливими (високі показники сонячної радіації) умовами навколишнього середовища, а також поширенням видів лишайників-господарів на території дослідження. Під час дослідження ліхенофільної мікобіоти степової зони України було встановлено, що загальний рівень спеціалізації становить 79,7 %, адже з 168 виявлених видів ліхенофільних грибів та ліхенофільних лишайників 34 зростають на 2 і більше родах господарів. Отримані відомості відповідають загальним тенденціям світової ліхенофільної мікобіоти. Найчисельнішими за кількістю ліхенофільних грибів виявились роди Xanthoria (18 видів), Lecanora (17), Caloplaca (15), Cladonia (12) та Aspicilia (11), що підтверджує гіпотезу про те, що домінанті роди лишайників-господарів репрезентують високе різноманіття ліхенофільних грибів, цим самим визначаючи взаємозв’язок регіональної ліхено- та мікобіоти. Виявлено, що індекс ліхенофільності дослідженої мікобіоти становить 0,32 (168 видів ліхенофільних грибів до 528 видів лишайників) і може бути оцінений як високий. Цей показник дозволяє стверджувати, що ліхенофільна мікобіота степової зони України є вивченою на достатньому рівні у порівнянні з іншими регіональними ліхенофільними мікобіотами. Прослідковується взаємозв’язок між низькою чисельністю видів лишайників господарів та досить високими показниками 4 різноманіття ліхенофільних грибів. Скоріше за все, цей взаємозв’язок не вказує на строгу математичну залежність між двома показниками, а лише підкреслює особливості ліхенофільної мікобіоти степової зони та аридних регіонів у цілому. За типом взаємозв’язків ліхенофільні гриби є досить гетерогенною групою, представники якої пристосувались до взаємодії як з фікобіонтом (105 видів), так і з мікобіонтом (64 види) лишайників. Підтверджується гіпотеза, що більша частина ліхенофільних грибів представлена видами-коменсалами (90 видів), які трофічно взаємодіють з фікобіонтом, проте не призводять до зниження показників біохімічних процесів або деградації останнього
33563Pentecost A. (2015): Seasonality of ascospore production in two lirellate lichens: Alyxoria (Opegrapha) varia and Phaeographis dendritica. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 117: 7–14. .
Ascospore liberation by Alyxoria (Opegrapha) varia in the field was maximal in March and November and negligible in summer. For Phaeographis dendritica it was maximal in winter but the total discharge was more than an order of magnitude lower than that of Alyxoria at the same locality. Alyxoria spore liberation was negatively correlated with temperature suggesting that prolonged wetting of apothecia in the colder months stimulated dispersal
33562Scholz P. (1991): Zur Flechtenflora der Naturschutzgebiete im Thüringer Südharz . - Landschaftspflege un Naturschutz in Thüringen, 28(4): 98–107. .
Die Erfassung der Kryptogamenrtora von Naturschutzgebieten ist bisher sehr unvollständig erfolgt und steht hinter der Kenntnis der Phanerogamen weit zurück. Dies gilt insbesondere für die Flechtenflora (vgl. HILLE u. SCHOLZ 1,988). Da die Unterschutzstellung von Naturschutzgebieten bisher meist ohne besondere Beachtung der Flechtenvegetation erfolgte, wird diese in der Regel auch in den Schutzzielen und bei den Pflege- und Entwicklungsplänen nicht berücksichtigt. Da nun wiederum die ökologischen Ansprüche von Flechten (gleiches gilt auch meist für Moose) nicht mit den Ansprüchen höherer Pflanzen übereinstimmen, ist es un- bedingt notwendig, das vorhandene Reservatsystem in dieser Hinsicht zu inventarisieren und eventuell weitere NSG oder andere Schutzgebiete zum Schutz der Flechtenflora - bezie- hungsweise der gesamten Kryptogarnenflora - auszuweisen. Das ist ein wichtiger Grund für die Anfertigung dieser Arbeit. Weiterhin solltedamit ein Beitrag zur Flechtenkartierung geleistet werden. Deshalb wird bei den einzelnen NSG auf die Quadranten der Meßtischbllitter (MTB) verwiesen, wobei die übliche Einteilung verwendet wird: 1. Quadrant= NW, 2. Quadrant= NO, 3. Quadrant= SW, 4. Quadrant = SO. Dadurch ist es möglich, jeden in dieser Ai"beit publizierten Fund in die MTB-Quaclranten einzuordnen
33561Díaz-Escandón D., Hawksworth D.L., Powell M., Resl P. & Spribille T. (2021): The British chalk specialist Lecidea lichenicola auct. revealed as a new genus of Lichinomycetes. - Fungal Biology, 125: 495–504. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2021.01.007.
The lichen, to which the name Lecidea lichenicola is found to have been misapplied, was first described from England and is an extreme specialist of chalk pebbles. It has long been known that it is not closely related to Lecidea in the strict sense, but its true evolutionary relationships have been unknown. Here we use metagenome-assembled genome data to place this fungus in a six-locus phylogeny of Ascomycota, and find strong support for its placement in the class Lichinomycetes. Multiple gene trees using existing data from Lichinomycetes support its further placement within the family Lichinaceae. Based on a revision of types and original descriptions, we conclude that the earliest name for this species is Lecidea obsoleta (syn. Thrombium cretaceum). We neotypify that name by a modern collection and accommodate it in the new genus Watsoniomyces. Type and other original material of L. lichenicola (syn. Discocera lichenicola) was re-examined and found not to be on chalk and to represent a different lichen, Trapelia glebulosa. Watsoniomyces is the first described member of Lichinomycetes with an endolithic thallus. Keywords: Ascomycota; Lichinales; Metagenome; Nomenclature; Phylogenetic analysis; Systematics.
33560Georgiev K.B., Beudert B., Bässler C., Feldhaar H., Heibl C., Karasch P., Müller J., Perlík M., Weiss I. & Thorn S. (2021): Forest disturbance and salvage logging have neutral long-term effects on drinking water quality but alter biodiversity. - Forest Ecology and Management, 495: 119354 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2021.119354.
Forests host most terrestrial biodiversity and provide important ecosystem services, including the provision of drinking water. Increasing frequency and intensity of natural disturbances and subsequent salvage logging may impact both biodiversity and drinking-water quality. However, empirical evidence and particularly that generated from long-term studies, is scarce. Using data obtained from the monitoring of streamwater between 1985 and 2018 and mid-term data on biodiversity of twelve species groups, we quantified the combined effects of natural disturbances and salvage logging. We used generalized additive models to test the effects of cumulative disturbed and salvage-logged areas on annual maximum nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. We used generalized mixed-effects models to test the effect of management (disturbed unlogged, disturbed logged and undisturbed, intact forest) on species numbers of studied taxa. We found that forest disturbances led to a temporal increase of nitrate concentration in streamwater, yet remaining far below 50 mg L−1, the limits recommended by the World Health Organization. Salvage logging did not exert any additional impact on nitrate and DOC concentrations, and hence did not affect streamwater quality. Natural disturbances increased the biodiversity in eight out of twelve species groups. Salvage logging additionally increased the biodiversity of five species groups related to open habitats, but decreased the biodiversity of three deadwood-dependent species groups. We conclude that neither natural forest disturbances in watersheds nor associated salvage logging have a harmful effect on the quality of the streamwater, which is used for drinking water. Setting aside naturally disturbed areas would promote the conservation of deadwood-dependent species. Keywords: Post-disturbance management; Windthrow; Ecosystem services; Forested watershed; Nitrate; Dissolved organic carbon.
33559Vosel Y., Belyanin D., Vosel S., Melgunov M., Mezina K. & Shcherbov B. (2021): Distribution of 137Cs in lichens, mosses and pine needles along the transect from the north to the south ofWestern Siberia. - Science of the Total Environment, 789: 147874 [5 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147874.
The 137Cs content in mosses (Hylocomium splendens), lichens (Cladonia stellaris) and the needles of the Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) and the common pine (Pinus sylvestris) along the transect from the north to the south of Western Siberia from N. 67.5° to N. 55° has been investigated. The appearance of 137Cs here is linked to the nuclear weapon tests at Novaya Zemlya. The measurements have shown that at all sampling points south of N. 59.6° there is a very sharp decrease in the 137Cs specific activity in all components of the ecosystem (in mosses and lichens by about 20 times, and in the needles of conifers by 100 times) instead of a smooth decrease. This fact can be explained by the existence of the global atmospheric circulation consisting of three circulation cells in the Northern hemisphere. It is just around N. 60° that the boundary between the Polar cell and the circulation cell of midle latitudes is drawn. At this boundary, the counter surface air flows of these cells (in our case, a contaminated flow from the north and a clean one from the south) collide and generate the upward air flows here that take 137Cs away. In addition, there is water vapor condensation in the upward flows resulting in snowfalls, rains and thunderstorms. And with these precipitation events, large amounts of 137Cs should have fallen out to the north of the Polar cell boundary during the Novaya Zemlya tests. The areas south around of N. 60° have been supposed to remain clean, which is what is being observed. Keywords: 137Cs; Moss; Liches; Coniferous needles; Global atmospheric circulation.
33558Gandhi A.D., Miraclin P.A., Abilash D., Sathiyaraj S., Velmurugan R., Zhang Y., Soontarapa K., Sen P. & Sridharan T.B. (2021): Nanosilver reinforced Parmelia sulcata extract efficiently induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferative signalling in MCF-7 cells. - Environmental Research, 199: 111375 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111375.
The Lichen, Parmelia sulcata synthesizes various secondary metabolites, in which phenolic based compounds received much attention due to their importance in biomedical application. Especially the phenolic compound was effective against the cancer treatment. An effective administration of such plant natural product can represent a significant conventional management of cancer in terms of chemoprevention. The nanomedicines are group of agents that selectively interfere the cancer cells which leads to reduction of side effect thereby reducing the doses. Silver nanoparticles is a promising antitumor agent, however, the conventional production of silver nanoparticles have many drawbacks which led to increase in need of eco-friendly biological production methods. In this study, we made an attempt to synthesise a nano silver (Ps-AgNPs) from phenolic extract of lichen Parmelia sulcata extract. The Ps-AgNps was applied for anticancer activity using MCF-7 cells and the effect was characterised by western blotting method. The FTIR, XRD, UV and TEM results confirms the presence of silver nanoparticles in phenolic extract of lichen Parmelia sulcata. The cytotoxicity assay shows that the Ps-AgNPs is toxic against cancer cells (MCF-7) but not to normal cells (NIH3T3), which confirm the selective induction of cell death (apoptosis) against cancer cells. The Western blot analysis also clearly indicates the down regulation of inflammatory genes (TNF-alpha and IL-6) and cell cycle genes (PCNA and Cyclin-D1) thus promoting intrinsic apoptotic pathway. The results suggest that Ps-AgNPs can effectively kill cancer cells and can be used as an alternative therapeutic agent for cancer treatment. Keywords: Silver nanoparticles; Parmelia sulcata; Phenolic compounds; Anticancer activity; Apoptosis.
33557da Silva A.S., Pimentel C.S.L., dos Santos F.H.G., de Araújo H.D.A., Paiva P.M.G., da Silva N.H., Pereira E.C., Martins M.C.B., Buril M.L.L., Napoleão T.H., Falcão E.P.S. & Navarro D.M.A.F. (2021): Insecticidal activity of the ether extract from the lichen Ramalina complanata and an isolated metabolite (divaricatic acid) against Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). - Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 35: 102049 [6 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcab.2021.102049.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the insecticidal activity of ether extract from the lichen Ramalina complanata, and an isolated metabolite (divaricatic acid), against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. The evaluation of ingestion toxicity was performed using an artificial diet composed of the extract or compound (4 mg/g, 8 mg/g, or 12 mg/g) mixed with wheat flour. After 7 days of incubation, we determined the mortality rates and nutritional parameters. In the fumigation assay, the insects were incubated for 7 days in sealed chambers containing either the extract or divaricatic acid in 0.195–3.125 mg/L of air. The ingestion of the extract led to a maximum mortality rate of 33.33% (12 mg/g) and the extract had a deterrent effect ranging from weak (feeding deterrent index, FDI: 50%) at 4 mg/g to strong (FDI: 71%) at 12 mg/g. The mortality rate of the insects that ingested divaricatic acid reached 52.50% (12 mg/g) and the insects were also unable to convert the food into biomass. A moderate deterrent effect (FDI: 51%) of the divaricatic acid was found at a concentration of 12 mg/g. In the fumigation test, the mortality rates with the extract and divaricatic acid were 43.33-50.00% and 33.33-63.33%, respectively. An LC50 of 1.658 mg/L of air was determined for divaricatic acid. The results highlight the need for further studies on these kinds of compounds for the control of this insect, as well as for the investigation of the mechanisms by which lichen preparations work. Keywords: Bioinsecticide; Maize weevil; Lichen metabolite; Ramalina complanata.
33556Ramtvedt E.N., Bollandsås O.M., Næsset E. & Gobakken T. (2021): Relationships between single-tree mountain birch summertime albedo and vegetation properties. - Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 307: 108470 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2021.108470.
Understanding and quantifying the influence of tree structure and ground vegetation on albedo in the borealalpine treeline is urgently needed to assess and predict the biophysical climatic feedback effect of forest- and treeline expansion. Fine-spatial resolution in-situ radiation measurements sensitive to small-scale variability enable precise albedo estimation for complex heterogeneous landscapes. In this study, horizontally measured single-tree albedo of mountain birch and their spatially consistent tree- and ground vegetation properties were collected in the boreal-alpine treeline over a period of 14 days in summertime. The aim was to identify properties of tree structure and ground vegetation driving single-tree mountain birch albedo. In addition, it was of interest to analyze the relationship between the vegetation properties and a slope-estimated albedo when a simplified correction of slope and aspect of the terrain was applied to the horizontally measured incoming shortwave radiation. Both properties of tree structure and ground vegetation were strongly related to albedo. The results imply that expansion of mountain birch forests at the expense of the prevalence of bright-colored lichens, bare rock, graminoids and mosses will reduce summertime boreal-alpine treeline albedo. Taller trees with wider tree crowns will absorb more solar radiation than smaller trees and hence also reduce albedo. Overall average difference of albedo of sample plots with and without presence of mountain birch was 0.06, corresponding to 27% of the albedo for plots without birch. Horizontally measured albedo was more strongly correlated with the vegetation properties than when corrected for terrain slope and aspect. The findings show that the appropriateness of horizontally measured albedo of single trees and tree clusters in open sloping terrain, depends on the spatial size of the footprint of the downward-looking radiation sensor relative to the size of the tree subject to observation. Keywords: Albedo; Mountain Birch; Vegetation Properties; Fine-scale.
33555Czerepko J., Gawryś R., Mańk K., Janek M., Tabor J. & Skalski Ł. (2021): The influence of the forest management in the Białowieża forest on the species structure of the forest community. - Forest Ecology and Management, 496: 119363 [34 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2021.119363.
Saving Europe's remaining natural forests is one of the main objectives of the political challenges to stop the ongoing decline of biodiversity. Conservationists and foresters need objective data to assess the success or failure of management actions to conserve biodiversity. Comparing the structural characteristics of forest communities that have been subjected to or excluded from forest management, and whose history is well known, makes it possible to assess the effects of anthropogenic pressures on biodiversity. One object that creates such opportunities is the Białowieża Forest (BF). Here, for the first time, a systematic sample of information on forest communities has been objectively collected to assess the impact of different management/protection regimes on the richness and species composition of forest communities. Species of vascular plants, bryophytes, liverworts, and epigeic lichens were recorded in the 1370 sample plots distributed in a grid of 650 × 650 m during years 2016–2018. The average number of plant species recorded in the 400 m2 sample plots was compared according to the following protection categories: Orłówka protection district (Orłówka PD) of the Białowieża National Park (BNP), which has been subject to strict protection since 1921 – 5.1 thousand ha, Hwoźna protection district of the BNP (Hwoźna PD), which has been under partial protection since 1996 – 5.1 thousand ha, nature reserves – 12 thousand ha, and commercial forests – 38.2 thousand ha. In terms of species richness, the commercial forests had on average, 4 fewer species than the Hwoźna PD, but did not differ significantly in this respect from the other protection categories. In the relevant forests in Orłówka PD, there were on average 4 species of bryophytes and lichens more than in the commercial forests, and this difference proved to be statistically significant. Based on rarefaction curves, the more species-rich contexts were commercial forests in all the trophic and humidity categories. From this study, it emerged that the differences in flora between the managed and strictly protected part of the BF are small and limited to some plant groups. However, this principle does not apply to bryophytes and non-native species. Keywords: Phytosociological relevés; Species richness; Synanthropisation of flora; Forest naturalness indices.
33554Streitberger M., Holtmann L., Bültmann H., Schmidt C. & Fartmann T. (2021): Restoration of montane heathlands – Early- and mid-successional stages promote phytodiversity. - Ecological Engineering, 169: 106294 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2021.106294.
Heathlands are highly threatened ecosystems with high conservation value. Montane heathlands have suffered from widespread habitat loss due to land-use abandonment and afforestation. The aim of our study was to analyse the long-term effects of montane heathland restoration, nine to ten years after restoration, on vegetation in the Rothaar Mountains (Central Germany). We compared vegetation composition in four vegetation types: (i) early-successional heathland stages on sod cut sites or ski pistes (hereafter referred to as EARLY), (ii) late-successional (old-growth) heathland stages (LATE), (iii) restored heathlands on former spruce forests where seed transfer by hydroseeding or the application of chopper material (crushed aboveground biomass from donor heathland site including seeds) had been applied (RESTORED) and (iv) windthrows with salvage logging (WIND). In every vegetation type, ten vegetation relevés were carried out and the cover of all vascular plant, bryophyte and terricolous lichen species were analysed. Furthermore, soil samples were taken in every relevé and measured with respect to soil acidity as well as carbon, nitrogen, phosphate and potassium contents. Our study demonstrated that the restoration plots were characterised by chemical soil conditions comparable to those of existing heathland communities. RESTORED was the hotspot of phytodiversity. Species richness of vascular plants, threatened vascular plants and target species peaked on RESTORED, followed by EARLY. Additionally, EARLY was characterised by the highest number of terricolous lichen species and threatened bryophyte species. The applied restoration measures were successful in establishing montane-heathland and acidic-grassland vegetation on former spruce forests. However, two usually dominant species of montane heathlands, Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea, had hardly established. Both species are slow colonisers and require specific microsites characterised by high moisture and organic content of the soil for generative reproduction. Additionally, the study demonstrated that early- to mid-successional stages of montane heathlands play a vital role for the conservation of cryptogams and low-competitive plant species. Keywords: Acidic grassland; Biodiversity conservation; Bryophyte; Lichen; Microsite limitation; Vascular plant.
33553Ikeda M.A., Nakamura H. & Sawada K. (2021): Long-chain alkenes and alkadienes of eight lichen species collected in Japan. - Phytochemistry, 189: 112823 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2021.112823.
The hydrocarbons of eight lichen species isolated in Japan were analyzed, and diverse mono-, di-, and triunsaturated alkenes were detected. The positions of the double bonds of C17 alkadienes (heptadecadiene) and C17–C20 alkenes were determined by mass spectrometry of their dimethyl disulfide adducts. We found that the six lichens containing green algal photobionts were distinguished by the presence of 1,8-heptadecadiene, 6,9-heptadecadiene, and 8- and 7-heptadecenes. On the other hand, 1-octadecene, 4-octadecene, and 5-nonadecene were the major alkene components of the two lichens with cyanobacterial photobionts. These alkadienes and alkenes were present in large quantities in the lichen samples. In particular, 1,8-heptadecadiene accounted for more than 90% of the total alkenes in all four lichens containing it. Our results provide new insights into the origin of C17 alkadienes and C17–C20 alkenes in environmental and geological samples, and these alkenes can potentially be applied as lichen biomarkers. Keywords: Lichens; Lecanoromycetes; Heptadecadienes; Long-chain alkenes; Biomarker.
33552Devi A.P., Duong T.H., Phan H.-V.-T., Nguyen V.-K. & Chavasiri W. (2021): Chemical constituents of the hexane fraction of the lichen Parmotrema dilatatum and their α-glucosidase inhibition activity. - Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 57(3): 528–530. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10600-021-03404-z.
33551Bezkorovaynaya I.N., Tarasov P.A., Gette I.G. & Mogilnikova I.A. (2021): Influence of fire on soil temperatures of pine forests of the middle taiga, central Siberia, Russia. - Journal of Forestry Research, 32: 1139–1145. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-020-01186-8.
Temperatures of sandy podzols of middle taiga pine forests with moss and lichen ground cover were analyzed which had been exposed to ground fires of low to medium intensity. In general, temperatures in lichen and moss plots of the pine forests under study, are close to each similar, but in the first year after a fire a noticeable contrast was observed. The reasons are an increase in the amplitude of daily temperatures on the soil surface and stronger heating of upper mineral layers. Temperatures in the mineral layer with depths up to 30 cm depend on the thickness of the forest floor. Analysis of the results show that the duration of postfire effects in pine forests with sandy podzols is determined by a number of factors: the intensity of the fire, the degree of erosion of the ground cover and litter, and the recovery rate of these components. Keywords: Ground fire · Pine forests · Soil temperature.
33550Macedo D.C.S., Almeida F.J.F., Wanderley M.S.O., Ferraz M.S., Santos N.P.S., López A.M.Q., Santos-Magalhães N.S. & Lira-Nogueira M.C.B. (2021): Usnic acid: from an ancient lichen derivative to promising biological and nanotechnology applications. - Phytochemistry Reviews, 20: 609–630. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11101-020-09717-1.
Among the various compounds of natural origin, usnic acid (UA) is one of the best studied. It has several pharmacological activities, standing out as an antimicrobial, antitumor, antiviral, and antiparasitic agent, and despite these relevant properties, it is a toxic molecule. In this context, research has driven the development of innovative alternatives, such as their encapsulation in controlled release systems, an attractive tool for pharmaceutical nanotechnology. These systems allow the active ingredient to be released at the optimal yield speed and reduce the dosing regimen. Consequently, they are able to increase therapeutic efficacy by minimizing side effects. Given the above, this paper presents a review of the literature on chemical and biological properties, analytical methods, mechanism of action and toxicology of UA, and discusses the use of nanotechnology as a tool to overcome the obstacles of its pharmacological application. Keywords: Usnic acid; Chemical and biological properties; Mechanisms of action; Nanotechnology.
33549Pichler G., Candotto Carniel F., Muggia L., Holzinger A., Tretiach M. & Kranner I. (2021): Enhanced culturing techniques for the mycobiont isolated from the lichen Xanthoria parietina. - Mycological Progress, 20: 797–808. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-021-01707-7.
Lichens and their isolated symbionts are potentially valuable resources for biotechnological approaches. Especially mycobiont cultures that produce secondary lichen products are receiving increasing attention, but lichen mycobionts are notoriously slowgrowing organisms. Sufficient biomass production often represents a limiting factor for scientific and biotechnological investigations, requiring improvement of existing culturing techniques as well as methods for non-invasive assessment of growth. Here, the effects of pH and the supplement of growth media with either D-glucose or three different sugar alcohols that commonly occur in lichens, D-arabitol, D-mannitol and ribitol, on the growth of the axenically cultured mycobiont isolated from the lichen Xanthoria parietina were tested. Either D-glucose or different sugar alcohols were offered to the fungus at different concentrations, and cumulative growth and growth rates were assessed using two-dimensional image analysis over a period of 8 weeks. The mycobiont grew at a pH range from 4.0 to 7.0, whereas no growth was observed at higher pH values. Varying the carbon source in Lilly-Barnett medium (LBM) by replacing 1% D-glucose used in the originally described LBMby either 1%, 2% or 3% of D-mannitol, or 3% of D-glucose increased fungal biomass production by up to 26%, with an exponential growth phase between 2 and 6 weeks after inoculation. In summary, we present protocols for enhanced culture conditions and non-invasive assessment of growth of axenically cultured lichen mycobionts using image analysis, which may be useful for scientific and biotechnological approaches requiring cultured lichen mycobionts. Keywords: Culture . D-arabitol . D-glucose . D-mannitol . Image Analysis . Ribitol.
33548Chetia J., Gogoi N., Gogoi R. & Yasmin F. (2021): Impact of heavy metals on physiological health of lichens growing in differently polluted areas of central Assam, North East India. - Plant Physiology Reports, 26(2): 210–219. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40502-021-00575-3.
Accumulation of heavy metals on naturally grown epiphytic lichens and its impact on their physiological integrity was examined. Lichen species collected from differently polluted areas (oil refinery, roadside) were compared with the species collected from relatively lesser polluted areas. Heavy metal buildup in lichens were found to have significant damaging effect on their physiological health. Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni and Cr concentrations were found to be higher in the lichen species collected from both the polluted areas. Metal accumulation in lichen thallus has positive correlation at p B 0.01 (r = 0.417 to 0.772) with the recorded protein concentrations. Whereas, other studied parameters like chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, membrane stability and pH documented negative correlation with the accumulated heavy metals. However, abundance of species Dirinaria applanata and Dirinaria sp. at polluted areas with better protein content indicates their tolerance towards heavy metal. Chlorophyll degradation and protein contents in the lichens were found to be efficient physiological parameters to correlate with the air quality of a region. Sensitivity to heavy metals may be the cause of sparsity of species Arthonia cinnabarina, Cryptothecia subnidulans and Lecanora sp. in the polluted areas. However, lesser sensitivity to heavy metals favored the growth of species Dirinaria applanata and Dirinaria sp. even in higher polluted areas. Keywords: Lichens; Physiology; Metal accumulation; Air pollution; Bio-indicators.
33547Vannini A., Paoli L., Fedeli R., Kangogo S.K., Guarnieri M., Ancora S., Monaci F. & Loppi S. (2021): Modeling heavy metal release in the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28: 27392–27397. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12620-7.
In this study, the release of Cu2+ and Zn2+ was investigated and modeled in the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri. Samples were incubated with solutions containing these metals at ecologically relevant concentrations (10 and 100 μM) and then transplanted to a remote area and retrieved after 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. The results showed that, after 12 months, all samples faced similar metal reductions of ca. 80–85%, but after this period, all the involved processes seem to be no longer capable of generating further reductions. These results suggest that the lichen E. prunastri can provide information about environmental improvements after exposure to high or very high pollution levels in a relatively short period of time. Keywords: Air pollution . Bioaccumulation . Biomonitoring . Cu . Environmental recovery . Zn.
33546Nordén B. & Andreasen M. (2021): Key to hysterioid fungi on bark and wood in Scandinavia. - Agarica, 42: 103–122. .
The lack of useful determination keys is often a major obstacle for naming species of Ascomycota, especially for the amateur mycologist. One group of fungi in need of a key are species of Dothideomycetes with hysterioid ascomata on bark and wood in Scandinavia, and we present such a key encompassing 31 species in 14 genera. Hysterothecia are commonly found on bark and wood, and most species with hysterothecia are saprophytes. Since several lichenized, doubtfully lichenized, and other species have ascomata resembling hysterothecia we also mention several such cases of possible misidentification. Keywords: Dothideomycetes, neglected taxa, identification key.
33545Joseph R.G. (2021): Lichens on Mars vs the Hematite Hoax. Why Life Flourishes on the Radiated Iron-Rich Red Planet. (Fungus, Melanin, Calcium Oxalate, Photosynthesis). - Journal of Cosmology, 30: 1–97. .
There is life on Mars as documented with 100 comparative photos. This evidence includes pigmented/melanized fungi and lichens, fungi shedding crustose and secreting calcium oxalate, fungi preparing to spore, spores on the surface sprouting embryonic mushrooms, fungus growing out of the ground, lichens with hollow stalks, vast colonies of lichens attached to rocks and oriented skyward similar to photosynthesizing lichens on Earth, and documentation that the claims of spherical hematite is a hoax--a byproduct of religious extremism at NASA--which is why the hematite claims were immediately rejected as inappropriate and implausible by a number of investigators who proposed instead they are tektites and accretionary lapilli produced by meteor impact and volcano. Be they on the surface or attached to Martian rocks they have no resemblance to terrestrial hematite. The “spheres” of Mars are uniform in shape and size (1mm or 3mm to 6 mm) and all were initially described as “yellow” “orange” “purple” and “blue” the pigmented colors of photosynthesizing organisms. Terrestrial hematite “spheres” are colored red to dark red, consist of less than 2% hematite which form a thin layer on the surface and have a wide variety of sizes and shapes and are infiltrated by fungi and lichens. A review of the Opportunity teams’ methodology and instrumentation reveals that data was contaminated and confounded by numerous uncontrolled variables including problems with instrument calibrations and they relied on inference, speculation, data manipulation, and spectra from panoramic images that were selectively eliminated in a failed attempt to make it conform to laboratory samples. The iron-rich radiation-intense Red Planet provides an ideal environment for fungus and lichens to flourish and promotes growth and sporing and production of melanin which protects against while simultaneously utilizing radiation for metabolic energy. Fungi secrete calcium and lichens and fungi produce calcium oxalate that “weathers” and dissolves minerals and metals which are utilized as nutrients and are stored on cellular surfaces. Terrestrial species are iron-rich and precipitate hematite which makes these fungi and lichens ideal bioindicators of metal and minerals; whereas on Mars they are likely supersaturated with these and other minerals and metals as reflected by spectral data. Fungi and lichens secrete calcium oxalate which coats and surrounds mycelium, but upon exposure to dry surface conditions forms waves of calcium “cement” that may cement these organisms to layers of calcium oxalate fossilizing and making them “harder than rock.” Yet others grow out of the ground and are obviously alive. Given evidence documenting biological residue in Martian meteorites, biological activity in soil samples, seasonal increases in methane and oxygen which parallel biological fluctuations on Earth, and pictorial and quantitative morphological evidence of stromatolites fossilized tube worms and metazoans, growth of mushrooms and fungi, and vast colonies of rock-dwelling lichens, it is concluded that the evidence is obvious: There is life on Mars. Key Words: Hematite Hoax, Tektites, Accretionary Lapilli, Calcium Oxalate, Lichens, Martian Mushrooms, Puffballs, Volcanos on Mars, Meteor Impact, Hematite spheres, Whewellite.
33544Vellend M., Béhé M., Carteron A., Crofts A.L., Danneyrolles V., Gamhewa H.T., Ni M., Rinas C.L. & Watts D.A. (2021): Plant responses to climate change and an elevational gradient in Mont Mégantic National Park, Québec, Canada. - Northeastern Naturalist, 28(Special Issue 11): 4–28. .
With steep climatic gradients over short distances, montane ecosystems provide exceptional opportunities to study ecological responses to climate and other environmental changes. Here we present a summary and synthesis of 10 years of research on this theme in a protected area in southern Québec, Canada (Parc National du Mont Mégantic), with ecological conditions closely similar to the northern Appalachians. During the ~150 years since European settlement, anthropogenic disturbance has reduced the abundance of certain taxa (e.g., Picea [spruce]), while favoring other taxa that thrive during succession (e.g., Betula [birch], Acer [maple]). In more recent decades, climate warming (~0.21 °C per decade) appears to have prompted upward elevational range shifts for many plant species, although such responses lag behind changes in climate itself. Experimental studies with seeds and seedlings of Acer saccharum (Sugar Maple) suggest that upward range expansion might be constrained by non-climatic factors such as belowground properties and seed predators, while escape from insect herbivores might actually accelerate range expansion. Similar studies with understory plants have not revealed clear evidence of non-climatic constraints on range limits, although some preliminary data presented here suggest a possible role of a lack of microsites with rich, moist soil at high elevation. Current studies focus on the lower elevational range limits of species restricted to mountaintops, such as certain lichens. Vegetation and flowering phenology are also sensitive to climate, and we have found that earlier springs are associated with decreased potential gene flow across populations at different elevations; ongoing studies will determine how differential sensitivity of herbs vs. trees might influence the duration of a high light period in spring in the understory. Overall, we have found clear signals of plant responses to long-term anthropogenic disturbances and recent climatic warming, but considerable uncertainty remains about how climatic and non-climatic factors will interact to determine the future of this montane ecosystem.
33543Zarabska-Bożejewicz D. & Kujawa K. (2021): The lichen biota of Pinus sylvestris under the impact of some stand-related factors: A case study from the south-eastern part of Żerków-Czeszewo Landscape Park (Wielkopolska-Kujawy Lowland). - Acta Mycologica , 56: 562 [13 p.]. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0792-9854.
A lichenological inventory was conducted in the pine stands in the south-eastern region of Żerków-Czeszewo Landscape Park. The aim of this study was to recognize the lichen species diversity on the bark of Pinus sylvestris by considering tree age and forest habitat type. In total, 26 species of lichenized fungi were found on the bark of P. sylvestris. The biota comprises common and widespread species in Poland. Tree age positively and significantly influenced the species richness on the bark of P. sylvestris. The suitability of the pine tree age for lichens evident as alpha diversity seemed to be independent from the habitat of the trees. The age of phorophytes strongly affected the presence of Hypocenomyce scalaris. Mixed fresh coniferous forests were characterized by higher beta- and gamma diversity compared to fresh coniferous forests. There was no correlation between the number of species per tree (alpha diversity) and diversification of species composition in relation to the distance between pines. The findings indicate that maintenance of a variety of phorophytes and age-diversified tree stands can prevent impoverishment of the lichen biota in the south-eastern part of Żerków-Czeszewo Landscape Park. Keywords: lichenized fungi; species richness; pine; coniferous forest; west-central Poland.
33542Pykälä J., Kantelinen A. & Myllys L. (2021): Corrigendum: Pykälä J, Kantelinen A, Myllys L (2020) Taxonomy of Verrucaria species characterised by large spores, perithecia leaving pits in the rock and a pale thin thallus in Finland. MycoKeys 72: 43–92. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.72.56223. - MycoKeys, 80: 163–164. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.80.67870.
33541Nascimento E.L.L., Maia L.C., Cáceres M.E.S. & Lücking R. (2021): Phylogenetic structure of lichen metacommunities in Amazonian and Northeast Brazil. - Ecological Research, 36(2): 440–463. https://doi.org/10.1111/1440-1703.12206.
Amazon, Atlantic forest, Brejos de Altitude, Caatinga, Carrasco, Cerrad~ao and Restinga are major vegetation units in North and Northeast Brazil. Little is known about lichen metacommunity structure in these habitats. While species richness and composition generally depend on climatic factors, in azonal vegetation edaphic factors may have a filtering effect on tree bark structure and hence the composition of epiphytic lichen communities. We hypothesized that climatic stress and a tree bark filtering effect would result in reduced richness and phylogenetic clustering in Caatinga, Carrasco, Cerrad~ao and Restinga, whereas high richness and phylogenetic overdispersion were predicted for Amazon and Atlantic Forest. To test this, we analyzed 2,090 lichenized species in the study area, with a supertree to assess phylogenetic metacommunity structure. Amazon and Atlantic forest exhibited high richness and phylogenetic diversity, with phylogenetic overdispersion only in the Amazon. The zonal Caatinga with drought stress and the extrazonal Brejos both exhibited phylogenetic clustering. Among the azonal, edaphic vegetation units, Cerrad~ao exhibited phylogenetic overdispersion, whereas Restinga showed phylogenetic clustering. Nearest taxon phylogenetic distance indicated a close relationship between Amazon and Atlantic forest, Atlantic forest and Brejos and Atlantic forest and Caatinga. Carrasco was mostly closely related to Cerrad~ao, and Restinga was distantly related to any other unit. These findings indicate more complex patterns in the phylogenetic structure of lichen metacommunities, partly reflecting those of plant metacommunities, as a result of concurrent macroecological evolutionary histories. Our data supported floristic evidence that Carrasco is part of the Cerrado complex and not related to Caatinga. Keywords: Amazon–Atlantic forest Pleistocene corridors, Caliciales, ecological equivalence, Phylocom, Trypetheliaceae.
33540Markle C.E., Wilkinson S.L. & Waddington J.M. (2020): Initial effects of wildfire on freshwater turtle nesting habitat. - Journal of Wildlife Management, 84(7): 1373–1383. https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.21921.
Natural wildfire regimes are important for ecosystem succession but can have negative ecological effects depending on fire characteristics. A portion of a granite rock barrens landscape that extends along the eastern shoreline of Georgian Bay, Lake Huron to eastern Ontario, Canada, burned in 2018 during a wildfire that affected >11,000 ha. This landscape is a biodiversity hotspot providing habitat for many species at risk where freshwater turtles nest in soil deposits in cracks and crevices in the bedrock dominated by moss (Polytrichum spp.) and lichen (Cladonia spp.) cover. To assess the initial effect of wildfire on freshwater turtle nesting habitat, we measured soil depths and estimated moss, lichen, and vascular plant cover at 2 morphology types (crevice, flat) in burned and unburned areas of the landscape. The probability that burned flat plots supported soil was near zero; the burned flat plots had 98% less soil volume compared to unburned flat plots. Although crevices were more resistant to soil loss, burned crevices still had a 15% lower probability of having soil and 35% less soil volume compared to unburned crevice plots. We estimated nest site availability by calculating the number of locations with shallow (5–10 cm), intermediate (10–20 cm), and deep (>20 cm) soils required for a small (5 cm × 5 cm) or medium (10 cm × 10 cm) nest chamber. Overall, the burned open rock barrens had 71–73% fewer sites with suitable soil depth and volume for a nest chamber of either size. Furthermore, burned plots had almost no lichen and moss cover but were dominated by bare soil, forbs, and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings. Although the loss of tree cover in previously forested areas may increase nest site availability for freshwater turtles in newly open areas, we suggest that organic soil combustion and soil erosion may require restoration activities in the post-fire landscape to support successful nesting of at-risk turtles.
33539Komaty S., Sauvager A., Bazureau J.-P., Tomasi S. & Paquin L. (2021): Efficiency and selectivity of ionic liquids in microwave-assisted extraction of major lichen phenolic compounds: a scalable process with recycling of ionic liquids. - Phytochemical Analysis, 32: 592–600. https://doi.org/10.1002/pca.3008.
Introduction: Pseudevernia furfuracea, a lichen used classically for cosmetic applications, contains interesting metabolites possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory or antioxidant properties. Objectives: Ionic liquid combined to microwave-assisted extraction (IL–MAE) was successfully applied for metabolites extraction from Pseudevernia furfuracea. Materials and methods: Three imidazolium and pyridinium-based ionic liquids (ILs): 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulphate [C1C1Im][MeSO4], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulphate [C2C1Im][EtSO4], and N-ethylpyridinium ethylsulphate [C2Py][EtSO4] were assessed for this process. The efficiency of the extraction method was evaluated using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) coupled to a Camag® spectrophotodensitometer and using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Results: ILs under MAE showed extraction time efficiency (15 min vs. 24 h for conventional heating) and high selectivity in extracting the targeted metabolites: atranorin (AT), methyl-β-orcinol carboxylate (MOC), fumarprotocetraric acid (Fum. Ac.), and physodic acid (Phys. Ac.) despite the increased degradation of AT under MAE. We showed a tunable selectivity of ILs towards extracting metabolites by changing anion or cation due to the modification of the interaction between the IL and the metabolites. While [C2Py][EtSO4] was the most efficient IL and could extract all the targeted metabolites, [C2C1Im][EtSO4] was the most selective. It fully extracted AT and partially Fum. Ac. Moreover, the lichen prepared by mixing procedure provided AT and Fum. Ac. more than the milled one. A 100 times scale-up extraction was successfully performed on mixed samples with full IL recycling after back extraction. Conclusion: IL–MAE is reliable for lichen metabolites extraction. The method is reproducible, scalable, with possible IL recycling, opening the door for potential industrial applications. Keywords: ionic liquid, lichens, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), phenolic compounds, pilot-scale, Pseudevernia furfuracea, recycling of ionic liquids.
33538Wegener U. & Kison H.-U. (2002): Die Vegetation des Brockens im Nationalpark Hochharz (Exkursion G). - Tuexenia, 22: 243–267. https://www.tuexenia.de/publications/tuexenia/Tuexenia_2002_NS_022_0243-0267.pdf.
[in German] Germany; Harz. Vegetation / phytosociology paper with numerous records of lichens
33537Scholz P. (1995): Zur Artabgrenzung und Benennung einiger Erdflechten. - Informationen zur floristischen Kartierung in Thüringen [Jena], 8: 18–20. .
[in German] distribution map of Psora saviczii included
33536Isocrono D., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Di Nuzzo L., Catalano I., Gheza G., Giordani P., Matteucci E., Ongaro S., Potenza G., Puntillo D., Ravera S. & Pittao E. (2018): Lichenes Italici Exsiccati ex Società Lichenologica Italiana. Fascicle II (Nos. 13-24). - Notiziario della Società Lichenologica Italiana, 31: 97–99. .
The second issue of Lichenes Italici exsiccati ex Società Lichenalagica Italiana, the series of exsiccata distributed by the ltalian Lichen Society (Società Lichenologica Italiana, S.L.I.), is presented. The labels of 13-24 numbers are listed. Key words: Lichens, exsiccata.
33535Frolov I., Vondrák J., Košnar J. & Arup U. (2021): Phylogenetic relationships within Pyrenodesmia sensu lato and the role of pigments in its taxonomic interpretation. - Journal of Systematics and Evolution, 59(3): 454–474. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.12717.
Most lichens of the family Teloschistaceae (Ascomycota) produce yellow-orange-red anthraquinone pigments. However, the genus Pyrenodesmia encompasses species in which anthraquinones are absent and replaced by a gray pigment Sedifolia-gray. It was shown recently that these species are related to taxa with both anthraquinones and Sedifolia-gray (Caloplaca xerica group, C. haematites group, and C. cretensis) and to species with a brown pigment instead of both anthraquinones and Sedifolia-gray (C. demissa, C. obscurella, and C. reptans). Nevertheless, relationships between mentioned anthraquinone-containing and anthraquinone-lacking species remained unclear. In total, 8 DNA loci from 41 species were used here to resolve these uncertainties. We concluded that C. demissa, C. obscurella, and C. reptans are rather distant from the core of Pyrenodesmia, and we place them outside of Pyrenodesmia sensu lato. Within Pyrenodesmia sensu lato, three lineages were revealed and recognized on a generic level: the genus Pyrenodesmia sensu stricto (21 species), the genus Kuettlingeria (14 species), which is resurrected here, and the genus Sanguineodiscus (4 species), which is newly described here. The genus Pyrenodesmia includes taxa that never contain anthraquinones, but Sedifolia-gray. It matches with the former C. variabilis group. Taxa of the genera Kuettlingeria and Sanguineodiscus have anthraquinones in their apothecia and Sedifolia-gray in their thalli. The genus Kuettlingeria includes the former C. xerica group plus C. cretensis and C. diphyodes. The genus Sanguineodiscus includes the former C. haematites group and C. bicolor. The identity of Kuettlingeria (Caloplaca) diphyodes was clarified and the name Pyrenodesmia helygeoides was resurrected. Twenty-four new combinations were proposed. Key words: anthraquinones, Caloplaca haematites group, Caloplaca variabilis group, Caloplaca xerica group, Kuettlingeria, Pyrenodesmia sensu stricto, Sanguineodiscus, Sedifolia‐gray, Teloschistaceae.
33534Halıcı M.G., Kahraman M., Kistenich S. & Timdal E. (2021): Toniniopsis bartakii - A new species of lichenised fungus from James Ross Island (Antarctic Peninsula). - Turkish Journal of Botany, 45: 216–223. https://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/botany/issues/bot-21-45-3/bot-45-3-4-2101-24.pdf.
The new lichen species Toniniopsis bartakii is described from James Ross Island, the North-East Antarctic Peninsula region. It is phylogenetically most closely related to T. bagliettoana but differs mainly in forming a more developed, squamulose thallus. It is morphologically more similar to T. coelestina but differs mainly in the pigmentation in the proper exciple. An identification key to the known species of Toniniopsis is also provided. Key words: Antarctica, biodiversity, lichenized fungi, Ramalinaceae, mtSSU, nrITS.
33533Wang Y., Zheng Y., Wang X., Wei X. & Wei J. (2016): Lichen-associated fungal community in Hypogymnia hypotrypa (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) affected by geographic distribution and altitude. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 7: 1231 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01231.
Lichen-associated fungal species have already been investigated in almost all the main growth forms of lichens, however, whether or not they are homogeneous and constant within each lichen species are still inconclusive. Moreover, the related ecological factors to affect and structure the fungal composition have been poorly studied. In order to answer these questions, we took Hypogymnia hypotrypa as a model to study the relationship between the lichen-associated fungal composition and two ecological factors, i.e., site and altitude, using the method of IlluminaMiSeq sequencing. Four different sites and two levels of altitude were included in this study, and the effects of site and altitude on fungal community composition were assessed at three levels, i.e., operational taxonomic unit (OTU), class and phylum. The results showed that a total of 50 OTUs were identified and distributed in 4 phyla, 13 classes, and 20 orders. The lichen-associated fungal composition within H. hypotrypa were significantly affected by both site and altitude at OTU and class levels, while at the phylum level, it was only affected by altitude. While the lichen associated fungal communities were reported to be similar with endophytic fungi of the moss, our results indicated the opposite results in some degree. But whether there exist specific OTUs within this lichen species corresponding to different sites and altitudes is still open. More lichen species and ecological factors would be taken into the integrated analyses to address these knowledge gaps in the near future. Keywords: lichens, endolichenic fungi, lichenicolous fungi, fungal community, 18S rRNA gene, Tibetan Plateau.
33532Kalra R., Conlan X.A., Areche C., Dilawari R. & Goel M. (2021): Metabolite profiling of the Indian food spice lichen, Pseudevernia furfuracea combined with optimised extraction methodology to obtain bioactive phenolic compounds. - Frontiers in Pharmacology, 12: 629695 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.629695.
Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf (Parmeliaceae) is a well-known epiphytic lichen commonly used in Indian spice mixtures and food preparations such as curries. This study is an attempt to find the best extraction methodology with respect to extractive yield, total polyphenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of lichen P. furfuracea. Two phenolic compounds, atraric acid and olivetoric acid were isolated and quantified in their respective extracts with the aid of reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The highest concentration of both the compounds, atraric acid (4.89 mg/g DW) and olivetoric acid (11.46 mg/g DW) were found in 70% methanol extract. A direct correlation was also observed between the concentrations of these compounds with the free radical scavenging potential of the extracts which might contribute towards the antioxidant potential of the extract. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy and HPLC analysis which was used to study the effect of pre-processing on extraction process highlighted the capacity of a mixer grinder technique for improved separation of surface localized metabolites and enrichment of the fraction. An investigation of the chemical profile of the bioactive extract 70% methanol extract using UHPLC-DAD-MS lead to tentative identification of forty nine compounds. This extract was also assessed towards HEK 293 T cell line for cytotoxicity analysis. Concentration range of 0.156 to 100 µg/ml of PF70M extract exhibited no significant cell death as compared to control. Further, the active extract showed protective effect against hydroxyl radical’s destructive effects on DNA when assessed using DNA nicking assay. Based upon this, it can be concluded that optimization of extraction solvent, sample pre-proceesing and extraction techniques can be useful in extraction of specific antioxidant metabolites. Keywords: lichen, antioxidants, atraric acid, olivetoric acid, UHPLC-MS, metabolomics profiling, Pseudevernia furfuracea, spatial localization.
33531Cernava T., Müller H., Aschenbrenner I.A., Grube M. & Berg G. (2015): Analyzing the antagonistic potential of the lichen microbiome against pathogens by bridging metagenomic with culture studies. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 6: 620 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00620.
Naturally occurring antagonists toward pathogens play an important role to avoid pathogen outbreaks in ecosystems, and they can be applied as biocontrol agents for crops. Lichens present long-living symbiotic systems continuously exposed to pathogens. To analyze the antagonistic potential in lichens, we studied the bacterial community active against model bacteria and fungi by an integrative approach combining isolate screening, omics techniques, and high resolution mass spectrometry. The highly diverse microbiome of the lung lichen [Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm.] included an abundant antagonistic community dominated by Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Burkholderia. While antagonists represent 24.5% of the isolates, they were identified with only 7% in the metagenome; which means that they were overrepresented in the culturable fraction. Isolates of the dominant antagonistic genus Stenotrophomonas produced spermidine as main bioactive component. Moreover, spermidine-related genes, especially for the transport, were identified in the metagenome. The majority of hits identified belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, while Stenotrophomonas-specific spermidine synthases were not present in the dataset. Evidence for plant growth promoting effects was found for lichen-associated strains of Stenotrophomonas. Linking of metagenomic and culture data was possible but showed partly contradictory results, which required a comparative assessment. However, we have shown that lichens are important reservoirs for antagonistic bacteria, which open broad possibilities for biotechnological applications. Keywords:lichen,antagonisticbacteria,plantgrowthpromotion, Stenotrophomonas, spermidine.
33530Ivanova A.A., Kulichevskaya I.S., Merkel A.Y., Toshchakov S.V. & Dedysh S.N. (2016): High diversity of Planctomycetes in soils of two lichen-dominated sub-Arctic ecosystems of northwestern Siberia. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 7: 2065 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.02065.
A wide variety of terrestrial ecosystems in tundra have a ground vegetation cover composed of reindeer lichens (genera Cladonia and Cetraria). The microbial communities of two lichen-dominated ecosystems typical of the sub-arctic zone of northwestern Siberia, that is a forested tundra soil and a shallow acidic peatland, were examined in our study. As revealed by molecular analyses, soil and peat layers just beneath the lichen cover were abundantly colonized by bacteria from the phylum Planctomycetes. Highest abundance of planctomycetes detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization was in the range 2.2–2.7 × 107 cells per gram of wet weight. 16S rRNA gene fragments from the Planctomycetes comprised 8–13% of total 16S rRNA gene reads retrieved using Illumina pair-end sequencing from the soil and peat samples. Lichen-associated assemblages of planctomycetes displayed unexpectedly high diversity, with a total of 89,662 reads representing 1723 operational taxonomic units determined at 97% sequence identity. The soil of forested tundra was dominated by uncultivated members of the family Planctomycetaceae (53–71% of total Planctomycetes-like reads), while sequences affiliated with the Phycisphaera-related group WD2101 (recently assigned to the order Tepidisphaerales) were most abundant in peat (28–51% of total reads). Representatives of the Isosphaera–Singulisphaera group (14–28% of total reads) and the lineages defined by the genera Gemmata (1–4%) and Planctopirus–Rubinisphaera (1–3%) were present in both habitats. Two strains of Singulisphaera-like bacteria were isolated from studied soil and peat samples. These planctomycetes displayed good tolerance of low temperatures (4–15°C) and were capable of growth on a number of polysaccharides, including lichenan, a characteristic component of lichen-derived phytomass. Keywords: Planctomycetes, tundra wetland, lichen-dominated forested tundra, high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing, FISH, cultivation studies.
33529Noh H.-J., Lee Y.M., Park C.H., Lee H.K., Cho J.-C. & Hong S.G. (2020): Microbiome in Cladonia squamosa is vertically stratified according to microclimatic conditions. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 11: 268 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00268.
Lichens are miniature ecosystems that contain fungi, microalgae, and bacteria. It is generally accepted that symbiosis between mycobiont and photobiont and microbial contribution to the ecosystem support the wide distribution of lichens in terrestrial ecosystems, including polar areas. The composition of symbiotic components can be affected by subtle microenvironmental differences within a thallus, as well as large-scale climate differences. In this study, we investigated fine-scale profiles of algal, fungal, and bacterial compositions through horizontal and vertical positions of the Antarctic lichen Cladonia squamosa colonies by next-generation sequencing of the nuclear large subunit rRNA gene (nucLSU) of eukaryotes and the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria. Apical parts of thalli were exposed to strong light, low moisture, and high variability of temperature compared with basal parts. Microbial diversity increased from apical parts to basal parts of thalli. Asterochloris erici was the major photobiont in apical positions of thalli, but other microalgal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Trebouxiophyceae and Ulvophyceae were major microalgal components in basal positions. Photochemical responses of algal components from apical and basal parts of thalli were quite different under variable temperature and humidity conditions. Several fungal OTUs that belonged to Arthoniomycetes and Lecanoromycetes, and diverse bacterial OTUs that belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria_Gp1, and candidate division WPS-2 showed a clear distribution pattern according to their vertical positions within thalli. The overall lichen microbiome was significantly differentiated by the vertical position within a thallus. These results imply that different microclimate are formed at different lichen thallus parts, which can affect microbial compositions and physiological responses according to positions within the thalli. Keywords: Antarctica, lichen, bacteria, fungi, microalgae, microbiome.
33528Zhang T., Wang N.-F., Liu H.-Y., Zhang Y.-Q. & Yu L.-Y. (2016): Soil pH is a key determinant of soil fungal community composition in the Ny-Ålesund region, Svalbard (High Arctic). - Frontiers in Microbiology, 7: 227 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00227.
This study assessed the fungal community composition and its relationships with properties of surface soils in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic). A total of thirteen soil samples were collected and soil fungal community was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing with fungi-specific primers targeting the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The following eight soil properties were analyzed: pH, organic carbon (C), organic nitrogen (N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), silicate silicon (SiO42--Si), nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N), phosphate phosphorus (PO43--P), and nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N). A total of 57,952 reads belonging to 541 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found. of these OTUs, 343 belonged to Ascomycota, 100 to Basidiomycota, 31 to Chytridiomycota, 22 to Glomeromycota, 11 to Zygomycota, 10 to Rozellomycota, whereas 24 belonged to unknown fungi. The dominant orders were Helotiales, Verrucariales, Agaricales, Lecanorales, Chaetothyriales, Lecideales, and Capnodiales. The common genera (>eight soil samples) were Tetracladium, Mortierella, Fusarium, Cortinarius, and Atla. Distance-based redundancy analysis (db-rda) and analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) revealed that soil pH (p = 0.001) was the most significant factor in determining the soil fungal community composition. Members of Verrucariales were found to predominate in soils of pH 8–9, whereas Sordariales predominated in soils of pH 7–8 and Coniochaetales predominated in soils of pH 6–7. The results suggest the presence and distribution of diverse soil fungal communities in the High Arctic, which can provide reliable data for studying the ecological responses of soil fungal communities to climate changes in the Arctic. Keywords: soil fungi, fungal community composition, arctic tundra, soil properties, high-throughput sequencing.
33527Zwolicki A., Zmudczyńska-Skarbek K., Matuła J., Wojtuń B. & Stempniewicz L. (2016): Differential responses of Arctic vegetation to nutrient enrichment by plankton and fish-eating colonial seabirds in Spitsbergen. - Frontiers in Plant Science, 7: 1959 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.01959.
The role of seabirds as sea-land biovectors of nutrients is well documented. However, no studies have examined whether and how colonial seabirds that differ in diet may influence terrestrial vegetation. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to describe and compare plant communities located in the vicinity of the two most common types of seabird colonies in Arctic, occupied by piscivorous or planktivorous species. Within 46 plots arranged in four transects in the vicinity of planktivorous (little auk, Alle alle) and piscivorous colonies (mixed colony of Brunnich’s guillemot, Uria lomvia, and black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla) we measured the following: guano deposition, physical and chemical characteristics of soil, total nitrogen and its stable isotope signatures in soil and plants, ground vegetation cover of vascular plants and mosses, and the occurrence of lichens, algae and cyanobacteria. Using LINKTREE analysis, we distinguished five plant communities, which reflected declining influence along a birds fertilization gradient measured as guano deposition. SIMPROOF test revealed that these communities differed significantly in species composition, with the differences related to total soil nitrogen content and d15N, distinctive levels of phosphates, potassium and nitrates, and physical soil properties, i.e., pH, conductivity and moisture. The communities were also clearly distinguished by distance from the bird colony. The two colony types promoted development of specific plant communities: the immediate vicinity of the planktivorous colony characterized by a Deschampsia alpina–Cerastium arcticum community while under the piscivorous colony a Cochlearia groenlandica– Poa alpina community was present. Despite the similar size of the colonies and similar magnitude of guano input, differences between ornithogenic communities were connected mostly to phosphate content in the soil. Our results show that the guano input from seabirds which have different diets can affect High Arctic vegetation in specific and more complex ways than previously realized. Keywords: guano deposition, bird cliff vegetation, plant communities, soil chemistry, little auk, kittiwake, guillemot.
33526Pointing S.B., Büdel B., Convey P., Gillman L.N., Körner C., Leuzinger S. & Vincent W.F. (2015): Biogeography of photoautotrophs in the high polar biome. - Frontiers in Plant Science, 6: 692 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2015.00692.
[A review paper] The global latitudinal gradient in biodiversity weakens in the high polar biome and so an alternative explanation for distribution of Arctic and Antarctic photoautotrophs is required. Here we identify how temporal, microclimate and evolutionary drivers of biogeography are important, rather than the macroclimate features that drive plant diversity patterns elsewhere. High polar ecosystems are biologically unique, with a more central role for bryophytes, lichens and microbial photoautotrophs over that of vascular plants. Constraints on vascular plants arise mainly due to stature and ontogenetic barriers. Conversely non-vascular plant and microbial photoautotroph distribution is correlated with favorable microclimates and the capacity for poikilohydric dormancy. Contemporary distribution also depends on evolutionary history, with adaptive and dispersal traits as well as legacy influencing biogeography. We highlight the relevance of these findings to predicting future impacts on diversity of polar photoautotrophs and to the current status of plants in Arctic and Antarctic conservation policy frameworks. Keywords: antarctic, arctic, bryophytes, cryptogams, cyanobacteria, lichen, plant biogeography.
33525Borruso L., Bani A., Pioli S., Ventura M., Panzacchi P., Antonielli L., Giammarchi F., Polo A., Tonon G. & Brusetti L. (2021): Do aerial nitrogen depositions affect fungal and bacterial communities of oak leaves?. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 12: 633535 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.633535.
The amount of nitrogen (N) deposition onto forests has globally increased and is expected to double by 2050, mostly because of fertilizer production and fossil fuel burning. Several studies have already investigated the effects of N depositions in forest soils, highlighting negative consequences on plant biodiversity and the associated biota. Nevertheless, the impact of N aerial inputs deposited directly on the tree canopy is still unexplored. This study aimed to investigate the influence of increased N deposition on the leaf-associated fungal and bacterial communities in a temperate forest dominated by Sessile oak [Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.]. The study area was located in the Monticolo forest (South Tyrol, Italy), where an ecosystem experiment simulating an increased N deposition has been established. The results highlighted that N deposition affected the fungal beta-diversity and bacterial alpha-diversity without affecting leaf total N and C contents. We found several indicator genera of both fertilized and natural conditions within bacteria and fungi, suggesting a highly specific response to altered N inputs. Moreover, we found an increase of symbiotrophic fungi in N-treated, samples which are commonly represented by lichen-forming mycobionts. Overall, our results indicated that N-deposition, by increasing the level of bioavailable nutrients in leaves, could directly influence the bacterial and fungal community diversity. Keywords: microbial communities, Quercus petraea, temperate forest, Alps, forest ecology.
33524Choe Y.-H., Kim M. & Lee Y.K. (2021): Distinct microbial communities in adjacent rock and soil substrates on a high Arctic polar desert . - Frontiers in Microbiology, 11: 607396 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.607396.
Understanding microbial niche variability in polar regions can provide insights into the adaptive diversification of microbial lineages in extreme environments. Compositions of microbial communities in Arctic soils are well documented but a comprehensive multidomain diversity assessment of rocks remains insufficiently studied. In this study, we obtained two types of rocks (sandstone and limestone) and soils around the rocks in a high Arctic polar desert (Svalbard), and examined the compositions of archaeal, bacterial, fungal, and protistan communities in the rocks and soils. The microbial community structure differed significantly between rocks and soils across all microbial groups at higher taxonomic levels, indicating that Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Latescibacteria, Rokubacteria, Leotiomycetes, Pezizomycetes, Mortierellomycetes, Sarcomonadea, and Spirotrichea were more abundant in soils, whereas Cyanobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, FBP, Lecanoromycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Trebouxiophyceae, and Ulvophyceae were more abundant in rocks. Interestingly, fungal communities differed markedly between two different rock types, which is likely to be ascribed to the predominance of distinct lichen-forming fungal taxa (Verrucariales in limestone, and Lecanorales in sandstone). This suggests that the physical or chemical properties of rocks could be a major determinant in the successful establishment of lichens in lithic environments. Furthermore, the biotic interactions among microorganisms based on co-occurrence network analysis revealed that Polyblastia and Verrucaria in limestone, and Atla, Porpidia, and Candelariella in sandstone play an important role as keystone taxa in the lithic communities. Our study shows that even in niches with the same climate regime and proximity to each other, heterogeneity of edaphic and lithic niches can affect microbial community assembly, which could be helpful in comprehensively understanding the effects of niche on microbial assembly in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems. Keywords: polar desert, lithic niche, edaphic niche, rock microbes, Arctic.
33523Maestre F.T., Escolar C., Bardgett R.D., Dungait J.A.J., Gozalo B. & Ochoa V. (2015): Warming reduces the cover and diversity of biocrust-forming mosses and lichens, and increases the physiological stress of soil microbial communities in a semi-arid Pinus halepensis plantation. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 6: 865 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00865.
Soil communities dominated by lichens and mosses (biocrusts) play key roles in maintaining ecosystem structure and functioning in drylands worldwide. However, few studies have explicitly evaluated how climate change-induced impacts on biocrusts affect associated soil microbial communities. We report results from a field experiment conducted in a semiarid Pinus halepensis plantation, where we setup an experiment with two factors: cover of biocrusts (low [<15%] versus high [>50%]), and warming (control versus a ∼2°C temperature increase). Warming reduced the richness and cover (∼45%) of high biocrust cover areas 53 months after the onset of the experiment. This treatment did not change the ratios between the major microbial groups, as measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Warming increased the physiological stress of the Gram negative bacterial community, as indicated by the cy17:0/16:1ω7 ratio. This response was modulated by the initial biocrust cover, as the increase in this ratio with warming was higher in areas with low cover. Our findings suggest that biocrusts can slow down the negative effects of warming on the physiological status of the Gram negative bacterial community. However, as warming will likely reduce the cover and diversity of biocrusts, these positive effects will be reduced under climate change. Keywords: biocrusts, climate change, lichen, moss, PLFA, drylands, microbial communities.
33522Cernava T., Vasfiu Q., Erlacher A., Aschenbrenner I.A., Francesconi K., Grube M. & Berg G. (2018): Adaptions of lichen microbiota functioning under persistent exposure to arsenic contamination. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 9: 2959 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02959.
Host-associated microbiota play an important role in the health and persistence of more complex organisms. In this study, metagenomic analyses were used to reveal microbial community adaptations in three lichen samples as a response to different arsenic concentrations at the sampling sites. Elevated arsenic concentrations at a former mining site expanded the spectrum and number of relevant functions in the lichen-associated microorganisms. Apparent changes affected the abundance of numerous detoxification-related genes, they were substantially enhanced in arsenicpolluted samples. Complementary quantifications of the arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase (arsM) gene showed that its abundance is not strictly responding to the environmental arsenic concentrations. The analyzed samples contained rather low numbers of the arsM gene with a maximum of 202 gene copies ml
33521Calla-Quispe E., Robles J., Areche C. & Sepulveda B. (2020): Are ionic liquids better extracting agents than toxic volatile organic solvents? A combination of ionic liquids, microwave and LC/MS/MS, applied to the lichen Stereocaulon glareosum. - Frontiers in Chemistry, 8: 450 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2020.00450.
We report a green strategy for the extraction of lichen substances from Stereocaulon glareosum. This sustainable alternative does not use volatile toxic organic solvents, but it is assisted by microwave and is checked by UHPLC/ESI/MS/MS. Ionic liquids may provide a better alternative in the extraction of natural products from lichens. Keywords: lichens, ionic liquids, LC/MS, natural products, Stereocaulon.
33520Erlacher A., Cernava T., Cardinale M., Soh J., Sensen C.W., Grube M. & Berg G. (2015): Rhizobiales as functional and endosymbiontic members in the lichen symbiosis of Lobaria pulmonaria L.. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 6: 53 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00053.
Rhizobiales (Alphaproteobacteria) are well-known beneficial partners in plant-microbe interactions. Less is known about the occurrence and function of Rhizobiales in the lichen symbiosis, although it has previously been shown that Alphaproteobacteria are the dominating group in growing lichen thalli. We have analyzed the taxonomic structure and assigned functions to Rhizobiales within a metagenomic dataset of the lung lichen Lobaria pulmonaria L. One third (32.2%) of the overall bacteria belong to the Rhizobiales, in particular to the families Methylobacteriaceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae, and Rhizobiaceae. About 20% of our metagenomic assignments could not be placed in any of the Rhizobiales lineages, which indicates a yet undescribed bacterial diversity. SEED-based functional analysis focused on Rhizobiales and revealed functions supporting the symbiosis, including auxin and vitamin production, nitrogen fixation and stress protection. We also have used a specifically developed probe to localize Rhizobiales by confocal laser scanning microscopy after fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-CLSM). Bacteria preferentially colonized fungal surfaces, but there is clear evidence that members of the Rhizobiales are able to intrude at varying depths into the interhyphal gelatinous matrix of the upper lichen cortical layer and that at least occasionally some bacteria also are capable to colonize the interior of the fungal hyphae. Interestingly, the gradual development of an endosymbiotic bacterial life was found for lichen- as well as for fungal- and plant-associated bacteria. The new tools to study Rhizobiales, FISH microscopy and comparative metagenomics, suggest a similar beneficial role for lichens than for plants and will help to better understand the Rhizobiales-host interaction and their biotechnological potential. Keywords: Rhizobiales, lichensymbiosis, Lobariapulmonaria, metagenomics, Rhizobiales-specific FISHprobe, endosymbiont.
33519Ingelfinger R., Henke M., Roser L., Ulshöfer T., Calchera A., Singh G., Parnham M.J., Geisslinger G., Fürst R., Schmitt I. & Schiffmann S. (2020): Unraveling the pharmacological potential of lichen extracts in the context of cancer and inflammation with a broad screening approach. - Frontiers in Pharmacology, 11: 1322 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.01322.
Lichen-forming fungi are symbiotic organisms that synthesize unique natural products with potential for new drug leads. Here, we explored the pharmacological activity of six lichen extracts (Evernia prunastri, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Umbilicaria pustulata, Umbilicaria crustulosa, Flavoparmelia caperata, Platismatia glauca) in the context of cancer and inflammation using a comprehensive set of 11 functional and biochemical in vitro screening assays. We assayed intracellular Ca2+ levels and cell migration. For cancer, we measured tumor cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis, as well as the angiogenesis-associated proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs). Targeting inflammation, we assayed leukocyte adhesion onto ECs, EC adhesion molecule expression, as well as nitric oxide production and prostaglandin (PG)E2 synthesis in leukocytes. Remarkably, none of the lichen extracts showed any detrimental influence on the viability of ECs. We showed for the first time that extracts of F. caperata induce Ca2+ signaling. Furthermore, extracts from E. prunastri, P. furfuracea, F. caperata, and P. glauca reduced cell migration. Interestingly, F. caperata extracts strongly decreased tumor cell survival. The proliferation of ECs was significantly reduced by E. prunastri, P. furfuracea, and F. caperata extracts. The extracts did not inhibit the activity of inflammatory processes in ECs. However, the pro-inflammatory activation of leukocytes was inhibited by extracts from E. prunastri, P. furfuracea, F. caperata, and P. glauca. After revealing the potential biological activities of lichen extracts by an array of screening tests, a correlation analysis was performed to evaluate particular roles of abundant lichen secondary metabolites, such as atranorin, physodic acid, and protocetraric acid as well as usnic acid in various combinations. Overall, some of the lichen extracts tested in this study exhibit significant pharmacological activity in the context of inflammation and/or cancer, indicating that the group lichen-forming fungi includes promising members for further testing. Keywords: lichen extracts, screening, cancer, inflammation, cytotoxicity, migration.
33518Newsham K.K., Davey M.L., Hopkins D.W. & Dennis P.G. (2021): Regional diversity of maritime Antarctic soil fungi and predicted responses of guilds and growth forms to climate change. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 11: 615659 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.615659.
We report a metabarcoding study documenting the fungal taxa in 29 barren fellfield soils sampled from along a 1,650 km transect encompassing almost the entire maritime Antarctic (60–72°S) and the environmental factors structuring the richness, relative abundance, and taxonomic composition of three guilds and growth forms. The richness of the lichenised fungal guild, which accounted for 19% of the total fungal community, was positively associated with mean annual surface air temperature (MASAT), with an increase of 1.7 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of lichenised fungi per degree Celsius rise in air temperature. Soil Mn concentration, MASAT, C:N ratio, and pH value determined the taxonomic composition of the lichenised guild, and the relative abundance of the guild was best predicted by soil Mn concentration. There was a 3% decrease in the relative abundance of the saprotrophic fungal guild in the total community for each degree Celsius rise in air temperature, and the OTU richness of the guild, which accounted for 39% of the community, was negatively associated with Mn concentration. The taxonomic composition of the saprotrophic guild varied with MASAT, pH value, and Mn, NH4+-N, and SO42− concentrations. The richness of the yeast community, which comprised 3% of the total fungal community, was positively associated with soil K concentration, with its composition being determined by C:N ratio. In contrast with a similar study in the Arctic, the relative abundance and richness of lichenised fungi declined between 60°S and 69°S, with those of saprotrophic Agaricales also declining sharply in soils beyond 63°S. Basidiomycota, which accounted for 4% of reads, were much less frequent than in vegetated soils at lower latitudes, with the Ascomycota (70% of reads) being the dominant phylum. We conclude that the richness, relative abundance, and taxonomic composition of guilds and growth forms of maritime Antarctic soil fungi are influenced by air temperature and edaphic factors, with implications for the soils of the region as its climate changes during the 21st century. Keywords: Agaricales, ascomycetes, climate warming, phylogenetic marker (ITS2) sequencing, lichenised fungi, maritime Antarctica, saprotrophic fungi, yeasts.
33517Rattan R., Shukla S., Sharma B. & Bhat M. (2021): A mini-review on lichen-based nanoparticles and their applications as antimicrobial agents. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 12: 633090 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.633090.
Biological entities such as green plants, fungi, and lichens are now a days persistently explored for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Lichen-based nanoparticles are also becoming increasingly popular owing to their biocompatibility, eco-friendliness, and cost-effectiveness. The lichen-based metal nanomaterials, particularly synthesized using green chemistry approaches, have turned out to be great substitutes to conventional antimicrobial therapies. Many scientific reports established the significant antimicrobial properties exhibited by the lichen nanoparticles. Therefore, the present mini-review summarizes an overview of lichen-based nanomaterials, their synthesis, their applications, and the molecular mechanism of their potential as broad spectrum antimicrobial agents for biomedical applications.
33516Míguez F., Schiefelbein U., Karsten U., García-Plazaola J.I. & Gustavs L. (2017): Unraveling the photoprotective response of lichenized and free-living green algae (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) to photochilling stress. - Frontiers in Plant Science, 8: 1144 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01144.
Lichens and free-living terrestrial algae are widespread across many habitats and develop successfully in ecosystems where a cold winter limits survival. With the goal of comparing photoprotective responses in free-living and lichenized algae, the physiological responses to chilling and photochilling conditions were studied in three lichens and their isolated algal photobionts together as well as in a fourth free-living algal species. We specifically addressed the following questions: (i) Are there general patterns of acclimation in green algae under chilling and photochilling stresses? (ii) Do free-living algae exhibit a similar pattern of responses as their lichenized counterparts? (iii) Are these responses influenced by the selection pressure of environmental conditions or by the phylogenetic position of each species? To answer these questions, photosynthetic fluorescence measurements as well as pigment and low molecular weight carbohydrate pool analyses were performed under controlled laboratory conditions. In general, photochemical efficiency in all free-living algae decreased with increasing duration of the stress, while the majority of lichens maintained an unchanged photochemical activity. Nevertheless, these patterns cannot be generalized because the alga Trebouxia arboricola and the lichen Ramalina pollinaria (associated with Trebouxia photobionts) both showed a similar decrease in photochemical efficiency. In contrast, in the couple Elliptochloris bilobata-Baeomyces rufus, only the algal partner exhibited a broad physiological performance under stress. This study also highlights the importance of the xanthophyll cycle in response to the studied lichens and algae to photochilling stress, while the accumulation of sugars was not related to cold acclimation, except in the alga E. bilobata. The differences in response patterns detected among species can be mainly explained by their geographic origin, although the phylogenetic position should also be considered, especially in some species. Keywords: carotenoid, high light, lichen, low molecular weight carbohydrates, low temperature, pigments, violaxanthin cycle.
33515de la Torre Noetzel R., Miller A.Z., de la Rosa J.M., Pacelli C., Onofri S., García Sancho L., Cubero B., Lorek A., Wolter D. & de Vera J.P. (2018): Cellular responses of the lichen Circinaria gyrosa in Mars-like conditions. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 9: 308 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00308.
Lichens are extremely resistant organisms that colonize harsh climatic areas, some of them defined as “Mars-analog sites.” There still remain many unsolved questions as to how lichens survive under such extreme conditions. Several studies have been performed to test the resistance of various lichen species under space and in simulated Mars-like conditions. The results led to the proposal that Circinaria gyrosa (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota) is one of themost durable astrobiologicalmodel lichens. However, although C. gyrosa has been exposed to Mars-like environmental conditions while in a latent state, it has not been exposed in its physiologically active mode. We hypothesize that the astrobiological test system “Circinaria gyrosa,” could be able to be physiologically active and to survive under Mars-like conditions in a simulation chamber, based on previous studies performed at dessicated-dormant stage under simulated Mars-like conditions, that showed a complete recover of the PSII activity (Sánchez et al., 2012). Epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that living algal cells were more abundant in samples exposed to niche conditions, which simulated the conditions in micro-fissures and micro-caves close to the surface that have limited scattered or time-dependent light exposure, than in samples exposed to full UV radiation. The medulla was not structurally affected, suggesting that the niche exposure conditions did not disturb the lichen thalli structure and morphology as revealed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). In addition, changes in the lichen thalli chemical composition were determined by analytical pyrolysis. The chromatograms resulting from analytical pyrolysis at 500◦C revealed that lichen samples exposed to niche conditions and full UV radiation consisted primarily of glycosidic compounds, lipids, and sterols, which are typical constituents of the cell walls. However, specific differences could be detected and used as markers of the UV-induced damage to the lichen membranes. Based on its viability responses after rehydration, our study shows that the test lichen survived the 30-day incubation in the Mars chamber particularly under niche conditions. However, the photobiont was not able to photosynthesize under theMars-like conditions, which indicates that the surface of Mars is not a habitable place for C. gyrosa. Keywords: Mars environment, extremotolerance, lichens, Circinaria gyrosa, photosynthetic activity, analytical pyrolysis.
33514Nazem-Bokaee H., Hom E.F.Y., Warden A.C., Mathews S. & Gueidan C. (2021): Towards a systems biology approach to understanding the lichen symbiosis: Opportunities and challenges of implementing network modelling. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 12: 667864 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.667864.
Lichen associations, a classic model for successful and sustainable interactions between micro-organisms, have been studied for many years. However, there are significant gaps in our understanding about how the lichen symbiosis operates at the molecular level. This review addresses opportunities for expanding current knowledge on signalling and metabolic interplays in the lichen symbiosis using the tools and approaches of systems biology, particularly network modelling. The largely unexplored nature of symbiont recognition and metabolic interdependency in lichens could benefit from applying a holistic approach to understand underlying molecular mechanisms and processes. Together with ‘omics’ approaches, the application of signalling and metabolic network modelling could provide predictive means to gain insights into lichen signalling and metabolic pathways. First, we review the major signalling and recognition modalities in the lichen symbioses studied to date, and then describe how modelling signalling networks could enhance our understanding of symbiont recognition, particularly leveraging omics techniques. Next, we highlight the current state of knowledge on lichen metabolism. We also discuss metabolic network modelling as a tool to simulate flux distribution in lichen metabolic pathways and to analyse the codependence between symbionts. This is especially important given the growing number of lichen genomes now available and improved computational tools for reconstructing such models. We highlight the benefits and possible bottlenecks for implementing different types of network models as applied to the study of lichens. Keywords: systems biology, network modelling, signalling, metabolic model, lichen symbiosis.
33513Leavitt S.D., Westberg M., Nelsen M.P., Elix J.A., Timdal E., Sohrabi M., St. Clair L.L., Williams L., Wedin M. & Lumbsch H.T. (2018): Multiple, distinct intercontinental lineages but isolation of Australian populations in a cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungal taxon, Psora decipiens (Psoraceae, Ascomycota). - Frontiers in Microbiology, 9: 283 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00283.
Multiple drivers shape the spatial distribution of species, including dispersal capacity, niche incumbency, climate variability, orographic barriers, and plate tectonics. However, biogeographic patterns of fungi commonly do not fit conventional expectations based on studies of animals and plants. Fungi, in general, are known to occur across exceedingly broad, intercontinental distributions, including some important components of biological soil crust communities (BSCs). However, molecular data often reveal unexpected biogeographic patterns in lichenized fungal species that are assumed to have cosmopolitan distributions. The lichen-forming fungal species Psora decipiens is found on all continents, except Antarctica and occurs in BSCs across diverse habitats, ranging from hot, arid deserts to alpine habitats. In order to better understand factors that shape population structure in cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungal species, we investigated biogeographic patterns in the cosmopolitan taxon P. decipiens, along with the closely related taxa P. crenata and P. saviczii. We generated a multi-locus sequence dataset based on a worldwide sampling of these taxa in order to reconstruct evolutionary relationships and explore phylogeographic patterns. Both P. crenata and P. decipiens were not recovered as monophyletic; and P. saviczii specimens were recovered as a monophyletic clade closely related to a number of lineages comprised of specimens representing P. decipiens. Striking phylogeographic patterns were observed for P. crenata, with populations from distinct geographic regions belonging to wellseparated, monophyletic lineages. South African populations of P. crenata were further divided into well-supported sub-clades. While well-supported phylogenetic substructure was also observed for the nominal taxon P. decipiens, nearly all lineages were comprised of specimens collected from intercontinental populations. However, all Australian specimens representing P. decipiens were recovered within a single well-supported monophyletic clade consisting solely of Australian samples. Our study supports up to 10 candidate species-level lineages in P. decipiens, based on genealogical concordance and coalescent-based species delimitation analyses. Our results support the general pattern of the biogeographic isolation of lichen-forming fungal populations in Australia, even in cases where closely related congeners have documented intercontinental distributions. Our study has important implications for understanding factors influencing diversification and distributions of lichens associated with BSC. Keywords: biogeography, biological soil crusts (BSC), cryptic species, disjunct populations, long-distance dispersal, Psora, semi-arid, South Africa.
33512Klarenberg I.J., Keuschnig C., Warshan D., Jónsdóttir I.S. & Vilhelmsson O. (2020): The total and active bacterial community of the chlorolichen Cetraria islandica and its response to long-term warming in sub-Arctic tundra. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 11: 540404 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.540404.
Lichens are traditionally defined as a symbiosis between a fungus and a green alga and or a cyanobacterium. This idea has been challenged by the discovery of bacterial communities inhabiting the lichen thalli. These bacteria are thought to contribute to the survival of lichens under extreme and changing environmental conditions. How these changing environmental conditions affect the lichen-associated bacterial community composition remains unclear. We describe the total (rDNA-based) and potentially metabolically active (rRNA-based) bacterial community of the lichen Cetaria islandica and its response to long-term warming using a 20-year warming experiment in an Icelandic sub-Arctic tundra. 16S rRNA and rDNA amplicon sequencing showed that the orders Acetobacterales (of the class Alphaproteobacteria) and Acidobacteriales (of the phylum Acidobacteria) dominated the bacterial community. Numerous amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) could only be detected in the potentially active community but not in the total community. Long-term warming led to increases in relative abundance of bacterial taxa on class, order and ASV level. Warming altered the relative abundance of ASVs of the most common bacterial genera, such as Granulicella and Endobacter. The potentially metabolically active bacterial community was also more responsive to warming than the total community. Our results suggest that the bacterial community of the lichen C. islandica is dominated by acidophilic taxa and harbors disproportionally active rare taxa. We also show for the first time that climate warming can lead to shifts in lichen-associated bacterial community composition. Keywords: lichen, lichen microbiome, tundra, climate change, host–microbiome, lichen-associated bacteria, long-term warming.
33511Kaasalainen U., Tuovinen V., Mwachala G., Pellikka P. & Rikkinen J. (2021): Complex interaction networks among cyanolichens of a tropical biodiversity hotspot. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 12: 672333 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.672333.
Interactions within lichen communities include, in addition to close mutualistic associations between the main partners of specific lichen symbioses, also more elusive relationships between members of a wider symbiotic community. Here, we analyze association patterns of cyanolichen symbionts in the tropical montane forests of Taita Hills, southern Kenya, which is part of the Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot. The cyanolichen specimens analyzed represent 74 mycobiont taxa within the order Peltigerales (Ascomycota), associating with 115 different variants of the photobionts genus Nostoc (Cyanobacteria). Our analysis demonstrates wide sharing of photobionts and reveals the presence of several photobiont-mediated lichen guilds. Over half of all mycobionts share photobionts with other fungal species, often from different genera or even families, while some others are strict specialists and exclusively associate with a single photobiont variant. The most extensive symbiont network involves 24 different fungal species from five genera associating with 38 Nostoc photobionts. The Nostoc photobionts belong to two main groups, the Nephroma-type Nostoc and the Collema/Peltigera-type Nostoc, and nearly all mycobionts associate only with variants of one group. Among the mycobionts, species that produce cephalodia and those without symbiotic propagules tend to be most promiscuous in photobiont choice. The extent of photobiont sharing and the structure of interaction networks differ dramatically between the two major photobiont-mediated guilds, being both more prevalent and nested among Nephroma guild fungi and more compartmentalized among Peltigera guild fungi. This presumably reflects differences in the ecological characteristics and/or requirements of the two main groups of photobionts. The same two groups of Nostoc have previously been identified from many lichens in various lichen-rich ecosystems in different parts of the world, indicating that photobiont sharing between fungal species is an integral part of lichen ecology globally. In many cases, symbiotically dispersing lichens can facilitate the dispersal of sexually reproducing species, promoting establishment and adaptation into new and marginal habitats and thus driving evolutionary diversification. Keywords: lichen, symbiosis, mycobiont, photobiont, photobiont-mediated guild, peltigerales, Nostoc.
33510Powell M. (2015): Two overlooked but widespread crusts: Verrucaria obfuscans and V. ochrostoma. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 117: 1–6. .
These two diminutive species have been overlooked by British lichenologists. Verrucaria ochrostoma was described by Borrer in the first half of the nineteenth century. Victorian lichenologists such as Leighton (1879) considered V. ochrostoma to be a rare species of plastered walls. The BLS database indicates only three hectad records during the twentieth century and, as recently as the publication of the 2009 ‘Flora’ (Orange et al. 2009), V. ochrostoma was considered to be a rare species of SE England. V. obfuscans was added to the British list in February 2015 but it is unlikely to be a recent arrival and it is not a recently described species. The nineteenth century type specimen was collected in the Jardin du Luxembourg, Paris
33509Fryday A. (1999): The genus Rimularia in the British Isles. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 84: 18–21. .
The only species included in the Rimularia in The Lichen Flora of Great Britain and Ireland (Purvis et al. 1992) were R. limborina Nyl. and the recently described, R. fuscosora Muhr & Tonsberg. However, two further species - Lecidia gyrizans and Mosigia illita - were mentioned by Purvis et al. (1992) as having recently been transferred to Rimularia (the latter as R. badioatra) while two others, Lecidea furvella and L. insularis, had already been moved to the genus by Hertel & Rambold (1990), although this placement was not universally accepted in the restricted sense of the genus then current. In the subsequent checklist (Purvis et al. 1993) two further species were transferred to Rimularia; Lecidea mullensis - considered by Hertel & Rambold to be a chemical race of R. gyrizans - and Mosigia intercedens - which they considered to be the anamorph of R. badioatra. Field work in Scotland has shown that several species are more frequent than previously reported and added two further species, the bryophilous R. sphacelata and an apparently undescribed species resembling R. gyrizans but with larger ascospores. A revised key to the genus is, therefore, required and this is provided here along with notes on the montane/upland species.
33508Marcano V., Morales Méndez A. & Palacios Prü E. (2021): The genus Ramalina Acharius (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes, Ramalinaceae) in northern South America. - Phytotaxa, 504(1): 1–77. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.504.1.1.
Fifty three taxa of Ramalina Acharius have been found in northern South America (including Colombia and Venezuela), with 8 varieties and 48 species. Seven species and four varieties are described as new to science viz. R. anteojina V. Marcano & A. Morales sp. nov. (Venezuela), R. canaguensis V. Marcano & A. Morales var. colombiana Marcano & Morales var. nov. (Colombia), R. canaguensis Marcano & Morales var. guascasensis Marcano & Morales var. nov. (Colombia), R. canaguensis V. Marcano & A. Morales var. mucumpisensis V. Marcano & A. Morales var. nov. (Colombia and Venezuela), R. reducta Krog & Swinscow var. colombiana V. Marcano & A. Morales var. nov. (Colombia), R. maegdefraui V. Marcano & A. Morales sp. nov. (Venezuela), R. mirandensis V. Marcano & A. Morales sp. nov. (Venezuela), R. subcalcarata V. Marcano & A. Morales sp. nov. (Venezuela), R. tenaensis V, Marcano & Morales sp. nov. (Colombia), R. venezuelensis V. Marcano & A. Morales sp. nov. (Venezuela), and R. victoriana V. Marcano & L. Castillo sp. nov. (Venezuela); 8 taxa are reported for first time from Venezuela: R. anceps Nylander, R. bogotensis Nylander, R. chilensis Bertero, R. holstii Krog & Swinscow, R. rigida Persoon ex Acharius, R. sorediosa (Bouly de Lesdain) Landrón, R. subfraxinea Nylander var. subfraxinea, and R. tenella Müller Argoviensis, whereas 5 taxa are reported for the first time from Colombia: R. africana (Stein) Dodge, R. asahinae W. Culberson & C. Culberson, R. subfraxinea Nylander var. confirmata, R. tenuissima V. Marcano & A. Morales and R. vareschii V. Marcano & A. Morales. A key to the species is presented together with data on morphology, anatomy, chemistry, variation, taxonomy, habitat and distribution. The chemical analyses show that the sekikaic (24 taxa), boninic (16 taxa) and homosekikaic (15 taxa) acids are the most common depsides found. Divaricatic acid is present in 10 of the taxa but is frequently replaced by sekikaic acid and its aggregates. The most common depsidones are salazinic acid (22 taxa), and protocetraric acid (25 taxa). The distribution of the secondary compounds reveals they are able to produce quite different substances which appears be not dependent to the habitat where occur the species, neither to the occurrence of minute morphological or anatomical differences at similar species. Often, several chemical strains (chemosyndromes) can be recognized within a single population of a particular species, but have no correlation with morphology or ecology. Biogeographic data indicate that of the 53 taxa known from northern South America, 28.3% (15) are known only from Venezuela, 7.5% (4) are known only from Colombia and 18.9% (10) are known only from Venezuela and Colombia. Of the 50 taxa known from Venezuela, 70% (37) of the taxa have their main distribution in the Andean region. The high concentration of Ramalina species seen in the Andes indicates that this region constitutes an important centre for speciation and endemism of Ramalina both in northern South America but also throughout the world. Keywords: Ramalina, new species, chemosyndromic variation, endemism, Colombia, Venezuela, Lichens.
33507Thomson J.W. (1973): Notes on American Arctic species of Candelariella. - Revista da Facultade de Ciencias de Lisboa, 2. ser., C, 17: 747–759. .
A key, synonymies, short descriptions, statements of ranges, and clarification of nomenclatorial problems are given for 8 species of the lichen genus Candelariella occurring in the American arctic. The range of Candelariella tercigena is mapped. The lichen Candelariella coralliza and the lichen parasite Lecidea vitellinaria are reported as new to North America
33506Pino-Bodas R. & Burgaz A.R. (2021): Chorological novelties of the genus Cladonia in Toledo province (Spain). - Botanica Complutensis, 45: 1–4. https://dx.doi.org/10.5209/bocm.75353.
Cladonia gracilis subsp. gracilis and Cladonia uncialis subsp. biuncialis are newly recorded to Toledo province. Furthermore, the distribution of C. macilenta and C. diversa is extended in this province. The habitats and distribution of these species in the Iberian Peninsula are discussed. Keywords: Lichens, Iberian Peninsula, Castilla-La Mancha.
33505Gómez-Bolea A., Burgaz A.R., Atienza V., Dumitru C., Chesa M.J. , Chiva S., Force L., Muriel S., Prieto M., Rico V.J., Rodríguez-Arribas C. & Casares M. (2021): Checklist of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Sierra Nevada (Spain). - Botanica Complutensis, 45: e74427 [21 p.]. https://dx.doi.org/10.5209/bocm.74427.
A checklist of lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Sierra Nevada (Granada, southeast Spain) is presented, fruit of the collecting field trip carried out by the Spanish Lichen Society (SEL), complemented with literature references. The authors identified 194 taxa (171 lichens and 23 lichenicolous fungi). As a result of these identifications, 46 lichens and nine lichenicolous fungi are reported for the first time in Sierra Nevada. To date, the catalogue includes 551 taxa (528 lichens and 23 lichenicolous fungi). We confirm both the scarce presence of terricolous lichens in the cryoromediterranean belt and the absence of alpine belt terricolous lichens.Keywords: South Europe; biodiversity; National Park; Biosphere Reserve; High Mountain.
33504Gauslaa Y., Goward T. & Asplund J. (2021): Canopy throughfall links canopy epiphytes to terrestrial vegetation in pristine conifer forests. - Fungal Ecology, 52: 101075 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2021.101075.
To what extent does epiphytic community composition in boreal forests reflect soil nutrient status? To answer this question, we investigated potential links between terrestrial plants and lichen-dominated communities in Picea glauca x engelmannii canopies in south-central British Columbia. We combined original data on vegetational composition in the ground and tree layers with published data on elemental uptake in standardized transplants of the lichen Lobaria pumonaria affixed to the lower branches of studied trees. Procrustean association metrics revealed a significant concordance between community composition among the epiphytic and terrestrial vegetation, which was stronger in Mn-enriched conifer canopy settings, and weaker within the cation-enriched dripzones of adjacent Populus trees. We also found that the NMDS1-gradient for each vegetation layer was strongly correlated with base cations (and inversely with Mn) in canopy throughfall, as well as with soil and bark pH. We conclude that elemental composition in canopy throughfall forms a functional link between terrestrial and epiphytic vegetation. Keywords: Ca ; Dripzone ; Epiphytic lichens ; Forest canopy ; Ground vegetation ; Leaching ; Mn ; Nutrient cycling ; pH ; Throughfall chemistry.
33503Galinato M.G.M., Bungihan M.E., Santiago K.A.A., Sangvichien E. & dela Cruz T.E.E. (2021): Antioxidant activities of fungi inhabiting Ramalina peruviana: insights on the role of endolichenic fungi in the lichen symbiosis. - Current Research in Environmental and Applied Mycology, 11(1): 119–136. Doi 10.5943/cream/11/1/10.
Apart from the fungal component (the mycobiont), other fungi reside inside lichens. Referred to as “lichen-associated fungi” or “endolichenic fungi” (ELF), these microorganisms have a poorly understood role in the lichen symbiosis. In this study, 11 morphoculturally-distinct ELF were isolated from the fruticose lichen Ramalina peruviana and identified as belonging to the genera Colletotrichum (1), Daldinia (3), Hypoxylon (1), Nemania (1), Nigrospora (1), and Xylaria (4). Each ELF was grown in two separate setups – submerged and solid-state fermentation – and were extracted with ethyl acetate for their secondary metabolites. Similarly, metabolites from the lichen host were also extracted. Among the 11 isolates, crude culture extracts of Nemania primolutea grown via the solid-state fermentation setup exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity (RSA = 89.7%), followed by Colletotrichum eschscholtzii grown using similar fermentation type (RSA = 80%). In contrast, extracts of the lichen host exhibited a slightly lower RSA (= 45.89%). Results showed that endolichenic fungi exhibited antioxidant activities greater than the lichen host, and possibly contributes to the protection of the lichen symbiosis through the synthesis of antioxidant compounds. Key words – free radical scavengers – fruticose lichen – lichen-associated fungi – Philippine lichens – secondary metabolites.
33502de Lange P.J., de Lange T.J.P., Hitchon T. & Patterson E. (2021): New Chatham Islands locations for Caloplaca maculata D.J.Galloway (Teloschistaceae). - Trilepidea, 207: 3–6. .
33501Ament-Velásquez S.L., Tuovinen V., Bergström L., Spribille T., Vanderpool D., Nascimbene J., Yamamoto Y., Thor G. & Johannesson H. (2021): The plot thickens: Haploid and triploid-like thalli, hybridization, and biased mating type ratios in Letharia. - Frontiers in Fungal Biology, 2: 656386 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/ffunb.2021.656386.
The study of the reproductive biology of lichen fungal symbionts has been traditionally challenging due to their complex lifestyles. Against the common belief of haploidy, a recent genomic study found a triploid-like signal in Letharia. Here, we infer the genome organization and reproduction in Letharia by analyzing genomic data from a pure culture and from thalli, and performing a PCR survey of the MAT locus in natural populations. We found that the read count variation in the four Letharia specimens, including the pure culture derived from a single sexual spore of L. lupina, is consistent with haploidy. By contrast, the L. lupina read counts from a thallus' metagenome are triploid-like. Characterization of the mating-type locus revealed a conserved heterothallic configuration across the genus, along with auxiliary genes that we identified. We found that the mating-type distributions are balanced in North America for L. vulpina and L. lupina, suggesting widespread sexual reproduction, but highly skewed in Europe for L. vulpina, consistent with predominant asexuality. Taken together, we propose that Letharia fungi are heterothallic and typically haploid, and provide evidence that triploid-like individuals are hybrids between L. lupina and an unknown Letharia lineage, reconciling classic systematic and genetic studies with recent genomic observations. Keywords: lichens, heterothallism, mating type locus, ploidy, hybridization.
33500Łubek A., Kukwa M., Jaroszewicz B. & Czortek P. (2021): Shifts in lichen species and functional diversity in a primeval forest ecosystem as a response to environmental changes. - Forests, 12(6): 686 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12060686.
Research highlights: shifts in the composition and functional diversity of lichen biota reflect changes in the environment caused by climate warming and eutrophication. Background and objectives: studies on lichen functional diversity and refinement in the functional traits of lichen biota under the pressure of changing environmental factors are currently of great scientific interest. The obtained results are interpreted in relation to specific habitat properties and their modifications due to the potential effects of climate change and atmospheric pollution. The aim of the work was to investigate changes in lichen species composition and functional diversity, as well as to identify factors responsible for them at different forest ecosystem scales. Materials and Methods: we identified factors responsible for changes in lichen biota in a unique Białowieża Forest ecosystem by analyzing shifts in species optima and functional diversity at the forest community, tree phorophyte, and substrate levels. We examined individual lichen species’ responses and temporal shifts in the species composition for each historical and resampled dataset using a community-weighted means of functional lichen traits and Wirth ecological indicator values. Results: the most evident change took place at the level of individual species, which shifted their realized optima: 25 species demonstrated a shift to co-occur with lichens of higher nitrogen demands, 15 demonstrated higher light demands, 14 demonstrated higher temperature preferences, and six demonstrated lower moisture preferences. At the level of forest communities, biota shifted towards the higher proportion of nitrogen-demanding and the lower proportion of moisture-demanding species. At the level of phorophyte species, biota changed towards an increased proportion of lichens of higher temperature preferences. For the substrate level, no directional shifts in lichen species composition were found. Conclusions: climate change has influenced lichen biota in Białowieża Forest, but the main driver of lichen species composition was found to be eutrophication. We suppose that other overlapping factors may contribute to biota shifts, e.g., the extinction and expansion of phorophyte tree species. Keywords: Białowieża Forest; functional traits; climate change; eutrophication; old-growth.
33499Eckstein J. (2021): Trizodia acrobia, ein mit Cyanobakterien assoziierter Ascomycet auf Torfmoosen [Trizodia acrobia, an ascomycet associated with cyanobacteria on peat moss]. - Boletus, 42(1): 53–55. .
A record of Trizodia acrobia Laukka from the Thuringian Forest near Schmiedefeld is presented and illustrated by macro- and microphotographs. The ascomycete always grows on peat mosses and also is associated with Cyanobacteria of the genus Nostoc Vaucher ex Bornet & Flahault. This interesting life style is regarded as ancient yet poorly characterized symbiotic interaction and is described as borderline lichen. The species is hitherto known only from Finland and Norway. The collection in Thuringia is the first record for Germany. Keywords: Ascomycetes, Insertae sedis, Nostoc, Sphagnum, borderline lichen, Germany, Thuringia.
33498Frolov I.V., Vondrák J., Konoreva L.A., Chesnokov S.V., Himelbrant D.E., Arup U., Stepanchikova I.S., Prokopiev I.A., Yakovchenko L.S. & Davydov E.A. (2021): Three new species of crustose Teloschistaceae in Siberia and the Far East. - Lichenologist, 53(3): 233–243. .
Three species of the family Teloschistaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) are described as new to science from Southern and Eastern Siberia and the Far East. Corticolous Caloplaca saviczii belongs to the genus Caloplaca s. str.; it has C. cerina-like apothecia and green to grey- green, crateriform soralia with a white rim. Lendemeriella aureopruinosa is a saxicolous taxon with a thin grey thallus and small apothecia 0.3–0.6 mm in diameter, with a dark orange disc usually bearing epipsamma and often with a grey true exciple containing the pigment Cinereorufa-green. Orientophila infirma is a corticolous species with an endophloeodal thallus and small orange apothecia, 0.2–0.3 mm in diameter, usually with an inconspicuous thalline exciple. All new taxa presumably have a boreal north-eastern distribution in Asia. Keywords: Caloplaca s. lat., combined phylogeny, Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, lichen, Primorye, Russia, Sakhalin, Tuva, Yakutia.
33497Sinigla M., Szurdoki E., Lőkös L., Bartha D., Galambos I., Bidló A. & Farkas E. (2021): Distribution and habitat preference of protected reindeer lichen species (Cladonia arbuscula, C. mitis and C. rangiferina) in the Balaton Uplands (Hungary). - Lichenologist, 53(3): 271-282. .
The maintenance of protected lichen species and their biodiversity in general depends on good management practices based on their dis- tribution and habitat preferences. To date, 10 of the 17 protected lichen species of Hungary have been recorded in the Bakony Mts including the Balaton Uplands region. Habitat preferences of three protected Cladonia species (C. arbuscula, C. mitis and C. rangiferina) growing on underlying rocks of red sandstone, basalt, Pannonian sandstone and gravel were investigated by detailed sampling. We recorded aspect, underlying rock type, soil depth, pH and CaCO3 content, habitat type (as defined by the General National Habitat Classification System Á-NÉR), all species of lichen, bryophyte and vascular plants as well as percentage cover of exposed rock, total bryophytes, lichens, vascular plants and canopy, degree of disturbance and animal impacts. Sporadic populations of these species mostly exist at the top of hills and mountains in open acidofrequent oak forests, but they may occur in other habitats, such as closed acidofrequent oak forests, slope steppes on stony soils, siliceous open rocky grasslands, open sand steppes, wet and mesic pioneer scrub and dry Calluna heaths. Cladonia rangifer- ina was found to grow beneath higher canopy cover than either C. arbuscula or C. mitis in the Balaton Uplands. Furthermore, there were significant differences in canopy cover between occupied and unoccupied quadrats in the case of all three species. Cladonia rangiferina is a good indicator species of natural habitats in Hungary due to its restricted distribution and low ecological tolerance. These results may lead to the adoption of effective conservation methods (e.g. game exclusion, artificial dispersal) in the future. box and whisker plots, Cladina, lichen-forming fungi, PCA, protected species
33496Moyo C., Minibayeva F., Liers C. & Beckett R. (2021): Quinone reductase activity is widespread in lichens. - Lichenologist, 53(3): 265-269. .
In our earlier work, we demonstrated that the oxidases tyrosinase (TYR), laccase (LAC), and a heme peroxidase (POX) occur widely in lichens. Here we report on the occurrence of another oxidoreductase enzyme, quinone reductase (QR) (EC While QR has been reported to occur widely in other organisms, there is currently no information on QR activities in lichens. Here we present a survey of QR activity in 14 species of lichens. Results demonstrate that QR activity is readily detectable in all lichen species tested. However, activities vary greatly, with ‘jelly’ lichens in the genera Collema and Leptogium having the highest activities. QR, LAC and POX are all believed to have a role in extracellular hydroxyl radical production. However, in this study no correlation was found between the activities of these enzymes and the rates at which hydroxyl radicals were produced. Possible roles for QR in lichen biology are discussed. detoxification, extracellular redox cycling, hydroxyl radical, survey
33495Mead O.L. & Gueidan C. (2021): Testing carbon and nitrogen sources for the in vitro growth of the model lichenized fungus Endocarpon pusillum Hedw. - Lichenologist, 53(3): 257−264. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0024282921000153.
To improve the efficiency of isolating and culturing lichen mycobionts, we performed a growth assay on an Australian strain of the soil-crust lichenized fungus Endocarpon pusillum Hedw. This assay determined the preferred nitrogen and carbon sources of the fungus by limiting the available nitrogen or carbon sources to single compounds found in soils, plants and lichen thalli. We found that the non-proteinaceous amino acid, GABA, produced the most growth of all nutrients when provided as the sole nitrogen source but was a poor carbon source. Fructose, glucose, cellobiose and sorbitol produced the most growth of all the carbon sources tested. Ammonium, nitrate and polyamines were poor nutrient sources. These findings correspond with reports of primary metabolite pools in other lichen species and may guide future studies involving growth of recalcitrant lichen mycobionts. Keywords: aminobutyric, GABA, growth, medium, nutrition, polyalcohol, polyol, rate.
33494Søchting U., Søgaard M., Sancho L. & Arup U. (2021): The lichen genus Villophora (Teloschistaceae, Ascomycota). - Lichenologist, 53(3): 245-255. .
The Southern Hemisphere lichen genus Villophora in subfamily Teloschistoideae is analyzed based on DNA sequence data. Six species are described, five of which are new to science: V. darwiniana and V. wallaceana grow on lignum and bark in southern Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego; V. onas and V. patagonica are lichenicolous or saxicolous on rocks in southern Patagonia; V. rimicola is saxicolous in Antarctica. Based on a three-gene DNA analysis, Tayloriellina is shown to be closely related to Villophora, and Tayloriellina microphyllina is established as a new combination. A key is provided to all species of the two genera. Raesaeneniana maulensis is combined into Villophora. Antarctica, Caloplaca, Chile, Raesaeneniana, South America, Tayloriellina
33493Randlane T. & Mark K. (2021): Response to Clerc & Naciri Usnea dasopoga (Ach.) Nyl. and U. barbata (L.) F. H. Wigg. (Ascomycetes, Parmeliaceae) are two different species: A plea for reliable identifications in molecular studies. - Lichenologist, 53(3): 231-232. .
During the last thirty years phylogenetic analyses based on molecular characters have developed from simple single-locus studies into complicated surveys containing multi-locus phyloge- nies, species trees and possibilities to evaluate the evolutionary history of characters. This has been an exciting era for systema- tists, including fungal taxonomists. The majority of lichenized taxa have originally been described using morphological charac- ters s. lat. (i.e. traits related to morphology, anatomy and chemis- try), and thus the congruence between traditional species description and species delimitation based on their molecular evolutionary history remains a challenge. The use of morpho- logical characters has not been abandoned, as predicted or advo- cated by some researchers (Lumbsch & Leavitt 2011; Hibbett et al. 2016). However, we now know that the morphology-based approach to species recognition has also been demonstrated in several cases to substantially misrepresent diversity, as it either underestimates the occurrence of cryptic species (Altermann et al. 2014; Boluda et al. 2016) or, on the contrary, overestimates the true diversity due to high levels of intra-specific morpho- logical and chemical variation (Leavitt et al. 2011; Velmala et al. 2014). Therefore, morphological characters continue to be useful for the delimitation of species, but only if their discrimina- tive ability has been verified using phylogenetic analyses.
33492Clerc P. & Naciri Y. (2021): Usnea dasopoga (Ach.) Nyl. and U. barbata (L.) F. H. Wigg. (Ascomycetes, Parmeliaceae) are two different species: A plea for reliable identifications in molecular studies. - Lichenologist, 53(3): 221-230. .
Using molecular data to delimit species or reconstruct their evolutionary history is now widely used across all organisms. However, such analyses can suffer from poor or false specimen identifications leading to incorrect conclusions. Here we show that the use of misidentified specimens in a phylogenetic framework resulted in questionable conclusions in a previously published study (Mark et al. 2016). Using mor- phological, chemical and statistical analyses on the specimens used in that study, we found support for Usnea barbata and U. dasopoga being morphologically and anatomically distinct species with separate clusters in the molecular phylogeny. Furthermore, our revision of specimen identifications refutes the synonymization of U. substerilis with U. lapponica. In conclusion, we discuss the issue of correct iden- tification of voucher specimens in DNA databases and conclude with some general suggestions to avoid false specimen identifications in phylogenetic studies. GenBank, lichens, misidentification, taxonomy, Usnea lapponica, Usnea perplexans, Usnea substerilis
33491Nirhamo A., Pykälä J., Halme P. & Komonen A. (2021): Lichen communities on Populus tremula are affected by the density of Picea abies. - Applied Vegetation Science, 24(2): e12584 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12584.
Questions: Aspen (Populus tremula) is declining in the old-growth forests of boreal Fennoscandia. This threatens the numerous taxa that are dependent on old aspens, including many epiphytic lichens. Potential methods to aid epiphytic lichens on aspen are centered around treatments which affect the density of Norway spruce (Picea abies). In this study, we investigated how epiphytic lichen communities on aspen are affected by the variation of spruce density in the immediate vicinity of the focal aspen. Location: Southern boreal forests in Finland. Methods: We recorded the occurrence of lichens from 120 aspens in 12 semi-natural forest sites. We used spruce basal area as the measure for spruce density. The selected aspens represented a gradient in spruce basal area in the vicinity of the aspen from 0 to 36 m2/ha. We also measured other tree-and stand-level variables that are known to influence lichen occurrence. Results: Lichen communities on aspen were affected by spruce density, stand age and bark pH. Both lichen species richness and the richness of red-listed species were highest at an intermediate spruce density, and both increased with stand age. Lichen species richness was higher when bark pH was lower. Additionally, community composition was influenced the most by spruce density, followed by bark pH. Conclusions: Our study highlights the detrimental effects of high spruce density on lichen diversity on aspens. This is caused by high spruce density resulting in low light availability. Lichen diversity on aspens was highest when spruce density was intermediate. Spruce thinning in aspen-rich old-growth forests can be helpful in ensuring the long-term persistence of old-growth lichens on aspen in protected forests. Keywords: Biodiversity, boreal forests, community ecology, cyanolichens, epiphytic lichens, European aspen, Norway spruce, old-growth forests, protected areas, red-listed species, succession.
33490Sinyutkina A. (2021): Drainage consequences and self-restoration of drained raised bogs in the south-eastern part of Western Siberia: Peat accumulation and vegetation dynamics. - Catena, 205: 105464 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2021.105464.
This study analysed the drainage influence on vegetation and peat deposit and assessed the self-restoration of ecological functions of Western Siberia bogs. As a case study, we selected four raised bogs – two are the eastnorthern spurs of the Great Vasyugan Mire and two are small, raised bogs on the terrace of the Bakchar River and the Ob River. The consequences of drainage and the ability to self-restore are influenced by the moisture conditions before drainage, bog size, distance between ditches and microtopography characteristics. The dominant species under wet conditions, such as Sphagnum magellanicum and Sphagnum balticum, changed with drainage to Sphagnum fuscum, and the peat accumulation rate increased. The sites with more dry conditions and dominated by Sphagnum fuscum were characterised by the intense degradation of Sphagnum, Bryidae and lichen growth and a low peat accumulation rate. Large raised bogs are relatively stable and capable of self-restoration. The drainage effect was more significant within some parts of the small bogs. Drainage consequences were less dramatic for large bogs, even in the marginal parts and near the ditches. A distance between ditches of 40 m and less is critical for self-restoration. Our study demonstrates that modern peat accumulation occurred in most parts of the plots; the mean peat accumulation rate over the last 35 years was 0.43 cm per year. Drainage influence in the south-eastern part of Western Siberia is less significant than in European bogs, not only because of the high stability of raised bogs but also because of the lower drainage intensity as well as the absence of forest planting, fertilisation and peat mining.
33489Krajka‑Kuźniak V., Paluszczak J., Kleszcz R. & Baer‑Dubowska W. (2021): (+)‑Usnic acid modulates the Nrf2‑ARE pathway in FaDu hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells. - Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 476: 2539–2549. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-021-04092-7.
Naturally occurring phytochemicals of different origin and structure, arctigenin, bergenin, usnic acid and xanthohumol, were shown to affect Nrf2 pathway in the context of various diseases, but their effect on this pathway in cancer cells was not extensively investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of these compounds on Nrf2 expression and activation in hypopharyngeal FaDu squamous cell carcinoma cells. FaDu cells were treated with 2 or 10 μM arctigenin, bergenin, (+)- usnic acid or xanthohumol for 24 h. While arctigenin, bergenin, and xanthohumol did not affect either Nrf2 expression or activation, (+)-usnic acid treatment increased its transcript level and increased the nuclear/cytosol Nrf2 protein ratio—the measure of Nrf2 pathway activation. Consequently, (+)-usnic acid enhanced the transcription and translation of Nrf2 target genes: NQO1, SOD, and to a lesser extent, GSTP. The treatment of FaDu cells with (+)-usnic acid decreased both GSK-3β transcript and protein level, indicating its possible involvement in Nrf2 activation. All the tested compounds decreased Bax mRNA but did not change the level of Bax protein. (+)-Usnic acid tended to increase the percentage of early apoptotic cells and LC3 protein, autophagy marker. Significant induction of p53 also was observed after treatment with (+)-usnic acid. In summary, the results of this study indicate that low concentrations of (+)-usnic acid activate Nrf2 transcription factor, most probably as a result of ROS accumulation, but do not lead to FaDu hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells death. Keywords: FaDu cells · Nrf2 · (+)-usnic acid · Arctigenin · Bergenin · Xanthohumol.
33488Dohi T., Ohmura Y., Yoshimura K., Sasaki T., Fujiwara K., Kanaizuka S., Nakama S. & Iijima K. (2021): Radiocaesium accumulation capacity of epiphytic lichens and adjacent barks collected at the perimeter boundary site of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station. - PLoS ONE, 16(5): e0251828 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0251828.
We investigated the radiocaesium content of nine epiphytic foliose lichens species and the adjacent barks of Zelkova serrata (Ulmaceae, "Japanese elm") and Cerasus sp. (Rosaceae, "Cherry tree") at the boundary of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station six years after the accident in 2011. Caesium-137 activities per unit area (the 137 Cs-inventory) were determined to compare radiocaesium retentions of lichens (65 specimens) and barks (44 specimens) under the same growth conditions. The 137 Cs-inventory of lichens collected from Zelkova serrata and Cerasus sp. were respectively 7.9-and 3.8-times greater than the adjacent barks. Furthermore, we examined the radiocaesium distribution within these samples using autoradiography and on the surfaces with an electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). Autoradiographic results showed strong local spotting and heterogeneous distributions of radioactivity in both the lichen and bark samples, although the intensities were lower in the barks. The electron microscopy analysis demonstrated that particulates with similar sizes and compositions were distributed on the surfaces of the samples. We therefore concluded that the lichens and barks could capture fine particles, including radiocaesium particles. In addition, radioactivity was distributed more towards the inwards of the lichen samples than the peripheries. This suggests that lichen can retain 137 Cs that is chemically immobilised in particulates intracellularly, unlike bark.
33487Shen M., Zhang J.Q., Zhao L.L., Groenewald J.Z., Crous P.W. & Zhang Y. (2020): Venturiales. - Studies in Mycology, 96: 185–308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.simyco.2020.03.001.
Members of Venturiales (Dothideomycetes) are widely distributed, and comprise saprobes, as well as plant, human and animal pathogens. In spite of their economic importance, the general lack of cultures and DNA data has resulted in taxa being poorly resolved. In the present study five loci, ITS, LSU rDNA, tef1, tub2 and rpb2 are used for analysing 115 venturialean taxa representing 30 genera in three families in the current classification of Venturiales. Based on the multigene phylogenetic analysis, morphological and ecological characteristics, one new family, Cylindrosympodiaceae, and eight new genera are described, namely Bellamyces, Fagicola, Fraxinicola, Fuscohilum, Neofusicladium, Parafusicladium, Pinaceicola and Sterila. In addition, 12 species are described as new to science, and 41 new combinations are proposed. The taxonomic status of 153 species have been re-evaluated with 20 species excluded from Venturiales. Based on this revision of Venturiales, morphological characteristics such as conidial arrangement (solitary or in chains) or conidiogenesis (blastic-solitary, sympodial or annellidic), proved to be significant at generic level. Venturia as currently defined represents a generic complex. Furthermore, plant pathogens appear more terminal in phylogenetic analyses within Venturiaceae and Sympoventuriaceae, suggesting that the ancestral state of Venturiales is most likely saprobic. New lichenicolous taxa: Bellamyces quercus Crous, Coppins & U. Braun, gen. et spec. nov. (on apothecia of Lecanora chlarotera); Tyrannosorus lichenicola Crous, M. Shen & Y. Zhang spec. nov. (on Letharia sp.); Venturia peltigericola (Crous & Diederich) Crous, M. Shen & Y. Zhang, comb. nov. (bas. Fusicladium peltigericola) (on Peltigera rufescens).
33486Osyczka P. & Kubiak D. (2020): Data on epiphytic lichens and their host-trees in relation to non-forested area and natural deciduous lowland forest. - Data in Brief, 31: 105711 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105711.
The article includes raw and analyzed data directly related to the research paper entitled “Non-forested vs forest environments: the effect of habitat conditions on host tree parameters and the occurrence of associated epiphytic lichens” [1]. These data concern the relationships between the composition of lichen communities and host-tree parameters in non-forested area and a natural lowland deciduous forest in northern Poland. Lichen species confined to non-forested area, associated with forest habitat, and non-specific mutual species occurring in both habitat types are listed together with their host-tree preferences. Data on the phenotypic variability of five common and native to Central Europe tree species in relation to the habitat type are provided. Data that concerns tree parameters are analyzed by the mixed model ANOVA and Principal Component Analysis. Additionally, sample rarefactions and indices of potential lichen species richness for both habitat types are included. Presented data could be used in further studies to compare epiphytic community structure and may be support for campaigns aimed at lichen conservation and at shaping the environment with concern for biodiversity. Keywords: Lichenized fungi; Lichen communities; Habitat factors; Ecology, Tree parameters; Lowland deciduous forest; Tree avenues; Rural landscape.
33485Goel M., Kalra R., Ponnan P., Jayaweera J.A.A.S. & Kumbukgolla W.W. (2021): Inhibition of penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) in methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by combination of oxacillin and a bioactive compound from Ramalinaroesleri [sic!]. - Microbial Pathogenesis, 150: 104676 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104676.
Lichens are known to be useful and important in ethanopharmacology since ages and still possess substantial interest in alternative medical practices around the world. The intent of this investigation was to evaluate and to understand the antibacterial potential of usnic acid which was isolated from Himalyan fruticose lichen Ramalina roesleri. Usnic acid is predicted for its pharmaceutical properties through in -silico studies. Binding efficiency of usnic acid with Penicillin binding protein-PBP2a, a protein which is responsible for conferring resistance in Staphylococcus aureus was accessed using in-silico interaction assays comparing with oxacillin and ceftaroline. Further, the validation of in-silico modelling was checked by determining the antibacterial potential of usnic acid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates. In total, 28 clinical isolates collected from hospitals/medical students were included in the study and the anti-Staphylococcal activity was determined using agar plate dilution method followed by time-kill kinetics and synergistic studies. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) pictures were obtained to show the cell wall disruption of MRSA by usnic acid. Docking results clearly indicated the enhanced binding potential of usnic acid (Glide XP G Score: 10.968; Glide energy −64.869) with PBP2a which is better than the energy range of reference compound, oxacillin (Glide XP G Score: 6.596; Glide energy −53.285) and roughly comparable to the co-crystallized ligand ceftaroline (Glide XP G Score: 12.20; Glide energy −70.322). Cefteroline is known to be more active against MRSA compared to oxacillin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of usnic acid against the clinical isolates of MRSA and reference strain (NCTC-6571) were in the range of 32–128 μg/ml. The high affinity of usnic acid to bind with PBP2a which is demonstrated via in-silico studies is further confirmed by the impressive inhibitory activity of usnic acid on MRSA clinical isolates. Keywords: Lichen; Usnic acid; Antibacterial; MRSA.
33484Neufeld H.S. & Perkins F.S. (2021): Host tree species mediate corticolous lichen responses to elevated CO2 and O3 after 10 years exposure in the Aspen-FACE system. - Science of the Total Environment, 764: 142875 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142875.
Lichens contribute significantly to the biodiversity and functioning of many ecosystems. Although lichens are useful air pollution bioindicators and may respond in significant ways to global change, they are studied infrequently under field conditions in chamberless exposure systems. We surveyed corticolous lichens on paper birch (Betula papyrifera) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) after 10 years exposure (1998–2007) to elevated CO2 (eCO2) and O3 (eO3) in the Aspen-FACE experiment in Rhinelander, WI, USA. This experiment utilized chamberless exposure rings, 30 m in diameter, with both host trees planted together in one quadrant. Four treatments were allocated among 12 rings: ambient, eCO2, eO3, and the combination of eCO2 + eO3, each replicated once in each of three blocks. Over the course of the experiment, ambient CO2 increased from 343 to 386 ppm while eCO2 averaged ~530 ppm CO2. Ambient ozone concentrations averaged ~37 ppb and ~49 ppb for eO3 although exposures decreased with time. Tree growth and leaf area index were negatively affected by eO3 and stimulated by eCO2, resulting in higher photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in eO3 and lower in eCO2. We assessed lichen richness and cover on five host trees per ring on the north-facing side of the trunks, which were higher on birch than on aspen. Neither of the lichen measures on birch responded to the exposure treatments, while on aspen lichen cover was highest in eO3 and lowest in eCO2. On aspen, lichen cover was positively related to PAR and dominated by Caloplaca. No relationship was found for birch, although Lecanora exhibited a negative relationship with PAR. These lichens were insensitive to direct effects of eCO2 and eO3 at the levels applied. Instead, they responded to indirect effects, such as host tree species, and changes in understory PAR, resulting from direct effects of eO3 and eCO2 on the host trees. Keywords: Epiphytic; PAR; Air pollution; Global change; Species richness; Species cover.
33483Moya P., Chiva S., Molins A., Garrido-Benavent I. & Barreno E. (2021): Unravelling the symbiotic microalgal diversity in Buellia zoharyi (lichenized Ascomycota) from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands using DNA metabarcoding. - Diversity, 13(6): 220 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13060220.
Buellia zoharyi is a crustose placodioid lichen, usually occurring on biocrusts of semiarid ecosystems in circum-Mediterranean/Macaronesian areas. In previous work, we found that this lichenized fungus was flexible in its phycobiont choice in the Canary Islands. Here we test whether geography and habitat influence phycobiont diversity in populations of this lichen from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands using Sanger and high throughput sequencing (HTS). Additionally, three thallus section categories (central, middle and periphery) were analyzed to explore diversity of microalgal communities in each part. We found that B. zoharyi populations hosted at least three different Trebouxia spp., and this lichen can associate with distinct phycobiont strains in different habitats and geographic regions. This study also revealed that the Trebouxia composition of this lichen showed significant differences when comparing the Iberian Peninsula with the Balearics thalli. No support for differences in microalgal communities was found among thallus sections; however, several thalli showed different predominant Trebouxia spp. at each section. This result corroborate that thallus parts selected for DNA extraction in metabarcoding analyses are key to not bias the total phycobiont diversity detected. This study highlights that inclusion of HTS analysis is crucial to understand lichen symbiotic microalgal diversity. Keywords: coexistence; high throughput sequencing; Illumina; metabarcoding; symbiosis; Trebouxia.
33482Kakeh J., Gorji M., Mohammadi M.H., Asadi H., Khormali F. & Sohrabi M. (2021): Effect of biocrusts on profile distribution of soil water content and salinity at different stages of evaporation. - Journal of Arid Environments, 191: 104514 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2021.104514.
In this study, the effect of biocrusts on daily variations of evaporation in soils of an arid rangeland was investigated during 142 days. Temporal and spatial variations of soil water and solute content were analyzed in three times of 17, 50 and 103 days, and four depths of 10, 20, 30 cm and 40 cm in six columns (20 cm diameter × 50 cm height) containing biocrusts (43 cm saline soil + 5 cm biocrusts) and four columns filled with bare soil (48 cm saline soil) respectively. Temporal variation of evaporation rate was supposed as a 3-stages process. Results showed that stage 1 and stage 2 are not distinguishable. We further found that, compared to bare soil, the biocrusts retarded water evaporation from soil surface (24 vs. 30 mm and 34 vs. 44 mm after 17 and 50 days respectively), and reduced solute accumulation in top soil, especially in the stage 2 of evaporation process (5 vs. 8 dS/m and 13 vs. 20 dS/m after 17 and 50 days respectively). The effect of biocrusts on the evaporation rate at the stage 3 of evaporation was not significant (9 vs. 9 mm after 103 days). Reduction of evaporation by biocrusts resulted in less soil salinity within entire soil profile. The effects of biocrusts on evaporation reduction are attributed to i) the biocrusts create mats on the soil surface, and swelling of mats blocks the soil pores in wet condition, and ii) the large pores of biocrusts disrupt the hydraulic connectivity between topsoil and subsoil, which minimizes the capillary rise. Since major part of water is evaporated during stage 2, and is controlled by water flow within the soil and at the surface, so conservation of the BSCs would be important for preserving hydrological functions advantage such as reducing evaporation and enhancing water retention in the salt affected and dry soils. Keywords: Biological soil crusts; Dry land; Soil salinization; Soil solute dynamics; Water preservation.
33481Battista S., Köber M., Vargas-Nadal G., Veciana J., Giansanti L. & Ventosa N. (2021): Homogeneous and stable (+)-usnic acid loaded liposomes prepared by compressed CO2. - Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 624: 126749 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2021.126749.
The administration of hydrophobic actives and drugs for medical or cosmetical purposes generally requires a formulation that ensures adequate water solubility, which can be achieved through the encapsulation in liposomes. For the vehiculation of (+)-usnic acid (UA), a hydrophobic compound with antioxidant activity, we have prepared liposomes in a one-step process using compressed CO2. The investigated formulations are mainly composed of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and cholesterol, but contain also a small molar fraction (10%) of a synthetic surfactant derived from L-prolinol. In previous investigations liposomes containing L-prolinol derivatives showed a higher efficacy as DNA or drug delivery systems with respect to liposomes of mere phospholipids. As a consequence, they were added to liposomes to make them more suitable UA delivery systems. By testing different surfactant chain lengths and headgroups, we studied how the chemical nature of the surfactant affects the physicochemical vesicle properties and their interaction with UA. Most formulations, especially those containing surfactants with longer alkyl chains (C14 and C16), show a good potentiality as UA delivery systems because they exhibit a higher stability, vesicle-to-vesicle homogeneity and bilayer compaction with respect to analog liposomes prepared by the conventional thin film hydration previously investigated. Our results confirm the advantages of DELOS-SUSP also in the case of mixed liposomes containing phospholipids and synthetic ionic surfactants. Moreover, this study demonstrates that liposomes composed of the same lipids can feature different properties if prepared according to different methodologies. In addition, this investigation points out that also the properties that a solute included in the bilayer show can be affected by the technique used for liposomes preparation. Keywords: Depressurization of an expanded liquid organic solution-suspension (DELOS-SUSP); Liposomes; L-prolinol derivatives; (+)-usnic acid; Structure-properties relation.
33480Xu S.-Y., Huang H., Song W. & Liu X.-Y. (2021): Lichen nitrogen concentrations and isotopes for indicating nitrogen deposition levels and source changes. - Science of the Total Environment, 787: 147616 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147616.
Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) emissions triggered acid deposition and affected the environmental quality and ecosystem functions. Lichen N and S concentrations have been found increasing with N and S deposition at relatively low levels, respectively. However, it remains unclear whether lichen N and S concentrations can respond to corresponding deposition fluxes under high pollution environments and how to use lichen N isotopes (δ15N) to evaluate source contributions of N deposition quantitatively. Along an urban-to-rural transect surrounding a polluted area in northern China, we investigated lichen N and S to examine their sensitivity and applicability in estimating N and S deposition. Moreover, we established a new method to reconstruct site-based δ15N values of ammonium N (NHx) and oxidized N (NOy) deposition using lichen δ15N and then to differentiate relatively contributions of major N emission sources. Lichen N (1.0–3.9%, 2.5 ± 0.6%) and S (0.09–0.33%, 0.21 ± 0.06%) decreased linearly with distances from the polluted center area. Wet inorganic N and sulfate deposition (29.0 ± 6.1 kg-N/ha/yr and 25.8 ± 7.9 kg-S/ha/yr, respectively) estimated by integrating relationships from previous literature data were comparable with levels based on direct deposition observations in the study area. Lichen δ15N varied between −12.1 to −4.1‰ and averaged −7.1 ± 2.0‰ among our study sites, and reconstructed δ15N values of NHx and NOy deposition averaged −12.8 ± 1.0‰ and −3.2 ± 0.5‰, respectively. Source contribution analyses revealed significant contributions of volatilization ammonia (66 ± 3%) from wastes and fertilizers to NHx deposition and non-fossil fuel N oxides (62 ± 7%) from biomass burnings and microbial N cycles to NOy deposition. These results indicate that lichen N and S are sensitive to deposition fluxes under high pollution and applicable to estimating deposition levels. This work improves the methodology of atmospheric deposition biomonitoring based on lichen element and isotope records. Keywords: N deposition; Lichen N; Lichen δ15N; S deposition; Atmospheric pollution.
33479Goodenough U. (2021): Introduction to the lichen ultrastructure series. - Algal Research, 56: 102026 [3 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2020.102026.
33478Roth R., Wagner R. & Goodenough U. (2021): Lichen 3. Outer layers. - Algal Research, 56: 102332 [20 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2021.102332.
A lichen is a slow-growing niche-constructing organism that forms a thallus via scripted symbiotic/mutualist relationships between fungi, algae, and bacteria. Here we use quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy (QFDEEM), in conjunction with light microscopy, to document the structural manifestations of hyphal differentiation during the formation of three lichen tissues that localize between the algal layer and the surface of the thallus: the outer cortex of foliose lobes; the outer layer of fruticose stems; and the enwrapping layer of asexual propagules called soredia that protrude from squamulose podetia and foliose lobes. Our observations document features of outer-layer architecture and the role played by extracellular matrices (ECM). They also lead us to propose the medullary stem-cell hypothesis for lichen organization wherein totipotent medullary hyphae produce lateral branches that undergo specific differentiation pathways in specific domains of the thallus. Keywords: Lichen; Ascomycete; Alga; Hyphal branching; Fungal extracellular matrix (ECM); Medullary stem-cell; Quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy.
33477Dron J., Ratier A., Austruy A., Revenko G., Chaspoul F. & Wafo E. (2021): Effects of meteorological conditions and topography on the bioaccumulation of PAHs and metal elements by native lichen (Xanthoria parietina). - Journal of Environmental Sciences, 109: 193–205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2021.03.045.
The bioaccumulation of PAHs and metal elements in the indigenous lichens Xanthoria parietina was monitored during two years at a quarterly frequency, in 3 sites of contrasted anthropic influence. The impact of the meteorological factors (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, wind speed) was first estimated through principal component analysis, and then by stepwise multilinear regressions to include wind directions. The pollutants levels reflected the proximity of atmospheric emissions, in particular from a large industrial harbor. High humidity and mild temperatures, and in a lower extent low wind speed and rainfall, also favored higher concentration levels. The contributions of these meteorological aspects became minor when including wind direction, especially when approaching major emission sources. The bioaccumulation integration time towards meteorological variations was on a seasonal basis (1–2 months) but the wind direction and thus local emissions also relied on a longer time scale (12 months). This showed that the contribution of meteorological conditions may be prevalent in remote places, while secondary in polluted areas, and should be definitely taken into account regarding long-term lichen biomonitoring and inter-annual comparisons. In the same time, a quadruple sampling in each site revealed a high homogeneity among supporting tree species and topography. The resulting uncertainty, including sampling, preparation and analysis was below 30% when comfortable analytical conditions were achieved. Finally, the occurrence of unexpected events such as a major forest fire, permitted to evaluate that this type of short, although intense, events did not have a strong influence on PAH and metals bioaccumulation by lichen. Keywords: Indigenous lichen; Biomonitoring; Climate; Seasonal impacts; Sampling uncertainties; Integration time.
33476Petersson L., Nilsson S., Holmström A., Lindbladh M. & Felton A. (2021): Forest floor bryophyte and lichen diversity in Scots pine and Norway spruce production forests. - Forest Ecology and Management, 493: 119210 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2021.119210.
Bryophytes and lichens are two main components of the forest floor vegetation. They provide essential ecosystem services, including nutrient recycling and water regulation. Here, we contrast the species richness, cover and community composition of forest floor bryophytes and lichens in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) dominated production forests. The study sites were located in the hemiboreal zone of southern Sweden, and represented early-, mid- and late rotation stands. Our aim was to examine the potential consequences for forest floor biodiversity from the decreasing use of Scots pine production forests in this region. Whereas Scots pine and Norway spruce stands did not differ in bryophyte cover, we found a higher cover of lichens in Scots pine stands, and highest in the intermediate aged stands. Also the species richness of lichens was higher in the Scots pine stands, while bryophyte species richness was higher in the Norway spruce stands. Differences in canopy cover and associated light transmittance to the forest floor appears to be important drivers for distinctive different forest floor communities in the Scots pine and Norway spruce stands, as revealed by NonMetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS). Mean Ellenberg indicator values for bryophytes and lichens showed that species associated with Scots pine stands were characterized by their tolerance of brighter conditions, higher insolation, and better adaptation to a continental climate. Norway spruce stands instead had a comparably larger proportion of species tolerating lower light, but also indicators of higher available nutrient levels, humidity, and pH. The outcome of the Ellenberg indicator species analysis, as well as the larger cover of lichens,and adaptations to drought found among some mosses, revealed that forest floor communities are shaped by different environmental factors in Scots pine and Norway spruce production stands. These environmental differences, and the quantified shifts in forest floor communities identified in this study, indicate the large shifts in understory bryophyte and lichen species composition and abundance that is likely to occur if Scots pine stands are converted to Norway spruce. Keywords: Understory vegetation ; Biodiversity; Moss ; Liverwort ; Pinus sylvestris ; Picea abies ; Managed coniferous; plantations ; Ellenberg indicator values.
33475Kim W.-Y., Jeong M.-H., Yun S.-H. & Hur J.-S. (2021): Transcriptome analysis identifies a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of biruloquinone, a rare phenanthraquinone, in a lichen-forming fungus Cladonia macilenta. - Journal of Fungi, 7(5): 398 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7050398.
Lichens are prolific producers of natural products of polyketide origin. We previously described a culture of lichen-forming fungus (LFF) Cladonia macilenta that produces biruloquinone, a purple pigment that is a phenanthraquinone rarely found in nature. However, there was no genetic information on the biosynthesis of biruloquinone. To identify a biosynthetic gene cluster for biruloquinone, we mined polyketide synthase (PKS) genes from the genome sequence of a LFF isolated from thalli of C. macilenta. The 38 PKS in C. macilenta are highly diverse, many of which form phylogenetic clades with PKS previously characterized in non-lichenized fungi. We compared transcriptional profiles of the 38 PKS genes in two chemotypic variants, one producing biruloquinone and the other producing no appreciable metabolite in vitro. We identified a PKS gene (hereafter PKS21) that was highly upregulated in the LFF that produces biruloquinone. The boundaries of a putative biruloquinone gene cluster were demarcated by co-expression patterns of six clustered genes, including the PKS21. Biruloquinone gene clusters exhibited a high degree of synteny between related species. In this study we identified a novel PKS family responsible for the biosynthesis of biruloquinone through whole-transcriptome analysis. Keywords: biruloquinone; Cladonia; polyketide; PKS; secondary metabolite.
33474Olech M. & Singh S.M. (2010): Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Schirmacher Oasis, Antarctica. - New Delhi: National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research: Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India, 140 pp. .
The monograph presents first-hand information, giving a Seneral account of Schirmacher Oasis, Systematics and ecological account of species and their distribution. The identffication keys providedfor dffirent Senera and species will be useful for segregation of dffirent conplex taxa of lichens. The detailed distribution aciount provided for each species will be an important data for carrying out future monitoring studies in the area. The close-up photographs of lichens will be helpful for the beginners to identify certain complex lichen Senera and species of Antarctica
33473Davydov E.A., Yakovchenko L. & Printzen C. (2021): Validation of the combination Lecanora brandegeei (≡ Lecidea brandegeei). - Opuscula Philolichenum, 20: 71–72. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=20.
In a recent paper on the Lecanora pringlei group a new combination was proposed for the taxon long recognized as either Lecidea brandegeei or Lecanora pringlei subsp. brandegeei. Unfortunately, the new combination Lecanora brandegeei was invalidly published as it lacked a registration number. The combination is validly published here. Keywords. – Lichens, nomenclature, North America, taxonomy, T.S. Brandegee.
33472Nguyen T.T., Nguyen Quoc Chau T., Mai Van H., Phan Quoc T., Do Phuoc Q., Nguyen T.D., Nguyen P.D., Nguyen Thi Thu T., Le T.D., Dai Thi Xuan T., Kaeko K. & Kenji K. (2021): A new hopane derivative from the lichen Dirinaria applanata. - Natural Product Research, 35(7): 1167–1171. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2019.1644511.
Chemical investigation of the lichen Dirinaria applanata led to isolate nine compounds including a new hopane derivative, 1β-acetoxy-21α-hopane-3β,22-diol (1) together with six phenolic compounds naming divaricatinic acid (2), methyl divaricatinate (3), methyl-β-orcinolcarboxylate (4), methyl haematommate (5), divarinol (6), ramalinic acid A (7), and two xanthones namely lichenxanthone (8), 4,5-dichlorolichenxanthone (9). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data in combination with published literature. Except compound 2, all compounds were isolated from this species for the first time. Keywords: Dirinaria applanata; lichen;1β-acetoxy-21α-hopane-3β,22-diol.
33471Retallack G.J. (2021): Zebra rock and other Ediacaran paleosols from Western Australia. - Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 68(4): 532–556. https://doi.org/10.1080/08120099.2020.1820574.
Zebra rock is an ornamental stone from the early Ediacaran, Ranford Formation, around and in Lake Argyle, south of Kununurra, Western Australia. It has been regarded as a marine clay, liquid crystal, groundwater alteration, unconformity paleosol or product of acid sulfate weathering. This study supports the latter hypothesis and finds modern analogues for its distinctive red banding in mottling of gleyed soils. Other acid sulfate paleosols of desert playas (Gypsids) are also are found in the Ranford Formation, as well as calcareous desert paleosols (Calcids). The megafossil Palaeopaschnicnus also found in associated grey shales may have been a chambered protozoan, but Yangtziramulus in calcic paleosols is most like a microbial earth lichen. Soil climofunctions are evidence of an arid, cool temperate climate during the early Ediacaran.
33470Gül Ü.D., İrdem E., Yavuz Ş.A. & İlhan S. (2021): Determination of dye biosorption capacity of lichens and reusability of wastes as antimicrobial agents. - Journal of the Textile Institute, 112(6): 1014–1022. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405000.2020.1797263.
Determination of dye biosorption capacity by lichen biosorbent and reusability of the waste lichen biosorbent as an antimicrobial agent are the aims of this study. The study has three stages: 1. to carry out dye biosorption assays, 2. to scan antimicrobial activity of waste lichen biosorbent after dye loaded, 3. to examine the antimicrobial function of a fabric which absorbed waste lichen extract. The optimal conditions for the best dye biosorption were determined. After the biosorption experiments, the waste lichen biomass was harvested from the working solution and the extraction of dye-loaded waste biomass was done using methanol and ethanol. The extracts obtained from both dye-loaded and un-loaded biosorbents were scanned for antimicrobial activity potential by the disk diffusion method. The results of this study showed that the waste lichen biosorbent of biosorption processes can be reused as antimicrobial agents. Keywords: Antimicrobials; biotechnology; environmental; pollutants; wastewater treatment.
33469Karim S.H., Salih S.A. & Al-Zubaidy A.A. (2021): A checklist of lichens from Iraq, with four new records of lichens from Iraq. - Lindbergia, 44: linbg-01140 [6 p.]. doi: 10.25227/linbg.01140.
The lichen species of Iraq are poorly known and no accurate checklist has been produced so far. Here we carried out an extensive review of existing literature and carried out additional field work to expand the knowledge of lichens in Iraq. We present the first checklist of lichens in Iraq which comprises a total of 236 species. The field survey identified four lichen species as new to Iraq. Although this checklist is not a full checklist of the lichens of Iraq it represents the most complete list to date. It is likely that increased sampling will lead to further new records of lichen species in Iraq. Keywords: checklist, Halabja province, Iraq, lichens, new records,
33468Slimani A., Ait Hammou M., Hamel T., Boulemtafes A., Brakni R., Zeghouma D., Belili A. & Djamel Miara M. (2020): Lasallia pustulata (L.) Mérat, a new species for the lichen flora of Algeria. - Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles, 99: 119–128. .
[in French with English summary:] In this paper, authors indicate the presence of a species that had never been mentioned in the literature on Algerian lichen flora « Lasallia pustulata (L.) Mérat ». This foliose lichen species with an umbilicate thallus belongs to the exceptional Umbilicariaceae family, found for the first time in the Edough peninsula (North-East of Algeria). Keywords : Lichen, Umbilicariaceae, Edough peninsula, North Africa.
33467Martínez Colín P., Lücking R. & Herrera-Campos M.Á. (2021): Diversity begets diversity: Phorophyte and microsite relations of foliicolous lichens in the lowland rain forest at Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve (Veracruz, Mexico). - Ecological Research, 36: 313–328. https://doi.org/10.1111/1440-1703.12201.
We analyzed the structure of foliicolous lichen communities in the northernmost lowland forest of the Neotropics, Los Tuxtlas Tropical Biology Station in Veracruz, Mexico, and its dependence on phorophyte and microclimate. Along a 420-m long transect with 15 equidistant sampling points, within a 10 m radius of each point, we sampled a total 137 phorophytes and 411 leaves. The phorophytes represented 13 species, with diverse leaf traits regarding size, texture, presence of hairs and/or glands, and longevity, including: Astrocaryum mexicanum (Arecaceae), Chamaedorea ernesti-augustii (Arecaceae), Costus scaber (Costaceae), Guarea glabra (Meliaceae), Heliconia latispatha (Heliconiaceae), Monstera acuminata (Araceae), Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae), Piper hispidum (Piperaceae), Poulsenia armata (Moraceae), Pseudolmedia oxyphyllaria (Moraceae), Salacia megistophylla (Celastraceae), Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae) and Syngonium podophyllum (Araceae). NDMS ordination and cluster analysis grouped the phorophytes into hierarchically structured clusters variously correlated with microsite, phorophyte species and foliicolous lichen species richness. Indicator species analysis revealed statistically significant foliicolous lichen species characteristic for terminal clusters and for phorophyte species. We conclude that the principle of “diversity begets diversity” may apply, in that phorophyte diversity influences the diversity of foliicolous lichen communities through the manifestation of subtle phorophyte preferences, best seen in well-developed communities on leaves with higher longevity. Thus, wellpreserved forest ecosystems, with a higher diversity of suitable phorophytes, will support a higher diversity of foliicolous lichens, a phenomenon that extents to epiphytes in general. Keywords: biodiversity maintenance, environmental monitoring, epiphyte diversity, phyllosphere, tropical rainforest.
33466Lendemer J.C. (2021): Recent literature on lichens—261. - Bryologist, 142(2): 313–322. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.2.313.
33465Knudsen K., Kocourková J., Hodková E., Adams J.N. & Wang Y. (2021): Three species of Trimmatothelopsis (Acarosporaceae) from Europe and North America. - Bryologist, 142(2): 271–280. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.2.271.
A phylogenetic analysis recovered Acarospora oreophila in the monophyletic Trimmatothelopsis clade and a new combination was made. Trimmatothelopsis oreophila is closely related to T. terricola. Acarospora benedarensis and A. sphaerosperma are transferred to Trimmatothelopsis based on morphological and anatomical analyses. Globose apothecia with the disc usually less 0.5 mm in diam., a high hymenium, narrow paraphyses, and long conidia (3–6 × 1–1.5 µm) are diagnostic characters of the genus. Five species occur in North America. Keywords. California, calciphytes, terricolous lichens, Trimmatothelopsis versipellis.
33464Boutabia L., Telailia S. & de Bélair G. (2015): Corticolous lichen flora on Quercus suber L. in the wetlands of El Kala National Park (north-eastern Algeria). - Advances in Environmental Biology, 9(4): 360–372. .
The national park of El Kala is caracterised with an exceptional lichen flora, taking in to account the diversity of the phorophytes. Three sites have made the object of our study: Lake Tonga, Lake Oubeïra and Lake Mellah. The associations with Quercetum suberis being the most representative in the round of wetlands, where we studied the lichen flora on Quercus suber and making systematic surveys on 2 m high for four faces of the substrate. Moreover, a number of data on environmental conditions of the stations studied was considered and thus allowed us to appreciate the importance of specific lichen biodiversity in defined micro-climatic conditions. We have examined the influence of phorophyte diameter on the lichen cover and with respect to inter-category competitions observed during the statistical analysis. Our survey of epiphytic lichens in the cork forests of the wetlands of El Kala National Park was a success. From a systematics point of view, with 25 families comprising 135 catalogued species, we can certainly say that the region supports a wide variety of lichens. Most of the lichen taxa are essentially from the Parmeliaceae family, principally represented by the genus Parmelia, and from the Physciaceae family, represented by the genera Physcia and Physconia recognized by their nitrophilous species. From a morphological point of view, the catalogued taxa are divided into 69 crustose species, 37 foliose species, 15 fruticose species, 9 gelatinous species, 4 compound species and 1 squamulose species. Keywords: Lichens, Quercus suber, Wetlands, El Kala National Park, North-Eastern Algeria.
33463Boutabia L., Telailia S., Slimani A. & Mokni R.E. (2018): Diversity of epiphytic lichen flora of kermes oak formations (Quercus coccifera) from the El kala littoral (extreme northeastern Algeria). - Journal of new sciences, Agriculture and Biotechnology, CIRS, 7: 3299–3307. .
The study of the lichenic flora on Quercus coccifera carried out in the region of El Kala which is in the extreme Northeast Algeria proved very interesting. More than 50 lichens were recorded represented by two types of photobionts; green algae and Trentepohlia. The systematic spectrum indicates that the listed lichens belong to 14 families, the most important of which are the Parmeliaceae and the Physciaceae. The physiognomic spectrum notes the presence of only 3 lichenic categories: crustaceans, foliaceae and fruit. The total wealth quantified by type of vegetation stage mentions the importance of the lichens of the thermomediterranean stage with 50%. The ecological index relating to the phytogeographical aspect indicates that the lichenic flora of the phorophyte studied consists of two main chorotypes; the temperate and the suboceanic. Keywords: Lichens, phorophyte, Quercus coccifera, El Kala, Algeria.
33462Belguidoum A., Lograda T. & Ramdani M. (2021): Diversity and distribution of epiphytic lichens on Cedrus atlantica and Quercus faginea in Mount Babor Forest, Algeria. - Biodiversitas, 22: 887–899. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d220244.
Information about lichen diversity in Algeria is limited despite their important role as biological indicators of ecosystem health. The aim of the study was to carry out an inventory of epiphytic lichens in the Mount Babor Forest on two types of phorophytes (host trees), i.e., Cedrus atlantica and Quercus faginea, in varying altitudinal gradients and the diameter of host tree. The similarity of the sampled sites was assessed by the Sorensen index (?). Sixty-six species of epiphytic lichens were identified, which belong to 24 families and 38 genera. C. atlantica hosted a higher number of species than Q. faginea. The majority of lichen on C. atlantica belonged to the Parmeliaceae family, whereas those on Q. faginea belonged to the Physciaceae family. Crustose and foliose lichens were the most common species in the study area. The results showed the existence of a distinct relationship between the parameters of the distribution (i.e., tree diameter, elevation) and the specific lichen richness. The greatest number of lichen species (59 species) was observed on large diameter trunks (41-60 cm). Lichen diversity increased along with the increase in altitude. Sorensen’s similarity index revealed the presence of heterogeneity in the community composition of lichen vegetation. Keywords: Algeria, biodiversity, Cedrus atlantica, epiphytic lichens, Mount Babor Forest, Quercus faginea.
33461Phillips T., Storms K., Slack N. & LaGreca S.A. (2021): The mosses, liverworts and lichens of the Dyken Pond Environmental Education Center, Grafton, NY. - Evansia, 38(1): 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-38.1.1.
Bryophytes and lichens from the Dyken Pond Environmental Center in the Rensselaer Plateau region of eastern New York were inventoried from 1998 to 2020. Sixteen species of liverworts, 80 species of mosses and 53 species of lichens were identified. Two species of mosses are on the New York State Rare Moss List. A review of specimens listed from the Center on the Consortium of North American Bryophyte Herbaria (CNABH) showed seven additional species of mosses previously identified, but a review of the Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria (CNALH) did not show additional species. Key words. Biodiversity, Rensselaer Plateau, bryophytes, lichens.
33460LaGreca S.A., Perlmutter G.B., Goldman D.H., Seavey F.C. & Seavey J.L. (2021): Lichen diversity on an arborescent runner oak (Quercus pumila) in South Florida, USA. - Evansia, 38(1): 16–26. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-38.1.16.
Lichens from an unusually large, arborescent runner oak (Quercus pumila) from Miami-Dade County, Florida, were collected and inventoried. A total of 56 lichen species and one lichenicolous lichen species were found, representing 17 families with Graphidaceae bearing the most (14) species. Several species recorded were also recently reported or newly described from South Florida, which has a tropical climate and ecoregion that are distinct in the continental United States. Some lichen species (especially crustose Arthoniaceae and Graphidaceae) are twig specialists not normally found on trunks and branches; therefore, future studies of lichen diversity on single trees should include as much twig material as possible. Key words. Biodiversity, corticolous lichens, oak, South Florida.
33459Brodo I.M. (2021): Calogaya schistidii (Ascomycota, Teloschistaceae), a lichen new to North America from the northern Rocky Mountains. - Evansia, 38(1): 28–31. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-38.1.28.
Calogaya schistidii (syn. Caloplaca schistidii, Fulgensia schistidii) looks much like a Caloplaca growing on bryophytes over calcareous rock in arctic and alpine habitats but has unusual, 2-celled, non-polarilocular spores, slightly constricted at the middle. This is the first report of the species for North America. The material from British Columbia is described and illustrated, and comments are made on its classification. Key words. Biogeography, Canada, Gyalolechia, muscicolous.
33458Kiviat E., Davison P.G., Harris R.C. & Dickman S. (2021): Novel hepatic and lichen assemblage on Phragmites stubble in a Florida freshwater swamp. - Evansia, 38(1): 9–14. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-38.1.9.
Common reed (Phragmites) interacts with a large suite of other organisms including cryptogams attached to live or dead culm bases. We report an unusual observation of at least ten taxa of lichens and hepatics attached to persistent reed stubble on the swampy bank of freshwater Cypress Creek north of Tampa, Hillsborough County, Florida. This bryoid material included the minute, leafy hepatics Microlejeunea globosa, Microlejeunea cf. ulicina, Myriocoleopsis minutissima, and Frullania cf. inflata; and the lichens Arthonia subdiffusa, Chrysothrix xanthina, Opegrapha viridis, Phaeographis sp., Physcia sp., and an unidentified species of Parmeliaceae. These generally corticolous or epiphyllous taxa have not previously been reported from common reed, and suggest unrecognized complexity in both cryptogamic microhabitats and reed epiphytes. Key words. Epiphytes, hepatics, lichens, wetland.
33457Sohrabi M. & Sipman H. (2020): An updated checklist of the lichenized and lichenicolous fungi of Arasbaran, UNESCO-Man and Biosphere Reserve, Northwest of Iran. - Mycologia Iranica, 7(1): 45–62. DOI: 10.22043/mi.2020.122654.
Based on revision of 533 herbarium specimens and literature review, 227 lichenized and 36 lichenicolous fungi belonging to 115 genera and 52 families (including 8 "incertae sedis" taxa) are reported from Arasbaran UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve. In addition, 103 taxa are reported for the first time from Arasbaran. Of these nineteen lichenized fungi and two lichenicolous fungi were not known from Iran before, the lichenized fungi Aspicilia pavimentans, Bryobilimbia hypnorum Caloplaca phaeothamnos, Cetrelia monachorum, Circinaria elmorei, Cladonia borealis, L. populicola, Lecidea auriculata, Pertusaria flavicans, P. pluripuncta, P. pseudocorallina, P. xanthoplaca, Phaeophyscia poeltii, Rinodina trachytica, Scytinium aragonii, Usnea glabrata, Varicellaria lactea, Xanthocarpia tominii, and the lichenicolous fungi Rosellinula haplospora and Telogalla olivieri. ITS rDNA was used to confirm the identity of Lecidea auriculata. The history of floristic study and the diversity of lichen species in the region are briefly discussed. Keywords: Azerbaijan, biodiversity, Caucasus region, forest-steppe, Irano-turanian region.
33456Davydov E.A., Yakovchenko L.S., Konoreva L., Chesnokov S., Ezhkin A., Galanina I.A. & Paukov A.G. (2021): New records of lichens from the Russian Far East. II. Species from forest habitats. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 20: 54–70. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=20.
Micarea xanthonica and Trapelia elacista are reported as new to Asia and Russia, Lecania coreana and Lepraria pseudoarbuscula are reported new to Russia, Micarea globulosella is reported for the first time for the Russian Far East, Rinodina herreri is reported for the second time for Asia and Russia from Khabarovsk Territory, and Coenogonium isidiatum is reported for the second time for Russia from Primorye Territory. A comparison of known isidiate Coenogonium species is made. Lichenomphalia umbellifera is reported as new to the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin Region. Ramalina thrausta is newly reported from Sakhalin Island. The characteristic features of the specimens from the Russian Far East and comparisons with similar species are given. Keywords. – Asia, basidiolichens, lichen biodiversity, Russia, Sikhote-Alin’.
33455Treviño I.F., Sotomayor D.A., Cueva M.A., Perez R., Cáceres L., Ramos D., Ortiz E.M. & Quipuscoa V. (2012): Herbarium Areqvipense (HUSA): informatización y representatividad de su colección. - Revista Peruana de Biología, 19(2): 219–222. .
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Scientific collections and herbaria are essential sources of information and education for researchers and practitioners in biological sciences. The Herbarium Areqvipense (HUSA), registered at Index Herbariorum since 2004, holds one of the most important collections in Peru. In this paper we provide information about the collection, and its representativeness for the Peruvian flora. HUSA has more than 11000 specimens recorded to date, with more than 2300 determined species, consisting mostly of Magnoliophyta and Pteridophyta (ca. 98%), and a smaller proportion of Basidiomycetes, Ascomycetes (fungi and lichens) and Bryophyta (mosses). The collection includes specimens from 23 departments of Peru, where the samples belonging to Arequipa have the largest number of individuals collected (3375) accounting for 31% of the collection. Asteraceae and Solanaceae are the most collected with 1571 and 964 specimens, respectively. The majority of geo-referenced specimens came from the tropical wet forest with 15%, followed by the tropical pre-montane wet forest with 8%. We also provide a list of the nomenclatural types and a brief summary of the history and development of HUSA since its creation. Palabras clave : collection; herbarium; HUSA; types; Peruvian flora.
33454Gholamhosseinian A., Sepehr A., Sohrabi M. & Emadodin I. (2021): Assessing the role of lichens in the prevention of dust emission in dryland: Case study at north-eastern Iran. - Aeolian Research, 50: 100697 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeolia.2021.100697.
The dominance of aeolian processes in arid areas created a harsh environment in these regions for soil and vegetation where soil fertility, ecosystem productivity, air clarity, and human health is dependent to aeolian activities and rate of dust emission. Biological soil crusts (bio-crusts) are the communities of living organisms on the soil surface which play an important role in soil ecosystem services in arid land. Lichens are known as organisms that can accumulate certain elements or substances at high concentrations in the atmosphere. The relation between lichens species and soil geochemistry as well as dust capture in geomorphic zones in northeastern Iran were studied. Different lichens species and soil particles were analyzed by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS). The results of XRF and XRD analysis showed lichen crusts affected soil mineralisation. By creating microtopography, indicated the lichens trapped dust. They also increased the amount of clay on the soil surface. The results indicted the significant role of lichens in soil ecosystem services dryland. Keywords: Geochemistry; Granulometry; Lichen crusts; Mineralogy; Soil erosion; Dryland.
33453Wietrzyk-Pełka P., Rola K., Patchett A., Szymański W., Węgrzyn M.H. & Björk R.G. (2021): Patterns and drivers of cryptogam and vascular plant diversity in glacier forelands. - Science of the Total Environment, 770: 144793 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144793.
Vascular and nonvascular plants are affected by environmental factors determining their distribution and shaping their diversity and cover. Despite the cryptogam commonness in Arctic communities, previous studies have often focused on limited number of factors and their impact on only selected species of vascular plants or cryptogams. Our study aimed to investigate in detail the differences in species diversity and cover of cryptogams and vascular plants in the glacier forelands and mature tundra on Svalbard. Furthermore, we determined the biotic and abiotic factors that affected diversity, cover and distribution of cryptogam and vascular plant species. In 2017, we established 201 plots in eight locations (each including habitat type of foreland and mature tundra) and surveyed species abundance, sampled soils and environmental data. Results revealed that diversity and cover of analysed groups differed significantly between locations and habitat types, except for cryptogam cover in mature tundra in terms of location. Distance to the glacier terminus, slope, soil conductivity, nutrient content, and clay content impacted both plant groups' diversity. In contrast, distance to the glacier terminus, nutrient content and soil pH affected their cover. In addition, for cryptogam diversity and cover, foreland location and vascular plant cover were also important, while for vascular plant cover time elapsed after glacier retreat was significant. Distribution of both groups' species in forelands was associated with time elapsed after glacier retreat, soil pH, and nutrient contents. Soil texture and distance to the glacier terminus additionally influenced cryptogam distribution. The positive impact of vascular plants on cryptogam diversity and cover indicates complex relationships between these groups, even in forelands' relatively simple communities. As the cryptogam diversity in the polar areas is high but still largely unknown, future studies on species ecology and climate change impact on vegetation should consider both vascular plants and cryptogams and interactions between these groups. Keywords: Arctic cryptogams; Arctic vascular plants; Environmental variables; Plant-soil interactions; Svalbard.
33452Tuovinen V., Millanes A.M., Freire-Rallo S., Rosling A. & Wedin M. (2021): Tremella macrobasidiata and Tremella variae have abundant and widespread yeast stages in Lecanora lichens. - Environmental Microbiology, 23(5): 2484–2498. https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15455|.
Dimorphism is a widespread feature of tremellalean fungi in general, but a little-studied aspect of the biology of lichen-associated Tremella. We show that Tremella macrobasidiata and Tremella variae have an abundant and widespread yeast stage in their life cycles that occurs in Lecanora lichens. Their sexual filamentous stage is restricted to a specific lichen: T. macrobasidiata only forms basidiomata on Lecanora chlarotera hymenia and T. variae only on Lecanora varia thalli. However, the yeast stage of T. macrobasidiata is less specific and can occur in L. varia lichens, whilst all life stages of T. variae may be specific to L. varia. Contrary to the hyphal stages, the yeasts are distributed across the thalli and hymenia of Lecanora lichens, and not limited to specimens with basidiomata. Tremella macrobasidiata was present in all studied L. chlarotera, and in 59% of L. varia specimens. Only in 8% of the L. varia thalli could none of the two Tremella species be detected. Our results indicate that lichen-associated Tremella may be much more abundant and widespread than previously assumed leading to skewed estimations about their distribution ranges and lichen specificity, and raise new questions about their biology, ekology and function in the symbiosis.
33451Harańczyk H., Strzałka K., Kubat K., Andrzejowska A., Olech M., Jakubiec D., Kijak P., Palfner G. & Casanova‑Katny A. (2021): A comparative analysis of gaseous phase hydration properties of two lichenized fungi: Niebla tigrina (Follman) Rundel & Bowler from Atacama Desert and Umbilicaria antarctica Frey & I. M. Lamb from Robert Island, Southern Shetlands Archipelago, maritime Antarctica. - Extremophiles, 25: 267–283. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00792-021-01227-y.
Gaseous phase hydration properties for thalli of Niebla tigrina from Atacama Desert, and for Umbilicaria antarctica from Isla Robert, maritime Antarctica, were analyzed using 1H-NMR relaxometry, spectroscopy, and sorption isotherm analysis. The molecular dynamics of residual water was monitored to distinguish the sequential binding very tightly, tightly, and loosely bound water fractions. These two species differ in hydration kinetics faster for Desert N. tigrina [A1 = 0.51(4); t1 = 0.51(5) h, t2 = 15.0(1.9) h; total 0.7 for p/p0 = 100%], compared to Antarctic U. antarctica [A1 = 0.082(6), t1 = 2.4(2) h, t2 = [26.9(2.7)] h, total 0.6 for p/p0 = 100%] from humid polar area. The 1H-NMR measurements distinguish signal from tightly bound water, and two signals from loosely bound water, with different chemical shifts higher for U. antarctica than for N. tigrina. Both lichen species contain different amounts of water-soluble solid fraction. For U. antarctica, the saturation concentration of water soluble solid fraction, cs = 0.55(9), and the dissolution effect is detected at least up to Δm/m0 = 0.7, whereas for N. tigrina with the similar saturation concentration, cs = 053(4), this fraction is detected up to the threshold hydration level equal to ΔM/m0 = 0.3 only.
33450Valcárcel C.P. & López de Silanes M.E. (2010): Especies acuáticas del género Verrucaria s.l. (Ascomycetes liquenizados) en la península Ibérica. - Nova Acta Científica Compostelana (Bioloxía), 19: 5–20. .
Freshwater Verrucaria s.l. species (liquenized Ascomycetes) in the Iberian Peninsula. [in Galician with English abstract: ] A Study of freshwater Verrucaria s.l. species is presented. Specimens have been collected from the beds and banks of lakes, rivers and streams, in 92 localities from the Iberian Peninsula. An identification key of the 13 freshwater taxa is also proposed. Four of these are new records for Portugal: Hydropunctaria rheitrophila, Verrucaria funckii, V. hydrela and V. pachyderma. Most of them are widespread throughout the Iberian Peninsula, except for V. mundula, previously recorded for the first time in the Northern Hemisphere in 2010. Keywords: Freshwater lichens, saxicolous, Spain, Portugal.
33449Bhandari B.S., Falswal A., Ranchi & Priyanka (2020): Dominance and diversity of fallen epiphytic lichens in a broad-leaved forest ecosystem of Garhwal Himalaya. - Journal of Mountain Research, 15: 197–200. https://doi.org/10.51220/jmr.v15i1.23.
The communication is aimed at providing quantitative information on fallen epiphytic lichens in a broad-leaved forest ecosystem dominated by Oak (Quercus semecarpifolia). A total of 17 lichen species were encountered during the field samplings. Parmotrema perlatum was the dominant lichen species with higher values of density and diversity followed by Lecanora chlaroteraa, the co-dominant species. Medium diversity index (Shannon-Wiener) is an indicator for further investigation at broader level of forest ecosystems. Keywords: Epiphytic lichens, Dominance, Diversity, Garhwal Himalaya.
33448Timdal E. & Tønsberg T. (2021): Lepraria lobificans (syn. L. santosii) and L. sylvicola new to northern Europe from Norway. - Graphis Scripta, 33(3): 50–58. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/33_3/GS_33_50.pdf.
The two lichen species Lepraria lobificans (syn. L. santosii) and L. sylvicola are reported new to northern Europa, based on collections from Western Norway and Northern Norway, respectively. The specimens were identified by morphology, thin-layer chromatography, and the DNA barcode marker. The common species currently named L. lobificans in Northern Europe should be named L. finkii.
33447Arup U., Blom H.H. & Lindblom L. (2021): The Gaupne area in Sogn og Fjordane – a hot-spot for lichens in Norway. - Graphis Scripta, 33(3): 31–49. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/33_3/GS_33_31.pdf.
During a three-day field trip to the Gaupne area, Luster kommune, three main localities were visited in search of lichens. A total of 35 lichens or lichenicolous fungi were found to be new to Sogn og Fjordane, most of which are also rare on a national scale. Three species on rocks, Calogaya biatorina, Lecanora gislerianaand L. subaurea, are red-listed and two species, Blastenia monticolaand Caloplaca squamuleoisidiata, are new to Norway. Most of the species new to Sogn og Fjordane are calcicolous or prefer siliceous rocks containing high levels of heavy metals. The area around Gaupne is shown to be a previously unknown lichen hot-spot.
33446Haldeman M. (2021): New and interesting records of lichens, lichenicolous fungi and other Ascomycota from northwestern USA III. - Evansia, 37(3): 71–80. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-37.3.71.
The lichenicolous fungi Lichenochora aipoliae, Stigmidium leprariae and Taeniolella toruloides are reported as new to North America, and Monodictys epilepraria as new to western North America. A record of Lawalreea cf. lecanorae from the region is discussed. The lichen Biatora oligocarpa is reported as new to the contiguous 48 states of the USA. Also reported new to northwestern North America are two Ascomycota microfungi, Gloniopsis subrugosa and Nemania maritima. In total, new state records are provided for Idaho (6), Michigan (1), Montana (1), Oregon (4) and Washington (12). Key words. Idaho, Lichenothelia, microfungi, Oregon State University, Washington.
33445Kapets N. (2020): An annotated list of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Teteriv River Basin (Ukraine). - Journal of Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, 7(4): 76–85. https://doi.org/10.15330/jpnu.7.4.76-85.
First data on lichens of the Teteriv River Basin appeared in the second part of 19th century. First records of lichenicolous fungi in this area were published at the end of the 20th century. An annotated list of lichens and lichenophilous fungi is based on literature data and materials of own researche of lichenobiota of the upper and middle course of the Teteriv river basin. Llist of lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the area includes 300 species. The distribution of 117 species (80 lichens, 37 lichenicolous fungi) are for the first time recorded for area studied. Five species (Cercidospora macrospora, Lichenostigma epipolina, Lichenothelia tenuissima, Polysporina subfuscescens і Taeniolella beschiana) are new to Ukraine, 7 species (Anisomeridium polypori, Coenogonium pineti, Lichenoconium usneae, Monodictys epilepraria, Rinodina efflorescens, Sphaerellothecium propinquellum, Taeniolella punctata) are new for the Ukrainian Plains, while 11 species (Cornutispora lichenicola, Erythricium aurantiacum, Heterocephalacria physciacearum, Intralichen christiansenii, Laetisaria lichenicola, Lichenothelia convexa, Marchandiomyces corallinus, Psoroglaena dictyospora, Pyrenochaeta xanthoriae, Sarcogyne lapponica, Scoliciosporum gallurae, Stigmidium xanthoparmeliarum) are new for the Polissia subprovince of mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forests, and one species is new for the territory of the Ukrainian forest-steppe subprovince. In addition, new information on the distribution of a number of rare to Ukraine lichen and lichenicolous fungal species (Absconditella lignicola, Cornutispora lichenicola, Clypeococcum hypocenomycis, Lichenochora obscuroides, Lichenodiplis lecanorae, Marchandiomyces corallinus, Psoroglaena dictyospora, Sclerococcum sphaerale, Strangospora deplanata, Thelocarpon epibolum ect.) is obtained. Keywords: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, lichenobiota, rare species, Teteriv River, Ukraine.
33444Aime M.C., Miller A.N., Aoki T., Bensch K., Cai L., Crous P.W., Hawksworth D.L., Hyde K.D., Kirk P.M., Lücking R., May T.W., Malosso E., Redhead S.A., Rossman A.Y., Stadler M., Thines M., Yurkov A.M., Zhang N. & Schoch C.L. (2021): How to publish a new fungal species, or name, version 3.0. - IMA Fungus, 12: 11 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43008-021-00063-1.
It is now a decade since The International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF) produced an overview of requirements and best practices for describing a new fungal species. In the meantime the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICNafp) has changed from its former name (the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature) and introduced new formal requirements for valid publication of species scientific names, including the separation of provisions specific to Fungi and organisms treated as fungi in a new Chapter F. Equally transformative have been changes in the data collection, data dissemination, and analytical tools available to mycologists. This paper provides an updated and expanded discussion of current publication requirements along with best practices for the description of new fungal species and publication of new names and for improving accessibility of their associated metadata that have developed over the last 10 years. Additionally, we provide: (1) model papers for different fungal groups and circumstances; (2) a checklist to simplify meeting (i) the requirements of the ICNafp to ensure the effective, valid and legitimate publication of names of new taxa, and (ii) minimally accepted standards for description; and, (3) templates for preparing standardized species descriptions. Keywords: Data repositories, Dual nomenclature, FAIR principles, Legitimate publication, New combinations, Taxonomic best practices, Typification, Valid publication.
33443Davydov E.A., Yakovchenko L.S., Hollinger J., Bungartz F., Parrinello C. & Printzen C. (2021): The new genus Pulvinora (Lecanoraceae) for species of the ‘Lecanora pringlei’ group, including the new species Pulvinora stereothallina. - Bryologist, 124(2): 242–256. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.2.242.
Phylogenetic reconstructions based on ITS/5.8S, mtSSU and nuLSU DNA sequence data suggest that Lecanora pringlei from North America and a closely related new species from the Altai Mountains, Russia, should be transferred to a new genus Pulvinora, phylogenetically related to Frutidella. It is distinguished by Lecanora-type asci, mycolecanorine apothecia soon becoming convex with an algal layer pushed below the hypothecium, and a pulvinate thallus with squamules at the tip of pseudopodetialike, branched, pale brownish structures. Lecanora subcavicola and L. pringlei subsp. brandegeei do not belong to this new genus Pulvinora; consequently, we propose the new combination L. brandegeei to accommodate the latter taxon. Pulvinora stereothallina is distinguished from P. pringlei in the shape and size of its squamules (plane to concave, up to 3.0 mm long vs. remaining convex, up to 1.5 mm long), by the lack of maculae, the presence of a whitish pruina on the margins and elevated parts of its squamules, by apothecia coalescing into clusters (vs. single), an ochre-yellow to brownish (vs. colorless) proper exciple, larger ascospores, and different secondary metabolites. Lectotypes of Lecidea pringlei Tuck. and L. brandegeei Tuck. are designated here from the collections deposited in FH. Keywords: Altai, Asia, growth form, Kazakhstan, lectotypification, lichen systematics, molecular phylogeny, North America, Russia, Siberia.
33442Haldeman M. & McCune B. (2021): Tephromela eviolacea, a new species of Tephromela (Tephromelataceae) lacking a violet hymenium from northwestern North America. - Bryologist, 124(2): 230–241. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.2.230.
We describe Tephromela eviolacea as a new species from California, Idaho and Washington, U.S.A. Externally we cannot distinguish it from T. atra and T. pacifica, but it differs from both in ITS sequences, secondary metabolites and in lacking all violet coloration in the hymenium. In the Pacific Northwest, T. atra is found on rock and T. eviolacea and T. pacifica are found on bark and wood on the east and west sides of the Cascade Range, respectively. We provide a key to the genus in the region. Keywords: California, key, Idaho, lichen systematics, United States of America, Washington.
33441Kondratyuk S.Y., Popova L.P., Khodosovtsev O.Y., Lőkös L., Fedorenko N.M. & Kapets N.V. (2021): The fourth checklist of Ukrainian lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi with analysis of current additions. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 63: 97–163. DOI: 10.1556/034.63.2021.1-2.8.
The “Fourth checklist of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi of Ukraine”, including 2150 accepted scientific names based on published records as well as analysis of current additions are provided. Current additions include 439 taxa newly recorded for Ukraine after the third checklist of lichens of Ukraine by Kondratyuk et al. (2010) and 262 nomenclatural novelties. Annotations to each taxon of 318 newly recorded to Ukraine are provided in the style of the second checklist by Kondratyuk et al. (1998), i.e. data on phytogeographical regions and administrative districts (oblasts) of Ukraine as well as references to published papers are provided. Among current additions 99 taxa were annotated in the Checklist of lichenicolous fungi of Ukraine by Darmostuk and Khodosovtsev (2017) and consequent references to the latter are provided. The conclusion confirms the earlier recommendation that national checklists of lichens are to be re-published more often than once a decade. Key words: administrative districts, checklist, current additions, lichen-forming, lichenicolous fungi, Ukraine.
33440Joshi Y. (2021): Two new species of lichenicolous fungus Sclerococcum (Dactylosporaceae, Sclerococcales) from India. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 63: 67–75. DOI: 10.1556/034.63.2021.1-2.5.
Two new species of Sclerococcum, viz. S. dendriscostictae and S. physciae, colonising members of Dendriscosticta, Physcia and Sticta, are described from Uttarakhand and Andhra Pradesh states of India, respectively. S. dendriscostictae colonising the host thallus as well as apothecial disc of Dendriscosticta and Sticta species is generally characterised by its small sized (0.1–0.4 mm) black apothecia, hyaline hymenium, paraphyses without dark apical caps, asci 8-spored, ascospores ellipsoid, hyaline at immature stage and brown at maturity, 1-septate, smooth walled, 9–10–11(–12) × (3–)3.8–5–6.1(–7) μm, while S. physciae colonising thallus of Physcia sp. is characterised by black, rounded to irregular sporodochia (40–100 μm diam.) having ellipsoid or angular, medium to dark brown, mostly simple, rarely 1-septate conidia [(5–)7.5– 10–11.7(–14) × (4–)4.7–5.8–6.9(–7) μm]. A key to known Indian taxa is also being provided. Key words: Dactylospora, lichens, Sclerococcaceae, taxonomy.
33439Farkas E. (2021): Notes and schedae to Lichenes Delicati Exsiccati Editae in memoriam Antonín Vězda (1920–2008), Fasc. 6 . - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 63: 51–66. DOI: 10.1556/034.63.2021.1-2.4.
Lichenes Delicati Exsiccati Editae of little, fine, special lichens is edited in honour of Antonín Vězda (1920–2008). The sixth fascicle of the exsiccate is consisted of 20 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi and distributed to 12 lichen herbaria of the world. Collectors are J. Halda, G. Kantvilas, L. Lőkös, Z. Palice, N. Varga and E. Farkas. Key words: exsiccate, lichens, lichenicolous fungi.
33438Popovici V., Bucur L., Popescu A., Schröder V., Costache T., Rambu D., Cucolea I.E., Gîrd C.E., Caraiane A., Gherghel D., Vochita G. & Badea V. (2021): Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Usnea barbata (L.) F.H. Wigg. dry extracts in different solvents. - Plants, 10(5): 909 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10050909.
Lichens represent a significant source of antioxidants due to numerous metabolites that can reduce free radicals. Usnea barbata (L.) F.H. Wigg. has been recognized and used since ancient times for its therapeutic effects, some of which are based on its antioxidant properties. The present study aims to analyze the phytochemical profile and to evaluate the antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of this lichen species. Five dry extracts of U. barbata (UBDE) in different solvents (acetone, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol, water) were prepared by refluxing at Soxhlet to achieve these proposed objectives and to identify which solvent is the most effective for the extraction. The usnic acid content (UAC) was quantified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). The total polyphenols content (TPC) and tannins content (TC) were evaluated by spectrophotometry, and the total polysaccharides (PSC) were extracted by a gravimetric method. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) free radical method was used to assess the antioxidant activity (AA) and the Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL) assay was the biotest for cytotoxic activity evaluation. The ethyl acetate extract had the highest usnic acid content, and acetone extract had the highest content of total polyphenols and tannins. The most significant antioxidant effect was reported to methanol extract, and all the extracts proved high cytotoxicity. The water extract has the lowest cytotoxicity because usnic acid is slightly soluble in this solvent, and it was not found at UHPLC analysis. All extracts recorded a moderate correlation between the content of usnic acid, polyphenols, tannins, and AA; furthermore, it has been observed that the cytotoxicity varies inversely with the antioxidant effect. Keywords: U. barbata; usnic acid; UHPLC; polyphenols; tannins; polysaccharides.
33437Shirokova L.S., Chupakov A.V., Ivanova I.S., Moreva O.Y., Zabelina S.A., Shutskiy N.A., Loiko S.V. & Pokrovsky O.S. (2021): Lichen, moss and peat control of C, nutrient and trace metal regime in lakes of permafrost peatlands. - Science of the Total Environment, 782: 146737 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146737.
Permafrost thaw in continental lowlands produces large number of thermokarst (thaw) lakes, which act as a major regulator of carbon (C) storage in sediments and C emission in the atmosphere. Here we studied thaw lakes of the NE European permafrost peatlands - shallow water bodies located within frozen peat bogs and receiving the majority of their water input fromlateral (surface) runoff.Wealso conductedmesocosm experiments via interacting lake waters with frozen peat and dominant ground vegetation - lichen and moss. There was a systematic decrease in concentrations of dissolved C, CO2, nutrients and metals with an increase in lake size, corresponding to temporal evolution of the water body and thermokarst development.We hypothesized that ground vegetation and frozen peat provide the majority of C, nutrients and inorganic solutes in thewater columnof these lakes, and that microbial processing of terrestrial organic matter controls the pattern of CO2 and nutrient concentrations in thermokarst lakes. Substrate mass-normalized C, nutrient (N, P, K), major and trace metal releasewas maximal in moss mesocosms. After first 16 h of reaction, the pCO2 increased ten-fold in mesocosms with moss and lichen; this increase was much less pronounced in experiments with permafrost peat. Overall, moss and lichen were the dominant factors controlling the enrichment of the lake water in organic C, nutrients, and trace metals and rising the CO2 concentration. The global significance of obtained results is that the changes in ground vegetation, rather than mere frozen peat thawing, may exert the primary control on C, major and trace element balance in aquatic ecosystems of tundra peatlands under climate warming scenario. Keywords: Organic carbon; CO2; Thermokarst; Mesocosm; Enclosure; Vegetation; Thaw pond; Micronutrient.
33436Prokopiev I., Sleptsov I. & Filippova G. (2021): Effect of several phenolic compounds of lichens on the physiological, cytological, and biochemical characteristics of Allium fistulosum seedlings. - Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 33: 102000 [5 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcab.2021.102000.
Here we report the effects of atranorin (ATR), gyrophoric acid (GPA), and thamnolic acid (TMA) on the physiological, biochemical, and cytological characteristics of Allium fistulosum L. seedlings for the first time. Of the lichen substances investigated, ATR and TAM had the highest phytotoxicity effects. ATR (4000 - 1000 μM) and TAM (4000 μM) inhibited the growth processes and increased the intensity of lipid peroxidation in A. fistulosum, and as a result the activities of the protective enzymes peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase increased, and the contents of photosynthetic pigments in the A. fistulosum seedlings decreased. ATR at concentrations 2000 and 4000 μM caused decrease of mitotic activity and increase of chromosomal aberrations frequency in root cells. The weakest phytotoxic properties were shown by GPA, which caused no changes in the physiological, cytological, or biochemical parameters of the A. fistulosum seedlings across the entire range of concentrations tested. Keywords: Allium fistulosum; Phytotoxicity; Atranorin; Thamnolic acid; Gyrophoric acid.
33435Ivanov D., Yaneva G., Potoroko I. & Ivanova D.G. (2021): Contribution of cyanotoxins to the ecotoxicological role of lichens. - Toxins, 13(5): 321 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13050321.
The fascinating world of lichens draws the attention of the researchers because of the numerous properties of lichens used traditionally and, in modern times, as a raw material for medicines and in the perfumery industry, for food and spices, for fodder, as dyes, and for other various purposes all over the world. However, lichens being widespread symbiotic entities between fungi and photosynthetic partners may acquire toxic features due to either the fungi, algae, or cyano-procaryotes producing toxins. By this way, several common lichens acquire toxic features. In this survey, recent data about the ecology, phytogenetics, and biology of some lichens with respect to the associated toxin-producing cyanoprokaryotes in different habitats around the world are discussed. Special attention is paid to the common toxins, called microcystin and nodularin, produced mainly by the Nostoc species. The effective application of a series of modern research methods to approach the issue of lichen toxicity as contributed by the cyanophotobiont partner is emphasized. Keywords: toxic lichens; toxic cyanoprokaryotes; lichen toxins.
33434Lücking R., Aime M.C., Robbertse B., Miller A.N., Aoki T., Ariyawansa H.A., Cardinali G., Crous P.W., Druzhinina I.S., Geiser D.M., Hawksworth D.L., Hyde K.D., Irinyi L., Jeewon R., Johnston P.R., Kirk P.M., Malosso E., May T.W., Meyer W., Nilsson H.R., Öpik M., Robert V., Stadler M., Thines M., Vu D., Yurkov A.M., Zhang N. & Schoch C.L. (2021): Fungal taxonomy and sequence-based nomenclature. - Nature Microbiology, 6: 540–548. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-021-00888-x.
The identification and proper naming of microfungi, in particular plant, animal and human pathogens, remains challenging. Molecular identification is becoming the default approach for many fungal groups, and environmental metabarcoding is contributing an increasing amount of sequence data documenting fungal diversity on a global scale. This includes lineages represented only by sequence data. At present, these taxa cannot be formally described under the current nomenclature rules. By considering approaches used in bacterial taxonomy, we propose solutions for the nomenclature of taxa known only from sequences to facilitate consistent reporting and communication in the literature and public sequence repositories.
33433Romanova E.V. (2013): Lichens in the urban environment within south-east of western Siberia, Russia. - Mongolian Journal of Biological Sciences, 11: 35–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.22353/mjbs.2013.11.06.
Lichen species diversity and trend of their distribution were studied in two big cities and five towns in south-east of Western Siberia. In total of 348 species from 46 families and 98 genera were found in all studied urban and suburban areas. All local checklists are characterized by high degree of the lichen species similarity between each other and smaller lists are included in bigger ones on to 64-100%. Epiphytic lichens were the largest group in all studied areas and almost half of them were occupied two and more substrates. Crustose life-form and mesophytes prevailed everywhere. Share of sensitive lichens exceeded percent of tolerant ones in big cities and was lower than tolerant ones in smaller towns. The sixteen species were the most tolerant, commonly present everywhere and have been recognized as the key species for urban lichen synusiae within south-east of Western Siberia. Five zones have been determined with IP-mapping (mapping on the base of index of air pollution tolerance) in studied areas: IP=3-5 is a “normal zone”, IP=5-7 is a “moderate exposure zone”, IP=7-9 is a “mixed zone”, IP=9-10 is a “struggle zone”, and finally – lichen-free zone. The most studied urban areas had got quite extensive lichen-free zone (up to 35% of their areas). Key words: lichens, synusiae, IP-mapping, Western Siberia, urban areas.
33432Sforzi A., Bastianini M., Bianchi E., Bonari G., Bruni G., Canovai R., Cantini D., Chelazzi L., Chiadini E., Cianferoni F., Colombini I., Fanciulli P.P., Fastelli P., Forbicioni L., Lenzini L., Letardi A., Maccherini S., Martelli C., Monterastelli E., Monti F., Mori E., Nappini S., Paoli L., Petruzzi E., Porciani M., Rizzo Pinna V., Selvi F., Zuffi M. & Vitillo C. (2019): BioBlitz 2016 Lago dell’Accesa. - Atti del Museo di Storia Naturale della Maremma, 24: 77–111. .
[in Italian with English abstract: ] The Maremma Natural History Museum is active in the field of Citizen Science at the Tuscan, national and international level. Among the founding bodies of the European Citizen Science Association (ECSA), it has promoted meetings for a national Citizen Science strategy in Italy, actively participated in the drafting of national guidelines on the subject and developed Citizen Science projects in Tuscany and other regions nearby. BioBlitzes are one of the best-known activities in the field of environmental Citizen Science. In May 2016, the Museum organized its fourth BioBlitz at the Accesa Lake Special Protection Area. On this occasion, data collected attested the presence of 784 different taxonomic entities, 678 of which were identified at the species level and 18 at the subspecies level. Nineteen alien species and two endemic species have been identified. Thirty-nine species protected by national or international laws and 13 endangered species have been detected. The area has been confirmed to be an important biodiversity hotspot; future utilization plans must be developed with due consideration for the fragility of the habitats close to the lake from the conservation point of view.
33431Kondratyuk, S. Y., Kärnefelt, I., Elix, J. A. & Thell, A. (2009b): Contributions to the Teloschistaceae, with peculiar reference to the Southern Hemisphere. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 100: 207–281. .
Thirty-five new species of the lichen family Teloschistaceae are described: Caloplaca aseptatospora S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. bartlettii S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. begaensis S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. burneyensis S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. cliffwetmorei S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. dorrigoensis S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, Caloplaca erichansenii S. Y. Kondr., A. Thell, Kärnefelt & Elix, C. ferdinandmuelleri S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. feuereri S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt & A. Thell, C. filsoniorum S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt & Elix, C. fraserensis S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. gintarasii S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. hafellneri S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. hnatiukii S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. hopetounensis S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. jackelixii S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt & A. Thell, C. johnwhinrayi S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. kaernefeltii S. Y. Kondr., Elix & A. Thell, C. kilcundaensis S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. maccarthyi S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt & Elix, C. magnetensis S. Y. Kondr., Elix, Kärnefelt & Kalb, C. marchantiorum S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. michelagoensis Elix, S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. occidentalis Elix, S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. seawardii S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt & A. Thell, C. seppeltii S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. stewartensis S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. subluteoalba S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. tibellii S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, C. yammeraensis S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt & Elix, C. yarraensis S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, Xanthomendoza kashiwadanii S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, Xanthoria angustata S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt, X. kangarooensis S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt and X. yorkensis S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt. Two further names, Caloplaca wilsonii S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt nom. novum (Synonym: Callopisma aurantiacum var. subgilvum Müll. Arg.) and Caloplaca ochroleuca (Müll. Arg.) S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt comb. nova (Basionym: Blastenia ochroleuca Müll. Arg.) are proposed.
33430McCarthy D.P. (2021): A simple test of lichenometric dating using bidecadal growth of Rhizocarpon geographicum agg. and structure-from-motion photogrammetry. - Geomorphology, 385: 107736 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2021.107736.
Digital photogrammetry was used to measure growth rates and track changes at the margins of marked Rhizocarpon geographicum agg. thalli on quartzite at the Illecillewaet Glacier in western Canada. The decadal rates were used to validate a lichenometric “growth curve” calibrated using the five largest thalli on historically and tree-ring dated surfaces. Macro-photographs of lichens were orthocorrected by ‘Structure from Motion’ (SfM) techniques to create a 20 yr image timeline. Model resolution was high (0.01 to 0.03 mm pix), photo alignment was accurate (mean relative error < 1.4%) and measurements were validated. Mean areal growth in 59 thalli was highly variable ( x¯  = 9.43 mm2 yr−1 for 1996–2006; and 7.72 mm2 yr−1 for 2006–2016). Tiny thalli (<5 mm long axis) had jagged outlines and slow irregular growth (0 to 0.2 mm yr−1). Long axis growth in the five fastest of 45 thalli (>5 mm long axis) with circular outlines was 0.5 to 0.92 mm yr−1 and mean annual radial growth on four radii per thallus was 0.23 to 0.31 mm yr−1. Several thalli kept a nearly circular shape even after fusing with others. Extrapolated mean radial growth of the fastest thallus in either decade closely predicted the largest and five thallus sizes on historically dated surfaces (−5.43 mm difference at 53 yr, <1.75 mm at 75 to 101 yr). This is an error of about one year at 75 to 101 yr. The findings validate indirectly calibrated rates and surface ages at this site and challenge key assumptions and claims made by proponents of lichenometric dating. Keywords: Lichenometric dating; Lichenometry; Rhizocarpon geographicum; Lichen growth; Structure-from-motion (SfM); Close-range photogrammetry.
33429Rashki S., Alshamsi H.A., Amiri O., Safardoust-Hojaghan H., Salavati-Niasari M., Nazari-Alam A. & Khaledi A. (2021): Eco-friendly green synthesis of ZnO/GQD nanocomposites using Protoparmeliopsis muralis extract for their antibacterial and antibiofilm activity. - Journal of Molecular Liquids, 335: 116195 [6 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2021.116195.
Over the last few years, the emergence and widespread distribution of microbial resistance to antibiotics is world-wide challenge in the medical science. In this regard, lichens are one promising antimicrobial agent which could be replaced by traditional antibiotics due broad-spectrum with potent antimicrobial activity. In this study, the ZnO/GQDs nanocomposites (NCs) and Protoparmeliopsis muralis extract-grafted ZnO/GQDs NCs have been prepared via green method. The prepared products are characterized with XRD analysis, SEM and FTIR. Interestingly, the linking of Protoparmeliopsis muralis extract into ZnO/GQDs NCs demonstrated strong antibacterial activity with to 5-log reduction in bacterial CFU/ml compared to P. muralis for at 4 days. Additionally, the nanocarrier demonstrated to 88 and 83% inhibition of biofilm formation when tested against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) respectively. Finally, results this study reported that the use of the P. muralis/ZnO/GQDs–NCs formulation could be employed as a novel agent antibacterial to inhibit bacterial growth and the biofilm formation. Keywords: Lichen; Nanocarrier system; Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA); Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE); ZnO/GQDs nanocomposites.
33428Lucadamo L., Gallo L. & Corapi A. (2021): PAHs in an urban-industrial area: The role of lichen transplants in the detection of local and study area scale patterns. - Environmental Pollution, 284: 117136 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117136.
Spatial variation of the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated within an urbanindustrial district where the main anthropogenic pressures are a 15MW biomass power plant (BPP) and road traffic. The use of a high-density lichen transplant network and wind quantitative relationships made it possible to perform a hierarchical analysis of contamination. Combined uni-bi and multivariate statistical analyses of the resulting databases revealed a dual pattern. In its surroundings (local scale), the BPP affected the bioaccumulation of fluoranthene, pyrene and total PAHs, although a confounding effect of traffic (mostly petrol/gasoline engines) was evident. Spatial variation of the rate of diesel vehicles showed a significant association with that of acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene and naphthalene. The series of high-speed wind values suggests that wind promotes diffusion rather than dispersion of the monitored PAHs. At the whole study area scale, the BPP was a source of acenaphthylene and acenaphthene, while diesel vehicles were a source of acenaphthylene. PAHs contamination strongly promotes oxidative stress (a threefold increase vs pre-exposure levels) in lichen transplants, suggesting a marked polluting effect of anthropogenic sources especially at the expense of the mycobiont. The proposed monitoring approach could improve the apportionment of the different contributions of point and linear anthropogenic sources of PAHs, mitigating the reciprocal biases affecting their spatial patterns. Keywords: PAHs; Biomass power plant; Lichen transplants; Wind quantitative relationships.
33427Eldridge D.J., Mallen-Cooper M. & Ding J. (2021): Biocrust functional traits reinforce runon-runoff patchiness in drylands. - Geoderma, 400: 115152 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2021.115152.
Spatial patchiness in resources is a pervasive feature of drylands worldwide. This patchiness manifests itself as two distinct geomorphic zones that are characterised by the loss (runoff) or gain (runon) of resources such as water, seed and organic matter. Most studies have examined how vascular plants vary across these two distinct zones, but there are few studies of the non-vascular components of these patterned landscapes. We examined the distribution of soil crust lichens and bryophytes (moss, liverworts) in relation to three geomorphic positions within a patterned Acacia aneura woodland grazed by sheep and kangaroos. We found that the distribution of biocrust taxa was strongly related to geomorphic position, with lichens dominating the runoff zones and liverworts restricted to the runon areas (groves). The runon zones were characterised by a greater cover of litter, and greater species richness, cover, and functional richness of biocrusts, while biocrusts in the runoff zones had greater functional diversity and dispersion. Importantly, biocrusts growing in the runon areas were taller, had shorter rhizines, and a greater capacity to trap sediment and absorb water. There were no effects of grazing intensity nor herbivore type (sheep cf. kangaroo) on any diversity or functional measures of biocrusts. Overall, our study indicates that the functional attributes of biocrusts align with those reported for vascular plants (e.g., perennial grasses), by affecting hydrological processes and sediment capture, albeit at smaller spatial scales. Biocrusts may be important, therefore, for sequestering small falls of water emanating from resource-shedding zones, thereby reinforcing landscape patchiness, particularly as hotter and drier climates reduce the cover of vascular plants in drylands. Keywords: Biocrust; Grazing; Hydrological function; Lichen; Moss; Mulga groves; Patterned landscape; Plant traits.
33426Root H.T., Jovan S., Fenn M., Amacher M., Hall J. & Shaw J.D. (2021): Lichen bioindicators of nitrogen and sulfur deposition in dry forests of Utah and New Mexico, USA. - Ecological Indicators, 127: 107727 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.107727.
Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) deposition can negatively affect ecosystem functions and lichen biomonitors can be a cost-effective way to monitor air pollution exposure across the landscape. Interior dry forests of the southwestern United States face increasing development pressures; however, this region differs from others with well-developed biomonitoring programs in having drier climates and a greater fraction of deposition delivered in dry forms. We measured throughfall N and S deposition at 12 sites in Utah and 10 in New Mexico and co-located collection of 6 lichen species. Throughfall N deposition ranged from 0.76 to 6.96 kg/ha/ year and S deposition from 0.57 to 1.44 kg/ha/year with elevated levels near human development that were not predicted by commonly used simulation models. Throughfall N was 4.6 and 1.6 times higher in summer compared with fall-spring in Utah and New Mexico and S deposition was 3.9 and 1.8 times higher in summer. Lichen N and S concentrations ranged from 0.97 to 2.7% and 0.09 to 0.33%. Replicate samples within plots showed high variability in N and S concentrations with within-plot coefficients of variation for N ranging between 5 and 10% and for S between 7 and 15%. In Utah, N and S concentrations in lichen species were correlated with each other in most cases, with R2 ranging from 0.52 to 0.85. N concentrations in Melanohalea exasperatula and Melanohalea subolivacea could be correlated with average annual throughfall N deposition in Utah (R2 = 0.58 and 0.31). Those relationships were improved by focusing on deposition in fall-spring prior to lichen sampling in Utah (R2 for M. exasperatula, M. subolivacea, and X. montana = 0.59, 0.42, and 0.28). In New Mexico, lichens exhibited greater coefficients of variability within plots than between plots and could not be correlated with throughfall N deposition. In neither study area was S correlated between lichens and throughfall deposition, which may be the result of low S deposition over a narrow deposition range or complex lichen assimilation of S. Lichen biomonitoring for N deposition in the region shows promise, but could potentially be improved by sampling more thalli to reduce within-plot variability, repeated lichen collection synchronized with throughfall changeouts to explore temporal variability, and washing lichen collections to distinguish N and S that has been incorporated by the thalli from dry deposition that may accumulate on lichen surfaces. Key words: Energy development; Lichen; Seasonal deposition; Throughfall; TDep; CMAQ; Ion exchange resin samplers.
33425Leiva D., Fernández-Mendoza F., Acevedo J., Carú M., Grube M. & Orlando J. (2021): The bacterial community of the foliose macro-lichen Peltigera frigida is more than a mere extension of the microbiota of the subjacent substrate. - Microbial Ecology, 81: 965–976. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-020-01662-y.
Lichens host highly diverse microbial communities, with bacteria being one of the most explored groups in terms of their diversity and functioning. These bacteria could partly originate from symbiotic propagules developed by many lichens and, perhaps more commonly and depending on environmental conditions, from different sources of the surroundings. Using the narrowly distributed species Peltigera frigida as an object of study, we propose that bacterial communities in these lichens are different from those in their subjacent substrates, even if some taxa might be shared. Ten terricolous P. frigida lichens and their substrates were sampled from forested sites in the Coyhaique National Reserve, located in an understudied region in Chile. The mycobiont identity was confirmed using partial 28S and ITS sequences. Besides, 16S fragments revealed that mycobionts were associated with the same cyanobacterial haplotype. From both lichens and substrates, Illumina 16S amplicon sequencing was performed using primers that exclude cyanobacteria. In lichens, Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum (37%), whereas soil substrates were dominated by Acidobacteriota (39%). At lower taxonomic levels, several bacterial groups differed in relative abundance among P. frigida lichens and their substrates, some of them being highly abundant in lichens but almost absent in substrates, like Sphingomonas (8% vs 0.2%), and others enriched in lichens, as an unassigned genus of Chitinophagaceae (10% vs 2%). These results reinforce the idea that lichens would carry some components of their microbiome when propagating, but they also could acquire part of their bacterial community from the substrates.
33424Mendili M., Essghaier B., Seaward M.R.D. & Khadhri A. (2021): In vitro evaluation of lysozyme activity and antimicrobial effect of extracts from four Tunisian lichens: Diploschistes ocellatus, Flavoparmelia caperata, Squamarina cartilaginea and Xanthoria parietina. - Archives of Microbiology, 203: 1461–1469. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-020-02129-x.
Since lichens have been recognised as a potential natural source of bioactive substances, the aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial, lysozyme and antifungal effects of methanol, acetone and quencher extracts from four lichens: Diploschistes ocellatus, Flavoparmelia caperata, Squamarina cartilaginea and Xanthoria parietina. The results showed that the tested extracts had antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and anti-candida, and inhibit the spore germination of tested fungi. The different extracts varied in their effect as determined by the diameter of the inhibition zone, the highest values being observed with the methanol and acetone extracts (29.5 and 27.5 mm, respectively) for S. cartilaginea against Enterococcus faecalis. For powdered material (quencher), F. caperata showed the highest inhibition diameter (25.5 mm) against Staphylococcus aureus. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values varied from 125 to 2000 μg mL−1. Methanol extracts of S. cartilaginea were more active against Enterobacter cloacae (MIC 125 μg mL−1) and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 125 μg mL−1), and also affected lysozyme activity against Staphylococcus aureus, as well as the morphology of fungal hyphae. This study demonstrated that the investigated species are a potential source of bioactive compounds which are potentially important antimicrobial agents. Keywords: Antifungal potential · Antimicrobial power · Lichenicolous fungi · Lysozyme effect · Spore germination.
33423Shendge A.K., Panja S. & Mandal N. (2021): Tropical lichen, Dirinaria consimilis, induces ROS-mediated activation of MAPKs and triggers caspase cascade mediated apoptosis in brain and cervical cancer cells. - Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 476: 2181–2192. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-021-04087-4.
Lichens are the symbiotic association between photobiont algae and mycobiont fungi having diverse phytochemicals. However, they are still an underexplored natural resource for biological activities. In the present report, we have evaluated the anti-brain and anti-cervical cancer activity of tropical lichen, Dirinaria consimilis (DCME) through the cell viability assay, cell cycle analysis, annexin V-FLUOS staining, morphological analysis, ROS-induction mechanism, evaluation of antioxidant levels, and western blotting study. The WST-1-based cell viability assay showed the cytotoxic nature of DCME towards U87 (IC50-52.65 ± 1.04 µg/ml) and HeLa (IC50-77.60 ± 2.23 µg/ml) cells. Interestingly, DCME does not showed any toxicity towards non-malignant fibroblast cell line WI-38 (IC50-685.80 ± 19.51 µg/ml). Furthermore, the cell cycle analysis showed sub-G1 arrest (apoptosis), and annexin V-FLUOS staining showed an increase in early apoptosis population dose-dependently. Confocal-based morphological data confirmed the DNA condensation and fragmentation upon treatment. Furthermore, DCME treatment induces ROS and regulates the levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, Catalase, GST, and GSH) in both U87 and HeLa cells. Finally, the western blotting data revealed the increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activation of Bid, Caspase-8, -9 and -3 along with degradation of PARP. Moreover, regulation of MAP kinases and activation of p53 was also observed upon DCME treatment. Herein, we first reported the anticancer activity of D. consimilis against brain and cervical cancer cells. Performed in-depth anticancer study revealed the ROS-mediated regulation of MAP kinases and activation of caspase cascade in U87 and HeLa cells upon DCME treatment.
33422Greuel R.J., Degré-Timmons G.É., Baltzer J.L., Johnstone J.F., McIntire E.J.B., Day N.J., Hart S.J., McLoughlin P.D., Schmiegelow F.K.A., Turetsky M.R., Truchon-Savard A., van Telgen M.D. & Cumming S.G. (2021): Predicting patterns of terrestrial lichen biomass recovery following boreal wildfires. - Ecosphere, 12(4): e03481 [25 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.3481.
Increased fire activity due to climate change may impact the successional dynamics of boreal forests, with important consequences for caribou habitat. Early successional forests have been shown to support lower quantities of caribou forage lichens, but geographic variation in, and controls on, the rates of lichen recovery has been largely unexplored. In this study, we sampled across a broad region in northwestern Canada to compare lichen biomass accumulation in ecoprovinces, including the Saskatchewan Boreal Shield, the Northwest Territories Taiga Shield, and Northwest Territories Taiga Plains, divided into North and South. We focused on the most valuable Cladonia species for boreal and barren-ground caribou: Cladonia mitis and C. arbuscula, C. rangiferina and C. stygia, and C. stellaris and C. uncialis. We developed new allometric equations to estimate lichen biomass from field measurements of lichen cover and height; allometries were consistent among ecoprovinces, suggesting generalizability. We then used estimates of lichen biomass to quantify patterns of lichen recovery in different stand types, ecoprovinces, and with time following stand-replacing fire. We used a hurdle model to account both for the heterogeneous nature of lichen presence (zero inflation) and for the range of abundance in stands where lichen was present. The first component of the hurdle model, a generalized linear model, identified stand age, stand type, and ecoprovince as significant predictors of lichen presence.With a logistic growth model, a measure of lichen recovery (time to 50% asymptotic value) varied from 28 to 73 yr, dependent on stand type and ecoprovince. The combined predictions of the hurdle model suggest the most rapid recovery of lichen biomass across our study region occurred in jack pine in the Boreal Shield (30 yr), while stands located in the Taiga Plains (North and South) required a longer recovery period (approximately 75 yr). These results provide a basis for estimating future caribou habitat that encompasses some of the large variation in fire effects on lichen abundance and vegetation types across the range of boreal and barren-ground caribou in North America. Key words: Caribou forage; chronosequence; Cladonia; hurdle model; natural disturbance; nonlinear mixed-effects models; Rangifer; wildfire; zero-inflated distribution.
33421Mapari S., Gaikwad S., Khare R., Syed M., Doshi P. & Behera B.C. (2021): Neuroprotective potential of selected lichen compounds on mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells. - EXCLI Journal, 20: 491–494. https://doi.org/10.17179/excli2020-3130.
The results of our in silico work were justified by in vitro studies, which showed potent dual cholinesterase inhibition. The lichen compound Zeorin showed promising neuroprotective potential via antioxidation, AChE inhibition and cytoprotective activity against H2O2-induced toxicity in mouse Neuroblastoma (N2a) cell line. Our results indicate that Zeorin, being a natural resource is a better choice of treatment for AD as it exhibits significant neuroprotection. However, exhaustive studies are needed to provide sufficient insights on the mechanism/path-way of lichen compound Zeorin in neuroprotection ability. Keywords: lichen, metabolites, antioxidant, anticancer, neuroprotection, docking.
33420Černohorský Z. (1957): Fluorescence lišejníků v ultrafialovém světle. II. Rod Cladonia (Hill.) Vain. [Fluoreszenz der Flechten im ultravioletten Licht. II. Gattung Cladonia (Hill.) Vain.)]. - Preslia, 29: 1–4. http://www.preslia.cz/archive/Preslia_29_1957_1-4.pdf.
[in German with Czech title and introduction] On fluorescence (UV reactions) of members of the genus Cladonia known from the former Czechoslovakia.
33419Yang J.H., Oh S.‐Y., Kim W., Woo J.‐J., Kim H. & Hur J.‐S. (2021): Effect of isolation conditions on diversity of endolichenic fungal communities from a foliose lichen, Parmotrema tinctorum. - Journal of Fungi, 7: 335 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7050335.
Endolichenic fungi (ELF) are emerging novel bioresources because their diverse second‐ ary metabolites have a wide range of biological activities. Metagenomic analysis of lichen thalli demonstrated that the conventional isolation method of ELF covers a very limited range of ELF, and the development of an advanced isolation method is needed. The influence of four variables were investigated in this study to determine the suitable conditions for the isolation of more diverse ELF from a radially growing foliose lichen, Parmotrema tinctorum. Four variables were tested: age of the thallus, severity of surface‐sterilization of the thallus, size of a thallus fragment for the inoculation, and nutrient requirement. In total, 104 species (1885 strains) of ELF were isolated from the five in‐ dividual thalli of P. tinctorum collected at five different places. Most of the ELF isolates belong to Sordariomycetes. Because each part of lichen thallus (of different age) has unique ELF species, the whole thallus of the foliose lichen is needed to isolate diverse ELF. Moderate sterilization is appro‐ priate for the isolation of diverse ELF. Inoculation of small fragment (1 mm2) of lichen thallus re‐ sulted in the isolation of highest diversity of ELF species compared to larger fragments (100 and 25 mm2). Moreover, ELF species isolated from the small thallus fragments covered all ELF taxa de‐ tected from the medium and the large fragments in this study. The use of two media—Bold’s basal medium (nutrient poor) and potato dextrose agar (nutrient rich)—supported the isolation of diverse ELF. Among the tested variables, size of thallus fragment more significantly influenced the isolation of diverse ELF than other three factors. Species composition and richness of ELF communities from different lichen thalli differed from each other in this study. Keywords: diversity; endolichenic fungi; foliose lichen; isolation method.
33418Morillas L., Roales J., Cruz C. & Munzi S. (2021): Resilience of epiphytic lichens to combined effects of increasing nitrogen and solar radiation. - Journal of Fungi, 7: 333 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7050333.
Lichens are classified into different functional groups depending on their ecological and physiological response to a given environmental stressor. However, knowledge on lichen response to the synergistic effect of multiple environmental factors is extremely scarce, although vital to get a comprehensive understanding of the effects of global change. We exposed six lichen species belonging to different functional groups to the combined effects of two nitrogen (N) doses and direct sunlight involving both high temperatures and ultraviolet (UV) radiation for 58 days. Irrespective of their functional group, all species showed a homogenous response to N with cumulative, detrimental effects and an inability to recover following sunlight, UV exposure. Moreover, solar radiation made a tolerant species more prone to N pollution’s effects. Our results draw attention to the combined effects of global change and other environmental drivers on canopy defoliation and tree death, with consequences for the protection of ecosystems. Keywords: nitrogen pollution; forest decay; global change; chlorophyll fluorescence; Fv/Fm ratio; mediterranean ecosystems.
33417Kumar V., Ngangom R., Nayaka S. & Ingle K.K. (2021): New species and new records in the lichen genus Rinodina (Physciaceae) from India. - Taiwania, 66(2): 193‒202. DOI: 10.6165/tai.2021.66.193.
A new species, Rinodina indica Vishal Kumar, R. Ngangom & Nayaka is described from India. It is characterized by ochraceous, areolate, blastidiate thallus with brown, 1-septate Teichophila-type ascospores. Eight additional species of the genus viz., R. archaea (Ach.) Arnold, R. dolichospora Malme, R. mniaroeiza (Nyl.) Arnold, R. obnascens (Nyl.) H. Olivier, R. oleae Bagl., R. plana H. Magn., R. pyrina (Ach.) Arnold and R. trevisanii (Hepp) Körb., are reported for the first time from India. Detailed description, illustration and distribution for new species and new records are provided. A key to all species of Rinodina presently known from India is also provided. Key words: Biodiversity, Caliciales, lichenized fungi, Rinodina herrei, Rinodina indica, revision, taxonomy.
33416Cera A., Masó G., Llimona X. & Gómez-Bolea A. (2020): Assessing changes in epiphytic lichen community after 45 years, a study case in white poplars from northern Iberian Peninsula (Jaca, Aragon). - Collectanea Botanica, 39: e012 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3989/collectbot.2020.v39.012.
Epiphytic lichens are used broadly as bioindicators, as they are sessile organisms with slow growth and different species display a wide range of environmental sensitivity. Most studies on epiphytic lichens focus on their use as indicators of the present environmental conditions, but few studies assess the changes that occur over decades. Comparative temporal approaches in lichens are rare, since there are few old datasets and in most cases substrates have disappeared, especially trees. However, in 1973 one of us (X. Llimona) described the lichen community on urban Populus alba in Jaca, and those trees are still alive. Our aim was to study the epiphytic lichen community in 2018 and compare it with the study of 1973. Species richness decreased during these 45 years. While only 36% of species found in 1973 persisted until 2018, these species remaining were observed at a high frequency in the 2018 sampling. Lichens communities from both years were similar on its tolerance to environmental variables, and the locality and their surroundings had the same land use in both years. Thus, the changes in lichen composition between both samplings might be explained by autogenic succession or limitation on dispersion rather than habitat filtering. Our data suggests that, under stable environments, lichen community assembly over decades depends on other traits such as competition rather than lichen sensitivity. Key words: autogenic succession; biotypes; community assembly; growth forms; photobiont; temporal changes.
33415Kosecka M., Guzow-Krzemińska B., Černajová I., Škaloud P., Jabłońska A. & Kukwa M. (2021): New lineages of photobionts in Bolivian lichens expand our knowledge on habitat preferences and distribution of Asterochloris algae. - Scientific Reports, 11: 8701 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88110-0.
We studied the biodiversity of Asterochloris photobionts found in Bolivian lichens to better understand their global spatial distribution and adaptation strategies in the context of a worldwide phylogeny of the genus. Based on nuclear ITS rDNA, the chloroplast rbcL gene and the actin type I gene we reconstructed a phylogenetic tree that recovered nine new Asterochloris lineages, while 32 Bolivian photobiont samples were assigned to 12 previously recognized Asterochloris lineages. We also show that some previously discovered Asterochloris photobiont species and lineages may occur in a broader spectrum of climatic conditions, and mycobiont species and photobionts may show diferent preferences along an altitude gradient. To reveal general patterns of of mycobiont specifcity towards the photobiont in Asterochloris, we tested the infuence of climate, altitude, geographical distance and efects of symbiotic partner (mycobiont) at the species level of three genera of lichen forming fungi: Stereocaulon, Cladonia and Lepraria. Further, we compared the specifcity of mycobionts towards Asterochloris photobionts in cosmopolitan, Neotropical, and Pantropical lichen forming fungi. Interestingly, cosmopolitan species showed the lowest specifcity to their photobionts, but also the lowest haplotype diversity. Neotropical and Paleotropical mycobionts, however, were more specifc.
33414Wilk K., Pabijan M., Saługa M., Gaya E. & Lücking R. (2021): Phylogenetic revision of South American Teloschistaceae (lichenized Ascomycota, Teloschistales) reveals three new genera and species. - Mycologia, 113(2): 278–299. https://doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2020.1830672.
Members of the poorly investigated family Teloschistaceae in South America, mostly from Bolivia and Peru, were examined using molecular and morphological data here for the first time. In recent phylogenetic reclassifications of Teloschistaceae, South American representatives were poorly represented but shown to belong to subfamilies Teloschistoideae and Xanthorioideae. In this study, we expanded the sampling of South American taxa and investigated mainly the lobate, sublobate, and squamulose members of Caloplaca s.l., using morphological characters and a molecular phylogeny based on a combined three-locus data set (one mitochondrial and two nuclear loci). Building upon new phylogenies at the family and subfamily levels (Teloschistoideae), we propose here three new genera: Andina, Aridoplaca, and Cinnabaria, with the type species Andina citrinoides, Aridoplaca peltata, and Cinnabaria boliviana. We also propose to reduce Tarasginia to synonymy with Sirenophila and Tayloriellina to synonymy with Villophora and introduce three new combinations: Dufourea ottolangei, D. volkmarwirthii, and Villophora erythrosticta. Scutaria andina is reported as new to Bolivia. A critical revision of the subfamily Brownlielloideae confirmed recent findings that it is an artifactual taxon based on a “chimeric” data set, with the type genus being part of Teloschistoideae. Keywords: Bolivia; ITS; lichenized fungi; molecular phylogeny; mtSSU; nuclear 28S; Peru; ribosomal DNA; South America; Teloschistoideae; 9 new taxa.
33413Coleine C., Stajich J.E., de los Ríos A. & Selbmann L. (2021): Beyond the extremes: Rocks as ultimate refuge for fungi in drylands. - Mycologia, 113(1): 108–133. https://doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2020.1816761.
In an era of rapid climate change and expansion of desertification, the extremely harsh conditions of drylands are a true challenge for microbial life. Under drought conditions, where most life forms cannot survive, rocks represent the main refuge for life. Indeed, the endolithic habitat provides thermal buffering, physical stability, and protection against incident ultraviolet (UV) radiation and solar radiation and, to some extent, ensures water retention to microorganisms. The study of these highly specialized extreme-tolerant and extremophiles may provide tools for understanding microbial interactions and processes that allow them to keep their metabolic machinery active under conditions of dryness and oligotrophy that are typically incompatible with active life, up to the dry limits for life. Despite lithobiontic communities being studied all over the world, a comprehensive understanding of their ecology, evolution, and adaptation is still nascent. Herein, we survey the fungal component of these microbial ecosystems. We first provide an overview of the main defined groups (i.e., lichen-forming fungi, black fungi, and yeasts) of the most known and studied Antarctic endolithic communities that are almost the only life forms ensuring ecosystem functionality in the ice-free areas of the continent. For each group, we discuss their main traits and their diversity. Then, we focus on the fungal taxonomy and ecology of other worldwide endolithic communities. Finally, we highlight the utmost importance of a global rock survey in order to have a comprehensive view of the diversity, distribution, and functionality of these fungi in drylands, to obtain tools in desert area management, and as early alarm systems to climate change.
33412Porada P. & Giordani P. (2021): Bark water storage plays key role for growth of Mediterranean epiphytic lichens. - Frontiers in Forests and Global Change, 4: 668682 [17 p.]. doi: 10.3389/ffgc.2021.668682.
Epiphytic lichens are a characteristic feature of many forests around the world, where they often cover large areas on stems and branches. Recently, it has been found that lichens may contribute substantially to carbon and nutrient uptake in forests. Moreover, they have a large influence on interception of rainfall at the global scale, which leads to a shift of the water balance toward evaporation and a cooling of near-surface air temperature. It is thus crucial to understand which environmental factors are relevant for their growth and survival, and which potential risks may result from climate change. Water supply is a key factor which controls active time and, consequently, the carbon balance of the epiphytes. However, it is largely unclear, to what extent different modes of water uptake, which include bark water, may affect active time and growth under varying environmental conditions. Quantitative estimates on the relevance of bark water storage and its interspecific variation are, however, missing. Here, we apply the process-based, dynamic non-vascular vegetation model LiBry to assess the relevance of bark water for epiphytic lichens. LiBry not only accounts for the main physiological processes of mosses and lichens, it also represents explicitly the diversity of the organisms, by simulating a large number of possible physiological strategies. We run the model for a site in Sardinia, where epiphytic lichens are abundant. Moreover, the Mediterranean region is of interest due to likely substantial effects of global warming on local epiphytes. For current climatic conditions, the LiBry model predicts net primary production (NPP) of 32 gCm−2a−1 per stem area and biomass of 48 gCm−2 for the study region. In a second run, where uptake of bark water is switched off in the model, estimated NPP is reduced by 21%. Moreover, the simulated number of surviving strategies, representing physiological diversity, decreases by 23%. This is accompanied by changes in the simulated community composition, where strategies which have a more compact thallus increase their share on the total cover. Hence, our model simulation suggests a substantial role of bark water for growth and morphology of epiphytic lichens in Sardinia. Keywords: vegetation model, ecophysiology, functional diversity, epiphytic lichen, Mediterranean vegetation, DGVM, non-vascular plants, precipitation partitioning.
33411Gasulla F., del Campo E.M., Casano L.M. & Guéra A. (2021): Advances in understanding of desiccation tolerance of lichens and lichen-forming algae. - Plants, 10(4): 807 [24 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040807 .
Lichens are symbiotic associations (holobionts) established between fungi (mycobionts) and certain groups of cyanobacteria or unicellular green algae (photobionts). This symbiotic association has been essential in the colonization of terrestrial dry habitats. Lichens possess key mechanisms involved in desiccation tolerance (DT) that are constitutively present such as high amounts of polyols, LEA proteins, HSPs, a powerful antioxidant system, thylakoidal oligogalactolipids, etc. This strategy allows them to be always ready to survive drastic changes in their water content. However, several studies indicate that at least some protective mechanisms require a minimal time to be induced, such as the induction of the antioxidant system, the activation of non-photochemical quenching including the de-epoxidation of violaxanthin to zeaxanthin, lipid membrane remodeling, changes in the proportions of polyols, ultrastructural changes, marked polysaccharide remodeling of the cell wall, etc. Although DT in lichens is achieved mainly through constitutive mechanisms, the induction of protection mechanisms might allow them to face desiccation stress in a better condition. The proportion and relevance of constitutive and inducible DT mechanisms seem to be related to the ecology at which lichens are adapted to. Keywords: desiccation tolerance; lichen; phycobionts; poikilohydric; stress response.
33410Исмаилов А.Б. [Ismailov A.B.] (2021): Новые виды лишайников для Дагестана [New species of lichens for Dagestan]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskii Zhurnal], 106(1): 77–80. .
[in Russian with English summary: ] Five new species (Hypocenomyce scalaris, Nephromopsis laureri, Peltigera extenuata, Pertusaria pertusa, Platismatia glauca) and three genera (Hypocenomyce, Nephromopsis, Platismatia) are reported for the lichen flora of Dagestan. The species Nephromopsis laureri and Peltigera extenuata, as well as the genus Nephromopsis, were not previously known within the East Caucasus. The actual information on distribution in the Caucasus and data of the localities with some comments are given for each species. Keywords: lichens, new records, Nephromopsis laureri, Hypocenomyce scalaris, Peltigera extenuata, Pertusaria pertusa, Platismatia glauca, Dagestan, East Caucasus.
33409Яцына А.П. [Yatsyna A.P.] (2021): Лишайники и родственные им грибы заказника «Свислочско-Березинский» (Беларусь) [Lichens and related fungi of the reserve “Svislochsko-Berezinsky” (Belarus)]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(1): 215–227. .
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Based on studies of the Svislochsko-Berezinsky Reserve (Belarus) carried out mainly in 2016–2020 in 27 locations, an annotated list of the lichen flora is provided. Altogether 203 species are recorded for the nature reserve, including 193 species of lichens and 10 non-lichenized saprobic fungi. Fellhanera viridisorediata and Micarea tomentosa are published for the first time for Belarus, and 43 other species are new for the Mogilev Region. Moreover, 34 indicator species of biologically valuable forests are known from the study area. Calicium adspersum, Cetrelia cetrarioides, C. olivetorum, Chaenotheca chlorella, Peltigera horizontalis, Hypotrachyna revolut, Lobaria pulmonaria, and Menegazzia terebrata are included in the Red Data Book of Belarus. Keywords: Fellhanera viridisorediata, Micarea tomentosa, new finds, protected species.
33408Урбанавичене И.Н. & Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichene I.N. & Urbanavichus G.P.] (2021): Дополнения к лихенофлоре Керженского заповедника и Нижегородской области [Additions to the lichen flora of the Kerzhensky Nature Reserve and Nizhny Novgorod Region]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(1): 195–213. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2021.55.1.195.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The results of field studies of the lichen flora of the Kerzhensky Reserve (Nizhny Novgorod Region), carried out mainly in the Kerzhenets River valley in May 2019, are presented. An annotated list of taxa previously unknown for the reserve includes 121 species from 70 genera. Of these, 97 species and 31 genera are new to the Nizhny Novgorod Region. The species Micarea soralifera and Rinodina excrescens are published for the first time for European Russia. We have found some very rare species in European Russia previously known from single records (Agonimia repleta, Bacidina indigens, Gyalideopsis alnicola, Sclerophora amabilis, Stigmidium mycobilimbiae, Telogalla olivieri, and Verrucaria ochrostoma). Keywords: Micarea soralifera, Rinodina excrescens, lichens, new records, Russia.
33407Kuznetsova E.S., Stepanchikova I.S., Skirina I.F., Chesnokov S.V. & Himelbrant D.E. (2021): A revision of the lichen genus Platismatia (Parmeliaceae) in Russia, with a key to the species. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(1): 179–194. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2021.55.1.179.
The paper presents the results of the study on Platismatia species in Russia. The genus Platismatia counts 11 species, distributed mainly in the Pacific region, with some endemics of western North America and northeastern Asia. Six species were known from Russia by the beginning of our studies, but a revision of the herbarium collections showed that three species (P. erosa, P.herrei, and P. lacunosa) were reported erroneously. Based on morphological and chemotaxonomical (HPTLC) examination of the herbarium collections and our own material, as well as the study of relevant litera ture, four species of Platismatia are here accepted for Russia: P. glauca, P. interrupta, P.lacunosa, and P. norvegica. Platismatia lacunosa is reported here as a new for Russia from the Commander Islands. The distribution of P. glauca and P. interrupta is clarified. A key to all species of the genus reported from Russia and brief descriptions of the Russian species are presented. Keywords: Platismatia lacunosa, foliose lichens, herbarium, Commander Islands Nature and Biosphere Reserve, Russian Far East.
33406Konoreva L.A., Chesnokov S.V. & Tagirdzhanova G.M. (2021): Remarkable records of Micarea (Pilocarpaceae) from the Russian Far East. II. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(1): 163–177. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2021.55.1.163.
We report several new findings of Micarea species in the Russian Far East: M. fennica new to Russia and Asia; M. botryoides new to the Far East; M. misella and M. tomentosa new to the southern Russian Far East. Six species from the genus Micarea, including rather rare M. adnata and M. contexta, were found in the Khabarovsk Territory. Keywords: lichens, biogeography, distribution, new records, Asia, Far East, Russia.
33405Himelbrant D.E., Stepanchikova I.S., Ahti T. & Neshataeva V.Yu. (2021): New exploration in Koryakia— the lichens of the Cape Goven, Bering Sea coast (Northern Kamchatka, Russia). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(1): 121–162. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2021.55.1.121.
The lichen diversity of the Cape Goven within the Koryak State Reserve counts 394‘ species: 373 lichens, 18 lichenicolous fungi and 3 non-lichenized saprobic fungi related to lichens. Altogether 4 species are new to Russia (Miriquidica pulvinatula, Myriolecis andrewii, Ochrolechia alaskana, Rhizocarpon sublavatum), 1‘— to Asiatic Russia (Collemopsidium foveolatum), 29‘other species are new to the Russian Far East, 4‘— to the northern part of the Far East. Additionally, 51 other species are new to Kamchatka Territory, and 92 more are new to Koryakia. Among the new species to Russia or Russian Far East, 11 are also reported for the first time for Beringia. A total of 500 species of lichens and allied fungi are known from Koryakia now. The richest habitats in Cape Goven are rocky outcrops and tundras; unlike in the earlier explored Parapolsky Dale, shrublands, floodplain stands and bogs play relatively insignificant role in the lichen diversity. The lichens of seashore communities enrich the lichen flora of Cape Goven compared to inland areas. The lichen diversity of Cape Goven is significantly higher than in Parapolsky Dale due to its mountainous landscape and coastal position. Keywords: lichen flora, new records, Far East, Beringia, Koryak State Reserve.
33404Galanina I.A., Yakovchenko L.S., Zheludeva E.V. & Ohmura Y. (2021): The genus Rinodina (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in the Magadan Region (Far East of Russia). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(1): 97–119. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2021.55.1.97.
The lichen genus Rinodina in the Magadan Region is revised on the basis of extensive collections by the authors in 2011–2015. Fifteen species have been recorded, of which Rinodina cinereovirens, R. endospora, R. laevigata, R. metaboliza, R. olivaceobrunnea, R. parasitica, and R. subparieta are new for the study area. Rinodina endospora and R. sicula are rare in Russia and have only recently been found in Northeastern Asia. The presence of R. archaea and R. exigua in the Far East of Russia has not yet been confirmed. Keywords: biodiversity, biogeography, lichens, new records, North-East Asia.
33403Czernyadjeva I.V., Davydov E.A., Efimova A.A., Gogorev R.M., Himelbrant D.E., Kotkova V.M., Kuzmina E.Yu., Leostrin A.V., Moroz E.L., Neshataeva V.Yu., Notov A.A., Novozhilov Yu.K., Paukov A.G., Popova N.N., Potemkin A.D., Stepanchikova I.S., Storozhenko Yu.V., Yakovchenko L.S., Yurchak M.I., Volosnova L.F., Zhurbenko M.P. & Zyatnina M.V. (2021): New cryptogamic records. 7. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(1): 249–277. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2021.55.1.249.
First records of trebouxiophycean alga and fungi for the Lenin grad Region, myxomycetes for the Republic of Belarus, lichens, saprobic and lichenicolous fungi for European Russia, the Nenets Autonomous Area, the Kostroma and Tver regions, the republics of Altai and Tuva, Altai and Primorye territories, bryophytes for the Orel and Ryazan regions, the arctic part of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), the North Koryakia are presented. The data on their localities, habitats, distribution, and specimens are provided. Keywords: Anomodon viticulosus, Arthonia didyma, Athelia arachnoidea, Biatora chrysantha, Calicium lenticulare, Carbonicola myrmecina, Cephalozia affinis, Cephaloziella hampeana, Cercidospora parva, Chaenotheca gracilenta, Chiloscyphus pallescens, Clypeococcum hypocenomycis, Collema subflaccidum, Comatricha alta, Cribraria languescens, Endogemma caespiticia, Fontinalis antipyretica, Frullania bolanderi, Fuligo leviderma, Fuscopannaria cheiroloba, Grimmia donniana, Gyalecta foveolaris, Isopaches bicrenatus, Lentinus arcularius, Lepra multipuncta, Lepraria finkii, Lichenopeltella ramalinae, Lophozia guttulata, Metzgeria furcata, Micarea laeta, Micractinium quadrisetum, Paraleucobryum longifolium, Parmeliella triptophylla, Pellia neesiana, Phaeocalicium praecedens, Phaeopyxis punctum, Polysporina urceolata, Psilopilum laevigatum, Pyrenidium actinellum, Seligeria pusilla, Taeniolella delicata, Tulasnella pallida, Basidiomycota, bryophytes, green algae, lichen parasites, lichens, lichenicolous fungi, myxomycetes, saprobic fungi, Trebouxiophyceae, Altai Territory, European Russia, Kostroma Region, Leningrad Region, National Park “Narochansky”, Nenets Autonomous Area, Northern Koryakia, Oksky State Reserve, Orel Region, Primorye Territory, Republic of Altai, Republic of Belarus, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Republic of Tuva, Russia, Ryazan Region, Tver Region.
33402Sulistyo B.P., Larsson K.-H., Haelewaters D. & Ryberg H. (2021): Multigene phylogeny and taxonomic revision of Atheliales s.l.: Reinstatement of three families and one new family, Lobuliciaceae fam. nov.. - Fungal Biology, 125: 239–255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2020.11.007.
Atheliales (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) is an order mostly composed of corticioid fungi, containing roughly 100 described species in 20 genera. Members exhibit remarkable ecological diversity, including saprotrophs, ectomycorrhizal symbionts, facultative parasites of plants or lichens, and symbionts of termites. Ectomycorrhizal members are well known because they often form a major part of boreal and temperate fungal communities. However, Atheliales is generally understudied, and molecular data are scarce. Furthermore, the order is riddled with many taxonomic problems; some genera are nonmonophyletic and several species have been shown to be more closely related to other orders. We investigated the phylogenetic position of genera that are currently listed in Atheliales sensu lato by employing an Agaricomycetes-wide dataset with emphasis on Atheliales including the type species of genera therein. A phylogenetic analysis based on 5.8S, LSU, rpb2, and tef1 (excluding third codon) retrieved Atheliales in subclass Agaricomycetidae, as sister to Lepidostromatales. In addition, a number of Atheliales genera were retrieved in other orders with strong support: Byssoporia in Russulales, Digitatispora in Agaricales, Hypochnella in Polyporales, Lyoathelia in Hymenochaetales, and Pteridomyces in Trechisporales. Based on this result, we assembled another dataset focusing on the clade with Atheliales sensu stricto and representatives from Lepidostromatales and Boletales as outgroups, based on ITS (ITS1 e5.8SeITS2), LSU, rpb2, and tef1. The reconstructed phylogeny of Atheliales returned five distinct lineages, which we propose here as families. Lobulicium, a monotypic genus with a distinct morphology of sevenlobed basidiospores, was placed as sister to the rest of Atheliales. A new family is proposed to accommodate this genus, Lobuliciaceae fam. nov. The remaining four lineages can be named following the family-level classification by Jülich (1982), and thus we opted to use the names Atheliaceae, Byssocorticiaceae, Pilodermataceae, and Tylosporaceae, albeit with amended circumscriptions. Keywords: Agaricomycetes; Basidiomycota; Corticioid fungi; Multi-locus phylogeny; Family-level taxonomy.
33401Harikrishnan A., Veena V., Lakshmi B., Shanmugavalli R., Theres S., Prashantha C.N., Shah T., Oshin K., Togam R. & Nandi S. (2021): Atranorin, an antimicrobial metabolite from lichen Parmotrema rampoddense exhibited in vitro antibreast cancer activity through interaction with Akt activity. - Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, 39(4): 1248–1258. https://doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2020.1734482.
Atranorin (ATR), lichenized secondary metabolite and depside molecule with several biological potentials such as antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, wound healing and photoprotective activities. Cytotoxic reports of ATR are documented in several cancer cells and in vivo models but its molecular interaction studies are poorly understood. Therefore, in this present investigation, we have used the in silico studies with biological validation of the molecular targets for the anti-breast cancer mechanism of ATR. The molecular docking studies with the breast cancer oncoproteins such as Bcl-2, Bax, Akt, Bcl-w and Bcl-xL revealed the highest interaction was observed with the Akt followed by Bax, Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 & least with the Bcl-w proteins. The cytotoxicity studies showed ATR selectively inhibited MDA MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells in differential and dosedependent manner with the IC50 concentration of 5.36 ± 0.85 lM and 7.55 ± 1.2 lM respectively. Further mechanistic investigations revealed that ATR significantly inhibited ROS production and significantly down-regulated the anti apoptotic Akt than Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bcl-w proteins with a significant increase in the Bax level and caspases-3 activity in the breast cancer cells when comparison with Akt inhibitor, ipatasertib. In vitro biological activities well correlated with the molecular interaction data suggesting that atranorin had higher interaction with Akt than Bax and Bcl-2 but weak interaction with Bcl-w and Bcl-xL. In this present study, the first time we report the interactions of atranorin with molecular targets for anti-breast cancer potential. Hence, ATR represents the nature-inspired molecule for pharmacophore moiety for design in targeted therapy. Keywords: Breast cancer; interaction; cytotoxicity; atranorin; biological validation.
33400Sujetovienė G. & Česynaitė J. (2021): Assessment of air pollution at the indoor environment of a shooting range using lichens as biomonitors. - Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 84(7): 273–278. https://doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2020.1862006.
The aim of the study was to examine the changes in ecophysiological parameters and accumulation of heavy metals in lichens transplanted to a shooting-range environment. Thalli of the epiphytic lichen were transplanted from an unpolluted site to a shooting range. Chlorophyll a fluorescence, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and damage to cell membranes in the lichen Evernia prunastri and Ramalina farinacea thalli were determined after 3 months exposure period indoors in a shooting range. The concentrations of some heavy metals including cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, antimony, and zinc were measured in lichens as indicators of the levels of air pollution in the studied environment. Thalli of the lichens transplanted to the shootingrange environment showed stress symptoms where the presence of metal pollutants produced a loss of integrity of lichen cell membranes and induced oxidative stress as evidenced by increased levels of TBARS. The response of lichens transplanted to indoors of shooting range demonstrated a significant accumulation of Pb indicating potential increased metal exposure and consequent adverse health effects. Keywords: Shooting range; trace metals; lichens; indoor pollution; Pb.
33399Plymale A.E., Wells J.R., Pearce C.I., Brislawn C.J., Graham E.B., Cheeke T.E., Allen J.L., Fansler S.J., Arey B.W., Bowden M.E., Saunders D.L., Danna V.G., Tyrrell K.J., Weaver J.L., Sjöblom R., Paul R., McCloy J.S., Hjärthner-Holdar E., Englund M., Ogenhall E., Peeler D.K. & Kruger A.A. (2021): Niche partitioning of microbial communities at an ancient vitrified hillfort: implications for vitrified radioactive waste disposal. - Geomicrobiology Journal, 38(1): 36–56. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490451.2020.1807658.
Because microbes cannot be eliminated from radioactive waste disposal facilities, the consequences of bio-colonization must be understood. At a pre-Viking era vitrified hillfort, Broborg, Sweden, anthropogenic glass has been subjected to bio-colonization for over 1,500 years. Broborg is used as a habitat analogue for disposed radioactive waste glass to inform how microbial processes might influence long-term glass durability. Electron microscopy and DNA sequencing of surficial material from the Broborg vitrified wall, adjacent soil, and general topsoil show that the ancient glass supports a niche microbial community of bacteria, fungi, and protists potentially involved in glass alteration. Communities associated with the vitrified wall are distinct and less diverse than soil communities. The vitrified niche of the wall and adjacent soil are dominated by lichens, lichen-associated microbes, and other epilithic, endolithic, and epigeic organisms. These organisms exhibit potential bio-corrosive properties, including silicate dissolution, extraction of essential elements, and secretion of geochemically reactive organic acids, that could be detrimental to glass durability. However, long-term biofilms can also possess a homeostatic function that could limit glass alteration. This study documents potential impacts that microbial colonization and niche partitioning can have on glass alteration, and subsequent release of radionuclides from a disposal facility for vitrified radioactive waste. Keywords: Community structure; habitat analogue; microbes and surfaces; molecular ecology; near surface radioactive waste disposal.
33398Ellis C.J. & Eaton S. (2021): Microclimates hold the key to spatial forest planning under climate change: Cyanolichens in temperate rainforest. - Global Change Biology, 27:1915–1926. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15514.
There is deepening interest in how microclimatic refugia can reduce species threat, if suitable climatic conditions are maintained locally, despite global climate change. Microclimates are a particularly important consideration in topographically heterogeneous landscapes, while in some habitats, such as forests and woodlands, microclimates are also extremely labile and affected by management practices that could consequently be used to offset climate change impact. This study explored a conservation priority guild—cyanolichen epiphytes in temperate rainforest—quantifying the niche response to macroclimate, and landscape or woodland stand structures that determine the microclimate. Based on epiphyte survey in a core region of European temperate rainforest (western Scotland), a ‘random forest’ machine-learning model confirmed a strong cyanolichen response to summer dryness, as well as the effects of distance to running water, topographic heatload and tree species identity, which modify the local moisture regime and/or lichen growth rates. By quantifying this response to macroclimate, landscape and stand structures, it was possible to estimate an extent to which woodland may be expanded in the future, to offset a negative effect of increasing summer dryness projected through to the 2080s. Using current policy as a yardstick, sufficient woodland expansion could be delivered relatively quickly for median impacted sites, but with times to woodland delivery extending over 10, 20 and 25 years for sites at the 75th, 90th and 95th percentiles of cyanolichen decline. Furthermore, the extent of new woodland required, and delivery times, increase almost threefold on average, as new woodland becomes distributed over wider riparian zones. These contrasting implications emphasize an urgent need for afforestation that achieves targeted spatial planning responsive to microclimates as refugia. Keywords: climate change adaptation, epiphytes, microclimate, moisture index, reforestation, riparian woodland, summer drought.
33397Suno H., Machida M., Dohi T. & Ohmura Y. (2021): Quantum chemical calculation studies toward microscopic understanding of retention mechanism of Cs radioisotopes and other alkali metals in lichens. - Scientific Reports, 11: 8228 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87617-w.
We evaluate stability of cesium (Cs) and other alkali-metal cation complexes of lichen metabolites in both gas and aqueous phases to discuss why lichens can retain radioactive Cs in the thalli over several years. We focus on oxalic acid, (+)-usnic acid, atranorin, lecanoric acid, and protocetraric acid, which are common metabolite substances in various lichens including, e.g., Flavoparmelia caperata and Parmotrema tinctorum retaining Cs in Fukushima, Japan. By performing quantum chemical calculations, their gas-phase complexation energies and aqueous-solution complexation free energies with alkali-metal cations are computed for their neutral and deprotonated cases. Consequently, all the molecules are found to energetically favor cation complexations and the preference order is Li+ >Na+ >K+ >Rb+ >Cs+ for all conditions, indicating no specific Cs selectivity but strong binding with all alkali cations. Comparing complexation stabilities among these metabolites, lecanoric and protocetraric acids seen in medullary layer are found to keep higher affinity in their neutral case, while (+)-usnic acid and atranorin in upper cortex exhibit rather strong affinity only in deprotonated cases through forming stable six atoms’ ring containing alkali cation chelated by two oxygens. These results suggest that the medullary layer can catch all alkali cations in a wide pH range around the physiological one, while the upper cortex can effectively block penetration of metal ions when the metal stress grows. Such insights highlight a physiological role of metabolites like blocking of metalcation migrations into intracellular tissues, and explain long-term retention of alkali cations including Cs in lichens containing enough such metabolites to bind them.
33396Sforzi A., Baini M., Bastianini M., Bianchi E., Bonari G., Cantini D., Castagnini P., Chelazzi L., Colombini I., Dragonetti M., Fačkovcová Z., Fanciulli P.P., Fastelli P., Forbicioni L., Giovacchini P., Lenzini L., Letardi A., Maccherini S., Martelli C., Nappini S., Paoli L., Pezzi G., Porciani M., Rizzo Pinna V., Vannini A. & Vitillo C. (2019): BioBlitz 2017 Monte Labro. - Atti del Museo di Storia Naturale della Maremma, 24: 113–137. .
[in Italian with English abstract: ] The threat to the survival of many species, caused by emerging ecological crises, has favored the development of a new environmental awareness. In recent decades, especially in the most industrialized nations, an increasing participation of citizens in the collection of scientific data has also been recorded. The active involvement of society in different aspects of science has been defined by the sociologist Alan Irwin as “Citizen Science”. Although environmental Citizen Science brings together the largest number of projects, the fields of application of this new way of doing science are innumerable. BioBlitz is one of the best-known examples of citizen science activities, aimed at monitoring the biodiversity of an area. The Maremma Natural History Museum, as part of its activities, regularly organizes BioBlitz on an annual basis, starting from 2013. During BioBlitz 2017 in the SPZ and SCZ “Monte Labbro and Alta Valle dellAlbegna” data were collected attesting the presence of 403 different taxonomic entities, of which 367 identified at the species level and 5 at the subspecies level. Six alien and 2 endemic species were identified. In terms of environmental legislation, 38 protected species and 7 endangered species were detected in the area. The most relevant aspect that emerges from the collected data is the consistent number of protected species. This confirms the environmental value of the area and the need for management and conservation plans for the entire site.
33395Sforzi A., Bastianini M., Canovai R., Cantini D., Castagnini P., Chelazzi L., Dragonetti M., Fačkovcová Z., Fanciulli P.P., Fastelli P., Ferretti F., Forbicioni L., Gabellini A., Lenzini L., Letardi A., Marcelli M., Martelli C., Montioni F., Nappini S., Paoli L., Perini C., Pezzi G., Pezzo F., Renzi M., Rizzo Pinna V., Spilinga C., Vannini A. & Vitillo C. (2019): BioBlitz 2018 Parco Regionale della Maremma. - Atti del Museo di Storia Naturale della Maremma, 24: 139–165. .
[in Italian with English abstract: ] In recent decades, many natural history museums in Europe have integrated their traditional functions with new ways of interacting with visitors and local communities. In particular, the need to adapt their mission according to the changes in modern society has led them to develop initiatives aiming at an active involvement of the public in scientific research. This is one of the inspiring principles of Citizen Science. BioBlitz are among the most popular activities dedicated to biodiversity in this field. In line with the inspiring principles of this cultural revolution, since 2012 the Maremma Natural History Museum organized public participation initiatives for the collection of biodiversity data. We hereby report the main results of the BioBlitz 2018 organized by the Maremma Natural History Museum in the Talamone area, located in the southern portion of the Uccellina Hills. Four hundred and ninety eight taxa were sampled and identified, 447 of which at the level of species and 10 at the level of subspecies; the remaining refer to higher taxonomic levels. 31 protected species and 10 endangered species were found in the area; moreover, 6 alien species and one endemic species were detected. The main feature that distinguished BioBlitz 2018 to others conducted in previous years was the large number of participants. The data collected increased the scientific knowledge of the southern portion of the Maremma Regional Park, less known than other areas of the same protected area.
33394Benitez G.N., Aguilar G.D. & Blanchon D. (2021): Spatial distribution of lichens in Metrosideros excelsa in northern New Zealand urban forests. - Diversity, 13(4): 170 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13040170.
The spatial distribution of corticolous lichens on the iconic New Zealand pōhutukawa (Metrosideros excelsa) tree was investigated from a survey of urban parks and forests across the city of Auckland in the North Island of New Zealand. Lichens were identified from ten randomly selected trees at 20 sampling sites, with 10 sites classified as coastal and another 10 as inland sites. Lichen data were correlated with distance from sea, distance from major roads, distance from native forests, mean tree DBH (diameter at breast height) and the seven-year average of measured NO2 over the area. A total of 33 lichen species were found with coastal sites harboring significantly higher average lichen species per tree as well as higher site species richness. We found mild hotspots in two sites for average lichen species per tree and another two separate sites for species richness, with all hotspots at the coast. A positive correlation between lichen species richness and DBH was found. Sites in coastal locations were more similar to each other in terms of lichen community composition than they were to adjacent inland sites and some species were only found at coastal sites. The average number of lichen species per tree was negatively correlated with distance from the coast, suggesting that the characteristic lichen flora found on pōhutukawa may be reliant on coastal microclimates. There were no correlations with distance from major roads, and a slight positive correlation between NO2 levels and average lichen species per tree. Keywords: Metrosideros excelsa; lichens; New Zealand; hotspots; indicators; Auckland.
33393Łubek A., Kukwa M., Jaroszewicz B. & Czortek P. (2021): Composition and specialization of the lichen functional traits in a primeval forest—does ecosystem organization level matter?. - Forests, 12(4): 485 [23 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12040485 .
Current trends emphasize the importance of the examination of the functional composition of lichens, which may provide information on the species realized niche diversity and community assembly processes, thus enabling one to understand the specific adaptations of lichens and their interaction with the environment. We analyzed the distribution and specialization of diverse morphological, anatomical and chemical (lichen secondary metabolites) traits in lichen communities in a close-to-natural forest of lowland Europe. We considered these traits in relation to three levels of forest ecosystem organization: forest communities, phorophyte species and substrates, in order to recognize the specialization of functional traits to different levels of the forest complexity. Traits related to the sexual reproduction of mycobionts (i.e., ascomata types: lecanoroid apothecia, lecideoid apothecia, arthonioid apothecia, lirellate apothecia, stalked apothecia and perithecia) and asexual reproduction of mycobionts (pycnidia, hyphophores and sporodochia) demonstrated the highest specialization to type of substrate, tree species and forest community. Thallus type (foliose, fruticose, crustose and leprose thalli), ascospore dark pigmentation and asexual reproduction by lichenized diaspores (soredia and isidia) revealed the lowest specialization to tree species and substrate, as well as to forest community. Results indicate that lichen functional trait assemblage distribution should not only be considered at the level of differences in the internal structure of the analyzed forest communities (e.g., higher number of diverse substrates or tree species) but also studied in relation to specific habitat conditions (insolation, moisture, temperature, eutrophication) that are characteristic of a particular forest community. Our work contributes to the understanding of the role of the forest structure in shaping lichen functional trait composition, as well as enhancing our knowledge on community assembly rules of lichen species. Keywords: functional traits composition; substrates; phorophytes; forest communities; Białowieża Forest.
33392Frye H.A., Muscavitch Z. & Goffinet B. (2021): Discovery of epiphytic lichens in Connecticut suggests novel introduction and reintroduction via horticultural practices. - Bryologist, 124(2): 191–197. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.2.191.
The discovery of Teloschistes chrysophthalmus in Connecticut more than one hundred years since its last known occurrence is argued to result from human introduction. The species only occurred on the horticultural tree, Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis, planted on the University of Connecticut campus. Gleditsia triacanthos is not indigenous to northeastern North America but is widespread in the central United States. Other epiphytic macrolichens also recorded on this phorophyte include Punctelia bolliana and Parmotrema austrosinense, both widespread in the central United States, and new to Connecticut and New England, respectively. This is likely the first reported case of combined introductions of lichenized fungi in North America through the import of ornamental trees. Keywords: Lichen distributions, human-mediated lichen dispersal, New England, Teloschistes chrysophthalmus, Punctelia bolliana, Parmotrema austrosinense, Parmotrema perforatum, Parmotrema hypotropum.
33391Boch S., Martins A., Sim-Sim M. & Bergamini A. (2021): Effects of elevation and disturbances on the associations between the diversities of bryophyte and macrolichen functional-taxonomic groups on Madeira Island. - Bryologist, 124(2): 178–190. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.2.178.
Biodiversity varies with elevation and is affected by disturbances. However, little is known about how the associations between the diversities of different bryophyte and macrolichen functionaltaxonomic groups are altered along elevational gradients and by disturbances. Knowledge on the associations between these functional-taxonomic groups might be of importance in practical conservation biology, as identifying indicator taxa which are easy to monitor could be useful in estimating a wider biodiversity. We sampled the species richness of bryophytes and macrolichens in 92 plots distributed in disturbed and undisturbed stands along elevational gradients in the laurel forest of Madeira. We then calculated a matrix of correlations for all pairwise combinations of 18 different functional-taxonomic bryophyte and macrolichen groups and tested for average differences in correlations with elevation and disturbance history and whether particular functional-taxonomic groups can be used to estimate the richness of other taxa. Associations between the diversities of functionaltaxonomic groups within the bryophyte group and within the macrolichen group were always positive and mainly strong. Although changes in elevation and disturbance history changed the associations between the different bryophyte and macrolichen functional-taxonomic groups, we found the species richness of mosses or liverworts to be suitable for predicting overall bryophyte species richness and the species richness of green-algae macrolichens to be reliable for estimating overall macrolichen species richness. Associations between diversities of bryophyte and macrolichen groups were generally weak, suggesting that the two groups have different ecological requirements and do not share the same environmental drivers. The fact that no single bryophyte taxon can be used to predict the richness of any macrolichen group, and vice versa, points to the need to study both bryophytes and lichens. However, we found indicator taxa that are relatively easy to monitor and therefore could be used to estimate the wider biodiversity. Keywords: Biodiversity indicators, bryophyte life strategy, elevation, endemic species, disturbance, functional-taxonomic group, lichen growth form, liverwort, moss, photobiont.
33390Brodo I M. & Bennett J.P. (2021): Remembering Clifford Major Wetmore (1934 – 2020). - Bryologist, 124(2): 172–177. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.2.172.
33389Barták M., Hájek J., Orekhova A., Villagra J., Marín C., Palfner G. & Casanova-Katny A. (2021): Inhibition of primary photosynthesis in desiccating Antarctic lichens differing in their photobionts, thallus morphology, and spectral properties. - Microorganisms, 9(4): 818 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040818.
Five macrolichens of different thallus morphology from Antarctica (King George Island) were used for this ecophysiological study. The effect of thallus desiccation on primary photosynthetic processes was examined. We investigated the lichens’ responses to the relative water content (RWC) in their thalli during the transition from a wet (RWC of 100%) to a dry state (RWC of 0%). The slow Kautsky kinetics of chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) that was recorded during controlled dehydration (RWC decreased from 100 to 0%) and supplemented with a quenching analysis revealed a polyphasic species-specific response of variable fluorescence. The changes in ChlF at a steady state (Fs), potential and effective quantum yields of photosystem II (FV/FM, ΦPSII), and nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) reflected a desiccation-induced inhibition of the photosynthetic processes. The dehydration-dependent fall in FV/FM and ΦPSII was species-specific, starting at an RWC range of 22–32%. The critical RWC for ΦPSII was below 5%. The changes indicated the involvement of protective mechanisms in the chloroplastic apparatus of lichen photobionts at RWCs of below 20%. In both the wet and dry states, the spectral reflectance curves (SRC) (wavelength 400–800 nm) and indices (NDVI, PRI) of the studied lichen species were measured. Black Himantormia lugubris showed no difference in the SRCs between wet and dry state. Other lichens showed a higher reflectance in the dry state compared to the wet state. The lichen morphology and anatomy data, together with the ChlF and spectral reflectance data, are discussed in relation to its potential for ecophysiological studies in Antarctic lichens. Keywords: maritime antarctica; King George Island; lichen dehydration; chlorophyll fluorescence; stress tolerance.
33388Vannini A., Canali G., Favero-Longo S.E. & Loppi S. (2021): Accumulation and phytotoxicity of two commercial biocides in the lichen Evernia prunastri and the moss Brachythecium sp.. - Stresses, 1(2): 69–77. https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses1020006.
This study investigated the accumulation and phytotoxicity of two commercial biocides widely used for the removal of biological colonization from monuments, namely Biotin T® (3%) and Preventol RI80® (2%), on lichen and moss model species, specifically, Evernia prunastri and Brachythecium sp. The active compounds, benzalkonium chloride (BAC) for Preventol RI80 and isothiazolinone (OIT) for Biotin T, were accumulated in similar amounts in both species without significant changes for up to 21 days. Both compounds caused a severe impairment of the photosynthetic apparatus of these species, without any recovery over time, although Biotin T showed a faster and stronger action, and the moss was more sensitive than the lichen. By shedding light on the accumulation of BAC and OIT in lichens and mosses and quantifying their effectiveness to photosynthetically devitalize these organisms, the obtained results are a useful comparison for the implementation of green alternative products for the control of biodeteriogens. Keywords: benzalkonium chloride; biocidal compounds; n-octyl-isothiazolinone; photosynthesis; uptake.