34648Lendemer J.C. (2022): Recent literature on lichens—266. - Bryologist, 125(3): 501–504. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.3.499.
34647Allen J.L. & McMullin R.T. (2022): Assessing identification accuracy of research grade iNaturalist observations in lichens and other taxonomically difficult organisms. - Biodiversity Information Science and Standards, 6: e95689 [2 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3897/biss.6.95689.
Conference abstract
34646Yarzábal L.A., Buela L., de los Ríos A., Peláez D., Romero M., Espinoza F., Torres A.S., Medina G.M., Landi J.G. & Tapia M.V. (2022): Biological deterioration of an Inca monument at high altitude in the Andean range: A case study from Ingapirca’s Temple of the Sun (Ecuador). - Heritage, 5(3): 2504–2518. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage5030130.
Scientific studies concerning the causes and consequences of the biodeterioration of stone monuments located at high altitudes in permanently cold, mountainous regions are scarce. For that reason, this study aimed to detect and identify the bacteria involved in the deterioration of this type of monument. To achieve this goal, we focused on the most important archeological Inca site in the Ecuadorian Andes: Ingapirca’s Temple of the Sun, built approximately 500 years ago at 3.100 m.a.s.l. We first examined the stone surfaces of the temple by scanning electron microscopy and showed the detrimental impact on the mineral structure of the green andesite mineral used to build the temple, caused by crustose lichen thalli and heterotrophic bacteria. Then, we isolated, characterized, and identified several of these bacteria. Most of them multiplied at a wide range of temperatures, from 4 °C to 30 °C, and were thus considered eurypsychrophiles. Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria species dominated the culturable fraction of this community. Several isolates produced metabolites that solubilized mineral phosphates at low temperatures; others solubilized iron-containing mineral fractions in the green andesite rock when tested in vitro. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report related to the biodeterioration of an Inca monument at such an altitude in the Andes range. Keywords: Inca monument; biodeterioration; heterotrophic bacteria; eurypsychrophilic bacteria; Andean mountains.
34645Mikhailova I.N. (2022): Dynamics of distribution boundaries of epiphytic macrolichens after reduction of emissions from a copper smelter. - Russian Journal of Ecology, 53(5): 335–346. DOI: 10.1134/S1067413622050083.
[English translation of Russian Text published in Ekologiya, 2022, No. 5, pp. 321–333] Natural recovery of forest ecosystems after the termination of impacts caused by emissions from large industrial enterprises gives a clue to their sustainability mechanisms. However, the lack of data on dif- ferent ecosystem components, natural zones, and emission sources makes it impossible to identify general patterns of restorative successions. This paper examines the distribution and abundance dynamics of macrol- ichens growing on birch trunks in the southern taiga forests of the Middle Urals affected for many years by emissions from the Middle Ural Copper Smelter. Two periods were compared: (1) period of intense emissions (1995–1997); and (2) period of almost ceased emissions (2014–2016). In the interval between the two studied periods, technogenic boundaries of all studied lichen species distribution have shifted closer to the smelter, and the abundance of most species increased in all pollution zones, including the slightly polluted and back- ground zones. However, the frequency and abundance of the species still go down as the distance to the smelter decreases. The explerent species Tuckermanopsis sepincola demonstrates the opposite response: it dis- appears from background and slightly polluted areas reaching maximum abundance in the extremely severe pollution zone. Keywords: epiphytic lichens, sulfur dioxide, heavy metals, natural recovery, dynamics, sustainability, recolo- nization, environmental strategies, Middle Urals.
34644Valenzuela C., Leiva D., Carú M. & Orlando J. (2022): Prediction of the metabolic functions of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur cycling bacteria associated with the lichen Peltigera frigida. - Microbiology, 91(5): 604–610. DOI: 10.1134/S0026261721102117.
Lichens are currently interpreted as complex self-sustaining ecosystems formed by the interaction of the primary symbionts and other microorganisms. These microorganisms, which colonize the surface of lichen thalli, could be crucial actors in nutrient cycling. Here, we used PICRUSt2 to predict and compare the potential functions of bacteria closely associated with Peltigera frigida thalli and their substrates. We found that these bacteria could potentially transform organic and inorganic molecules related to nitrogen, phospho- rus, and sulfur cycles. Although further experiments to verify these potential contributions are required, these results reinforce the proposal of the nutrient-cycling role of bacteria associated with P. frigida. Keywords: lichen microbiome, nutrient cycling, functional prediction, Southern Chile.
34643Ureña-Vacas I., González-Burgos E., Divakar P.K. & Gómez-Serranillos M.P. (2022): Lichen extracts from cetrarioid clade provide neuroprotection against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. - Molecules, 27(19): 6520 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27196520.
Oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative diseases. Lichens have antioxidant properties attributed to their own secondary metabolites with phenol groups. Very few studies delve into the protective capacity of lichens based on their antioxidant properties and their action mechanism. The present study evaluates the neuroprotective role of Dactylina arctica, Nephromopsis stracheyi, Tuckermannopsis americana and Vulpicida pinastri methanol extracts in a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress model in neuroblastoma cell line “SH-SY5Y cells”. Cells were pretreated with different concentrations of lichen extracts (24 h) before H2O2 (250 µM, 1 h). Our results showed that D. arctica (10 µg/mL), N. stracheyi (25 µg/mL), T. americana (50 µg/mL) and V. pinastri (5 µg/mL) prevented cell death and morphological changes. Moreover, these lichens significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipid peroxidation and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and glutathione (GSH) levels. Furthermore, they attenuated mitochondrial membrane potential decline and calcium homeostasis disruption. Finally, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that the secondary metabolites were gyrophoric acid and lecanoric acid in D. artica, usnic acid, pinastric acid and vulpinic acid in V. pinastri, and alectoronic acid in T. americana. In conclusion, D. arctica and V. pinastri are the most promising lichens to prevent and to treat oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative diseases. Keywords: lichens; neuroprotection; cetrarioid clade; oxidative stress.
34642Frati L., Brunialti G., Landi S., Filigheddu R. & Bagella S. (2022): Exploring the biodiversity of key groups in coppice forests (Central Italy): the relationship among vascular plants, epiphytic lichens, and wood-decaying fungi. - Plant Biosystems, 156(4): 835–846. https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2021.1922533.
Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) indicators consider the main ecological and socioeconomic functions of forests but do not currently include some key groups widely adopted to assess the effects of forest management, such as herbaceous vascular plants, epiphytic lichens, and wood-decay fungi. Moreover, they are shaped into high forests while in the Mediterranean area the oldest type of forest management is coppice. We investigated the diversity and the relationships of the above-mentioned groups of taxa in three European Forest Types (EFTs) to contribute to the selection of indicator species suitable for monitoring Mediterranean coppice forests. We find only a weak cross-taxon congruence between vascular plants and lichens on considering the whole dataset, while no significant correlations are evident within the three EFTs. Species richness was significantly different among EFTs, being Thermophilous deciduous forests the richest, both considering the groups of taxa separately and the total species richness. As for species composition, significant differences were found both for the whole dataset and also for pairwise comparisons among EFTs. We provided a dwelling-species list of the three key groups of taxa, which could be suitable for monitoring the sustainability characteristics of fragmented and low continuity forests such as coppice stands. Keywords: Cross-taxon congruence; European forest types; Fagus sylvatica; Quercus cerris; Q. ilex; forest-dwelling species.
34641Carrillo W., Calva J. & Benítez Á. (2022): The use of bryophytes, lichens and bromeliads for evaluating air and water pollution in an Andean city. - Forests, 13(10): 1607 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101607.
Air and water pollution are global environmental problems; thus, bioindicators have become important tools for monitoring various pollutants, including metals and metalloids. Parmotrema arnoldii (Du Rietz) Hale and Tillandsia usneoides L. were evaluated as indicators of heavy metals in the air and Platyhypnidium aquaticum A. Jaeger and Marchantia polymorpha L. as indicators of heavy metals and a metalloid in water. The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) as air pollutants and aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and arsenic (As) as water pollutants were analyzed within four different zones (control, northern, central and southern) in an Andean city of Ecuador. The level of metal concentrations in the air for P. arnoldii and T. usneoides had the following order of concentration: Zn > Mn > Pb > Cd > Cu. In the case of water, P. aquaticum pointed out a concentration of Al > Mn > Fe > Zn > As > Pb > Cd and proved to be more effective in detecting water pollution than the species M. polymorpha, which had a concentration of Al >Zn > Fe > Cd >As > Mn > Pb. P. aquaticum showed a higher capacity to accumulate heavy metals than M. polymorpha; therefore, it can be used as a model species for passive water quality monitoring. However, P. arnoldii and T. usneoides showed similar heavy metal accumulation related to air quality. The passive monitoring of air quality using bromeliads and lichens as well as bryophytes for water quality proved their effectiveness and applicability in tropical regions such as Ecuador. Keywords: passive biomonitoring; metal; lichen; bromeliad; mosses.
34640Belguidoum A., Lograda T. & Ramdani M. (2022): The lichen flora on Quercus in the Tamentout Forest of Algeria. - Phytotaxa, 566(2): 200–208. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.566.2.4.
Lichens are major components of forest ecosystems. However, their accurate identification at species level is often difficult, especially in poorly investigated areas. The objective of this study is an inventory of epiphytic lichens in the Tamentout Forest on three types of phorophytes, Quercus faginea, Q. suber and Q. ilex. In this region, 68 epiphytic lichen species have been identified, belonging to 23 families and 36 genera. The specific richness on the three phorophytes was different. Quercus suber, the dominant phorophyte, supports the highest number of species compared to Q. faginea, and Q. ilex. An analysis of growth forms shows that all are represented in the study area. However, crustose and foliose lichens are the most common ones. As a result of our inventory, we report Parmeliella testacea new to Algeria, and list 20 lichen species now protected by Algerian legislation. Keywords: Algeria, Lichens, Biodiversity, Epiphytes, Quercus, Tamentout Forest.
34639Robison A., Baugh M., Muggia L. & Leavitt S.D. (2022): Fruticose lichen communities at the edge: Distribution and diversity in a desert sky island on the Colorado Plateau. - Conservation, 2(4): 550–565. https://doi.org/10.3390/conservation2040037.
Subalpine habitats in sky islands in the Southwestern USA are currently facing large-scale transformations. Lichens have widely been used as bioindicators of environmental change. On the Colorado Plateau, fruticose lichens occur in patchy, disconnected populations, including unique lichen-draped conifer sites in subalpine forests in the La Sal Mountains in southeastern Utah. Here, we document the distribution and fungal diversity within these lichen communities. We find that lichen-draped conifer sites in the La Sal Mountains are restricted to only three known, small areas in Picea englemannii forests above 3000 m above sea level, two of which have recently been impacted by wildfire. We document 30 different species of lichen-forming fungi in these communities, several which represent the first reports from the Colorado Plateau. We also characterize mycobiont haplotype diversity for the fruticose lichens Evernia divaricata, Ramalina sinensis, and multiple Usnea species. We also report a range of diverse fungi associated with these lichens, including genetic clusters representing 22 orders spanning seven classes of Ascomycetes and fewer clusters representing Basidiomycetes. Our results provide a baseline for ongoing monitoring and help to raise awareness of unique lichen communities and other biodiversity in the region. Keywords: amplicon sequencing; biodiversity; biomonitoring; ecological sampling; epiphyte; Illumina; fungi; internal transcribed spacer region (ITS); inventory; ITS2; subalpine; semi-arid.
34638Zhang T., Zhu X., Vizzini A., Li B., Cao Z., Guo W., Qi S., Wei X. & Zhao R. (2022): New insights into lichenization in Agaricomycetes based on an unusual new basidiolichen species of Omphalina s. str.. - Journal of Fungi, 8(10): 1033 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8101033.
The genus Omphalina is an ideal genus for studying the evolutionary mechanism of lichenization. Based on molecular phylogeny using ITS and nuLSU sequences by means of Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses and morphological examination, combining the existence of green algae in basidiomata stipe and a Botrydina-type vegetative thallus, we described a bryophilous new basidiolichen species, Omphalina licheniformis, from a residential area of Jiangxi Province, China. This finding of unusual new basidiolichen species updated our understanding of the delimitation of Omphalina, indicating that both non-lichen-forming and lichen-forming fungal species are included simultaneously. The presence of algal cells in the basidiomata should receive more attention, as this would be helpful to distinguish more potential basidiolichens and explore the cryptic species diversity. This work provides new insights and evidence for understanding the significance of lichenization during the evolution of Agaricomycetes. Keywords: agaricales; basidiolichen; basidiomycota; fruiting body; green algae; phenotype; systematics; new taxon.
34637Vasarri M., Ponti L., Degl’Innocenti D. & Bergonzi M.C.C. (2022): Usnic acid-loaded polymeric micelles: An optimal migrastatic-acting formulation in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. - Pharmaceuticals, 15(10): 1207 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15101207.
Usnic acid (UA) is one of the most abundant and common metabolites of lichens, known for its numerous pharmacological properties. Nevertheless, it presents some criticalities that severely limit its use in therapy: poor solubility in water and significant hepatotoxicity. Soluplus and Solutol HS15 and D-α-Tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) were employed to develop polymeric micelles (UA–PM). The chemical and physical properties of the system were characterized, including the size, homogeneity, zeta potential, critical micellar concentration (CMC), encapsulation efficiency (EE%), and in vitro release. The freeze-drying process was considered to prevent agglomeration and improve the stability of the formulation. The stability of the micelles and the freeze-dried product (UA–PML) was also evaluated. The anti-migratory activity of UA and UA–PM was evaluated in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells using the wound healing assay. Their effect on the activity of metalloproteinases (MMP)-2/9 involved in the migration process of cells was verified by gelatin zymography. The optimized UA–PM contained Soluplus, Solutol HS15, and TPGS in a 1:4:0.5 weight ratio and increased the aqueous solubility to about 150-fold solubilized, solubilizing 0.5 mg/mL of UA. UA–PM has a small size (45.39 ± 0.31 nm), a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.26 ± 0.01, and an EE% of 82.13 ± 5.57%. The colloidal dispersion was stable only for 9 days at 4 °C, while the freeze-drying process improved the stability for up to 30 days. UA was released for a prolonged period during the in vitro release study. The in vitro cell-based experiments showed that UA–PM (0.2 µg/mL) inhibited SH-SY5Y cell migration and the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2/9 in culture media, while free UA at the same concentration exerted no biological activity. This study demonstrates that polymeric micelles are an excellent formulation for UA to manifest inhibitory action on neuroblastoma cell migration. Keywords: usnic acid; polymeric micelles; solubility; SH-SY5Y; wound-healing assay; cell migration; metalloproteinases.
34636Sipman H. & Raus T. (2020): Lichens and lichenicolous fungi on the island Skiros, Aegean Sea, Greece. - Parnassiana Archives 8, 8: 18–49. .
From the isolated Aegean island Skiros ("Skyros") in Greece we report 229 species of lichenized fungi, and 8 species of lichenicolous, non-lichenized fungi. 7 Lichenized fungi (Caloplaca arcis (Poelt & Vězda) Arup, C. scotoplaca (Nyl.) H. Magn., Collema euthallinum (Zahlbr.) Degel., Lecidea erythrophaea Flörke ex Sommerf., Lichenomphalia meridionalis (Contu & La Rocca) P.-A. Moreau & Courtec., Polyblastia dermatodes A. Massal., and Waynea giraltiae van den Boom) and 3 lichenicolous fungi (Arthonia punctella Nyl., Lichenodiplis pertusariicola (Nyl.) Diederich, and Pyrenidium actinellum Nyl.) are new to Greece. A full list with vouchers, habitat information and in some cases secundary chemistry, ITS sequences and comments is presented. Keywords: lichenized fungi, distribution, systematics, Mediterranean, diversity, lichenicolous fungi, Aegean Sea, Acer sempervirens-Quercus coccifera forest.
34635Lohtander K., Källersjö M., Moberg R. & Tehler A. (2000): The family Physciaceae in Fennoscandia: phylogeny inferred from ITS sequences. - Mycologia, 92(4): 728–735. .
The internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2), and the 5.8S region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA were sequenced for 52 specimens representing 35, mostly foliose, taxa of the lichen family Physciaceae (Lecanorales). The sequences were phylogenetically analyzed using parsimony jackknifing. Xanthoria parietina and X. sorediata were chosen as outgroups. Because of the variable nature of the ITS regions parsimony jackknifing analyses were performed on different alignments. The analyses resulted in trees with several shared, well-supported groups. A consensus tree, summarizing all the trees from different alignments was also calculated. In that tree the family Physciaceae formed a monophyletic group. Some of the crustose species of Physciaceae (in the genera Amandinea, Buellia and Dimelaena) appeared as two sister groups to the rest of the family. In this latter group Physcia, Heterodermia speciosa and Mobergia calculiformis constituted the sister group to the remaining family, which included the genera Anaptychia, Hyperphyscia, Phaeorrhiza, Phaeophyscia, Physconia, and Rinodina. The genus Phaeophyscia was found to be monophyletic with 100% support. Anaptychia and Physconia, together with Phaeorrhiza nimbosa and Rinodina turfacea formed its sister group. Hyperphyscia adglutinata was found in a trichotomy with the other two groups. Key Words: Ascomycetes, Lecanorales, lichenized fungi.
34634González-Montelongo C. & Pérez-Vargas I. (2022): Together apart: Evaluating lichen-phorophyte specificity in the Canarian laurel forest. - Journal of Fungi, 8: 1031 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8101031.
The effects of host tree identity on epiphyte lichen communities are a controversial issue, as the results obtained in different forest environments studied are not consistent. We investigated the host preferences for lichens in the laurel forest ofMacaronesia. For this purpose, we analyzed the lichen communities growing on the four most common trees (Erica canariensis Rivas-Mart., M. Osorio and Wildpret, Morella faya (Aiton) Wilbur, Laurus novoca-nariensis Rivas-Mart., Lousa, Fern. Prieto, E. Días, J.C. Costa and C. Aguiar, and Ilex canariensis Poir. in Lamarck) in the laurel forest of the Canary Islands. The diversity, richness, and lichen composition showed a repetitive and common pattern with the functional traits studied. Although the existence of specificity with respect to the phorophyte species was not demonstrated, there was a clear affinity of the epiphytic lichens to the physico-chemical features of the bark (texture and pH), canopy architecture, foliar characteristics, etc. Our results highlight the importance of the natural diversity of tree species in the laurel forest. Due to the diversity and uniqueness of the lichen species that support each of the phorophytes, this fact should be taken into account in landscape protection and restoration actions, especially in those islands where the forest is highly fragmented. Keywords: Canary Islands; epiphytic lichen; laurel forest; Macaronesia; phorophyte.
34633Vinuesa M.L.A., Sanches-Puelles J.M. & Tibell L. (2001): Intraspecific variation in Mycocalicium subtile (Mycocaliciaceae) elucidated by morphology and the sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. - Mycological Research, 105(3): 323–330. .
The aim of the present paper is to investigate if Mycocalicium subtile as presently circumscribed is a morphologically highly variable species, or in fact represents two or more cryptic species, and further to investigate the status of M. minutellum. The morphological variation of 19 specimens of Mycocalicium subtile from five continents was investigated and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of their rDNA sequenced. Sequences from closely related taxa, 4 specimens of M. albonigrum, 2 of Mycocalicium sp., and Chaenothecopsis nana were also included. For comparison the corresponding sequence of M. victoriae and C. pusilla were also determined. We used the sequence of Monascus purpureus as the outgroup for the analysis. The sequences were used for phylogenetic inference using parsimony and distance methods. All the specimens assigned to M. subtile with the exception of two, form a well-supported monophyletic group. Those two specimens represent a morphologically cryptic, but genetically distinctive taxon. The infraspecific clades of M. subtile in the molecular phylogeny did not correspond to geographical origin. Only a weak correlation with geographical origin was found in the morphological analysis. The molecular analysis supports the suggestion that Mycocalicium minutellum is a taxonomic synonym of M. subtile.
34632Svensson M. & Fryday A.M. (2022): Gilbertaria, a first crustose genus in the Sphaerophoraceae (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota) for Catillaria contristans, Toninia squalescens and related species. - Mycological Progress, 21: 90 [23 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-022-01838-5.
Lecideoid lichen-forming fungi are a large, heterogeneous group that includes many species described during the nineteenth century that are of unclear taxonomic status. We revise such a group, the species of which have previously been treated under the much-misunderstood names Catillaria contristans or Toninia squalescens, and use a seven-locus phylogeny to determine its phylogenetic position. We found strong support for a previously unrecognized monophyletic lineage within the Sphaerophoraceae, comprising five phylogenetic species, and describe the new genus Gilbertaria to accommodate them. The new genus is characterized by a crustose growth form, 1-septate ascospores, thick ((1.5–)2–3(–4) μm wide) paraphyses and asci of the Biatora-type. We revise the nomenclature and give new delimitations and descriptions of the Northern Hemisphere species Gilbertaria contristans comb. nov., G. holomeloides comb. nov., G. squalescens comb. nov. and describe the new species G. astrapeana from the Falkland Islands. Keywords: Catillaria . Five new taxa . Lecidea . Phylogeny . Three new typifications . Taxonomy.
34631Menshakova M., Huber M., Gainanova R., Surovets V., Moiseeva N., Nizikova A. & Mashinets M. (2022): Content of heavy metals in the lichens of winter reindeer pastures of the Timan and Bolshezemelskaya tundras. - Agriculture, 12(10): 1560 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12101560.
This article is devoted to the study of the contents of zinc, cadmium, copper, and lead in lichen in the pastures of reindeer studs in the Timan and Bolshezemelskaya tundras. These areas are located in the Arctic part of Russia, to the west of the Polar Urals. These are areas where carbonate and sandstone rocks of the Permian–Mesozoic age dominate under the soil cover, as well as older deposits located in the western part of the research area (dated to the Cambrian–Devonian period). In these rocks, there is mineralization with metals, including copper. Research carried out in 2018 showed that in the surface layer of lichens, the concentration of metals was assessed differently in the upper, middle, and lower parts of the hill. On this basis, it was possible to identify clean and contaminated pastures. The high copper content in some pastures can be explained by the migration of metal ions from the parent rock. Due to the similar ionic radius of copper and the higher electrocativity in relation to zinc, the metal was probably displaced in the lichen. The observed concentrations can cause high levels of metals in the tissues and organs of deer. A high content of metals in lichens was found in samples collected near industrial enterprises, as well as at a considerable distance from them. At the same time, lichens at some locations near boiler houses or oil rigs are quite pure. In this regard, it has been suggested that the source of pollutants can be either natural factors (copper-bearing sands) or the ingress of metals from a remotely located source. Keywords: heavy metals; lead; copper; biological permeability; lichens; reindeer pastures.
34630Toure S., Millot M., Ory L., Roullier C., Khaldi Z., Pichon V., Girardot M., Imbert C. & Mambu L. (2022): Access to anti-biofilm compounds from endolichenic fungi using a bioguided networking screening. - Journal of Fungi, 8(10): 1012 [20 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8101012.
Endolichenic microorganisms represent a new source of bioactive natural compounds. Lichens, resulting from a symbiotic association between algae or cyanobacteria and fungi, constitute an original ecological niche for these microorganisms. Endolichenic fungi inhabiting inside the lichen thallus have been isolated and characterized. By cultivation on three different culture media, endolichenic fungi gave rise to a wide diversity of bioactive metabolites. A total of 38 extracts were screened for their anti-maturation effect on Candida albicans biofilms. The 10 most active ones, inducing at least 50% inhibition, were tested against 24 h preformed biofilms of C. albicans, using a reference strain and clinical isolates. The global molecular network was associated to bioactivity data in order to identify and priorize active natural product families. The MS-targeted isolation led to the identification of new oxygenated fatty acid in Preussia persica endowed with an interesting anti-biofilm activity against C. albicans yeasts. Keywords: endolichenic fungi; Candida biofilms; metabolomic; fatty acids.
34629Valim H.F., DalGrande F., Otte J., Singh G., Merges D. & Schmitt I. (2022): Identification and expressionof functionally conserved circadianclock genes in lichen‑forming fungi. - Scientific Reports, 12: 15884 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-19646-y.
Lichen-forming fungi establish stable symbioses with green algae or cyanobacteria. Many species have broad distributions, both in geographic and ecological space, making them ideal subjects to study organism-environment interactions. However, little is known about the specific mechanisms that contribute to environmental adaptation in lichen-forming fungi. The circadian clock provides a well-described mechanism that contributes to regional adaptation across a variety of species, including fungi. Here, we identify the putative circadian clock components in phylogenetically divergent lichen-forming fungi. The core circadian genes (frq, wc-1, wc-2, frh) are present across the Fungi, including 31 lichen-forming species, and their evolutionary trajectories mirror overall fungal evolution. Comparative analyses of the clock genes indicate conserved domain architecture among lichen- and non-lichen-forming taxa. We used RT-qPCR to examine the core circadian loop of two unrelated lichen-forming fungi, Umbilicaria pustulata (Lecanoromycetes) and Dermatocarpon miniatum (Eurotiomycetes), to determine that the putative frq gene is activated in a light-dependent manner similar to the model fungus Neurospora crassa. Together, these results demonstrate that lichen-forming fungi retain functional light-responsive mechanisms, including a functioning circadian clock. Our findings provide a stepping stone into investigating the circadian clock in the lichen symbiosis, e.g. its role in adaptation, and in synchronizing the symbiotic interaction.
34628Printzen C., Brackel W. v., Bültmann H., Cezanne R., Dolnik C., Dornes P., Eckstein J., Eichler M., John V., Killmann D., Nimis P.L., Otte V., Schiefelbein U., Schultz M., Stordeur R., Teuber D. & Thüs H. (2022): Die Flechten, flechtenbewohnenden und flechtenähnlichen Pilze Deutschlands – eine überarbeitete Checkliste. - Herzogia, 35: 193–393. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.1.2022.193.
The present work lists 2051 lichens, 520 lichenicolous and 55 allied fungi, altogether 2626 taxa and their synonyms, whose occurrence has been reported from the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany by the end of 2021. The list is based on the last species list published in 2011 and comprises 326 new records as well as 428 nomenclatural changes published in 253 publications between 2012 and 2021. The list also includes 114 taxa, mostly from the Verrucariaceae, whose status is still considered problematic. Key words: Biodiversity, Central Europe, taxonomic reference.
34627Gaya E., Fernández-Brime S., Vargas R., Lachlan R.F., Gueidan C., Ramírez-Mejía M. & Lutzoni F. (2015): The adaptive radiation of lichen-forming Teloschistaceae is associated with sunscreening pigments and a bark-to-rock substrate shift. - The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(37): 11600–11605. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1507072112.
Adaptive radiations play key roles in the generation of biodiversity and biological novelty, and therefore understanding the factors that drive them remains one of the most important challenges of evolutionary biology. Although both intrinsic innovations and extrinsic ecological opportunities contribute to diversification bursts, few studies have looked at the synergistic effect of such factors. Here we investigate the Teloschistales (Ascomycota), a group of >1,000 lichenized species with variation in species richness and phenotypic traits that hinted at a potential adaptive radiation. We found evidence for a dramatic increase in diversification rate for one of four families within this order—Teloschistaceae—which occurred ∼100 Mya (Late Cretaceous) and was associated with a switch from bark to rock and from shady to sun-exposed habitats. This adaptation to sunny habitats is likely to have been enabled by a contemporaneous key novel phenotypic innovation: the production in both vegetative structure (thallus) and fruiting body (apothecia) of anthraquinones, secondary metabolites known to protect against UV light. We found that the two ecological factors (sun exposure and rock substrate) and the phenotypic innovation (anthraquinones in the thallus) were all significant when testing for state-dependent shifts in diversification rates, and together they seem likely to be responsible for the success of the Teloschistaceae, one of the largest lichen-forming fungal lineages. Our results support the idea that adaptive radiations are driven not by a single factor or key innovation, but require a serendipitous combination of both intrinsic biotic and extrinsic abiotic and ecological factors. Keywords: adaptive radiation | lichens | sunlight protection | substrate switch | Teloschistaceae.
34626Jiang S.-H., Zhang C., Xue X.-D., Aptroot A., Wei J.-C. & Wei X.-L. (2022): Morphological and phylogenetic characterizations reveal five new species of Astrothelium (Trypetheliales, Ascomycota) from China. - Journal of Fungi, 8(10): 994 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8100994.
The lichenized fungal genus Astrothelium is an important element of crustose lichen communities in tropical to subtropical forests. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic approaches to investigate species diversity of Astrothelium (Trypetheliaceae) from Southern China were carried out in this study. Bayesian and maximum-likelihood (ML) analyses were generated based on the combined data set of internal transcribed spacer (ITS), partial regions of the nuclear ribosomal large subunit (LSU), and the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II gene sequences (RPB1). The morphological comparison with the known Astrothelium taxa and molecular phylogeny support five new species: Astrothelium jiangxiense sp. nov., A. luminothallinum sp. nov., A. pseudocrassum sp. nov., A. subeustominspersum sp. nov., and A. subrufescens sp. nov. All these species are described and illustrated in detail. Keywords: diversity; morphology; new taxa; Trypetheliaceae; phylogeny.
34625Marín C., Barták M., Palfner G., Vergara-Barros P., Fernandoy F., Hájek J. & Casanova-Katny A. (2022): Antarctic lichens under long-term passive warming: Species-specific photochemical responses to desiccation and heat shock treatments. - Plants, 11(19): 2463 [23 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192463.
Climate warming in the Antarctic tundra will affect locally dominant cryptogams. Being adapted to low temperatures and freezing, little is known about the response of the polar lichens’ primary photochemistry to warming and desiccation. Since 2008, we have monitored the ecophysiological responses of lichens to the future warming scenario during a long-term warming experiment through open top chambers (OTCs) on Fildes Peninsula. We studied the primary photochemical response (potential Fv/Fm and effective efficiency of photosystem II YPSII) of different lichen taxa and morphotypes under desiccation kinetics and heat shock experiments. As lichens grow slowly, to observe changes during warming we methodologically focused on carbon and nitrogen content as well as on the stable isotope ratios. Endemic Himantormia lugubris showed the strongest effect of long-term warming on primary photochemistry, where PSII activity occurred at a lower %RWC inside the OTCs, in addition to higher Fv/Fm values at 30 °C in the heat shock kinetic treatment. In contrast, Usnea aurantiaco-atra did not show any effect of long-term warming but was active at a thallus RWC lower than 10%. Both Cladonia species were most affected by water stress, with Cladonia aff. gracilis showing no significant differences in primary photochemical responses between the warming and the control but a high sensibility to water deficiency, where, at 60% thallus RWC, the photochemical parameters began to decrease. We detected species-specific responses not only to long-term warming, but also to desiccation. On the other hand, the carbon content did not vary significantly among the species or because of the passive warming treatment. Similarly, the nitrogen content showed non-significant variation; however, the C/N ratio was affected, with the strongest C/N decrease in Cladonia borealis. Our results suggest that Antarctic lichens can tolerate warming and high temperature better than desiccation and that climate change may affect these species if it is associated with a decrease in water availability. Keywords: chlorophyll fluorescence; nitrogen isotope; climate change; thermal shock.
34624Halıcı M.G., Güllü M., Bölükbaşı E. & Kahraman Yiğit M. (2022): Shackletonia backorii - A new species of lichenised fungus from James Ross Island (Antarctic Peninsula). - Turkish Journal of Botany, 46(5): 500–506. https://doi.org/10.55730/1300-008X.2725.
The new lichen species Shackletonia backorii Halıcı, Güllü & Kahraman is described from James Ross Island, which is located in the North-East Antarctic Peninsula region. The new species is morphologically most similar to S. insignis (Søchting & Øvstedal) Søchting, Frödén & Arup, which was described from Livingstone Island (North-West Antarctic Peninsula region). These two species have a similar bluish grey to blackish thallus with a microfruticose and coralloid structure and red brown or almost black zeorine apothecia, but S. backorii has rhomboid ascospores and grows on soil whereas S. insignis has ellipsoid ascospores and occurs in sheltered crevices of rocks. The nrITS and mtSSU gene regions of the new species are studied and the phylogenetic position of the species is in the genus Shackletonia within the subfamily Xanthorioideae and it is clearly separated from the other species of the genus. Key words: Antarctica, biodiversity, lichenized fungi, Teloschistaceae.
34623Monaci F., Ancora S., Paoli L., Loppi S. & Wania F. (2022): Lichen transplants as indicators of gaseous elemental mercury concentrations. - Environmental Pollution, 313: 120189 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.120189.
Lichens play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of mercury (Hg) and are commonly used as indicators of Hg enrichment in remote and anthropogenically impacted environments. To assess their capacity for Hg uptake and accumulation, we determined the concentration of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) in air and the concentration of total Hg (THg) in transplanted thalli of two lichen species. Lichen transplants and passive air samplers (PASs) were concurrently deployed, side by side, at 10 sites within an abandoned mining area, characterized by large gradients in atmospheric Hg contamination. Highly variable time-weighted GEM concentrations determined by the PASs, ranging from 17 to 4,200 ng/m3, were mirrored by generally high Hg concentrations in transplanted thalli of both Xanthoria parietina (174–8,800 ng/g) and Evernia prunastri (143–5,500 ng/g). Hg concentrations in the two species co-varied linearly indicating about 60% greater Hg accumulation in X. parietina than in E. prunastri. Whereas Hg uptake in the fruticose E. prunastri increased linearly with GEM, a power law equation with a fractional exponent described the uptake in the foliose X. parietina. Extrapolating the relationships observed here to higher GEM levels yielded concentrations in lichen that agree very well with those measured in an earlier fumigation experiment performed under laboratory-controlled conditions. The uptake model of X. parietina was further verified by correctly estimating GEM concentrations from the THg measured in autochthonous thalli collected from the urban area adjacent to the mine site. Passive sampling can effectively provide time-weighted data of suitable spatial resolution to quantitatively describe GEM assimilation by lichens. Therefore, the combined use of passive sampling and lichen transplants can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the role of lichens, and potentially also of other cryptogams, in the deposition of atmospheric Hg to terrestrial ecosystems.
34622Kantelinen A., Purhonen J., Halme P. & Myllys L. (2022): Growth form matters – Crustose lichens on dead wood are sensitive to forest management. - Forest Ecology and Management, 524: 120529 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2022.120529.
Lichens have a vital role in forest ecosystems and they are a threatened group in boreal forests. However, the conservation ecology of the total lichen community has very rarely been studied. Here we studied lichen species and communities, including macrolichens (=foliose and fruticose growth forms) and rarely studied crustose lichens, on decaying wood in boreal spruce-dominated forests in Finland. We also studied obligate lignicoles that grow only on dead wood and are mostly crustose in growth form. Species richness and community composition were examined on decaying logs and natural or cut stumps of Picea abies at different decay stages (2–5) in 14 stands, half of which were natural or seminatural and half recently managed. We used thorough search to yield a species list as close to complete as possible. Our study questions were: 1) Are species richness and lichen communities different in natural and managed forests, and if so, are there differences between macrolichens, crustose lichens and obligate lignicoles in how they respond to forest management? 2) How does the decay stage and dead wood type affect the lichens, i.e. are there differences between stumps and logs? We found a total of 127 lichen species. Most (75 %) of the recorded lichen species were crustose. With a generalized linear model we found that crustose lichens and obligate lignicoles had a higher species richness in natural than managed forests, but macrolichen richness was not significantly affected by forest management. Utilizing non-metric multidimensional scaling we discovered that site level community composition of macrolichens, crustose lichens and obligate lignicoles was also significantly different between natural and managed forests. We found that on dead wood unit level the decay stage had a significant effect on species richness and community composition, so that the species richness of all studied groups declined during the decay process. The dead wood type (stump vs log) had a significant effect on species richness of macrolichens and obligate lignicoles, both for which species richness was higher on logs than on stumps, as well as on the communities of crustose lichens. Keywords: Wood-inhabiting species; Conservation; Red listed lichens; Boreal forests.
34621Kantelinen A., Printzen C., Poczai P. & Myllys L. (2022): Lichen speciation is sparked by a substrate requirement shift and reproduction mode differentiation. - Scientific Reports, 12: 11048 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-14970-9.
We show that obligate lignicoles in lichenized Micarea are predominately asexual whereas most facultative lignicoles reproduce sexually. Our phylogenetic analyses (ITS, mtSSU, Mcm7) together with ancestral state reconstruction show that the shift in reproduction mode has evolved independently several times within the group and that facultative and obligate lignicoles are sister species. The analyses support the assumption that the ancestor of these species was a facultative lignicole. We hypothezise that a shift in substrate requirement from bark to wood leads to differentiation in reproduction mode and becomes a driver of speciation. This is the first example of lichenized fungi where reproduction mode is connected to substrate requirement. This is also the first example where such an association is demonstrated to spark lichen speciation. Our main hypothesis is that obligate species on dead wood need to colonize new suitable substrata relatively fast and asexual reproduction is more effective a strategy for successful colonization.
34620Blázquez M. (2022): Preliminary checklist of the lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain). - Botanica Complutensis, 46: 1–45. https://dx.doi.org/10.5209/bocm.81990.
A preliminary checklist of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi of Castilla-La Mancha is presented. A total of 5064 records have been compiled from 204 publications. The number of taxa ascends to 832, of which 820 are species and 12 infraspecific taxa. Of these 763 are lichenized and 69 correspond to lichenicolous fungi. Keywords. Lichens, checklist, lichen diversity, Castilla-La Mancha, Spain.
34619Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2022): Ядро заповедника «Кологривский лес» (Россия) – горячая точка биоразнообразия лишайников южной тайги в Восточной Европе [The core of the Kologriv Forest State Nature Reserve (Russia) is a hotspot of lichen biodiversity in the southern taiga of Eastern Europe]. - Nature Conservation Research. Заповедная наука, 7(3): 46–63. https://dx.doi.org/10.24189/ncr.2022.029.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] In this study, we aim to evaluate the diversity of lichens and allied non-lichenised fungi, co-existing in dark-coniferous and broad-leaved forests of the southern taiga in the East European Plain. The Kologriv Forest State Nature Reserve (589 km2) was established in 2006 to preserve the last fragments of the unique primeval forests of the southern taiga. The territory of the Kologriv cluster of the Kologriv Forest State Nature Reserve (481 km2) is located in the north of the Kostroma Region (Russia). The main phorophytes in this cluster are Picea abies, Tilia cordata, Betula pubescens, and Abies sibirica. In our time-limited study (four days in May 2021), we selected a 10 000-m2 (hereinafter – 1-ha) plot (a presumed lichen diversity hotspot) in the primeval forest stand in the core of the Kologriv cluster of the Kologriv Forest State Nature Reserve (58.80164° N, 43.98533° E, at altitude ca. 200 m a.s.l.). For a detailed study of the species composition of lichens on this plot, all types of substrates were examined, including trunks and branch surface of various tree species under various conditions, dead and rotting wood of snags, stumps, and fallen logs. In addition, 22 points in various parts of the protected core were examined by the route method in May 2019 and May 2021. This detailed survey in the primeval forest in the core of the Kologriv Forest State Nature Reserve has revealed an unexpectedly high lichen diversity: 230 species recorded in a single 1-ha plot is equal to or much more than the number of species recorded in several Protected Areas of far larger sizes in European Russia. The number of species found on this plot is 73% of the one recorded in the whole protected core (316 species) and 58% of the lichen diversity known in the entire area of the Kologriv Forest State Nature Reserve (398 species). The genus Asterophoma is new for European Russia. The genera Bachmanniomyces and Bryostigma are new for the lichen flora of the middle belt of European Russia. There are 91 species listed for the first time for the lichen flora of the Kologriv Forest State Nature Reserve. Of them, 83 species are new to the Kostroma Region. Two species (Micarea synotheoides and Stigmidium exasperatum) are new to Russia. Rinodina macrospora was found for the first time in Europe. Three species, Asterophoma mazaediicola, Biatora veteranorum, and Biatoropsis minuta, are new to European Russia. 13 species were found for the first time in the middle belt of European Russia: Bachmanniomyces punctum, Bryostigma lapidicola, Heterocephalacria bachmannii, Lepra borealis, Micarea byssacea, M. melaeniza, M. nowakii, M. pseudomicrococca, M. pycnidiophora, Ochrolechia mahluensis, Scoliciosporum perpusillum, Skyttea gregaria, Stigmidium congestum, Trapeliopsis gelatinosa, Xylographa soralifera. Four threatened species (Leptogium burnetiae, Lobaria pulmonaria, Menegazzia terebrata and Nephromopsis laureri) are listed in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation. We have made a comparison of the lichen flora diversity found in the core of the Kologriv Forest State Nature Reserve with previously obtained data in Western and Central Europe. The core of the Kologriv Forest State Nature Reserve meets the criteria of a hotspot of lichen biodiversity on the European level. We would like to emphasise the importance of finding such hotspots of lichen diversity by an inventory of the lichen flora in other Protected Areas. Keywords: biodiversity, inventory, Kostroma Region, lichen flora, Micarea synotheoides, primeval forest, Rinodina macrospora, Stigmidium exasperatum, Usnea longissima, virgin forests.
34618Petrová K., Bačkorová M., Demčišáková Z., Petrovová E., Goga M., Vilková M., Frenák R., Bačkor M., Mojžiš J. & Kello M. (2022): Usnic acid isolated from Usnea antarctica (Du Rietz) reduced in vitro angiogenesis in VEGF- and bFGF-stimulated HUVECs and ex ovo in quail chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. - Life, 12(9): 1444 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/life12091444.
Natural products include a diverse set of compounds of drug discovery that are currently being actively used to target tumor angiogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-angiogenic activities of secondary metabolite usnic acid isolated from Usena antarctica. We investigated the in vitro effects on proliferation, migration, and tube formation of VEGF- and bFGF-stimulated HUVECs. Ex ovo anti-angiogenic activity was evaluated using the CAM assay. Our findings demonstrated that usnic acid in the concentration of 33.57 µM inhibited VEGF (25 ng/mL) and bFGF (30 ng/mL)-induced HUVECs proliferation, migration, and tube formation. The ex ovo CAM model was used to confirm the results obtained from in vitro studies. VEGF- and bFGF-induced vessel formation was inhibited by usnic acid after 72 h in over 2-fold higher concentrations compared to in vitro. Subsequently, histological sections of affected chorioallantoic membranes were stained with hematoxylin–eosin and alcian blue to determine the number and diameter of vessels as well as the thickness of the individual CAM layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm). Usnic acid was able to suppress the formation of VEGF- and bFGF-induced vessels with a diameter of less than 100 μm, which was demonstrated by the reduction of mesoderm thickness as well. Keywords: angiogenesis; bFGF; CAM; HUVECs; usnic acid; VEGF.
34617Vallese C., Di Musciano M., Muggia L., Giordani P., Francesconi L., Benesperi R., Chiarucci A., Di Cecco V., Di Martino L., Di Nuzzo L., Gheza G., Zannini P. & Nascimbene J. (2022): Water-energy relationships shape the phylogenetic diversity of terricolous lichen communities in Mediterranean mountains: Implications for conservation in a climate change scenario. - Fungal Ecology, 60: 101189 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2022.101189.
Lichens are symbiotic organisms sensitive to climate change and susceptible to a severe decline in diversity, especially in high elevation environments that are already threatened. In this study, we focused on water-energy relationships derived from climatic variables and phylogenetic diversity indices of terricolous lichen communities occurring on a representative Mediterranean mountain. We hypothesized that the variation of precipitation and temperature and their interaction along the altitudinal gradient will shape the phylogenetic diversity and structure of lichen communities. Our results reveal that dry and arid conditions lead to a strong loss in phylogenetic diversity with consequent impoverishment of high elevation lichen communities under a climate change scenario. The interaction between variables, reflecting water-energy relationships with phylogenetic and community diversity patterns, suggests that in a future climate change scenario, the novel climatic conditions may reduce the capability of the species to survive harsher conditions, and Mediterranean mountains may face a severe loss of genetic diversity in a climate change scenario. Keywords: Altitudinal gradient; Climate change; High elevation environments; Maiella massif; Mediterranean mountains; Phylogenetic diversity; Structure; Terricolous lichens; Water-energy hypothesis.
34616Miral A., Kautsky A., Alves-Carvalho S., Cottret L., Guillerm-Erckelboudt A.-Y., Buguet M., Rouaud I., Tranchimand S., Tomasi S. & Bartoli C. (2022): Rhizocarpon geographicum lichen discloses a highly diversified microbiota carrying antibiotic resistance and persistent organic pollutant tolerance. - Microorganisms, 10(9): 1859 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10091859.
As rock inhabitants, lichens are exposed to extreme and fluctuating abiotic conditions associated with poor sources of nutriments. These extreme conditions confer to lichens the unique ability to develop protective mechanisms. Consequently, lichen-associated microbes disclose highly versatile lifestyles and ecological plasticity, enabling them to withstand extreme environments. Because of their ability to grow in poor and extreme habitats, bacteria associated with lichens can tolerate a wide range of pollutants, and they are known to produce antimicrobial compounds. In addition, lichen-associated bacteria have been described to harbor ecological functions crucial for the evolution of the lichen holobiont. Nevertheless, the ecological features of lichen-associated microbes are still underestimated. To explore the untapped ecological diversity of lichen-associated bacteria, we adopted a novel culturomic approach on the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum. We sampled R. geographicum in French habitats exposed to oil spills, and we combined nine culturing methods with 16S rRNA sequencing to capture the greatest bacterial diversity. A deep functional analysis of the lichen-associated bacterial collection showed the presence of a set of bacterial strains resistant to a wide range of antibiotics and displaying tolerance to Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Our study is a starting point to explore the ecological features of the lichen microbiota. Keywords: culturomics; holobiont; antibiotic resistance; lichen microbiome.
34615Muggia L. & Chiva S. (2022): Catocala promissa mimetic on lichens. - Notiziario della Società Lichenologica Italiana, 35: 99–101. .
34614Raimundo-Costa W., Ferreira D.C., Anhê A.C.B.M. & Senhuk A.P.M.S. (2021): The use of Parmotrema tinctorum (Parmeliaceae) as a bioindicator of air pollution. - Rodriguésia, 72: e01872019 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1590/2175-7860202172090.
Air quality monitoring by automatic stations, although efficient, does not allow evaluating the effects of pollution on living organisms and communities. Thus, the aim of the present study was to use lichens of the Parmotrematinctorum species in active air quality biomonitoring. We used a new methodology of chlorosis area analyses in QGis software, as low-cost and complementary tool to physicochemical methods. Samples of the aforementioned species were exposed to atmospheric pollution for 30 consecutive days in the dry and rainy seasons, in urban and industrial regions. The chlorosis rate (34% of the lichen thalli, on average) and the accumulation of sulfur (1.1 g.kg-1, on average) were higher in the samples of lichens exposed in the industrial region, in the dry season. There was a moderate-to-high positive correlation between chlorosis rate and lichen content of nitrogen, sulfur, iron and zinc, in the dry season, mainly with sulfur (r = 0.71). The results confirmed the sensitive of P. tinctorum to atmospheric pollution, even after a short exposure time. Such new active biomonitoring methodology (chlorosis analysis in the QGis) can be used in future studies of air quality assessment by environmental and health surveillance managers. Key words: active biomonitoring, air quality, lichen.
34613Fayyaz I., Afshan N.S., Niazi A.R., Khalid A.N. & Ruprecht U. (2022): A new species of Lecidella (Lecanorales, Ascomycota) from Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. - Acta Botanica Brasilica, 36: e2021abb0324 [6 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-33062021abb0324.
The newly described species, Lecidella iqbalii sp. nov., is so far only known from Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. A comparative morpho-anatomical study combined with a phylogenetic analysis based on the marker ITS placed this species together with two accessions from southern South America in a distinct and highly supported group at the base of the Lecidella stigmatea clade. The taxon is characterized by a shiny thallus, strongly convex apothecia, a thin excipulum, a dark brown epihymenium and relatively small ascospores (10-) 11-12 (-13) × (6-) 6.5-8(-9) µm. Keywords: crustose lichen; Ganga choti; Garhi dupatta; saxicolous; lichenized ascomycetes.
34612Svensson M., Haugan R., Timdal E., Westberg M. & Arup U. (2022): The circumscription and phylogenetic position of Bryonora (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota), with two additions to the genus. - Mycologia, 114(3): 516–532. https://doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2022.2037339.
Lecanoraceae is one of the largest families of the Lecanoromycetes, with about 30 accepted genera, many of which, however, have uncertain status and/or circumscriptions. We assess the phylogenetic position of the genus Bryonora and its segregate Bryodina for the first time, using a six-locus phylogeny comprising the Lecanoraceae as well as closely related families. We find strong support for the placement of Bryonora in the Lecanoraceae, whereas there is no support for treating Bryodina as a genus separate from Bryonora. Hence, we reduce Bryodina to synonymy with Bryonora. Further, we describe Bryonora microlepis as new to science and transfer Lecanora castaneoides to Bryonora and L. vicaria to Miriquidica. A world key to Bryonora is included. Keywords: Ascomycota; Bryodina; key; Lecanoraceae; new species; 3 new taxa; 3 new typifications.
34611Yang J.H., Oh S.-Y,, Kim W. & Hur J.-S. (2022): Endolichenic fungal community analysis by pure culture isolation and metabarcoding: A case study of Parmotrema tinctorum. - Mycobiology, 50(1): 55–65. https://doi.org/10.1080/12298093.2022.2040112.
Lichen is a symbiotic mutualism of mycobiont and photobiont that harbors diverse organisms including endolichenic fungi (ELF). Despite the taxonomic and ecological significance of ELF, no comparative investigation of an ELF community involving isolation of a pure culture and high-throughput sequencing has been conducted. Thus, we analyzed the ELF community in Parmotrema tinctorum by culture and metabarcoding. Alpha diversity of the ELF community was notably greater in metabarcoding than in culture-based analysis. Taxonomic proportions of the ELF community estimated by metabarcoding and by culture analyses showed remarkable differences: Sordariomycetes was the most dominant fungal class in culture- based analysis, while Dothideomycetes was the most abundant in metabarcoding analysis. Thirty-seven operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were commonly observed by cultureand metabarcoding-based analyses but relative abundances differed: most of common OTUs were underrepresented in metabarcoding. The ELF community differed in lichen segments and thalli in metabarcoding analysis. Dissimilarity of ELF community intra lichen thallus increased with thallus segment distance; inter-thallus ELF community dissimilarity was significantly greater than intra-thallus ELF community dissimilarity. Finally, we tested how many fungal sequence reads would be needed to ELF diversity with relationship assays between numbers of lichen segments and saturation patterns of OTU richness and sample coverage. At least 6000 sequence reads per lichen thallus were sufficient for prediction of overall ELF community diversity and 50,000 reads per thallus were enough to observe rare taxa of ELF. Keywords: Lichen; endolichenic fungi; fungal community; culture; metabarcoding.
34610Wang L. & Mamut R. (2021): Mitochondrial genome from the lichenized fungus Peltigera rufescens (Weiss) Humb, 1793 (Ascomycota: Peltigeraceae). - Mitochondrial DNA Part B, 6(8): 1286–1287. https://doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1944374.
Known colloquially as ‘dog-lichens’ or ‘pelt-lichens’, most species of Peltigera grow on soil and mosses. Some species contribute a significant amount of nitrogen to the environment and have been used as traditional medicines. We analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome of P. rufescens, which is a circular genome 65,199 bp in size and its CG content is 26.7%. It contains 15 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 27 transport RNAs (tRNAs), and 3 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). Also, the atp9 gene is present in the genome. We used the complete mitochondrial genome to construct a phylogenetic tree by the Bayesian method, which was consistent with the phylogenetic relationship published for P. membranacea which is closely related to P. rufescens. Keywords: Peltigera rufescens; mitochondrial genome; phylogenetic analysis.
34609Galanina I.A., Sheard J.W. & Konoreva L.A. (2022): A new saxicolous species, Rinodina jacutica (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) from the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia. - Phytotaxa, 564(1): 121–126. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.564.1.10.
This paper presents a new saxicolous species of Rinodina from the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia. Rinodina jacutica is characterized by spores of the Dirinaria-type and type A development, a light-gray thallus with a slight yellowish tinge and spot tests K+ yellow and P+ yellow, atranorin present. The paper provides data on the morphology, anatomy, ecology, and collection site of R. jacutica. Keywords: biodiversity, biogeography, lichens, new species, North East Asia, Siberia.
34608Henrie J.R., Thomson B.M., Yungfleisch A.A., Kerr M. & Leavitt S.D. (2022): Characterizing crustose lichen communities—DNA metabarcoding reveals more than meets the eye. - Diversity, 14(9): 766 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d14090766.
Biodiversity inventories are important for informing land management strategies, conservation efforts, and for biomonitoring studies. For many organismal groups, including lichens, comprehensive, accurate inventories are challenging due to the necessity of taxonomic expertise, limitations in sampling protocols, and the commonplace occurrence of morphologically cryptic species and other undescribed species. Lichen communities in arid regions are often dominated by crustose lichens, which have been particularly difficult to incorporate into biodiversity inventories. Here, we explore the utility of DNA metabarcoding for characterizing the diversity of lichen-forming fungi at a typical crustose lichen-dominated site on the Colorado Plateau in the southwestern USA. We assessed the consistency of independent sampling efforts to comprehensively document lichen diversity, evaluated the capability of minimally trained technicians to effectively sample the lichen communities, and provide a metagenomic-based inventory of lichen diversity, including representative sequence data, for a diverse, crustose-dominate lichen community on the Colorado Plateau. Our results revealed that crustose lichen communities in the southwestern USA are more diverse than traditionally thought, and community metabarcoding is a promising strategy for characterizing the lichen-forming fungal diversity more thoroughly than other methods. However, consistently sampling the diversity of crustose lichen communities, even at small spatial scales, remains difficult. Interpreting these results within a traditional taxonomic context remains challenging without the use of vouchers. Keywords: amplicon sequencing; biodiversity; biomonitoring; ecological sampling; Illumina; internal transcribed spacer region (ITS); inventory; ITS2; semi-arid.
34607Thiyagaraja V., Ertz D., Lücking R., Wanasinghe D.N., Aptroot A., Cáceres M.E.S., Hyde K.D., Tapingkae W. & Cheewangkoon R. (2022): Taxonomic and phylogenetic reassessment of Pyrgidium (Mycocaliciales) and investigation of ascospore morphology. - Journal of Fungi, 8(9): 966 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8090966.
Mycocaliciales comprise non-lichenized either saprotrophic or lichenicolous fungi which occur in temperate and tropical regions. The mazaediate, saprotrophic and monospecific genus, Pyrgidium, is currently assigned to this order, yet the phylogenetic placement of the genus has remained uncertain due to the absence of molecular data. In order to investigate the systematic position of Pyrgidium, two specimens collected in Brazil and Thailand, respectively, were used to generate mtSSU, SSU, LSU and ITS sequences. However, given that most other representatives of this order only have LSU and ITS sequences available, the phylogenetic reconstruction was limited to these two markers. The phylogenetic analyses confirmed placement of the genus within Mycocaliciales, the genus possessing a sister group relationship with the lichenicolous genus Sphinctrina. Detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations are provided, including those for type specimens of the various synonyms subsumed under the hitherto only accepted species, Pyrgidium montellicum (Beltr.) Tibell. The ascospore morphology was investigated using compound and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed for the ascospore size using PC-ORD 7. The molecular data and re-examination of the type specimens support the monospecific nature of this genus. Keywords: Ascomycota; morphology; Mycocaliciaceae; PCA; saprotrophs; SEM.
34606Caggiano R., Speranza A., Imbrenda V., Afflitto N. & Sabia S. (2022): A holistic approach based on biomonitoring techniques and satellite observations for air pollution assessment and health risk impact of atmospheric trace elements in a semi-rural area of southern Italy (High Sauro Valley). - Atmosphere, 13(9): 1501 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13091501.
Air pollution is one of the most important environmental problems for rural, urban and industrial areas. This study assesses the concentrations, the possible interaction with the vegetation conditions and the sources of trace elements in atmospheric aerosol particles. To this aim, a novel holistic approach integrating biomonitoring techniques, satellite observations and multivariate statistical analysis was carried out in a semi-rural area before an on-shore reservoir (crude oil and gas) and an oil/gas pre-treatment plant identified as “Tempa Rossa” (High Sauro Valley—Southern Italy) were fully operative. The atmospheric trace element concentrations (i.e., Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti and Zn) were assessed by “lichen-bag” monitoring. Satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI’) estimates were used to support the identification of environmental imbalances affecting vegetation conditions and linked to possible anthropogenic drivers. Principal component analysis (PCA) allowed identifying both natural and anthropogenic trace element sources, such as crustal resuspension, soil and road dust, traffic, biomass burning and agriculture practices. Empirical evidence highlighted an interaction between NDVI’ and S, Ni, Pb and Zn. The health risk impact of atmospheric trace elements on the exposed population, both adults and children, considering inhalation, ingestion and the dermal contact pathway, highlighted a possible non-carcinogenic risk concerning Ni and a not-negligible carcinogenic risk related to Cr(VI) for the adult population in the study area. Keywords: air pollution; biomonitoring; NDVI’; trace elements; principal component analysis; human health.
34605Genikova N.V., Kryshen A.M., Obabko R.P., Karpechko A.Y. & Pekkoev A.N. (2022): Structural features of a post-clear-cutting ecotone between 90-year-old bilberry spruce forest and 35-year-old herbs-forbs deciduous stand. - Forests, 13(9): 1468 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f13091468.
In a natural regeneration process, a community dominated by birch and aspen forms in the site 35 years after a bilberry-type spruce stand is logged down. The newly formed ecotone complex consists of four zones, each characterized by certain features of the ground vegetation and epiphytic vegetation structure. The transitional zones and the mature bilberry-type spruce forest feature a clear dominance of boreal dwarf shrubs (bilberry and cowberry). Another feature of the transitional zone is a greater role of hygrophytic mosses of the genera Polytrichum and Sphagnum. Meanwhile, the true mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens dominate under spruce forest canopy, and the moss cover in the young deciduous stand is virtually nonexistent. The structure of epiphytic vegetation depends on the habitat conditions—the surface of tree trunks in the transitional zone is better lit and drier than inside the tree stand, which results in a higher abundance of epiphytic lichens of the genus Cladonia. The deciduous–coniferous fine root biomass ratio is dependent on the tree stand structure and is unrelated to ecotone zones. Overall, studies have demonstrated that transitional zones have certain characteristic ecological and community features, which persist for a long time after tree stand removal. View Full-Text Keywords: ecotone complex; bilberry-type spruce forest; deciduous stand; clear-cut; edge effect; ground vegetation; epiphytes; tree fine root biomass.
34604Ossowska E.A., Moncada B., Kukwa M., Flakus A., Rodriguez-Flakus P., Olszewska S. & Lücking R. (2022): New species of Sticta (lichenised Ascomycota, lobarioid Peltigeraceae) from Bolivia suggest a high level of endemism in the Central Andes. - MycoKeys, 92: 131–160. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.92.89960.
Six species of Sticta are described as new to science on the basis of material from Bolivia and supported by phylogenetic analysis of the fungal ITS barcoding marker. The species were resolved in all three of the clades (I, II, III) widespread and common in the Neotropics, as defined in an earlier study on the genus. Comparison with material from neighbouring countries (i.e. Colombia, Ecuador, Peru) suggests that these new species may be potentially endemic to the Bolivian Yungas ecoregion. For each species, a detailed morphological and anatomical description is given. Sticta amboroensis Ossowska, Kukwa, B. Moncada & Lücking is a medium-sized green-algal species with laminal to submarginal apothecia with hirsute margins and with light to dark brown lower tomentum. Sticta aymara Ossowska, Kukwa, B. Moncada, Flakus, Rodriguez-Flakus & Lücking is a comparatively small cyanobacterial taxon with Nostoc as photobiont, laminal, richly branched, aggregate isidia and a golden to chocolate-brown lower tomentum. The medium-sized, cyanobacterial S. bicellulata Ossowska, Kukwa, B. Moncada & Lücking has cyanobacterial photobiont, bicellular ascospores, apothecia with white to golden-brown hairs on the margins, K+ violet apothecial margin (ring around disc) and epihymenium and a white to dark brown lower tomentum. In contrast, the green-algal species, S. carrascoensis Ossowska, Kukwa, B. Moncada & Lücking is characterised by its large size, apothecia with dark brown hairs on the margins and a yellow medulla. The cyanobacterial S. catharinae Ossowska, B. Moncada, Kukwa, Flakus, Rodriguez-Flakus & Lücking forms stipitate thalli with Nostoc as photobiont, abundant, laminal to submarginal apothecia and a golden-brown lower tomentum. Finally, the cyanobacterial S. pseudoimpressula Ossowska, Kukwa, B. Moncada & Lücking produces laminal apothecia with an orange-yellow line of pruina along the margins which reacts K+ carmine-red. In addition to the six new Bolivian taxa, the cyanobacterial S. narinioana B. Moncada, Ossowska & Lücking is described as new from Colombia and it represents the closely-related sister species of the Bolivian S. aymara; it differs from the latter largely in the marginal instead of laminal isidia. Keywords: lichens, Lobarioideae, molecular barcoding, pigments.
34603Nill L., Grünberg I., Ullmann T., Gessner M., Boike J. & Hostert P. (2022): Arctic shrub expansion revealed by Landsat-derived multitemporal vegetation cover fractions in the Western Canadian Arctic. - Remote Sensing of Environment, 281: 113228 [20 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2022.113228.
Warming induced shifts in tundra vegetation composition and structure, including circumpolar expansion of shrubs, modifies ecosystem structure and functioning with potentially global consequences due to feedback mechanisms between vegetation and climate. Satellite-derived vegetation indices indicate widespread greening of the surface, often associated with regional evidence of shrub expansion obtained from long-term ecological monitoring and repeated orthophotos. However, explicitly quantifying shrub expansion across large scales using satellite observations requires characterising the fine-scale mosaic of Arctic vegetation types beyond index-based approaches. Although previous studies have illustrated the potential of estimating fractional cover of various Plant Functional Types (PFTs) from satellite imagery, limited availability of reference data across space and time has constrained deriving fraction cover time series capable of detecting shrub expansion. We applied regressionbased unmixing using synthetic training data to build multitemporal machine learning models in order to estimate fractional cover of shrubs and other surface components in the Mackenzie Delta Region for six time intervals between 1984 and 2020. We trained Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) and Random Forest Regression (RFR) models using Landsat-derived spectral-temporal-metrics and synthetic training data generated from pure class spectra obtained directly from the imagery. Independent validation using very-high-resolution imagery suggested that KRR outperforms RFR, estimating shrub cover with a MAE of 10.6% and remaining surface components with MAEs between 3.0 and 11.2%. Canopy-forming shrubs were well modelled across all cover densities, coniferous tree cover tended to be overestimated and differentiating between herbaceous and lichen cover was challenging. Shrub cover expanded by on average + 2.2% per decade for the entire study area and + 4.2% per decade within the low Arctic tundra, while relative changes were strongest in the northernmost regions. In conjunction with shrub expansion, we observed herbaceous plant and lichen cover decline. Our results corroborate the perception of the replacement and homogenisation of Arctic vegetation communities facilitated by the competitive advantage of shrub species under a warming climate. The proposed method allows for multidecadal quantitative estimates of fractional cover at 30 m resolution, initiating new opportunities for mapping past and present fractional cover of tundra PFTs and can help advance our understanding of Arctic shrub expansion within the vast and heterogeneous tundra biome. Keywords: Tundra; Vegetation change; Shrubification; Greening; Spectral unmixing; Mackenzie Delta.
34602Farkas E., Sinigla M., Szabó K., Varga N. & Farkas E. (2022): The long-term effect of removing the UV-protectant usnic acid from the thalli of the lichen Cladonia foliacea. - Mycological Progress, 21: 83 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-022-01831-y.
Terricolous lichens are abundant in semi-arid areas, where they are exposed to high irradiation. Photoprotection is essential for the algae as the photobiont provides the primer carbon source for both symbionts. The UV-protectant lichen metabolites and different quenching procedures of the alga ensure adequate photoprotection. Since the long-term effect of diminishing UVprotectant lichen metabolites is unknown, a major part of lichen secondary metabolites was removed from Cladonia foliacea thalli by acetone rinsing, and the lichens were then maintained under field conditions to investigate the effect on both symbionts for 3 years. Our aim was to determine if the decreased level of UV-protectant metabolites caused an elevated photoprotection in the algae and to reveal the dynamics of production of the metabolites. Photosynthetic activity and light protection were checked by chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics measurements every 6 months. The concentrations of fumarprotocetraric and usnic acids were monitored by chromatographic methods. Our results proved that seasonality had a more pronounced effect than that of acetone treatment on the function of lichens over a long-term scale. Even after 3 years, the acetone-treated thalli contained half as much usnic acid as the control thalli, and the level of photoprotection remained unchanged in the algae. However, the amount of available humidity was a more critical limiting environmental factor than the amount of incoming irradiation affecting usnic acid production. The lichenicolous fungus Didymocyrtis cladoniicola became relatively more abundant in the acetone-treated samples than in the control samples, indicating a slight change caused by the treatment. Keywords: Lichen-forming fungi . Symbiosis . Photoprotection . Acetone rinsing . Seasonality . Lichenicolous fungi.
34601Kumar D., Pandey A., Rawat S., Joshi M., Bajpai R., Upreti D.K. & Singh S.P. (2022): Predicting the distributional range shifts of Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC. in Indian Himalayan Region under future climate scenarios. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29: 61579–61593. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15624-5.
Himalaya, the highest mountain system in the world and house of important biodiversity hotspot, is sensitive to projected warming by climate change. Rhizocarpon geographicum (map lichen), a crustose lichen, grows in high mountain ranges, is a potential indicator species of climate change. In the present study, MaxEnt species distribution modeling algorithm was used to predict the suitable habitat for R. geographicum in current and future climate scenarios. Nineteen bioclimatic variables from WorldClim database, along with elevation, were used to predict the current distribution and three representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios by integrating three general circulation models (GCMs) for future distribution of species covering years 2050 and 2070. Furthermore, we performed change analysis to identify the precise difference between the current and future distribution of suitable areas of the species for delineating habitat range expansion (gain), habitat contraction (loss), and stable habitats. The final ensemble model obtained had average test value 0.968, and its predicted ~ 27.5% of the geographical area in the Indian Himalayan Region is presently climatically suitable for the species. The predicted highly suitable area for R. geographicum is observed to be declining in Northwestern Himalaya, and it is shifting towards the higher elevation areas of the Eastern Himalaya. The projected distribution in future under the RCP scenarios (RCP 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) showed the range expansion towards higher elevations, and it is more pronounced for the extreme future scenarios (RCP 8.5) than for the moderate and intermediate climate scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 6.0). However, assuming that species can migrate to previously unoccupied areas, the model forecasts a habitat loss of 10.86–16.51% for R. geographicum, which is expected due to increase in mean annual temperature by 1.5–3.7 °C. The predictiveMaxEnt modeling approach for mapping lichen will contribute significantly to the understanding of the impact of climate change in Himalayan ecosystems with wide implications for drawing suitable conservation plans and to take adaptation and mitigation measures. Keywords: Rhizocarpon geographicum . Himalaya . Climate change .Habitat loss . Niche shifts . Species distributionmodeling . Lichen.
34600Şenol Z.M.,Gül Ü.D. & Şimşek S. (2022): Bioremoval of Safranin O dye by the identified lichen species called Evernia prunastri biomass; biosorption optimization, isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics. - Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 12: 4127–4137. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-020-01216-9.
Evernia prunastri (lichen), a novel, eco-friendly, cost-effective, wide availability, safe, renewable and easy collection biosorbent, has been utilized for the removal of Safranin O (SO) dye from an aqueous solution. The biosorption behavior of SO onto the lichen biomass was investigated concerning parameters such as initial SO concentration (10–2000 mg L−1), solution pH (2.0– 12.0), lichen biomass dosage (1–20 g L−1), contact time (2–1440 min), temperature (5 °C, 25 °C, and 40 °C), and recovery were investigated. The zeta potential analyses showed that electrostatic attraction existed during the biosorption process between the SO and lichen biomass. The maximum SO biosorption capacity of the lichen biomass was 0.257 mol kg−1 at pH 6.0 and 25 °C. The biosorption energy for SO onto the lichen biomass was found to be EDR:8.9 kJ mol−1 reveals the biosorption proceeds chemically. The biosorption process follows the pseudo-second order and intra particle diffusion rate kinetics. Thermodynamic studies showed that SO biosorption, by this the lichen biomass is possible, spontaneous, and endothermic. Keywords: Lichen . Evernia prunastri . Biosorption . Cationic dye . SafraninO.
34599Berger F. (2022): Flechten und Flechten bewohnende Pilze im Auwald der Donauinsel „Soldatenau“ bei Passau. - Der Bayerische Wald, 35: 58–75. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/DerBayerischeWald_35_1-2_0058-0075.pdf.
[in German with English abstract: ] 119 lichenized ascomycetes and 27 lichenicolous fungi were encountered on „Soldatenau“, a flat silting island situated in the Danube just downstream of the town Passau. The species list allows conclusions on habitat and pressure due to airborne pollution.
34598Tibell L. (1989): Caliciales exsiccatae. Fasc. 7 (Nos 151-175). - Thunbergia, 8: 1-9. .
34597Tibell L. (1990): Caliciales exsiccatae. Fasc. 8 (Nos 176-200). - Thunbergia, 13: 1-9. .
34596Tibell L. (1990): Caliciales exsiccatae. Fasc. 9 (Nos 201-225). - Thunbergia, 18: 1-15. .
34595Santesson R. (1988): Fungi lichenicoli exsiccati. Fasc. 5–6 (Nos 101–150). - Thunbergia, 6: 1–18. .
Arthonia linitae R. Sant., Lichenopeltella epiphylla R. Sant., Rosellinula frustulosae (Vouaux) R. Sant., Stigmidium hagenidae (Rehm) Hafellner, Stigidium fuscatae (Arnold) R. Sant.
34594Santesson R. (1984): Fungi lichenicoli exsiccati. Fasc. I–II (No 1–50). - Publications from the Herbarium University of Uppsala, 13: 1–20. .
Stigmidium icmadophilae R. Sant.
34593Thell A. & Divakar P.K. (2022): Nephromopsis annae – a new combination in the Parmeliaceae with notes on related species. - Graphis Scripta, 34(5): 51–53. https://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/34_5/GS_34_51.pdf.
A new combination, Nephromopsis annae (Oxner) A.Thell & Divakar is proposed and the basionym Cetraria subalpina Imshaug is preferred over the combination in Nephromopsis.
34592McMullin R.T., Cadranel C., Drotos K.H.I., Maloles J.R., Skuza J.T. & Wegenschimmel C.-A. (2022): Lichens and allied fungi of Rouge National Urban Park in the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario. - Urban Naturalist, 9(55): 1–19. .
Rouge National Urban Park is in the eastern region of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) of southern Ontario. It was established in 2015 and is Canada’s first national urban park. To better understand the biodiversity in the park, we conducted a survey of the lichens and allied fungi and discovered 124 species in 69 genera. Three species are reported for the first time from Canada: Arthonia cf. granosa, Verrucaria dolosa, and V. phloeophila. Two additional species are reported for the first time in Ontario: Halecania sp. and Verrucaria praetermissa. Thirty-three species are new to the GTA. Four species have a provincial rank of S3 (vulnerable). Ten species are considered rare in Ontario. Most of the rare species occur in the narrow southern portion of the park that is heavily forested with deep ravines, flood plains, and old-growth forests. Our results show the importance of protected natural areas in urban landscapes for biodiversity, even for taxa that are sensitive to disturbance, such as species of lichens and their related fungi.
34591Singh G., Calchera A., Merges D., Valim H., Otte J., Schmitt I. & Dal Grande F. (2022): A candidate gene cluster for the bioactive natural product gyrophoric acid in lichen-forming fungi. - Microbiology Spectrum, 10(4): 10.1128/spectrum.00109-22 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.00109-22.
Natural products of lichen-forming fungi are structurally diverse and have a variety of medicinal properties. Despite this, they have limited implementation in industry mostly because the corresponding genes are unknown for most of their natural products. Here, we implement a long-read sequencing and bioinformatic approach to identify the putative biosynthetic gene cluster of the bioactive natural product gyrophoric acid (GA). Using 15 high-quality genomes representing nine GA-producing species of the lichen-forming fungal genus Umbilicaria, we identify the most likely GA cluster and investigate the cluster gene organization and composition across the nine species. Our results show that GA clusters are promiscuous within Umbilicaria, and only three genes are conserved across species, including the polyketide synthase (PKS) gene. In addition, our results suggest that the same cluster codes for different, but structurally similar compounds, namely, GA, umbilicaric-, and hiascic acid, bringing new evidence that lichen metabolite diversity is also generated through regulatory mechanisms at the molecular level. Ours is the first study to identify the most likely GA cluster and, thus, provides essential information to open new avenues for biotechnological approaches to producing and modifying GA and similar lichen-derived compounds. GA PKS is the first tridepside PKS to be identified. Importance: The implementation of natural products in the pharmaceutical industry relies on the possibility of modifying the natural product (NP) pathway to optimize yields and pharmacological effects. Characterization of genes and pathways underlying natural product biosynthesis is a major bottleneck for exploiting the medicinal properties of the natural products. Genome mining is a promising and relatively cost- and time-effective approach to utilize unexplored NP resources for drug discovery. In this study, we identify the most likely gene cluster for the lichen-forming fungal depside gyrophoric acid in nine Umbilicaria species. This compound shows cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties against several cancer cell lines and is also a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent. This information paves the way for generating GA analogs with modified properties by selective activation/ deactivation of genes. Keywords: biosynthetic genes, depsides, fungi, genome mining, long-read sequencing, microbial biotechnology, PKS phylogeny, secondary metabolites, Umbilicaria, genomics, lichen compounds, nonreducing PKSs, pharmaceutically relevant natural products.
34590Mueller G.M., Cunha K.M., May T.W., Allen J.L., Westrip J.R.S., Canteiro C., Costa-Rezende D.H., Drechsler-Santos E.R., Vasco-Palacios A.M., Ainsworth A.M., Alves-Silva G., Bungartz F., Chandler A., Gonçalves S.C., Krisai-Greilhuber I., Iršėnaitė R., Jordal J.B., Kosmann T., Lendemer J., McMullin R.T., Mešić A., Motato-Vásquez V., Ohmura Y., Reese Næsborg R., Perini C., Saar I., Simijaca D., Yahr R. & Dahlberg A. (2022): What do the first 597 Global Fungal Red List assessments tell us about the threat status of fungi?. - Diversity, 14(9): 736 [25 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d14090736.
ungal species are not immune to the threats facing animals and plants and are thus also prone to extinction. Yet, until 2015, fungi were nearly absent on the IUCN Red List. Recent efforts to identify fungal species under threat have significantly increased the number of published fungal assessments. The 597 species of fungi published in the 2022-1 IUCN Red List update (21 July 2022) are the basis for the first global review of the extinction risk of fungi and the threats they face. Nearly 50% of the assessed species are threatened, with 10% NT and 9% DD. For regions with a larger number of assessments (i.e., Europe, North America, and South America), subanalyses are provided. Data for lichenized and nonlichenized fungi are also summarized separately. Habitat loss/degradation followed by climate change, invasive species, and pollution are the primary identified threats. Bias in the data is discussed along with knowledge gaps. Suggested actions to address these gaps are provided along with a discussion of the use of assessments to facilitate on-the-ground conservation efforts. A research agenda for conservation mycology to assist in the assessment process and implementation of effective species/habitat management is presented. Keywords: conservation; threats; Basidiomycota; Ascomycota; lichens; funga; IUCN; extinction risk.
34589Váczi P. & Barták M. (2022): Multispectral aerial monitoring of a patchy vegetation oasis composed of different vegetation classes. UAV-based study exploiting spectral reflectance indices. - Czech Polar Reports, 12(1): 131–142. https://doi.org/10.5817/CPR2022-1-10.
The study brings data on monitoring of spectral refectance signatures of different components of Antarctic terrestrial vegetation by using a high-resolution multispectral images. The aim of the study was to compare several spots of a vegetation oasis by mapping vegetation cover using an UAV approach. This study provides data on vegetation distribution within a long-term research plot (LTRP) located at the northern coast of James Ross Island (Antarctica). Apart from normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), 10 spectral reflectance indices (NDVI, NDVIRed-edge, RGBVI, NGRDI, ExG, TGI MSR, MSRRed-edge, Clgreen, ClRed-edge, GLI) were evaluated for different spots representing vegetation classes dominated by different Antarctic autotrophs. The UAV application and spectral reflectance indices proved their capability to detect and map small-area vegetated patches (with the smallest area of 10 cm2) dominated by different Antarctic autotrophs, and identify their classes (moss / lichens / biological soil crusts / microbiological mats / stream bottom microbiological mats). The methods used in our study revealed sufficiently high resolution of particular vegetation-covered surfaces and the spectral indices provided important indicators for environmental characteristics of the long-term research plot at the James Ross Island, Antarctica. Keywords: remote sensing, UAV, James Ross Island, vegetation mapping, spectral reflectance, functional substrate types.
34588Puhovkin A., Bezsmertna O. & Parnikoza I. (2022): Interspecific differences in desiccation tolerance of selected Antarctic lichens: Analysis of photosystem II effectivity and quenching mechanisme. - Czech Polar Reports, 12(1): 31–43. https://doi.org/10.5817/CPR2022-1-3.
Lichens can survive and cope with unsufficient water supply resulting in low in-trathalline relative water content.Under such conditions, photosynthesis is negatively affected by different degree of dehydration. In our study, fully hydrated samples of Xanthoria elegans, Umbilicaria decussata and Usnea aurantiaco-atra were light-accli-mated and during following desiccation from a fully hydrated to dry state, steady-statechlorophyll fluorescence (FS), effective quantum yield of photochemical processes in PSII (ФPSII), and nonphotochemical quenching (qN) were measured in response to decreasing relative water content (RWC). The three experimental lichen species showed a high desiccation tolerance. The desiccation-induced decrease in ФPSII was found in X. elegans, U. decussata and U. aurantiaco-atra, at the RWC values below 30%. This is well comparable to the evidence reached in other Arctic/Antarctic lichen species. Inter-specific differences in desiccation tolerance of these selected Antarctic lichens, based on the analysis of photosystem II effectivity and quenching mechanisms, were described and discussed.Key words: chlorophyll fluorescence, drought stress, James Ross Island, Nelson Island, primary photosynthetic processes.
34587Chesnokov S.V., Konoreva L.A. & Davydov E.A. (2022): Addition to the lichen biota of Franz Josef Land archipelago. - Czech Polar Reports, 12(1): 78–88. https://doi.org/10.5817/CPR2022-1-6.
Forty-four new lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus have been identified as a result of studies of the lichen biota of the Franz Josef Land archipelago. Bryocaulon hyperboreum was reported for the first time from Russia. Gyalecta hypoleuca and Umbilicaria maculata were first identified in the Arctic. Arctocetraria andrejevii, Brodoa oroarctica, Candelariella borealis, Cercidospora stereocaulorum, Massalongia carnosa, Miriquidica nigroleprosa, M. plumbeoatra, Myriolecis zosterae var. palanderi and Polyblastia gothica are new to the Arkhangelsk Region; and Arthrorhaphis citrinella, Mycoblastus alpinus, Racodium rupestre, Rhizocarpon ferax, Scytinium intermedium, Stereocaulon glareosum are new to the Arctic part of the Arkhangelsk Region. Species new to Arkhangelsk Region, Arctic and Russia are supplied with information on distribution in neighboring regions and world and on differences from closely related species. The checklist of the Franz Josef Land archipelago thus includes 277 species and 6 varieties of lichenized and 43 lichenicolous fungi to date. Keywords: Arctic, Arkhangelsk Region, lichenized fungi, new records.
34586Borgato L., Ertz D., Van Rossum F. & Verbeken A. (2022): The diversity of lichenized trentepohlioid algal (Ulvophyceae) communities is driven by fungal taxonomy and ecological factors. - Journal of Phycology, 58: 582–602. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpy.13252.
Trentepohliales are a group of both free-living and lichenized algae, with most diversity occurring in tropical regions. Recent studies showed that the abundance of lichens with a trentepohlioid photobiont has been increasing in temperate habitats, probably because of global warming, which makes them an interesting study case. A detailed molecular study of the diversity of lichenized Trentepohliales, epiphytic as well as epilithic, was performed in three forests of north-western Europe. Additional samples of lichens of the Arthoniales order (associating essentially with a trentepohlioid photobiont) from other European regions and from other continents were also sequenced. A total of 195 algal sequences were obtained. Phylogenetic analyses with rbcL and ITS loci were performed and associations between phylogenetic distances of photobionts and ecological factors (substratum, climate or Wirth indices, mycobiont taxonomy, and geographic location) were tested by variation partitioning and phylogenetic signal analyses. The high number of rbcL algal haplotypes found in some lichens or on different substrata revealed that the Trentepohliales diversity in extratropical regions was underestimated. The phylogenetic patterns showed selectivity of some photobionts in their fungal partner choice and vice-versa, while others were linked with several haplotypes. Photobionts seemed to be less selective than mycobionts. The main factors influencing lichenized algal community were climate and mycobiont species. Coevolution between mycobionts and photobionts as well as switching between free living and lichenized lifestyles appeared to drive the evolution of Trentepohliales and might explain the high cryptic diversity observed, which might be changing in some regions due to climate change. Key index words: Climate change; ITS; mycobiont; photobiont; phylogenetic signal; rbcL; selectivity; symbiosis; variation partitioning.
34585Lücking R., Moncada B., Widhelm T.J., Lumbsch H.T., Blanchon D.J. & de Lange P.J. (2022): The Sticta filix - Sticta lacera conundrum (lichenized Ascomycota: Peltigeraceae subfamily Lobarioideae): unresolved lineage sorting or developmental switch?. - Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 199(3): 706–727. https://doi.org/10.1093/botlinnean/boab083.
We assessed the status of two New Zealand endemic morphodemes in the genus Sticta, currently treated as two separate taxa, Sticta filix and Sticta lacera. Both are green-algal lichens with a distinct stipe that grow in forested habitats and are suitable indicators of the indigenous vegetation health in forest ecosystems in New Zealand. They exhibit different morphologies and substrate ecologies: S. filix forms rather robust thalli, often on exposed trunks of phorophytes, with erect stems distinctly emerging from the substrate, whereas S. lacera is a more delicate lichen growing near the base of trees, usually among bryophyte mats or sheltered in the exposed portions of the phorophyte root-plate, with a prostrate, branched, stolon-like stem barely emerging from the substrate. Throughout their range, both taxa grow sympatrically and often in close proximity (syntopically). Despite the differences, ITS barcoding does not support the two morphodemes as separate species. In this study we assessed two possible explanations: (1) S. filix and S. lacera are discrete phenotypes of a single species, caused by developmental switching triggered by a discrete environmental variable, the propagules developing either on bare substrate or between bryophytes; and (2) the two morphodemes represent separate lineages, but ITS does not provide sufficient resolution to reflect this. We performed a quantitative analysis of morphological and ecological parameters, based on vouchered herbarium collections and field observations on iNaturalist NZ (https://inaturalist.nz), to assess the level of discreteness of the growth forms and to test for a correlation with the presence of a bryophyte mat. We further took advantage of an existing molecular data set from a target capture approach, comprised of 205 protein markers. This data set was used to establish a framework of percentage identities between pairs of the same and of different species among lobarioid Peltigeraceae and then to test whether the S. filix/lacera pairing fell closer to a within-species or a between-species pairing. The morphometric analysis of herbarium material resolved S. filix and S. lacera as two discrete morphs with little overlap, supported by numerous observations on iNaturalist NZ. However, whereas herbarium material suggested a significant association of the lacera morph with bryophyte mats, no such pattern was evident from field images on iNaturalist NZ, in which both morphs frequently associated with bryophyte mats. This highlights the limitations of herbarium material to correctly assess substrate ecology, whereas iNaturalist NZ postings had issues with correct identifications, given that especially S. lacera is easily confused with Pseudocyphellaria multifida. Based on the target capture data, the percentage identity of the S. filix/lacera pairing (99.43%) was significantly higher than that of all 12 between-species pairings (93.20–98.01%); it was at the same time lower than that of all within-species pairings (99.63–99.99%) but significantly so only in comparison with five out of the eight within-species pairings. The target capture approach is thus inconclusive, but the combination of all data suggests that S. filix and S. lacera are not discrete morphodemes of a single species but represent two separate lineages which emerged recently and hence cannot be resolved using the ITS barcoding marker or even a deeper phylogenomic approach based on protein-coding markers. We propose transplantation experiments and the application of RADseq to further assess this situation. Keywords: conservation, environmental indicators, fungal barcoding, genome skimming, iNaturalist NZ, integrative taxonomy, phylogenetic resolution.
34584Garrido-Benavent I., Molins A. & Barreno E. (2022): Genetic variation in the symbiont partners in the endangered macrolichen Seirophora villosa (Teloschistaceae: Ascomycota). - Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 199(4): 816–829. https://doi.org/10.1093/botlinnean/boab100.
The decline observed in many populations of highly sensitive lichens has led to the inclusion of some species on regional Red Lists, but this has seldom been accompanied by an examination of the genetic variation of the fungal and algal symbiotic partners. Here, the red-listed epiphytic lichen Seirophora villosa was surveyed in 14 Mediterranean coastal populations to examine the genetic diversity of both partners. The geographical distribution of four-locus haplotypes followed the same trend in mycobiont and photobiont data sets, some being widespread and others restricted to single localities. The fungus showed a moderate selectivity in its photobiont choice, associating with two undescribed Trebouxia microalgae with a biased distribution across the western Mediterranean. One alga species occurred exclusively in the Italian Peninsula. This region also hosted the highest number of haplotypes for both symbionts. The use of 454-pyrosequencing revealed no clear signs of algal coexistence within selected thalli. The phylogenetic reconstruction for the mycobiont showed uncertain limits among Seirophora spp., stressing the need for further taxonomic evaluation. Additionally, we found that Ramalina lacera, a co-occurring epiphytic lichen in the studied area, shared photobiont genotypes with S. villosa. Our results thus suggest that the protection not only of the red-listed species S. villosa, but also of the whole epiphytic lichen community investigated here might be advisable. Keywords: coastal habitat – conservation – fungi – Juniperus – lichens – Mediterranean – microalgae – phylogeny – phylogeography – red-listing.
34583Fernández-Prado N., Aragón G., Prieto M., Benítez Á. & Martínez I. (2022): Differences in epiphytic trunk communities in secondary forests and plantations of southern Ecuador. - Forestry, 2022: cpac034 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/cpac034.
Deforestation is the most important cause of biodiversity loss in tropical ecosystems. Epiphytic species, lichens and bryophytes, are very sensitive to environmental changes, including those produced by conversion of primary forests into secondary vegetation. However, little is known about the differences between different secondary forests and plantations regarding the epiphytic biota. We compared epiphytic communities among different secondary forests and non-native plantations in southern Ecuador. Four forest typeswere considered: non-native Pinus patula plantations, monospecific secondary forests of Alnus acuminata, monospecific secondary forests of Andesanthus lepidotus and mixed secondary forests. Within each forest type, two stands were surveyed, establishing a total of 80 plots and analyzing four trees per plot. We estimated lichen and bryophyte cover in four inventories per tree and calculated and compared different metrics for taxonomic and functional diversity, as well as community composition. The results revealed forest type as the major predictor for the species and functional traits richness, and for diversity and composition. In total, 422 taxa were identified (312 lichens and 110 bryophytes), with mixed secondary forests having the richest communities (194 species) and nonnative plantations having the lowest richness (105 species). Bryophyte richness was highest in A. lepidotus forests. Taxonomic and functional diversity, and species composition differed greatly among forest types and followed a different pattern depending on the organism considered. Lichens were the most sensitive indicators of environmental conditions associated with different tropical forest types.
34582Yarzábal L.A., Buela L., de los Ríos A., Peláez D., Romero M., Espinoza F., Torres A.S., Medina G.M., Landi J.G. & Tapia M.V. (2022): Biological deterioration of an Inca monument at high altitude in the Andean range: A case study from Ingapirca’s Temple of the Sun (Ecuador). - Heritage, 5(3): 2504–2518. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage5030130.
Scientific studies concerning the causes and consequences of the biodeterioration of stone monuments located at high altitudes in permanently cold, mountainous regions are scarce. For that reason, this study aimed to detect and identify the bacteria involved in the deterioration of this type of monument. To achieve this goal, we focused on the most important archeological Inca site in the Ecuadorian Andes: Ingapirca’s Temple of the Sun, built approximately 500 years ago at 3.100 m.a.s.l. We first examined the stone surfaces of the temple by scanning electron microscopy and showed the detrimental impact on the mineral structure of the green andesite mineral used to build the temple, caused by crustose lichen thalli and heterotrophic bacteria. Then, we isolated, characterized, and identified several of these bacteria. Most of them multiplied at a wide range of temperatures, from 4 C to 30 C, and were thus considered eurypsychrophiles. Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria species dominated the culturable fraction of this community. Several isolates produced metabolites that solubilized mineral phosphates at low temperatures; others solubilized iron-containing mineral fractions in the green andesite rock when tested in vitro. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report related to the biodeterioration of an Inca monument at such an altitude in the Andes range. Keywords: Inca monument; biodeterioration; heterotrophic bacteria; eurypsychrophilic bacteria; Andean mountains.
34581Lynikienė J., Gedminas A., Marčiulynas A., Marčiulynienė D. & Menkis A. (2022): Can Larix sp. Mill. provide suitable habitats for insects and lichens associated with stems of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. in northern Europe?. - Diversity, 14: 729 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d14090729.
Recent observations suggest that climate change affects the growth conditions and range of tree species distribution in Europe. This may also have a major effect on communities of different organisms associated with these tree species. We aimed to determine whether Larix sp. could provide suitable habitats to insects and lichens associated with P. abies to conserve their biodiversity under climate change. The study sites were 10 Larix sp. and 10 P. abies forest stands in Lithuania. Both living and dead trees were included. Sticky traps, bark sheets, and exit hole methods were used for the assessment of insects. Independent plots on tree stems were established for the assessment of lichens. There were 76 and 67 different insect species on dead and living P. abies, respectively, using sticky traps. Similarly, there were 64 and 68 on dead and living Larix sp., respectively. The overall community of xylophagous insects consisted of nine and eight species, which were detected using the bark sheet and exit hole methods, respectively. The bark area colonized by lichens was 34.3% on dead P. abies and 63.2% on dead Larix sp., and 40.4% on living P. abies and 78.0% on living Larix sp. Taken together, the results demonstrate that native P. abies and introduced Larix sp. support similar diversity of stem-associated insect and lichen species. Keywords: biodiversity; climate change; Norway spruce; larch; insects; lichens; forest management.
34580Miranda-González R., Epitacio-Joaquin G., Tehler A., Téllez N.S. & Herrera-Campos M.A. (2022): Roccella ramitumidula (Roccellaceae), a new species from the tropical dry forest of Mexico. - Bryologist, 125(3): 477–484. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.3.477.
The new species Roccella ramitumidula is described from a tropical dry forest in the Pacific Coast of Mexico. The new species is characterized by fertile thalli, saxicolous habit, irregularly swollen branches and erythrin and lecanoric acid as lichen products. It differs from R. decipiens by its narrower and longer ascospores, irregularly swollen branches, uneven surface, and smaller branches. Sequences of the genetic markers ITS, nuLSU and RPB2 from the new species were added to a phylogenetic tree based on four genetic markers that included all the Roccella species known for the Americas. The biogeography and ecology of the species is discussed. We reported R. gracilis for the first time for the state of Jalisco, Mexico. Keywords: New species, biogeography, Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere Reserve, hurricane effects, lichen systematics, phylogeny.
34579Doležal J., Dančák M., Kučera J., Majeský L., Altman J., Řeháková K., Čapková K., Vondrák J., Fibich P. & Liancourt P. (2022): Fire, climate and biotic interactions shape diversity patterns along an Afrotropical elevation gradient. - Journal of Biogeography, 49: 1248–1259. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.14378.
Aim: Untangling multiple drivers influencing biodiversity along elevation gradients is necessary for predicting the consequences of climate change on mountain communities. We examine the direct and indirect effects of macroclimate, edaphic conditions, fire frequency and putative biotic interactions on species richness and abundance of co-occurring primary producers on Mount Cameroon. Location: Mount Cameroon, Cameroon. Taxon: vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens, and soil microbial phototrophs. Methods: We combine ground-level survey of multi-taxa diversity, soil nutrient stoichiometry, continuous climate monitoring using dataloggers and remote sensing data, for 115 plots sampled along a 2200–4000 m elevation gradient. We used GAMs to assess elevational patterns in ecosystem properties and SEMs to determine their direct and indirect effects on species richness and abundance. Results: Vascular plant diversity peaked at mid-elevation and emerged from the combined effects of intermediate levels of energy, total above-ground standing biomass, fire frequency, guild abundances and edaphic conditions. Bryophyte–lichen diversity increased monotonically towards high elevation with decreasing temperature and increasing nutrient scarcity, while the diversity of soil phototrophs peaked at both lower elevation fire-prone Afromontane and cold higher elevation Afroalpine zones. The role of macroclimate was indirect and scale dependent. Higher temperatures increased plant richness mainly indirectly via enhanced fire frequency, while soil N:P ratio had direct positive effect on plant richness. Precipitation decreased plant richness indirectly via decreased fire frequency. Fires also increased plant and bryophyte– lichen cover. Positive bryophyte–lichen and vascular plants associations strengthened in the Afroalpine zone. Main conclusions: We demonstrate the role of disturbance/fire and biotic interactions in mitigating macroclimate effects and in controlling variation in community diversity along elevation gradients. While the macroclimate is often a strong predictor of ecological patterns along elevation gradients, our study illustrates that attributing these patterns exclusively to climate can lead to an incorrect assessment of the impact of climate change on biodiversity. Keywords: biotic interactions, elevation gradient, fire disturbance, precipitation, scale, soil fertility, species richness, temperature.
34578Miller J.E.D., Weill A.M. & Villella J. (2022): Epiphytic macrolichen communities take decades to recover after high-severity wildfire in chaparral shrublands. - Diversity and Distributions, 28: 454–462. DOI: 10.1111/ddi.13295.
Aim: Fire regimes are shifting globally due to climate change, land management practices and population growth, putting species at risk if they are unable to adapt to more frequent or severe wildfires. While many fire-adapted species may be able to accommodate some amount of change in fire regimes, fire-sensitive or late-successional species that colonize fire-prone ecosystems between wildfires may be especially vulnerable to more frequent or severe fires. Here, we seek to understand the rate of lichen recolonization after high-severity fires in an ecosystem that is experiencing increasing fire frequency. Location: The Inner North Coast Range of California, USA. Methods: Using a chronosequence of wildfires in a Northern California chaparral shrubland, we compare lichen communities among sites that burned 3, 13, 22, 30 and 65 years previously, as well as old-growth chaparral sites without a recorded fire over the past century. Results: We find that lichen richness increases consistently with time since fire but begins to level off 20–30 years following fire, roughly corresponding to the closure of the shrub canopy. Some taxa and guilds were found only in old-growth chaparral. Conclusions: Our findings highlight that fire-intolerant organisms may be relatively slow to recolonize landscapes after high-severity fire and that the majority of chaparral lichen taxa may be lost where fire intervals shorten to <20 years, which has already occurred in some parts of California. Keywords: biodiversity, chaparral, chronosequence, dispersal, disturbance, fire regimes, succession.
34577Masumoto H. & Degawa Y. (2022): Cyphellostereum ushimanum sp. nov. (Hygrophoraceae, Agaricales) described from Amami‑Oshima Island (Kagoshima Prefecture, Ryukyu Islands), Japan, with ultrastructural observations of its Rhizonema photobiont flaments penetrated longitudinally by a central haustorium. - Mycological Progress, 21: 167–179. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-021-01766-w.
We collected a resupinate fungus lichenized with flamentous Rhizonema cyanobacteria in Amami-Oshima Island, Japan. Microscopic observations and molecular phylogenetic analyses of both the basidioma and the lichenized thallus indicated afnities within Cyphellostereum, the frst record of this basidiomycete genus from Japan. Its unique combination of structural characters and ITS rDNA sequences suggests a new species, described here as C. ushimanum. Light and transmission electron microscopic observations revealed tubular intracellular haustoria penetrating longitudinally within the cyanobacterial cells, a feature typically seen in the related genus Dictyonema, but unusual in Cyphellostereum. The generic circumscription of Cyphellostereum was therefore emended to include features of C. ushimanum and other recently described species that deviate from the conventional defnition of the genus. Ultrastructural details of symbiont interactions are provided for the frst time in this genus. We also succeeded in cultivating the fungus from hyphae regenerated from thallus fragments, and include a brief description of those results. Keywords: Athelia · Culture · Haustorium · Lichenized basidiomycetes · Rhizonema · TEM.
34576Thiyagaraja V., Ertz D., Hyde K.D., Karunarathna S.C., To-Anun C. & Cheewangkoon R. (2022): Morphological and phylogenetic reassessment of Sclerococcum simplex from China. - Phytotaxa, 559(2): 167–175. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.559.2.5.
Sclerococcum is a species rich lichenicolous genus in Ascomycota. However, many species of Sclerococcum have been described based only on morphology. This study provides sequences for the large-subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU), internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and mitochondrial small-subunit ribosomal RNA (mtSSU) for the first time for Sclerococcum simplex, and the first geographical record of the genus from China. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that S. simplex clustered within Sclerococcum sensu stricto while the genus was recovered as paraphyletic in Dactylosporaceae. Our asexual specimen of Sclerococcum simplex was collected on a corticolous Pertusaria thallus. The taxonomic affinity of Sclerococcum simplex is investigated based on phylogenetic and morphological evidence. Keywords: asexual morph, Dactylosporaceae, lichenicolous, Pertusaria.
34575Dominguez R.D., Stanton D., Peralta M. & Rodriguez J.M. (2022): Water regulation dynamics of lichens as functional traits could predict future climate change scenarios in an elevational gradient from Central Argentina. - Bryologist, 125(3): 466–476. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.3.466.
Mountain top environments are particularly vulnerable to climate change effects, given that biological organisms in these systems live at specific temperature conditions. The poikilohydric nature of lichens emphasizes variables like water holding capacity (WHC) and the hydrophobicity of the thallus to understand the species occupational patterns in altitudinal gradients and microsites. WHC and hydrophobicity were measured in 3 saxicolous species with 2 different morphologies in an elevational mountain gradient of Central Argentina: Usnea amblyoclada, Parmotrema reticulatum and Parmotrema warmingii. We measured WHC in three elevations corresponding to the distribution range of the species, and 3 microsite conditions: north (equatorial-facing)/south (polar-facing) aspect with high steep inclination >70° and rock outcrops with low steep inclination <20°. Results show differences between U. amblyoclada, P. reticulatum, and P. warmingii for measured traits. Hydrophobicity and WHC of U. amblyoclada showed a significant interaction between microsite and elevation. WHC of P. reticulatum was greater at 900 m.a.s.l. while its hydrophobicity was higher at 1800 m.a.s.l. WHC and hydrophobicity of P. warmingii are higher in samples from south-facing rocks. Results suggest that P. reticulatum can acclimate at microsite level without the ability to cope with more drastic environmental demands, losing the possibility to migrate to higher elevations in a climatic change scenario, while U. amblyoclada show higher intraspecific water retention variations, hence a wider potential distribution. P. warmingii could migrate to more protected microsites but will tend to disappear in an extreme scenario where temperature will increase. Keywords: Water holding capacity, hydrophobicity, Parmotrema, Usnea, microsites, South America.
34574Aptroot A., Souza M.F., dos Santos L.A., Oliveira Junior I., Barbosa B.M.C. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2022): New species of lichenized fungi from Brazil, with a record report of 492 species in a small area of the Amazon Forest. - Bryologist, 125(3): 433–465. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.3.433.
We report a record lichen biodiversity from a small area in the Brazilian Amazon, with 492 identifiable lichen species within nine hectares of protected forest, in the Cristalino Reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil, collected during one week. This is already an absolute world record, but given our observations while in the field, and the fact that we sampled only a small fraction to the area, we hypothesize that the number of species in this area could be even much higher, well establishing that lichen biodiversity per area in the tropics is higher than elsewhere. Among the species reported, two are new to the southern hemisphere, nine are new to the Neotropics, 30 are first reports for Brazil, and 247 are new to Mato Grosso state. We also describe 40 new lichenized fungi species, mainly from the Amazon, 19 of which are from Cristalino Reserve: Aggregatorygma lichexanthonicum, Allographa pruinodisca, Architrypethelium submuriforme, Astrothelium gyalostiolatum, A. infravulcanum, A. inspersonitidulum, A. parathelioides, A. quintannulare, A. quintosulphureum, A. squamosum, A. stromatocinnamomeum, A. xanthosordithecium, Caloplaca cinereosquamosa, Carbacanthographis tetrinspersa, Cladonia megafurcata, Coniarthonia echinospora, C. micromuralis, Coniocarpon foliicola, Cresponea pallidosorediata, Cryptothecia demethylconfluentica, C. methylperlatolica, C. parvopsoromica, Fissurina isohypocrellina, Heterodermia apicalis, Lecidella fuliginea, Malmidea densisidiata, M. nigra, Mazosia flavida, Multisporidea conidiophora, Porina albotomentosa, P. muralisidiata, Psorinia cyanea, Ramboldia badia, Saxiloba pruinosa, Sclerophyton perithecioideum, Sporopodium soredioflavescens, Synarthonia xanthonica, Tingiopsidium tropicum, Tylophoron rufescens, and Viridothelium sinuosogelatinosum. Identification keys are given to the Brazilian species of Coniarthonia and Cryptothecia. Keywords: Lichens, biodiversity, Mato Grosso, Reserva Cristalino, Trypetheliaceae, Arthoniaceae, Argentina.
34573Perez-Mon C., Stierli B., Plötze M. & Frey B. (2022): Fast and persistent responses of alpine permafrost microbial communities to in situ warming. - Science of the Total Environment, 807: 150720 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150720.
Global warming in mid-latitude alpine regions results in permafrost thawing, together with greater availability of carbon and nutrients in soils and frequent freeze–thaw cycles. Yet it is unclear how these multifactorial changes will shape the 1 m-deep permafrost microbiome in the future, and how this will in turn modulate microbiallymediated feedbacks between mountain soils and climate (e.g. soil CO2 emissions). To unravel the responses of the alpine permafrost microbiome to in situ warming, we established a three-year experiment in a permafrost monitoring summit in the Alps. Specifically, we simulated conditions of warming by transplanting permafrost soils from a depth of 160 cm either to the active-layer topsoils in the north-facing slope or in the warmer south-facing slope, near the summit. qPCR-based and amplicon sequencing analyses indicated an augmented microbial abundance in the transplanted permafrost, driven by the increase in copiotrophic prokaryotic taxa (e.g. Noviherbaspirillum and Massilia) and metabolically versatile psychrotrophs (e.g. Tundrisphaera and Granulicella); which acclimatized to the changing environment and potentially benefited from substrates released upon thawing. Metabolically restricted Patescibacteria lineages vastly decreased with warming, as reflected in the loss of α-diversity in the transplanted soils. Ascomycetous sapro-pathotrophs (e.g. Tetracladium) and a few lichenized fungi (e.g. Aspicilia) expanded in the transplanted permafrost, particularly in soils transplanted to the warmer south-facing slope, replacing basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Glaciozyma). The transplantation-induced loosening of microbial association networks in the permafrost could potentially indicate lesser cooperative interactions between neighboring microorganisms. Broader substrate-use microbial activities measured in the transplanted permafrost could relate to altered soil C dynamics. The three-year simulated warming did not, however, enhance heterotrophic respiration, which was limited by the carbon-depleted permafrost conditions. Collectively, our quantitative findings suggest the vulnerability of the alpine permafrost microbiome to warming, which might improve predictions on microbially-modulated transformations of mountain soil ecosystems under the future climate. Keywords: Alpine; Climate change; Microbial community; Permafrost; Transplantation; Warming.
34572Santesson R. (2008): Fungi Lichenicoli Exsiccati. Fasc. 15 & 16 (Nos 351-400). - Thunbergia, 36: 1-21. http://www.evolutionsmuseet.uu.se/publikation/thunbergia36.pdf.
Isotypes of the following species are distributed: Lichenostigma super- tegentis Ihlen & R.Sant., Opegrapha phaeophysciae R.Sant., Diederich, Ertz & Christnach, Plectocarpon bunodophori Wedin, Ertz & Diederich, Plectocarpon concentricum Ertz, Diederich & Wedin, Plectocarpon latisporum Ertz, Diederich & Wedin, Plectocarpon pseudoleuckertii Diederich, Ertz & Wedin and Stigmidium epixanthum Hafellner. An index to the 400 numbers hitherto distributed is presented and lists of the six described taxa, the six new combinations, and the fourteen isotypes are given. A summary of publication dates for the sixteen fascicles is presented
34571Santesson R. (1998): Fungi Lichenicoli Exsiccati. Fasc. 11 & 12 (Nos 251-300). - Thunbergia, 22: 1-19. http://www.evolutionsmuseet.uu.se/publikation/thunbergia28.pdf.
Lichenopeltella thamnoliae sp. nov. (Colombia; on Thamnolia vermicularis)
34570Santesson R. (1994): Fungi Lichenicoli Exsiccati. Fasc. 9 & 10 (Nos 201-250). - Thunbergia, 22: 1-24. http://www.evolutionsmuseet.uu.se/publikation/thunbergia22.pdf.
Endococcus apiciicola (J. Steiner) comb.nov. Also includes an index to the first 10 fascicles
34569Santesson R. (1994): Fungi Lichenicoli Exsiccati, Fasc. 7 & 8 (Nos 151-200). - Thunbergia, 21: 1-18. http://www.evolutionsmuseet.uu.se/publikation/thunbergia21.pdf.
Karschia inops Triebel & Rambold sp. nov. (Australia, on Caloplaca cinnabarina), Plectocarpon cladoniae sp. nov. (Sweden, Norway, on Cladonia pyxidata). Isotypes are also distributed for previously described Arthonia peltigerea, A. pseudocyphellariae, A. subconveniens, and Reconditella physconiarum
34568Santesson R. (1986): Fungi Lichenicoli Exsiccati. Fasc. 3-4 (Nos 51-100). - Thunbergia, 3: 1-18. http://www.evolutionsmuseet.uu.se/publikation/thunbergia03.pdf.
Labels for nos. 51-100 in this exsiccat. Arthonia gelidae sp. nov. and A. molendoi (Frauenfeld) comb. nov.] foliicolous, new taxa, Arthonia
34567Ходосовцев О.Є., Безсмертна О.О. & Мерленко Н.О. [Khodosovtsev A.Ye., Bezsmertna O.O. & Merlenko N.O.] (2022): Перші відомості щодо лишайників та ліхенофільних грибів Ківерцівського національного природного парку «Цуманська пуща» [The first contribution to lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Kivertsy National Nature Park «Tsumanska Pushcha»]. - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 18(1): 79–86. doi: 10.32999/ksu1990-553X/2022-18-1-5.
[in Ukrainian with English abstract: ] The first data on the lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Kivertsy National Natural Park «Tsumanska Pushcha» are reported. Totally, 50 species of lichens and one lichenicolous fungus were found. Among them, Acrocordia gemmata, Arthonia radiata, Athallia pyracea, Biatora chrysantha, Catillaria nigroclavata, Chaenotheca phaeocephala, Cladonia cariosa, C. coniocraea, Coppinsidea croatica, Heterocephalacria physciacearum Graphis scripta, Lecaniella naegelii, Lecanora expallens, Lepra albescens, L. amara, Lepraria incana, L. finkii, Mycobilimbia epixanthoides, Phlyctis argena, Peltigera didactyla, Porina aenea, Physcia tenella, Placynthiella uliginosa, Polyozosia persimilis, P. sambuci, Pseudoschismatomma rufescens, Rinodina freyi, Scoliciosporum sarothamni are new to the Volyn region. Coppinsidea croatica is recorded for the first time for the lowland part of Ukraine. Rinodina freyi are new for Ukraine. This species is common in the forest areas of Asia, Europe and North America. It is a pioneer lichen on thin twigs of shrubs or damaged areas (scars) on the bark of trees. Rinodina freyi is characterized by a thin, almost inconspicuous gray thallus with flat areolas and negative reactions to chemical tests, sessile apothecia 0.4–0.7 µm in diameter with a grayish-brown thalline margin (50–70 μm thick), and Physcia-type ascospores 15–19 × 6.5–8.5 µm. Lichen communities are presented mainly by epiphytic species that grow on the bark of Alnus incana, Quercus robur, Salix fragilis. Low number of species were found sandy soil of river terraces. Acrocordia gemmata is a species that was included in the regional Red List of the Volyn region. Keywords: Rinodina freyi, biodiversity, Volyn region, Ukraine.
34566Zulfiqar R., Razzaq F., Afshan N., Fayyaz I., Habib K., Khalid A.N. & Paukov A.G. (2022): Three new species of Lobothallia (Megasporaceae, Pertusariales, Ascomycota) from Pakistan and a new combination in the genus. - Mycological Progress, 21: 80 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-022-01830-z.
Three new species Lobothallia elobulata, L. iqbalii, and L. pakistanica from Pakistan are described as new to science and illustrated. Lobothallia elobulata is characterized by the absence of lobes, the presence of a distinct black hypothallus, and small, almost sphaeric ascospores 9–12 × 5–8 μm. Lobothallia iqbalii is characterized by its crustose–placodioid thallus with large appressed apothecia, single on areole, a high hymenium, 100–150 μm tall, and absence of prothallus and secondary metabolites. Lobothallia pakistanica is characterized by its thin, closely adnate, lobate thallus, lecanorine–aspiciloid apothecia, 2–3 on areole, and the absence of secondary metabolites. A comparative morpho-anatomical study and ITS-based molecular analysis confirmed the position of the species within the genus Lobothallia. Keywords Gilgit–Baltistan . Azad Jammu and Kashmir . Kohistan . Lichenized fungi . Taxonomy . ITS . Phylogeny.
34565Popovici V., Matei E., Cozaru G.C., Bucur .L, Gîrd C.E., Schröder V., Ozon E.A., Karampelas O., Musuc A.M., Atkinson I., Rusu A., Petrescu S., Mitran R.-A., Anastasescu M., Caraiane A., Lupuliasa D., Aschie M. & Badea V. (2022): Evaluation of Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg extract in canola oil loaded in bioadhesive oral Films for potential applications in oral cavity infections and malignancy. - Antioxidants, 11(8): 1601 [35 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11081601.
Usnea lichens are known for their beneficial pharmacological effects with potential applications in oral medicine. This study aims to investigate the extract of Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg from the Călimani Mountains in canola oil as an oral pharmaceutical formulation. In the present work, bioadhesive oral films (F-UBO) with U. barbata extract in canola oil (UBO) were formulated, characterized, and evaluated, evidencing their pharmacological potential. The UBO-loaded films were analyzed using standard methods regarding physicochemical and pharmacotechnical characteristics to verify their suitability for topical administration on the oral mucosa. F-UBO suitability confirmation allowed for the investigation of antimicrobial and anticancer potential. The antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27353, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, and Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019 were evaluated by a resazurin-based 96-well plate microdilution method. The brine shrimp lethality assay (BSL assay) was the animal model cytotoxicity prescreen, followed by flow cytometry analyses on normal blood cells and oral epithelial squamous cell carcinoma CLS-354 cell line, determining cellular apoptosis, caspase-3/7 activity, nuclear condensation and lysosomal activity, oxidative stress, cell cycle, and cell proliferation. The results indicate that a UBO-loaded bioadhesive film’s weight is 63 ± 1.79 mg. It contains 315 µg UBO, has a pH = 6.97 ± 0.01, a disintegration time of 124 ± 3.67 s, and a bioadhesion time of 86 ± 4.12 min, being suitable for topical administration on the oral mucosa. F-UBO showed moderate dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the growth of both bacterial and fungal strains. Moreover, in CLS-354 tumor cells, F-UBO increased oxidative stress, diminished DNA synthesis, and induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. All these properties led to considering UBO-loaded bioadhesive oral films as a suitable phytotherapeutic formulation with potential application in oral infections and neoplasia. Keywords: Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg; canola oil; bioadhesive oral films; poloxamer 407; antimicrobial activity; Artemia salina; blood cells; CLS-354 tumor cell line; anticancer activity.
34564Egea J.M. & Torrente P. (1997): Tres nuevas especies de hongos liquenizados de la provincia del Cabo (Sudafrica) - Correccion. - Cryptogamie, Bryologie-Lichénologie, 18(1): 77-77. .
New: Arthonia brussei nom. nov. (for A. capensis Egea & Torrente.)
34563Kerboua M., Monia A.A., Samba N., Silva L., Raposo C., Díez D. & Rodilla J.M. (2022): Phytochemical composition of lichen Parmotrema hypoleucinum (J. Steiner) Hale from Algeria. - Molecules, 27(16): 5229 [25 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27165229.
In this work, we carried out studies of the chemical composition of hexane, chloroform and ethanol extracts from two samples of the lichen Parmotrema hypoleucinum collected in Algeria. Each sample of the lichen P. hypoleucinum was collected on two different supports: Olea europaea and Quercus coccifera. Hexane extracts were prepared, in Soxhlet; each hexane extract was fractionated by its solubility in methanol; the products soluble in methanol were separated (cold): 1-Hexane, 2-Hexane; and the products insoluble in methanol (cold): 1-Cires, 2-Cires. A diazomethane esterified sample of 1-Hexane, 2-Hexane, 1-Cires and 2-Cires was analyzed by GC-MS, and the components were identified as methyl esters. In the 1-Hexane and 2-Hexane fractions, the methyl esters of the predominant fatty acids in the lichen were identified: palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid; a hydrocarbon was also identified: 13-methyl-17-norkaur-15-ene and several derivatives of orsellinic acid. In the 1-Cires and 2-Cires fractions, the previous fatty acids were no longer observed, and only the derivatives of orsellinic acid were found. The analysis of the 1-Hexane, 2-Hexane fractions by HPLC-MS/MS allows us to identify different chemical components, and the most characteristic products of the lichen were identified, such as Atranol, Chloroatranol, Atranorin and Chloroatranorin. In the fractions of 1-Cires and 2-Cires, the HPLC-MS/MS analysis reveals that they are very similar in their chemical components; the characteristic products of this lichen in this fraction are Atranorin and Chloroatranorin. In the extracts of chloroform, 1-Chloroform and 2-Chloroform, the analysis carried out by HPLC-MS/MS shows small differences in their chemical composition at the level of secondary products; among the products to be highlighted for this work, we have chloroatranorin, the stictic acid, norstictic acid and other derivatives. In the analysis of the most polar extracts carried out in ethanol: 1-Ethanol and 2-Ethanol, HPLC-MS/MS analysis shows very similar chemical compositions in these two extracts with small differences. In these extracts, the following acids were identified as characteristic compounds of this lichen: constictic acid, stictic acid, substictic acid and methylstictic acid. In the HPLC–MS/MS analysis of all these extracts, alectoronic acid was not found. Keywords: lichen; Parmotrema hypoleucinum; LC-MSD-Trap-XCT; phytochemical composition; norstictic acid and stictic acid.
34562Ongaro S., Lione G. & Isocrono D. (2022): Composition and conservation value of epiphytic lichen communities on common ash in north-western Alps: A first assessment. - Forests, 13: 1288 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f13081288.
In the western sector of the Alps, and particularly in the Aosta Valley, lichenological communities on broad-leaved trees have received very little attention, and information about lichen species associated with common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) are still scanty. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed epiphytic lichen communities of ash trees to estimate their composition, their conservation value, and their association with some key environmental variables. Our results show that lichen communities appear to be different in terms of occurrence and frequencies in different sampling sites. The tested environmental variables contribute to shape the lichen communities, which are significantly different (p < 0.05) in sites characterized by different elevation, solar radiation, and source vicinity. The conservation value of lichen species was assessed by comparing distributional data at the national and local level. Our findings show that, in the Italian Alps, ash trees represent an important substrate for locally, or even nationally, rare lichens: 14 recorded species were not previously known in the study area, and some (Lecanora impudens and Rinodina polyspora) were included in the red list of Italian epiphytic lichens. Keywords: lichens; Fraxinus; conservation; biodiversity; red-listed species.
34561Fernández-Prado N., Prieto M., Martínez I. & Aragón G. (2022): Líquenes epífitos de los Tepuyes de la cuenca alta del río Nangaritza, cordillera del Cóndor (Ecuador). - Caldasia, 44(1): 108–118. https://doi.org/10.15446/caldasia.v44n1.86522.
Tropics harbour the greatest biodiversity in the planet but are still largely unknown. Among these remote areas, there are the Tepuyes of Nangaritza Valley, in the Zamora Chinchipe province, southeastern Ecuador. They constitute isolated mountainous systems with great biological importance and high levels of endemicity. Therefore, the main objective of this study was the elaboration of the first catalogue of epiphytic lichens from several Tepuyes in the Nangaritza Valley. Two expeditions were carried out in two Tepuyes, between 900 and 2000 m of altitude, approximately 1,000 samples of lichens where collected at different habitats: piemontane wet forest, lower montane wet forest, dwarf forest, and paramillo. We identified 174 lichen species, belonging to 57 genera and 26 families. We found thirteen new records for South America, 64 for Ecuador, and 132 for the Zamora Chinchipe province. New chemotypes for species belonging to the Cladoniaceae family were found. Lichens with a crustose growth-form were the most abundant with around 40 % of the total richness, being Graphidaceae the richest family (27 species). Lichen species with green algae as photobiont were dominant, and especially those with Trenthepholia (66 species). This catalogue is a first approximation to the knowledge of the diversity of lichens from the Tepuyes of the Nangaritza Valley, and the high number of new records indicates a lack of knowledge of the biodiversity from these tropical forests. Keywords. Diversity, lichenized fungi, new chemotypes, South America.
34560Firdous Q., Habib K., Khalid A.N. & Aptroot A. (2022): Physcia vitii Nadv. new to south Asia - molecular data. - Pakistan Journal of Botany, 54(6): 2341–2345. http://dx.doi.org/10.30848/PJB2022-6(9).
A species in the genus Physcia was collected from dry temperate ecozones of Pakistan. The critical morpho-anatomical comparison to the known species of the genus revealed it to be P. vitii. Its existence here indicates that it is first report from South Asia and also here been described for the first time on the basis of ITS marker. A taxonomic treatment including a description based on the newly collected material is provided along with a molecular phylogenetic analysis. Key words: New record, Pakistan, Phylogeny, Physciaceae.
34559Wilk K. (2012): Calcicolous species of the genus Caloplaca in the Polish Western Carpathians. - Polish Botanical Studies, 29: 1–91. .
This monograph is based on a revision of material from national and foreign herbaria and on the author’s field study. Thirty-nine taxa of Caloplaca Th. Fr. were recognized in the Polish Western Carpathians: C. albolutescens (Nyl.) H. Olivier, C. albopruinosa (Arnold) H. Olivier, C. arnoldii subsp. obliterata (Pers.) Gaya, C. arnoldiiconfusa Gaya & Nav.-Ros., C. atroalba (Tuck.) Zahlbr., C. aurea (Schaer.) Zahlbr., C. biatorina (A. Massal.) J. Steiner, C. chalybaea (Fr.) Müll. Arg., C. chrysodeta (Vain. ex Räsänen) Dombr., C. cirrochroa (Ach.) Th. Fr., C. citrina (Hoffm.) Th. Fr., C. coccinea (Müll. Arg.) Poelt, C. coronata (Kremp. ex Körb.) J. Steiner, C. crenulatella (Nyl.) H. Olivier, C. decipiens (Arnold) Blomb. & Forssell, C. dichroa Arup, C. dolomiticola (Hue) Zahlbr., C. flavescens (Huds.) J. R. Laundon, C. flavocitrina (Nyl.) H. Olivier, C. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., C. holocarpa (Ach.) A. E. Wade, C. keissleri (Servít) Poelt, C. lactea (A. Massal.) Zahlbr., C. marmorata (Bagl.) Jatta, C. nubigena (Kremp.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., C. oasis (A. Massal.) Szatala, C. percrocata (Arnold) J. Steiner, C. polycarpa (A. Massal.) Zahlbr., C. proteus Poelt, C. pseudofulgensia Gaya & Nav.-Ros., C. pusilla (A. Massal.) Zahlbr., C. saxicola (Hoffm.) Nordin, C. soralifera Vondrák & Hrouzek, C. teicholyta (Ach.) J. Steiner, C. variabilis (Pers.) Müll. Arg., C. velana complex, C. vitellinaria Szatala, C. xantholyta (Nyl.) Jatta, and C. xanthostigmoidea (Räsänen) Zahlbr. Two species are new for Poland: C. albolutescens and C. arnoldiiconfusa. One is new for the Polish Carpathians: C. crenulatella. Many new regional records are given, helping to complete the geographical range of some poorly known taxa, such as C. chrysodeta, C. polycarpa and C. xantholyta. A few species were not confirmed from the study area: C. alociza (A. Massal.) Mig., C. aurantia (Pers.) Hellb., C. erythrocarpa (Pers.) Zwackh, and C. subochracea (Wedd.) Werner. Detailed descriptions of all recognized species are provided, with illustrations, distribution maps and a key for species identification. Key words: taxonomy, geographical distribution, Central Europe, new records.
34558Di Biase L., Di Lisio P., Pace L., Arrizza L. & Fattorini S. (2022): Use of lichens to evaluate the impact of post-earthquake reconstruction activities on air quality: A case study from the city of L’Aquila. - Biology, 11(8): 1199 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11081199.
Lichens are widely used as bioindicators of air quality because of their ability to absorb chemical pollutants. We used the Lichen Diversity Value (LDV) index to assess the effects of the urban reconstruction activities in the city of L’Aquila ten years after the 2009 earthquake on air quality. Sampling was conducted from the city centre (still mostly under reconstruction and closed to traffic) to suburban areas (where reconstruction is minimal). We tested if the LDV index varied with distance from the city centre because of the presence of air pollutants produced by reconstruction works. We also used Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) to detect the main pollutants accumulated in the sampled lichens. The LDV increased from the city centre towards suburban areas. EDS revealed high concentrations of pollutants related to demolition and reconstruction activities, such as aluminium and silicon (used in the manufacture of concrete), in the more central areas. These results suggest that the LDV index can be a useful tool to monitor air quality, even on a small scale, and in urban environments subject to building demolition and reconstruction. Moreover, EDS could represent a good preliminary analytical technique to identify the air pollutants associated with all of these activities. Keywords: biomonitoring; cities; demolition; ecological indicators; Italy; lichen diversity value; lichens; pollution; urban ecology; urban–rural gradient.
34557Pišút I. (1983): Nachträge zur Kenntnis der Flechten der Slowakei 10. - Zborník Slovenského národného múzea, Prírodné vedy [Acta rerum naturalium musei nationalis slovaci, Bratislava], 29: 67–77. .
Slovakia; lichenofloristics
34556Belkina O., Konstantinova N., Korolеva N., Konoreva L., Davydov D., Savchenko A. & Likhachev A. (2015): Bryophytes, lichens and cyanoprocaryotes in surroundings of Pyramiden (Svalbard): A concise guide-book. - Russian Academy of Sciences, The Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden and Institute by N. A. Avrorin, Svalbard Environmental Protection Fund, 254 p. https://www.miljovernfondet.no/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/atlas_en-13-12.pdf.
This book presents some widespread and rare species of mosses, liverworts, lichens and cyanoprokaryotes in the surroundings of Pyramiden town on Svalbard archipelago, together with brief explanations of morphology, ecology and distribution of selected species. Five excursion routes in and around Pyramiden show the diversity of cryptogamic organisms and their habitats. The book contains more than 200 full-colored photographs and five maps of the excursion routes. To all who are interested in Arctic wildlife.
34555Erlandsson R., Bjerke J.W., Finne E.A., Myneni R.B., Piao S., Wang X., Virtanen T., Räsänen A., Kumpula T., Kolari T.H.M., Tahvanainen T. & Tømmervik H. (2022): An artificial intelligence approach to remotely assess pale lichen biomass. - Remote Sensing of Environment, 280: 113201 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2022.113201.
Although generally given little attention in vegetation studies, ground-dwelling (terricolous) lichens are major contributors to overall carbon and nitrogen cycling, albedo, biodiversity and biomass in many high-latitude ecosystems. Changes in biomass of mat-forming pale lichens have the potential to affect vegetation, fauna, climate and human activities including reindeer husbandry. Lichens have a complex spectral signature and terricolous lichens have limited growth height, often growing in mixtures with taller vegetation. This has, so far, prevented the development of remote sensing techniques to accurately assess lichen biomass, which would be a powerful tool in ecosystem and ecological research and rangeland management. We present a Landsat based remote sensing model developed using deep neural networks, trained with 8914 field records of lichen volume collected for >20 years. In contrast to earlier proposed machine learning and regression methods for lichens, our model exploited the ability of neural networks to handle mixed spatial resolution input. We trained candidate models using input of 1 × 1 (30 × 30 m) and 3 × 3 Landsat pixels based on 7 reflective bands and 3 indices, combined with a 10 m spatial resolution digital elevation model. We normalised elevation data locally for each plot to remove the region-specific variation, while maintaining informative local variation in topography. The final model predicted lichen volume in an evaluation set (n = 159) reaching an R2 of 0.57. NDVI and elevation were the most important predictors, followed by the green band. Even with moderate tree cover density, the model was efficient, offering a considerable improvement compared to earlier methods based on specific reflectance. The model was in principle trained on data from Scandinavia, but when applied to sites in North America and Russia, the predictions of the model corresponded well with our visual interpretations of lichen abundance. We also accurately quantified a recent historic (35 years) change in lichen abundance in northern Norway. This new method enables further spatial and temporal studies of variation and changes in lichen biomass related to multiple research questions as well as rangeland management and economic and cultural ecosystem services. Combined with information on changes in drivers such as climate, land use and management, and air pollution, our model can be used to provide accurate estimates of ecosystem changes and to improve vegetation-climate models by including pale lichens. Keywords: Remote sensing ; Lichens ; Terricolous lichens ; Deep neural networks ; Artificial intelligence ; Cladonia ; Reindeer lichen ; Light lichens ; Light coloured lichens ; Pale lichens ; Landsat.
34554Koelemeijer I.A., Ehrlén J., Jönsson M., De Frenne P., Berg P., Andersson J., Weibull H. & Hylander K. (2022): Interactive efects of drought and edge exposure on old‑growth forest understory species. - Landscape Ecology, 37: 1839–1853. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-022-01441-9.
Context: Both climatic extremes and land-use change constitute severe threats to biodiversity, but their interactive effects remain poorly understood. In forest ecosystems, the effects of climatic extremes can be exacerbated at forest edges. Objectives: We explored the hypothesis that an extreme summer drought reduced the richness and coverage of old-growth forest species, particularly in forest patches with high edge exposure. Methods: Using a high-resolution spatially explicit precipitation dataset, we could detect variability in drought intensity during the summer drought of 2018. We selected 60 old-growth boreal forest patches in central Sweden that differed in their level of drought intensity and amount of edge exposure. The year after the drought, we surveyed red-listed and old-growth forest indicator species of vascular plants, lichens and bryophytes. We assessed if species richness, composition, and coverage were related to drought intensity, edge exposure, and their interaction. Results: Species richness was negatively related to drought intensity in forest patches with a high edge exposure, but not in patches with less edge exposure. Patterns differed among organism groups and were strongest for cyanolichens, epiphytes associated with high-pH bark, and species occurring on convex substrates such as trees and logs. Conclusions: Our results show that the effects of an extreme climatic event on forest species can vary strongly across a landscape. Edge exposed old-growth forest patches are more at risk under extreme climatic events than those in continuous forests. This suggest that maintaining buffer zones around forest patches with high conservation values should be an important conservation measure.
34553Barreno E., Muggia L., Chiva S., Molins A., Bordenave C., García-Breijo F. & Moya P. (2022): Trebouxia lynnae sp. nov. (former Trebouxia sp. TR9): Biology and biogeography of an epitome lichen symbiotic microalga. - Biology, 11(8): 1196 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11081196.
Two microalgal species, Trebouxia jamesii and Trebouxia sp. TR9, were detected as the main photobionts coexisting in the thalli of the lichen Ramalina farinacea. Trebouxia sp. TR9 emerged as a new taxon in lichen symbioses and was successfully isolated and propagated in in vitro culture and thoroughly investigated. Several years of research have confirmed the taxon Trebouxia sp. TR9 to be a model/reference organism for studying mycobiont–photobiont association patterns in lichen symbioses. Trebouxia sp. TR9 is the first symbiotic, lichen-forming microalga for which an exhaustive characterization of cellular ultrastructure, physiological traits, genetic and genomic diversity is available. The cellular ultrastructure was studied by light, electron and confocal microscopy; physiological traits were studied as responses to different abiotic stresses. The genetic diversity was previously analyzed at both the nuclear and organelle levels by using chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear genome data, and a multiplicity of phylogenetic analyses were carried out to study its intraspecific diversity at a biogeographical level and its specificity association patterns with the mycobiont. Here, Trebouxia sp. TR9 is formally described by applying an integrative taxonomic approach and is presented to science as Trebouxia lynnae, in honor of Lynn Margulis, who was the primary modern proponent for the significance of symbiosis in evolution. The complete set of analyses that were carried out for its characterization is provided. Keywords: culture; diversity; genetics; isolation; morphology; phylogeny; Ramalina.
34552Garrido-Huéscar E., González-Burgos E., Kirika P.M., Boustie J., Ferron S., Gómez-Serranillos M.P., Lumbsch H.T. & Divakar P.K. (2022): A new cryptic lineage in Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota) with pharmacological properties. - Journal of Fungi, 8(8): 826 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8080826.
We used molecular data to address species delimitation in a species complex of the parmelioid genus Canoparmelia and compare the pharmacological properties of the two clades identified. We used HPLC_DAD_MS chromatography to identify and quantify the secondary substances and used a concatenated data set of three ribosomal markers to infer phylogenetic relationships. Some historical herbarium specimens were also examined. We found two groups that showed distinct pharmacological properties. The phylogenetic study supported the separation of these two groups as distinct lineages, which are here accepted as distinct species: Canoparmelia caroliniana occurring in temperate to tropical ecosystems of a variety of worldwide localities, including America, Macaronesia, south-west Europe and potentially East Africa, whereas the Kenyan populations represent the second group, for which we propose the new species C. kakamegaensis Garrido-Huéscar, Divakar & Kirika. This study highlights the importance of recognizing cryptic species using molecular data, since it can result in detecting lineages with pharmacological properties previously overlooked. Keywords: Africa; antioxidant activity; biodiversity; chemical profiling; cytotoxic activity; lichenized fungi; molecular phylogeny; species delimitation.
34551Ai M., Li L.J., Worthy F.R., Yin A.C., Zhong Q.Y., Wang S.Q., Wang L.S. & Wang X.Y. (2022): Taxonomy of Buellia epigaea-group (Caliciales, Caliciaceae), revealing a new species and two new records from China. - MycoKeys, 92: 45–62. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.92.83939.
During the Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research Program, we discovered that white terricolous lichenized fungal species of Buellia De Not. were widely distributed across the Tibetan Plateau. After examining their morphology, chemistry and phylogeny, we describe Buellia alpina Xin Y. Wang & Li S. Wang, sp. nov. as new to science. It is present in alpine meadows, and is characterized by its effigurate thallus, distinct linear marginal lobes, cover of thick white pruina and four-spored asci. This is also the first report of Buellia elegans Poelt and Buellia epigaea (Pers.) Tuck from China. The Buellia epigaea-group has previously been characterized by white and often effigurate thalli that occur mainly on soil. However, our results show that species in this group actually belong to two distinct clades. This conclusion is based on analyses of the nuITS region and the combined regions dataset (nuITS-nuLSU-mtSSU-β-tubulin). We discuss differences in morphology, anatomy, chemistry and ecology among the putative Buellia epigaea-group. Detailed descriptions and figures for the three species from China and a key for species of Buellia epigaea-group are provided. Keywords: Lichenized fungi, nuITS-nuLSU-mtSSU-β-tubulin, phylogenetic analysis, terricolous, Tibetan Plateau.
34550Varrica D., Lo Medico F. & Alaimo M.G. (2022): Air quality assessment by the determination of trace elements in lichens (Xanthoria calcicola) in an industrial area (Sicily, Italy). - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(15): 9746 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159746.
This study provides data on variation in the content of metals and metalloids measured in the lichens (Xanthoria calcicola Oxner) collected in the Syracusan petrochemical complex (Sicily, Italy) which is considered one of the largest in Europe. Concentrations of eighteen trace elements measured in the lichens that were collected from 49 different points were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) device. The concentrations of the typical elements of industrial emissions (As, Cr, Ni, and V) highlight the environmental criticality that exists in the study area. The interpretation of the data in terms of multi-element statistical analysis (FA) and enrichment factor (EFs) proved to be particularly useful in identifying several sources that contribute to the presence of trace elements in the atmospheric particulate between anthropogenic emissions and geogenic emissions. The results of this study reveal the versatility of the lichen species Xanthoria calcicola Oxner in the search for trace elements in highly anthropized environments, so the approach followed in this study can also be applied to other industrial contexts. Keywords: trace elements; industrial area; atmospheric pollution; biomonitoring.
34549Cera A., Mendes J., Cortada À. & Gómez-Bolea A. (2022): Cover of Ramalina species as an indicator of habitat quality in threatened coastal woodlands. - Bryologist, 125(3): 424–432. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.3.424.
Coastal forests in the Mediterranean area are threatened habitats due to intense human influence. In the context of global change, a rapid tool is needed for the evaluation of habitat quality in woodlands by calculating lichen cover on twigs rather than weight biomass. We selected epiphytic Ramalina species as indicators of habitat quality and evaluated them in threatened woodlands dominated by Olea europea var. sylvestris on the island of Menorca, a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in the Mediterranean area. We measured species richness, percentage cover and dry weight in nine sites grouped into urban, rural and naturalized areas to evaluate the effect of land uses, and regressed dry weight against percentage cover. Percentage cover, dry weight, species richness of Ramalina and of its species varied depending on land use, reaching higher rates in naturalized and rural areas rather than in urban areas. In addition, we showed for the first time that field estimates of Ramalina cover at the field were related to dry weight by applying a logarithmic transformation to dry weight. Percentage cover of Ramalina was a good indicator of land uses and will be a rapid, easy and non-destructive tool to assess the quality of woodland habitats in the coastal zone. Keywords: Habitat quality, lichen ecology, Mediterranean region, lichen biomass, land use, bioindicator, Menorca.
34548Zulfiqar R., Habib K., Mayrhofer H. & Khalid A.N. (2022): A new species of the genus Rinodina (lichenized Ascomycota, Physciaceae) from Pakistan. - Bryologist, 125(3): 418–423. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.3.418.
Specimens of a species belonging to the genus Rinodina were collected during a lichen diversity study in district Kohistan, Pakistan. Both morphology and ITS sequence data confirm its position within the genus Rinodina and suggest it is distinct from other known species of the genus. The new taxon, described here as Rinodina iqbalii, is characterized by the absence of a prothallus; small apothecial discs up to 0.6 mm in diameter; and small, Milvina–type ascospores, (12.0–)16.0–18.5(–20.0) 3 (6.5–)8.0– 10.0(–12.0) µm, which become more or less Physcia–type during their ontogeny and the presence of atranorin. A tabular comparison of characters between the new species and similar taxa is provided. Keywords: Kohistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, morphology, phylogeny, taxonomy.
34547Favero-Longo S.E., Tabasso M.L., Brigadeci F., Capua M.-C., Morelli A., Pastorello P., Sohrabi M., Chaverdi A.A. & Callieri P. (2022): A first assessment of the biocidal efficacy of plant essential oils against lichens on stone cultural heritage, and the importance of evaluating suitable application protocols. - Journal of Cultural Heritage, 55: 68–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2022.02.006.
Plant essential oils (EOs) are increasingly considered as potential tools to control biodeterioration of stone cultural heritage. The application of EOs was indeed shown to devitalize photo- and hetero-trophic constituents of lithobiontic biofilms, but their effects on lichens, which are other remarkable biodeteriogens of stone surfaces, is still unexplored. In this work, we analyzed the biocidal efficacy of a commercial mixture of essential oils (Syzygium aromaticum, Thymbra capitata, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) against crustose lichen species on stone walls in Persepolis (Iran) and Saluzzo (Italy), in semi-arid and temperate bioclimatic areas, respectively. In the former site (ST1), the efficacy of EOs, quaternary ammonium and isothiazolinone biocides, applied with cellulose poultice, was compared against Acarospora cervina, Calogaya biatorina and Protoparmeliopsis usbekica. In the latter (ST2), the efficacy of different protocols to apply EOs was compared against Candelariella vitellina and Protoparmeliopsis muralis. The devitalization effect was evaluated by measuring chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters of lichen thalli (basal fluorescence, F0, and maximum quantum efficiency, Fv/Fm) and with epifluorescence microscopy. In ST1, EOs poultice application remarkably affected lichen vitality, determining in all the targets a decrease of Fv/Fm values similar or even higher than that observed for the other biocidal products. F0 values and epifluorescence microscopy, however, indicated some persistence of viable cells in A. cervina and P. usbekica. Incomplete hydration and metabolic activation of thalli during EOs application, also related to anatomical traits, may account for such partial resistance of these species of semi-arid areas. In ST2, the zeroing of Fv/Fm and a strong decrease of F0 indicated the devitalization of both the target species when EOs were applied with cellulose poultice, and also when the EOs application by brush (requiring a minor quantity of product) was combined with the immediate covering of the surface with a paper tissue, a second EOs supply and the final covering with a plastic film. Both these application protocols assured a prolonged wet condition of the surface -at least in the humid autumn climate of the temperate ST2-, and thus the metabolic activity of thalli and their susceptibility to the chemicals. The simple EOs application by brush, even if combined with the plastic film covering, was instead ineffective, likely due to the lower product supply and thallus hydration. In conclusion, the biocidal potency of EOs was also confirmed for lichens, although some species-specific resistance may be encountered, as in the case of A. cervina and P. usbekica in ST1. The set up of the application protocol, particularly with respect to the assurance of thallus hydration, was shown as crucial to make the EOs treatments effective and should be taken into particular care when targeting lichens of semi-arid areas and, in general, to plan interventions in favourable, more humid seasons. Keywords: Biodeterioration control; Chlorophyll a fluorescence; Lichen devitalization; Synthetic and natural biocides; Chemical stress tolerance.
34546Song H., Kim K.-T., Park S.-Y., Lee G.-W., Choi J., Jeon J., Cheong K., Choi G., Hur J.-S. & Lee Y.-H. (2022): A comparative genomic analysis of lichen‑forming fungi reveals new insights into fungal lifestyles. - Scientific Reports, 12: 10724 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-14340-5.
Lichen-forming fungi are mutualistic symbionts of green algae or cyanobacteria. We report the comparative analysis of six genomes of lichen-forming fungi in classes Eurotiomycetes and Lecanoromycetes to identify genomic information related to their symbiotic lifestyle. The lichenforming fungi exhibited genome reduction via the loss of dispensable genes encoding plant-cell-walldegrading enzymes, sugar transporters, and transcription factors. The loss of these genes reflects the symbiotic biology of lichens, such as the absence of pectin in the algal cell wall and obtaining specific sugars from photosynthetic partners. The lichens also gained many lineage- and species-specific genes, including those encoding small secreted proteins. These genes are primarily induced during the early stage of lichen symbiosis, indicating their significant roles in the establishment of lichen symbiosis.Our findings provide comprehensive genomic information for six lichen-forming fungi and novel insights into lichen biology and the evolution of symbiosis.
34545Ivanets V., Yevchun H., Miryuta N., Veselsky M., Salganskiy O., Konishchuk V., Kozeretska I., Dykyi E. & Parnikoza I. (2022): Skua and plant dispersal: lessons from the Argentine Islands – Kyiv Peninsula region in the maritime Antarctic. - Nordic Journal of Botany, 2022: e03326 [12 p.]. doi: 10.1111/njb.03326.
Birds are one of the most likely dispersal vectors for plants in Antarctica. We studied the nesting behavior of south polar skua Catharacta maccormicki and brown skua Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi to assess their potential role in ornithochory in the Argentine Islands – Kyiv Peninsula region. Nest samples were collected during 2009– 2020 years in the Argentine Islands – Kyiv Peninsula region including all islands and coasts of the Graham Land from the Lemaire Channel to the islands of Berthelot Islands from north to south and extending from west to east from the Roca Islands, Cruls Islands, Rasmussen Point to the coast. We found that skuas utilize different nest building materials, including bryophytes, vascular plants (hairgrass Deschampsia antarctica) and lichens. In south polar skua nests, mosses and lichens dominate in the nest material; in brown skuas Deschampsia antarctica and mosses dominate. Both bird species likely collect nest components from nearby vegetation formations (< 1 m distant). We conclude that C. maccormicki and C. antarctica lonnbergi are not selective in their choice of plant species, simply using the materials that dominate near the nest. Therefore, both species carry these materials from nearby sites, and only occasionally bring them from distant places. In conclusion, for both species we did not find any evidence to support their involvement in long-distance ornithochory (stomatochory) in the region. Keywords: Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi, Catharacta maccormicki, ornithochory, vegetation. [p. 10:] "Lichens were second-most abundant component in nests of south polar skua (up to 20.6%). This is interesting, since for a more northern region of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Peter et al. (1990) also recorded that C. maccormicki built nests mostly from lichens, such as Usnea spp., and to a lesser extent from mosses. The main mass in the lichen fraction in nests of south polar skuas in the Argentine Islands – Kyiv Peninsula region belonged to Usnea antarctica Du Rietz."
34544Trass H.H. (1963): K flore lishajnikov Kamchatki I. [On the lichen-flora of Kamchatka I]. – In: Parmasto, E. H., Raïk, A. A. & Trass, H. H. (eds.), Исследование природы Дальнего Востока. Investigationes Naturae Orientis Extremis. - Tallinn: Academia Scientiarum R.S.S. Estonia, pp. 170–220, tab.. .
34543Setchell A. & Haughian S.R. (2022): Translating a species distribution model into management recommendations for an at-risk lichen. - Écoscience, 29(2): 159–165. https://doi.org/10.1080/11956860.2021.1949821.
Species distribution models are powerful tools on their own for the management of rare and at-risk species, but their utility as such can be limited if their accuracy is low, or if management policies are applied without consideration of the structure of the data. We tested the accuracy of a MaxEnt species distribution model for white-rimmed shingle lichen (Fuscopannaria leucosticta) in New Brunswick, Canada, and proposed an additional decision support-tool that matches the species probability of occurrence (PO) to possible management actions. The model was tested using two years of new field observations. Classification trees were used to define four groups across the range of PO values. Chi-squared tests were used to test the accuracy of predictions in each class. The model was found to accurately predict occurrences in very low and moderate classes, but underpredicted occurrences in low and high classes. We recommend using similar, data-driven support tools in the conservation decision-making process to minimize losses of the species and maximize efficacy of management. Keywords: Decision-support tools; Fuscopannaria leucosticta; species at risk; New Brunswick; forest management.
34542Sánchez M., Ureña-Vacas I., González-Burgos E., Divakar P.K. & Gómez-Serranillos M.P. (2022): The genus Cetraria s. str.—A review of its botany, phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacology. - Molecules, 27(15): 4990 [26 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27154990.
The genus Cetraria s. str. (Parmeliaceae family, Cetrarioid clade) consists of 15 species of mostly erect brown or greenish yellow fruticose or subfoliose thallus. These Cetraria species have a cosmopolitan distribution, being primarily located in the Northern Hemisphere, in North America and in the Eurasia area. Phytochemical analysis has demonstrated the presence of dibenzofuran derivatives (usnic acid), depsidones (fumarprotocetraric and protocetraric acids) and fatty acids (lichesterinic and protolichesterinic acids). The species of Cetraria, and more particularly Cetraria islandica, has been widely employed in folk medicine for the treatment of digestive and respiratory diseases as decoctions, tinctures, aqueous extract, and infusions. Moreover, Cetraria islandica has had an important nutritional and cosmetic value. These traditional uses have been validated in in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies. Additionally, new therapeutic activities are being investigated, such as antioxidant, immunomodulatory, cytotoxic, genotoxic and antigenotoxic. Among all Cetraria species, the most investigated by far has been Cetraria islandica, followed by Cetraria pinastri and Cetraria aculeata. The aim of the current review is to update all the knowledge about the genus Cetraria covering aspects that include taxonomy and phylogeny, morphology and distribution, ecological and environmental interest, phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacological properties. Keywords: Cetraria; lichens; traditional uses; pharmacology; phytochemistry; botany.
34541He Z., Naganuma T., Nakai R., Imura S., Tsujimoto M. & Convey P. (2022): Microbiomic analysis of bacteria associated with rock tripe lichens in continental and maritime Antarctic regions. - Journal of Fungi, 8(8): 817 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8080817.
Increased research attention is being given to bacterial diversity associated with lichens. Rock tripe lichens (Umbilicariaceae) were collected from two distinct Antarctic biological regions, the continental region near the Japanese Antarctic station (Syowa Station) and the maritime Antarctic South Orkney Islands (Signy Island), in order to compare their bacterial floras and potential metabolism. Bulk DNA extracted from the lichen samples was used to amplify the 18S rRNA gene and the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, whose amplicons were Sanger- and MiSeq-sequenced, respectively. The fungal and algal partners represented members of the ascomycete genus Umbilicaria and the green algal genus Trebouxia, based on 18S rRNA gene sequences. The V3-V4 sequences were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which were assigned to eight bacterial phyla, Acidobacteriota, Actinomyceota, Armatimonadota, Bacteroidota, Cyanobacteria, Deinococcota, Pseudomonadota and the candidate phylum Saccharibacteria (also known as TM7), commonly present in all samples. The OTU floras of the two biological regions were clearly distinct, with regional biomarker genera, such as Mucilaginibacter and Gluconacetobacter, respectively. The OTU-based metabolism analysis predicted higher membrane transport activities in the maritime Antarctic OTUs, probably influenced by the sampling area’s warmer maritime climatic setting. Keywords: Umbilicaria; Antarctica; rRNA gene; V3-V4 region; MiSeq; OTUs; biogeography; metabolism.
34540Widhelm T. & Lumbsch H.T. (2011): The phylogenetic placement of Miltideaceae inferred from ribosomal DNA sequence data. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 106: 365–373. .
The phylogeny and systematic placement of the monotypic genus Miltidea was studied using maximum likelihood and a Bayesian approach based on nuclear LSU and mitochondrial SSU rDNA sequences. Two new sequences from Miltidea ceroplasta were aligned with 84 ascomycete sequences retrieved from GenBank. Our results show that Miltideaceae belongs to Agyriales (syn. Pertusariales). Miltideaceae forms a strongly supported sister-group with Agyriaceae and these two families form a strongly supported sister-group relationship with Pertusariaceae sensu stricto. Based on the results of the phylogenetic analyses we re-examined the morphology of Miltidea and found several micromorphological characters, including exciple and ascus type, that support a close relationship of Agyriaceae and Miltideaceae. Keywords: Acarosporinae, Agyriaceae, Australasia, lichenized fungi, Miltidea, Pertusariales.
34539Concostrina-Zubiri L., Valencia E., Ochoa V., Gozalo B., Mendoza B.J. & Maestre F.T. (2022): Biocrust-forming lichens increase soil available phosphorus under simulated climate change. - European Journal of Soil Science, 73: e13284 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.13284.
Drylands are important reservoirs of soil phosphorus (P) at the global scale, although large uncertainties remain regarding how climate change will affect P cycling in these ecosystems. Biocrust-forming lichens are important regulators of abiotic and biotic processes occurring in the soil surface, including nutrient availability and redistribution, across global drylands. However, their role as modulators of climate change impacts on soil P cycling is poorly known. We conducted a manipulative microcosm experiment to evaluate how six biocrust-forming lichens (Buellia zoharyi, Diploschistes diacapsis, Fulgensia subbracteata, Psora decipiens, Squamarina lentigera and Toninia sedifolia) with diverse morphology and chemistry affect soil available P concentration and the activity of acid phosphatase after 50 months of simulated ~2°C warming and 35% rainfall reduction. Lichens increased soil available inorganic and total available P, and the activity of acid phosphatase, although the magnitude of these effects was highly species-specific. Climate change treatments increased available organic P regardless of lichen species. Our findings provide novel experimental evidence of the importance of biocrusts as modulators of P cycling in drylands and highlight the necessity to take into account the identity of biocrust constituents when evaluating their effects on soil fertility. Highlights: Biocrust-forming lichens effects on soil phosphorus under simulated climate change were evaluated. A microcosm experiment with warming and rainfall reduction and six lichen species was conducted. Lichens increased available inorganic and total available P, and the activity of acid phosphatase. Biocrust-forming lichens have species-specific effects on phosphorus cycling in dryland soils. Keywords: biological soil crusts, climate change, drylands, lichens, soil fertility.
34538Bautista-González J.A., Montoya A., Bye R., Esqueda M. & Herrera‑Campos M.A. (2022): Traditional knowledge of medicinal mushrooms and lichens of Yuman peoples in Northern Mexico. - Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 18: 52 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-022-00550-8.
Background: Mushrooms and lichens are natural therapeutic resources whose millenary importance persists in indigenous and mestizo communities of Mexico. However, in this regard, in the northern part of the country there are few ethnobiological explorations. This study investigates the local knowledge of medicinal mushrooms and lichens used by Yuman peoples, whose native speakers are in imminent danger of extinction along with their biocultural heritage due to changes in their traditional primary activities and the usurpation of their ancestral lands. Methods: Ethnographic techniques in the feld and standard lichenological and mycological methods in the labora‑ tory were used. Results: Information was obtained on the medicinal use of 20 species, of which six are lichens of the genus Xanthoparmelia and 14 are non-lichenized fungi, mainly gasteroids. The latter are primarily used to treat skin lesions, while lichens are used in heart, urinary, and gastrointestinal diseases. The transmission of this local knowledge to future generations is discussed, as well as the intercultural cognitive convergence about the uses of medicinal mushrooms and lichens. Conclusions: The Yuman peoples preserve knowledge, practices and beliefs around mushrooms and lichens. Although increasingly less used, they still form part of their culinary and traditional medicine; even some are also used as ludic and ornamental purposes, and as trail markers. Beyond the pragmatic importance of these organisms, tradi‑ tional knowledge about them is an essential part of the cultural identity that the Yuman peoples strive to preserve. Keywords: Ethnomycology, Ethnolichenology, Traditional medicine, Yuman, Kiliwa, Paipai, Kumeyaay, Cucapá.
34537Morillas L., Roales J., Cruz C. & Munzi S. (2022): Lichen as multipartner symbiotic relationships. - Encyclopedia, 2(3): 1421–1431. https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030096.
Lichens have long been considered as composite organisms composed of algae and/or cyanobacteria hosted by a fungus in a mutualistic relationship. Other organisms have been gradually discovered within the lichen thalli, such as multiple algal species, yeasts, or even viruses. Of pivotal relevance is the existence of the lichen microbiome, which is a community of microorganisms that can be found living together on the lichen surface. This community performs a growing number of functions. In this entry, we explore the journey of lichens being considered from a dual partnership to a multi-species symbiotic relationship. Keywords: symbiosis; microbiome; partnership; mycobiont; photobiont; holobiont; bacterial layer.
34536Pykälä J. & Lommi S. (2021): Lichen flora of Finland – short history of Finnish lichenology and updated species statistics. - Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica, 97: 73–88. .
We present some statistics on Finnish lichens. The knowledge on taxonomy, distribution and ecology of Finnish lichens is extremely uneven between different lichen groups. At present 1708 lichen species are known from Finland. The number has increased by 20.4 % compared to Vitikainen et al. (1997), even when more than 100 species have been synonymized or proven to be erroneously reported from Finland. Most species are rare in Finland, and 204 species are known from one locality only. The proportion of lichen species known from Finland compared to estimated global number of lichen species is higher than among any other species-rich organism group. This outlines the importance of lichens as a crucial part of the Finnish biodiversity. Data on accepted species described from Finland (n=225) is presented.
34535Furmanek Ł., Czarnota P. & Seaward M.R.D. (2022): A review of the potential of lichen substances as antifungal agents: the effects of extracts and lichen secondary metabolites on Fusarium fungi. - Archives of Microbiology, 24: 523 [31 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-022-03104-4.
The present meta-analysis provides literature data on the effect of lichen extracts and single secondary metabolites used against Fusarium spp. moulds. Lichen extracts were obtained from 51 corticolous, 17 terricolous and 18 saxicolous lichen species and 37 secondary compounds were tested against eight fungal species, i.e., Fusarium acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. fujikuroi, F. oxysporum, F. roseum, F. solani and F. udum. The researchers used several test methods, mostly to determine MIC and IZ. Extracts were obtained using several solvents, mainly organic ones with use of the Soxhlet apparatus. The most frequently tested species was F. oxysporum, against which lichen substances from Alectoria sarmentosa, Cladonia mitis, C. rangiferina, Flavoparmelia caperata, Hypotrachyna cirrhata, Leucodermia leucomelos, Parmotrema austrosinense, P. reticulatum, Physcia aipolia, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Roccella montagnei and Umbilicaria nylanderiana and secondary metabolites such as 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3,6-dimethylbenzoic acid, atranorin, lecanoric and (+)-usnic acids showed the highest antifungal potential. These agencies could compete with the potential of fungicides, such as flucytosine and fluconazole. Other species have been poorly investigated. Statistical analysis of literature data showed that the fungistatic potential of lichen extracts is significantly different from individual secondary metabolites. Similarly, the potential of secondary metabolites often differs significantly from that of non-lichen substances. This meta-analysis indicates the potential of lichen substances as future anti-fusarial agents. Keywords: Antibiotics · Antifungal potential · Allelopathy · Fusarium · Lichen substances · Inhibition.
34534Kawagoe H., Itioka T., Hyodo F., Iku A., Shimizu-kaya U. & Meleng P. (2022): Evidence in stable isotope ratios for lichen-feeding by Lithosiini moths from a tropical rainforest but not from a temperate forest. - Entomological Science, 25: e12519 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/ens.12519.
Lithosiini (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae) is distinctive in having some species that feed on lichens, whereas the majority of moths feed on vascular plants. However, the larval diet of most Lithosiini species is poorly known. This study examines whether Lithosiini species, collected in a tropical rainforest of Borneo (nine species) and a temperate forest of Japan (eight species), feed on lichens as larvae, based on stable isotope analyses. As a result, the δ15N values for eight of nine Lithosiini species collected from Borneo were notably lower than those of nine co-occurring herbivorous non-Lithosiini species, and were similar to those of sympatric, lichen-feeding termites; however, δ13C and δ15N values of one Lithosiini species (Adites sp.) were significantly higher than those of the other moth species and similar to those of humus-feeding termites and predatory insects occurring at the same site. These results have suggested that the Lithosiini in the Southeast Asian tropical rainforests contain some species that feed on lichens as their larval main diet and at least one species whose larvae feed on humus or animal-derived materials. In contrast, the δ13C and δ15N values of all examined Lithosiini species (eight species) in the temperate forest have suggested that their larvae fed on plants and not on lichens. Our stable isotope ratio analysis presented quantitative evidence suggesting lichen-feeding by Lithosiini moths in a tropical rainforest without observation of feeding behavior during the larval stages. Key words: larval diet, Lepidoptera, Lithosiini, Sarawak, stable C and N isotopes.
34533Zorrilla J.G., D’Addabbo T., Roscetto E., Varriale C., Catania M.R., Zonno M.C., Altomare C., Surico G., Nimis P.L. & Evidente A. (2022): Antibiotic and nematocidal metabolites from two lichen species collected on the Island of Lampedusa (Sicily). - International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23(15): 8471 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23158471.
The antibiotic and nematocidal activities of extracts from two coastal lichen species collected on Lampedusa Island (Sicily), Ramalina implexa Nyl. and Roccella phycopsis Ach., were tested. Methyl orsellinate, orcinol, (+)-montagnetol, and for the first time 4-chlororcinol were isolated from Roccella phycopsis. (+)-Usnic acid was obtained from Ramalina implexa. The crude organic extract of both lichen species showed strong antibiotic activity against some bacterial species and nematocidal activity. Among all the pure metabolites tested against the infective juveniles (J2) of the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloydogine incognita, (+)-usnic acid, orcinol, and (+)-montagnetol had significant nematocidal activity, comparable with that of the commercial nematocide Velum® Prime, and thus they showed potential application in agriculture as a biopesticide. On the contrary, methyl orsellinate and 4-chlororcinol had no nematocidal effect. These results suggest that the substituent pattern at ortho-para-position in respect to both hydroxyl groups of resorcine moiety, which is present in all metabolites, seems very important for nematocidal activity. The organic extracts of both lichens were also tested against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Both extracts were active against Gram-positive species. The extract of Ramalina implexa showed, among Gram-negative species, activity against Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii, while that from Roccella phycopsis was effective towards all test strains, with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of (+)-usnic acid, methyl orsellinate, and (+)-montagnetol is already known, so tests were focused on orcinol and 4-chlororcinol. The former showed antibacterial activity against all Gram positive and Gram-negative test strains, with the exception of A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae, while the latter exhibited a potent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive test strains and among Gram-negative strains, was effective against A. baumannii and K. pneumonia. These results suggest, for orcinol and 4-chlororcinol, an interesting antibiotic potential against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Keywords: lichen; Ramalina implexa; Roccella phycopsis; secondary metabolites; antibiotic and nematocidal activity.
34532Daminova A.G., Rogov A.M., Rassabina A.E., Beckett R.P. & Minibayeva F.V. (2022): Effect of melanization on thallus microstructure in the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria. - Journal of Fungi, 8(8): 791 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8080791.
Lichens often grow in microhabitats where they experience severe abiotic stresses. Some species respond to high UV radiation by synthesizing dark brown melanic pigments in the upper cortex. However, unlike the melanized structures of non-lichenized fungi, the morphology of the melanic layer in lichens remains unstudied. Here, we analyzed the morphology, ultrastructure, and elemental composition of the melanized layer in UV-exposed thalli of the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. Using light microscopy, we detected a pigmented layer sensitive to staining with 3,4-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, a precursor of eumelanin, in the upper cortex of melanized thalli. Analysis of cross-sections of melanized thalli using scanning electron microscopy revealed that melanin-like granules are deposited into the hyphal lumens. Melanized thalli also possessed thicker hyphal cell walls compared to pale thalli. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis of the elemental composition of the hyphal walls and extracted melanin indicated that the type of melanin synthesized by L. pulmonaria is eumelanin. Transmission electron microscopy was used to show that during melanization melanosome-like dark vesicles are transported to the cell surface and secreted into the cell walls of the fungal hyphae. Results from this study provide new insights into the effects of melanin synthesis on the microstructure of lichen thalli. View Full-Text Keywords: lichens; melanins; mycobiont; scanning electron microscopy; transmission electron microscopy; UV stress.
34531Fayyaz I., Kouser R., Afshan N.S., Niazi A.R., Zulfiqar R., Khalid A.N. & Kondratyuk S.Y. (2022): Iqbalia kashmirensis gen. et sp. nov. from Pakistan (Teloschistaceae, lichenized ascomycetes) based on multigene phylogeny. - Mycological Progress, 21: 68 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-022-01823-y.
The robust monophyletic branch having the highest level of bootstrap support in the phylogenetic tree of the Teloschistaceae, based on combined dataset of nrITS, 28S nrLSU DNA, and mtSSU sequences, which does not belong to any other earlier proposed genera of the subfamily Teloschistoideae, is described as new genus. The genus Iqbalia is characterized and differs from the closely related genus Nevilleilla by having discrete and compact/aggregated, rather not scattered areoles, without schizidia-like formations, a wide septum in ascospores when mounted in water and in having different chemistry (in having variolaric acid). Keywords: Lichenized fungi . Garhi dupatta . Kotli . Teloschistaceae. Note: numerous sequences attributed to Kondratyuk and coauthors in Table 1 were in fact received and published earlier by other authors (usually under different generic names)! See the genbank.
34530Cometto A., Ametrano C.G. & Muggia L. (2022): Life on top: cryptoendolithic ascomycetes and microalgae isolated from over 6000 m altitude. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 67(1): 1–16. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2022-0001.
Rocks are among the oldest terrestrial niches hosting a multiplicity of life forms, of which diversity has been only partially uncovered. Endolithic metacommunities comprise all major groups of microorganisms, such as chemo-organotrophic, chemo-lithotrophic and phototrophic, represented by bacteria, microalgae and microfungi. Their diversity is often difficult to describe and may remain underestimated. Furthermore, knowledge about the diversity of microorganisms colonizing rocks in peculiar niches is even poorer due to the difficulty to retrieve environmental specimens. Here, we report the phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization of a few endolithic fungi and algae isolated from rock fragments collected at high elevation, i.e., on the top of two mountains over 6000 m altitude, Muztagh Ata (China) and Cerro Mercendario (Argentina). The identity of the strains was confirmed by sequencing the nuclear ITS and LSU, the plastidial rbcL loci and by morphological analysis. Three fungal strains belonging to the class Dothideomycetes and one algal strain belonging to the genus Trebouxia were isolated from Muztagh Ata, while six fungal strains belonging to the order Chaetothyriales and four algal strains belonging to the genus Myrmecia were isolated from Cerro Mercedario. The detected species diversity is discussed in an evolutionary and ecological context. Key words: Chaetothyriales, Dothideomycetes, Myrmecia, symbiosis, Trebouxia.
34529McMullin R.T. & Miadlikowska J. (2022): Two rare Peltigera species new to the Canadian Arctic, P. islandica and P. lyngei. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 67(1): 17–23. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2022-0002.
Peltigera islandica and P. lyngei are rarely reported lichens. Previously, P. islandica was known from British Columbia, Estonia, and Iceland, and P. lyngei from Amchitka Island (Alaska), Gough Island (South Atlantic), Iceland, Siberia and Svalbard. Both species are reported here for the first time from the Canadian Arctic and from the second localities in North America. Peltigera lyngei is also reported for the first time from Canada. The identities of these species are confirmed morphologically, chemically, and with molecular data. Phylogenetic relationships are inferred using the ITS region. The widespread, but scattered, distribution of both species suggests that they may be underreported throughout their range. Key words: Biogeography, Peltigerales, Arctic, Arviat, Kukluk/Bloody Falls Territorial Park, Nuvuk (proposed) Territorial Park, Sylvia Grinnell Territorial Park.
34528 Mishra G.K., Nayaka S., Upreti D.K., Kondratyuk S.Y., Thell A. & Kärnefelt I. (2022): Cetrarioid lichens from India revised, including Nephromopsis awasthii sp. nov. and new records. - Mycotaxon, 137: 283–334. https://doi.org/10.5248/137.283.
Morpho-taxonomic studies of cetrarioid lichens from India recorded 46 species representing Cetraria, Melanelia, Nephromopsis, and Platismatia. Nephromopsis awasthii is described as new to science; and Cetraria endochrysea, C. sinensis, Melanelia agnata, Nephromopsis ciliaris, N. morrisonicola, N. pseudocomplicata, N. pseudoweberi, N. rugosa, N. weii, and N. yunnanensis are reported for the first time from India. A key to all genera and species of cetrarioid lichens in India is provided together with their detailed morpho-taxonomic characters and distribution. Key words—ascomycetes, diversity, Himalaya, Parmeliaceae, taxonomy.
34527Garrido-Benavent I., Chiva S., Bordenave C. D., Molins A. & Barreno E. (2022): Trebouxia maresiae sp. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), a new lichenized species of microalga found in coastal environments. - Cryptogamie, Algologie, 43(9): 135–145. https://doi.org/10.5252/cryptogamie-algologie2022v43a9.
Coccoid microalgae of the genus Trebouxia Puymaly are by far the most prevalent among the various species involved in lichen symbioses. However, their taxonomic knowledge is rather scarce compared to that of lichenized fungi. In the present work, a taxonomic study integrating diverse techniques (phylogenetics, light, confocal and transmission electron microscopies) is carried out to describe Trebouxia maresiae Garrido-Benavent, Chiva & Barreno, sp. nov. This species widely associates with the red-listed lichenized fungus Seirophora villosa (Ach.) Frödén but also with species of the genus Ramalina Ach., both occurring in coastal environments in the western Mediterranean and the Cape Verdean islands. This microalga is circumscribed to Trebouxia clade A and is closely related to T. decolorans Ahmadjian. It is characterized by the cell size being up to 15 μm in diam., the crenulate chloroplasts, and the structure of pyrenoids, which in cultured cells fits well with the crenulata-type, with long branched tubules meandering through the pyrenoid matrix, whereas in the lichenized state it acquires a hybrid structure (maresiae-type), characterized by the periphery of the pyrenoid being rather gigantea-type, with thylakoid membranes forming short, branched tubules. With the present work, the taxonomy of the genus Trebouxia moves a step forward towards more accurately characterizing species in lichen microalgae which is a prerequisite for future, more complex studies on speciation, co-evolution and selectivity. Key words: Mediterranean, Cape Verde, lichen, photobiont, symbiosis, new species.
34526Rada P., Halda J.P., Holuša J., Maliňáková K. & Horák J. (2022): Urban fruit orchards: Biodiversity and management restoration effects in the context of land use. - Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 75: 127686. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2022.127686.
Urban areas have increased greatly in recent decades, which has resulted in habitat loss. However, the promotion of urban green spaces could have a profound effect on biodiversity. Traditional fruit orchards are an important land-use type with the potential to host myriad organisms. Our goal was to determine the most important factors that influence orchard biodiversity in the million city of Prague (the capital of the Czech Republic). We used a multitaxon approach to evaluate the effect of orchard restoration in a landscape context. Restoration had a positive impact on species diversity, specifically, the diversity of orthopterans and butterflies. Moreover, landscape context determined the biodiversity of orthopterans, butterflies, and birds but not that of lichens. Our study underlines the importance of both the internal and external structures of traditional fruit orchards for species richness and composition. The results of our study support the restoration of traditional fruit orchards as a suitable management practice for promoting city biodiversity. Furthermore, orchard restoration can improve the attractiveness of suburban areas. Such areas often lack sufficient urban greening. Thus, restoration in these areas can also increase future recreational value. Landscape effect, Multitaxa, Species response, Traditional landscape management, Urban agroforestry
34525Petersson L., Lariviere D., Holmström E., Fritz Ö. & Felton A. (2022): Conifer tree species and age as drivers of epiphytic lichen communities in northern European production forests. - Lichenologist, 54: 213-225. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000172.
The epiphytic lichen species richness and community composition was compared for 600 living trees distributed within the interior of 60 Scots pine and Norway spruce monoculture stands in southern Sweden. A higher species richness, and more unique species, was found on trees of Scots pine than of Norway spruce, and distinctive communities were associated with the two tree species. Lichen species com- position also shifted between the 30-, 55- and 80-year-old stands, although there was no significant difference in species richness between the different age classes. Tree species and age of the stand explained most of the variation in community composition (41%), with additional variance explained by lichen proximity to the ground (6%) and aspect (1%) (northern/southern side of trunk). Scots pine and Norway spruce share many attributes, such as both being conifers with acidic bark properties and having a similar geographical distribution in Fennoscandia. However, our study showed that species richness and community composition can nevertheless diverge in stands dominated by these two tree species. Since the occurrence of red-listed species was low in these stands, we suggest that 80-year rotations are not long enough for the occur- rence of the many rare and specialized lichen species that require old forest structures and long forest continuity in this region. biodiversity, forest management, Norway spruce, Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, Scots pine, species richness, stand age, Sweden, zonation
34524Rico V.J. (2022): Long sigmoid and twisted ascospores in the genus Harpidium: H. longisporum sp. nov., a synopsis of the genus and a key to the species. - Lichenologist, 54: 175-181. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000123.
Harpidium longisporum is proposed as a new species. It is characterized by an areolate, mainly black thallus with trebouxioid algae, K+ blue- purple pigmented parts, pycnoascocarps forming aspicilioid apothecia, with moniliform paraphyses, unitunicate-rostrate, thick-walled asci and long sigmoid, lunate to falcate or irregularly curved and twisted ascospores, growing on steps of a vertical, intermittently moist, gneiss rock face. The genus Harpidium now comprises four species worldwide and, based on the selected specimens, a genus synopsis, a compara- tive table and a key to the species are included. Harpidiaceae, lichens, new species, Spain, taxonomy
34523Orange A. & Chhetri S.G. (2022): Verrucariaceae from Nepal. - Lichenologist, 54: 139-174. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000160.
Twenty-eight species of Verrucariaceae are reported from Nepal. One genus and nine species are described as new: Nesothele gen. nov., sister to Staurothele s. lat., with a crustose to squamulose thallus, hymenial algae and 4–8 colourless muriform ascospores per ascus; Nesothele glebulosa sp. nov., resembling N. rugulosa but with smaller perithecia; Thelidium uvidulum sp. nov., producing a thin thallus with soralia, prominent perithecia, and 1-septate ascospores; Verrucaria antepotens sp. nov., having a well-developed thallus with dark- sided areoles, immersed perithecia, and small ascospores 12.5–16.5 μm long; V. lactea sp. nov., resembling V. praetermissa but with larger ascospores and a strongly deviating ITS sequence; V. parvipeltata sp. nov., with brown, basally constricted areoles on an extensive dark prothallus; V. senta sp. nov., with a brown cracked thallus and prominent naked perithecia; Willeya eminens sp. nov., with prominent peri- thecia, and differing from W. protrudens in its ITS sequence; W. irrigata sp. nov. with a thallus cracked into dark-sided areoles, and relatively large ascospores 28.5–40 μm long; W. nepalensis sp. nov. with a cracked thallus, immersed perithecia and a distinctive ITS sequence. Three species complexes might contain new taxa, but wider geographical sampling is necessary before delimiting species: Thelidium minutulum, Verrucaria elaeomelaena and V. hydrophila. Five new combinations are made: Willeya honghensis comb. nov. (for Staurothele honghensis), Nesothele globosa comb. nov. (for Endocarpon globosum), N. hymenogonia comb. nov. (for Staurothele hymenogonia), N. rugulosa comb. nov. (for Staurothele rugulosa) and N. succedens comb. nov. (for Staurothele succedens). Four species are unidentified. floristics, ITS, lichens, mtSSU, taxonomy
34522Stelate A., Del-Prado R., Alors D., Tahiri H., Divakar P.K. & Crespo A. (2022): Resolving the phylogenetic relationship between Parmotrema crinitum and Parmotrema perlatum populations. - Lichenologist, 54: 183-194. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000147.
The widespread species Parmotrema crinitum (Ach.) M. Choisy and Parmotrema perlatum (Huds.) M. Choisy are mainly distinguished by their reproductive strategies. While P. crinitum propagates by isidia, P. perlatum produces soredia. In this study, we aim to evaluate the phylogenetic relationship between both species and to critically examine their species boundaries. To this purpose, 46 samples belonging to P. crinitum and P. perlatum were used in our analysis, including 22 for which we studied the morphology and chemistry, before extracting their DNA. We used 35 sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS) of Parmotrema perlatum from Europe and Africa (20 of which were newly generated), and 11 of Parmotrema crinitum from Europe, North America and North Africa (two newly generated). Additionally, 28 sequences of several species from Parmotrema were included in the ITS dataset. The ITS data matrix was analyzed using different approaches, such as traditional phylogeny (maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses), genetic distances, auto- matic barcode gap discovery (ABGD) and the coalescent-based method poisson tree processes (PTP), in order to test congruence among results. Our results indicate that all samples referred to P. crinitum and P. perlatum nested in a well-supported monophyletic clade, but phylogenetic relationships among them remain unresolved. Delimitations inferred from PTP, ABGD and genetic distance analyses were comparable and suggested that P. crinitum and P. perlatum belong to the same lineage. Interestingly, two samples of P. perlatum separate in a different monophyletic clade, which is supported as a different lineage by all the analyses. genetic diversity, ITS, lichen, phylogenetic analyses, species delimitation
34521Fazan L., Gwiazdowicz D.J., Fragnière Y., Fałtynowicz W., Ghosn D., Remoundou I., Rusińska A., Urbański P., Pasta S., Garfì G. & Kozlowski G. (2022): Factors influencing the diversity and distribution of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes on the relict tree Zelkova abelicea (Lam.) Boiss. (Ulmaceae). - Lichenologist, 54: 195-212. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000159.
Trees have a crucial importance in the functioning of ecosystems on Earth. They are among the largest and longest-living taxa and provide habitat and shelter to numerous species belonging to diverse groups of organisms. Relict trees are of particular interest through their history of survival and adaptation, and because they potentially shelter rare or threatened organisms today. We investigated for the first time the diversity and distribution of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes found on the Cretan (Greek) endemic and relict phorophyte Zelkova abelicea (Ulmaceae). Our results showed that Z. abelicea hosts a high number of epiphytes. The Levka Ori mountain range in western Crete seems to be a hot spot for epiphytic lichens on Z. abelicea. Bryophytes had the highest diversity on Mt Kedros in central Crete but were absent from several other sites. Moreover, 17% of the studied lichens were recorded for the first time for Crete and 5% have never been recorded for Greece. Geographical position and browsing intensity seem to be important factors influencing the epiphytic community encountered. Tree morphology (dwarfed or arborescent) was also significant in influencing community composition although it was not possible to dis- sociate this factor from the effect of topography. Dwarfed individuals were found to have as much epiphytic diversity as arborescent trees. Ecological indicator values showed that high epiphytic diversity was found in some sites despite signs of eutrophication and disturbance due to pastoral activities and suggest the co-occurrence of both disturbance tolerant and sensitive species. Our results show how little is known about the biodiversity of Cretan phorophytes and highlights the need for further research on the topic. Crete, dwarfed over-browsed trees, ecological indicator values, epiphytic assemblages, Greece, phorophyte
34520Earland-Bennett P.M. (ed.) (1988): New, rare and interesting british lichen records. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 62: 8-30. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2062%20Summer%201988.pdf.
34519Henderson A. (1988): Etymological notes on lichen names – part 5. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 62: 13-14. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2062%20Summer%201988.pdf.
34518Woods R. (1988): Life in the squidgy bits. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 62: 10-10. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2062%20Summer%201988.pdf.
34517Gilbert O.L. (1988): Urban demolition sites: a neglected habitat. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 62: 1-3. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2062%20Summer%201988.pdf.
34516Cardile V., Graziano A.C.E., Avola R., Madrid A. & Russo A. (2022): Physodic acid sensitizes LNCaP prostate cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis . - Toxicology in Vitro, 84: 105432 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2022.105432.
In spite of the extensive research for developing new therapies, prostate cancer is still one of the major human diseases with poor prognosis and high mortality. Therefore, with the aim of identifying novel agents with antigrowth and pro-apoptotic activity on prostate cancer cells, in the present study, we evaluated the effect of lichen secondary metabolite physodic acid on cell growth in human prostate cancer cells. In addition, we tested the apoptotic activity of physodic acid on TRAIL-resistant LNCaP cells in combination with TRAIL. The cell viability was measured using MTT assay. LDH release, a marker of membrane breakdown, was also measured. For the detection of apoptosis, the evaluation of DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activity assay were employed. The expression of proteins was detected by Western blot analysis. It was observed that physodic acid showed a dose–response relationship in the range of 12.5–50 μM concentrations in LNCaP and DU-145 cells, activating an apoptotic process. In addition, physodic acid sensitizes LNCaP cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The combination of physodic acid with other anti-prostate cancer therapies could be considered a promising strategy that warrants further investigations. Keywords: Lichens; Depsidone; Physodic acid; Prostate cancer; Apoptosis; TRAIL.
34515Song G., Hui R., Yang H., Wang B. & Li X. (2022): Biocrusts mediate the plant community composition of dryland restoration ecosystems. - Science of the Total Environment, 844: 157135 [11 p.]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157135.
Degradation and expansion are current threats associated with drylands. During natural or artificial restoration, dryland ecosystems tend to contain a unique community, namely, biocrusts. Studies have shown that biocrusts serve multiple functions and have the potential to accelerate or inhibit degradation. However, the mechanisms by which biocrusts mediate dryland plant community structure and composition remain largely unknown. In this study, we performed a series of pot experiments under greenhouse conditions at three disturbance levels (strong, moderate and no disturbance) and at three rainfall gradients (− 50 %, normal, + 50 %) for different biocrust types. Our objective was to examine how biocrusts influence the introduction and establishment of different functional forms of plant species during the different succession stages of dryland recovery. Our results showed that biocrusts have significantly different effects on the seed germination and survival of the tested plant species. Although strong disturbances to the biocrusts and increasing rainfall alleviated the inhibitory effects of biocrusts on the perennial herb (S. glareosa) and subshrub (C. latens) species, these factors could only promote the temporary survival of these two plants in the revegetated area. These results indicate that biocrusts in revegetated systems play important sieving functions during plant species establishment. Additionally, the survival of S. viridis, a plant species with small seeds adapted to the current habitat, was promoted in the community, but two plant species that are currently unsuitable, S. glareosa and C. latens, were filtered out by the biocrusts. Our conclusions suggest that biocrusts play an ecological filtering role in plant species introduction and establishment in revegetated ecosystems and demonstrate the scientific significance of biocrusts in maintaining the health and stability of dryland ecosystems. Keywords: Biocrusts; Arid ecosystem; Restoration; Functional form; Germination; Establishment.
34514Orock A.E. & Fonge B.A. (2022): Diversity of lichens at Mount Cameroon, South West Region, Cameroon. - International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, 14(2): 72–93. https://doi.org/10.5897/IJBC2021.1517.
Concern about maintaining the biodiversity of lichen communities’ species has been an issue with lichenologists for many years. Many of the understudied regions face increasing threats from urban development, pollution, and potentially climate change, among other factors. The objective of this study was to examine the diversity of lichens on Mt. Cameroon. To achieve this objective, eight collection sites were surveyed on two flanks of the mountain at elevations ranging from 3 to 2178 m above sea level. The visual estimate sampling method using circular plots was adopted for the survey. Voucher specimens were collected in triplicate and deposited in the herbaria in Limbe and the University Buea. Lichens were identified by studying the morphology and chemical spot test. The morphology of the thallus and reproductive structures were examined under the stereomicroscope at 10×. The K-test, C-tests and KC-spot test were performed for each specimen with KOH and Ca(OCl)2. The abundance rating scale, species diversity, similarity and richness indices were computed. Identification by molecular, morphological and chemical spot tests produced a total of 89 species, 22 site-specific species, 52 genera belonging to 27 families and 11 orders. Four lichen specimens were identified to genus level and eighty-five to species level. According to the Cameroon lichen database, 82 of these are new discoveries. Parmeliaceae, Heterodermia, Usnea and Dirinaria applanata dominated the area. The identified species occurred in six growth forms and from nine substrates types. Foliose and corticolous lichens were most represented. Among the sites surveyed, Upper Buea situated on the leeward flank at high altitude >1000 m, recorded the highest diversity and site-specific species. Key words: Lichens diversity, Mt. Cameroon, Upper Buea Leeward flank.
34513Georgiev K.B., Bässler C., Feldhaar H., Heibl C., Karasch P., Müller J., Perlik M., Weiss I. & Thorn S. (2022): Windthrow and salvage logging alter β-diversity of multiple species groups in a mountain spruce forest. - Forest Ecology and Management, 520: 120401 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2022.120401.
The response of biodiversity to natural and anthropogenic disturbances is a central topic in applied ecology. Climate change has altered forest disturbance regimes, resulting in global increases in stand-replacing disturbances, which are regularly followed by the removal of trees (salvage logging). Yet, the mid- to long-term effects of disturbances and salvage logging and the importance of species relative abundances on β-diversity remain unclear. We compared the β-diversity of 13 taxonomic groups in intact forest, unlogged windthrow, and salvage-logged windthrow plots 11 years after a windthrow. Hill numbers were used to quantify differences in between-treatment and within-treatment β-diversity for rare, common, and dominant species. We found that over a decade post-disturbance, both windthrow and salvage logging led to significant changes in between-treatment β-diversity of all 13 taxonomic groups. In addition, differences in between- and within-treatment β-diversity were more pronounced for rare species than for common and dominant ones. Windthrow led to the homogenization of communities of most saproxylic and half of the non-saproxylic studied groups. However, contrary to our expectation, salvage logging did not further increase community homogenization for any taxonomic group or Hill number. Moreover, salvage logging even reversed the community homogenization caused by the windthrow for saproxylic groups, leading to more heterogeneous communities. This effect was likely caused by the relatively high amount and diversity of deadwood found on the salvage-logged plots. Our study suggests that differences in within-treatment β-diversity between salvaged and unsalvaged windthrows tend to vanish over time, whereas differences between-treatments persisted, especially for saproxylic groups and rare species. This finding underlines the importance of preserving the characteristic communities in unsalvaged wind-disturbed forests in the mid- to long-term. Therefore, we recommend a management strategy that balances the amount of salvage-logged areas with that of set-aside areas. Keywords: Forest management ; Natural disturbance ; Post-disturbance management ; Biodiversity ; Hill numbers ; Community homogenization ; Community composition.
34512Simko P., Leskanicova A., Suvakova M., Blicharova A., Karasova M., Goga M., Kolesarova M., Bojkova B., Majerova P., Zidekova N., Barvik I., Kovac A. & Kiskova T. (2022): Biochemical properties of atranorin-induced behavioral and systematic changes of laboratory rats. - Life, 12(7): 1090 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/life12071090.
Atranorin (ATR) is a secondary metabolite of lichens. While previous studies investigated the effects of this substance predominantly in an in vitro environment, in our study we investigated the basic physicochemical properties, the binding affinity to human serum albumin (HSA), basic pharmacokinetics, and, mainly, on the systematic effects of ATR in vivo. Sporadic studies describe its effects during, predominantly, cancer. This project is original in terms of testing the efficacy of ATR on a healthy organism, where we can possibly attribute negative effects directly to ATR and not to the disease. For the experiment, 24 Sprague Dawley rats (Velaz, Únetice, Czech Republic) were used. The animals were divided into four groups. The first group (n = 6) included healthy males as control intact rats (♂INT) and the second group (n = 6) included healthy females as control intact rats (♀INT). Groups three and four (♂ATR/n = 6 and ♀ATR/n = 6) consisted of animals with daily administered ATR (10mg/kg body weight) in an ethanol–water solution per os for a one-month period. Our results demonstrate that ATR binds to HSA near the binding site TRP214 and acts on a systemic level. ATR caused mild anemia during the treatment. However, based on the levels of hepatic enzymes in the blood (ALT, ALP, or bilirubin levels), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), or liver histology, no impact on liver was recorded. Significantly increased creatinine and lactate dehydrogenase levels together with increased defecation activity during behavioral testing may indicate the anabolic effect of ATR in skeletal muscles. Interestingly, ATR changed some forms of behavior. ATR at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight is non-toxic and, therefore, could be used in further research. Keywords: atranorin; microsomal stability; human serum albumin; behavioral changes; laboratory rats; metabolomics.
34511Sebald V., Goss A., Ramm E., Gerasimova J.V. & Werth S. (2022): NO2 air pollution drives species composition, but tree traits drive species diversity of urban epiphytic lichen communities. - Environmental Pollution, 308: 119678 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119678.
Lichens serve as important bioindicators of air pollution in cities. Here, we studied the diversity of epiphytic lichens in the urban area of Munich, Bavaria, southern Germany, to determine which factors influence species composition and diversity. Lichen diversity was quantified in altogether 18 plots and within each, five deciduous trees were investigated belonging to on average three tree species (range 1–5). Of the 18 plots, two were sampled in control areas in remote areas of southern Germany. For each lichen species, frequency of occurrence was determined in 10 quadrats of 100 cm2 on the tree trunk. Moreover, the cover percentage of bryophytes was determined and used as a variable to represent potential biotic competition. We related our diversity data (species richness, Shannon index, evenness, abundance) to various environmental variables including tree traits, i.e. bark pH levels and species affiliation and air pollution data, i.e. NO2 and SO2 concentrations measured in the study plots. The SO2 levels measured in our study were generally very low, while NO2 levels were rather high in some plots. We found that the species composition of the epiphytic lichen communities was driven mainly by NO2 pollution levels and all of the most common species in our study were nitrophilous lichens. Low NO2 but high SO2 values were associated with high lichen evenness. Tree-level lichen diversity and abundance were mainly determined by tree traits, not air pollution. These results confirm that ongoing NO2 air pollution within cities is a major threat to lichen diversity, with non-nitrophilous lichens likely experiencing the greatest risk of local extinctions in urban areas in the future. Our study moreover highlights the importance of large urban green spaces for species diversity. City planners need to include large green spaces when designing urban areas, both to improve biodiversity and to promote human health and wellbeing. Keywords: Community ecology ; Species richness ; Lichens ; Nitrogen dioxide NO2 ; Sulphur dioxide SO2 ; Ordination.
34510White F. J. & James P.W. (1987): A chemical checklist of british lichens. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 42-47. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34509Henderson A. (ed.) (1987): New, rare and interesting british lichen records. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 35-38. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34508Benfield B. (1987): Note on Arthopyrenia areniseda. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 34-34. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34507Guest J.P. (1987): Lichens of suburban Manchester. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 32-32. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34506Henderson A. (1987): Etymological notes on lichen names – part 3. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 29-30. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34505Anonymous (1987): Key to the identification of some common extant british (sensu lato) lichenologist (incomplete). - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 18-19. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34504Ahti T. (1987): The correct name of Parmelia perlata or should we have kept our mouths shut?. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 14-14. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34503Swinscow T.D.V. (1987): E. C. Wallace: An appreciation. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 11-13. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34502Rose F. (1987): Alice Burnet remembered. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 10-11. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34501Rose F. (1987): A new lichen flora of Somerset. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 9-9. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34500Woods R.G. (1987): Heavy metal-rich river gravel. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 5-7. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34499Henderson A. (1987): Approaches to lichen aesthetic I. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 60: 3-5. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2060%20Summer%201987.pdf.
34498Acharius E. (1797): Nya och mindre kända Svenska Lafarter. VI Fortsättningen aennu vidare och til flut fullfoelgd. - Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar / Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [ser. 2], 18[4]: 257–298, tab. .
34497Acharius E. (1797): Nya och mindre kända Svenska Lafarter, beskrifne VI Fortsättningen vidare fullfoeljd. - Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar / Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [ser. 2], 18[3]: 193–218, tab. .
34496Acharius E. (1797): Nya och mindre kända Svenska Lafarter, beskrifne VI Fortsättningen vidare fullfoeljd. - Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar / Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [ser. 2], 18[2]: 111–133. .
34495Acharius E. (1797): Nya och mindre kända Svenska Lafarter, beskrifne VI. Fortsättning. - Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar / Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [ser. 2], 18[1]: 69–81. .
34494Morse C.A. & Ladd D. (2022): Lichenes Exsiccati Magnicamporum Fascicle 2, with comments on selected taxa. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 21: 1-23. .
Biogeography, grasslands, scheda, taxonomy, trentepohlioid lichens. Data are provided for the second 50 numbers of a series exemplifying the lichen biota of the Great Plains of central North America. The set includes isotypes of Biatoridium lasiothecium, Phaeocalicium atenitikon, Physcia thomsoniana, and Reichlingia americana, as well as several rare or regionally restricted taxa. Detailed discussions, images, specimen data, and range maps are provided for Caloplaca lobulata (≡ Calogaya lobulata), Gyalecta farlowii (≡ Petractis farlowii), and Thelidium minutulum. Caloplaca lobulata is reported new for Iowa, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming; G. farlowii is reported new for Kansas; and T. minutulum is reported new for Kansas and Oklahoma. Previous identifications of T. microbolum from Kansas are based on specimens attributable to T. zwackhii, which is reported new for Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, and Oklahoma. Corrected collection data are provided for Lichenes Exsiccati Magnicamporum No. 49
34493Morse C.A. (2022): Lichenes Exsiccati Magnicamporum Fascicle 3. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 21: 24-32. .
Grasslands, scheda, taxonomy. Data are provided for the third 50 numbers of a series exemplifying the lichen biota of the Great Plains of central North America. The set is especially rich in members of the family Physciaceae
34492Haughland D.L., Hood A., Thauvette D., Toni S.A., Cao M., Birch J.D., Wasyliw J., Hjartarson L., Villeneuve M., Stordock A., Fielder D.A., Lewis M., Evans D., Royko D., Bolduc R., Webster H., Singh J.D., Schafer K.A., Davidson H.E. & Shier C. (2022): Getting to know our biomonitor neighbours: urban lichens and allied fungi of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 21: 33-181. .
Air quality, lichenized Ascomycetes, biomonitoring, calicioids, Candelariaceae, cyanolichens, continental climate, detection error, Endocarpon, Flavopunctelia, floristics, Lecanora dispersa group, Lecidella, molecular phylogenetics, Peltigera, Punctelia, survey repeatability, urban biodiversity Here we provide one of the first detailed studies of lichen and allied fungi diversity in a continental North American city (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada), including an annotated checklist, images of all species, dichotomous keys, and local distribution maps. Edmonton is the northernmost city in North America with a population of over one million, and an industrial and transportation gateway for much of northern Canada. Lichen-based biomonitoring could be a tool to track airborne pollutants resulting from Edmonton’s growing populace and industrial activity. The first step towards such a program is documenting the diversity and distribution of lichens in the city. To accomplish this, we conducted a city-wide, systematic survey of 191 sites focused on epiphytes growing on deciduous boulevard trees. We augmented that survey with surveys of rare trees, opportunistic collections from river valley and ravine habitats, herbarium collections, phylogenetic analyses of a subset of collections, and observations submitted to online nature-reporting applications. We present ITS sequence barcode data for 33 species, phylogenetic analyses for Candelariaceae, Endocarpon, Flavopunctelia, the Lecanora dispersa group, Lecidella, Peltigera, Physconia, and Punctelia, and detailed descriptions of 114 species in 47 genera and 23 families. Two species are hypothesized to be new to North America (Endocarpon aff. unifoliatum, Lecidella albida), twelve more are new to Alberta (Amandinea dakotensis, Bacidia circumspecta, Candelaria pacifica, Candelariella antennaria, Heterodermia japonica, Lecania naegelii, Lecanora sambuci, Lecanora stanislai, Lecidea erythrophaea, Peltigera islandica, Phaeocalicium aff. tremulicola, and the introduced Xanthoria parietina), and five are putative new species to science (Physcia aff. dimidiata, Physcia aff. stellaris, Phaeocalicium sp., Phaeocalicium aff. tremulicola, Lichenaceae sp.). Illustrations are provided for all species to aid in verification and public outreach. Species richness was highest in foliose lichens (48), followed by crustose and calicioid lichens and allied fungi (41), with the lowest richness in fruticose lichens (25). We did a preliminary assessment of the suitability of species for citizen-science biomonitoring by assessing their distribution across the city, perceptibility to the public, identification accuracy, and, for a subset, how consistently species were surveyed by trained novices. Compared to other urban areas where lichen diversity has been studied, Edmonton is relatively species-rich in calicioids and Peltigera. Promising bioindicators may be limited to chlorolichens, including Caloplaca spp., Evernia mesomorpha, Flavopunctelia spp., Phaeophyscia orbicularis, Physcia adscendens, Physcia aipolia group, Physcia aff. stellaris, Usnea spp., and Xanthomendoza fallax. Other genera that may be responsive to pollutants such as Cladonia and Peltigera were almost exclusively restricted to river valley and ravine ecosystems, limiting their application as bioindicators. Some species commonly used as biomonitors elsewhere were too rare, small, poorly developed, or obscured by more common species locally (e.g., Candelaria concolor s.l., Xanthomendoza hasseana). The low overlap with lists of biomonitoring species from other regions of North America illustrates the necessity of grounding monitoring in knowledge of local diversity. Future augmentation of this list should focus on enhanced sampling of downed wood-, conifer-, and rock-dwelling lichens, particularly crustose species. The next step in developing a biomonitoring program will require modelling species’ responses to known air quality and climatic gradients
34491Berger F. (2022): Flechten auf Rohböden, ein unerwartet artenreicher Nischenstandort am Beispiel von verlassenen Schottergruben im Kobernaußerwald. - ÖKO·L, 44: 15–23. .
[in German] popular paper; Austria; abandoned gravel/sand pits; pioneer lichens; succession
34490McCune B. & Conway S.N. (2022): Two new species, Hypogymnia tuckerae and H. discopruina (Parmeliaceae), from North America and China. - Bryologist, 125(3): 406–417. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.3.406.
Hypogymnia tuckerae is a newly described sorediate lichenized fungus currently known from three sites in the Cascade Range in Oregon, three sites in northern California, and one site in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. Although we have known a few of these anomalous sorediate specimens for many years, taxonomic action was stymied by possibilities that they were rare sorediate morphs of a normally fertile species, H. wilfiana, or a rare chemotype of a normally sorediate lichen, H. oceanica. ITS and GPD1 sequences demonstrated that neither is the case; instead, H. tuckerae occupies an isolated position in phylogenetic reconstructions. With ITS alone, however, H. tuckerae is sister to the largest clade of Hypogymnia species from the southern hemisphere. Esorediate individuals of H. tuckerae are very similar to H. antarctica (South America), H. metaphysodes (Japan), and H. wilfiana (North America). We have not yet found a reliable chemical or morphological character to separate esorediate H. tuckerae from H. wilfiana. Hypogymnia discopruina is described as a new species from southwestern China. The species is unusual for the genus in having pruinose apothecia and a POLþ epithecium. The only other Hypogymnia known to have a POLþ epithecium is H. crystallina from the Himalaya Range in India. So far H. discopruina is known from only two locations in Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces at 3000 m and 3600 m and appears to be rare. Adjustments to the keys to Hypogymnia in the Pacific Northwest of North America and for southwest China are given for these two new species and the recently described Asian sorediate species, H. caperatica. Keywords: California, Lecanorales, lichenized ascomycetes, lichenized fungi, Parmeliaceae, Oregon, Sichuan Province, Yunnan Province.
34489Chrapusta-Srebrny E., Bialczyk J., Duchnik K. & Bober B. (2022): Metabolism of mycosporine-glutamicol in the lichen Cladonia arbuscula subsp. squarrosa under seasonal changes and elevated exposure to UV-B or PAR irradiation. - Metabolites, 12(7): 632 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12070632.
Cladonia arbuscula in its environmental niches is regularly affected by daily and annual variations in solar radiation. Mycosporine-glutamicol, Myc-Glu(OH), which it synthesizes, may act as a significant cellular UV-protector. Therefore, we studied this compound concentration in lichen thalli concerning seasonal changes and increased exposure to UV-B and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) with/without simultaneous CO2 deprivation. Myc-Glu(OH) occurred year-round and exhibited a strong seasonality. The most crucial role in the control of its synthesis played UV-B radiation, although its high concentration was also found after PAR irradiation at 1000 µmol m−2 s −1 . As PAR intensity increased to 2000 µmol m−2 s −1 , the rate of Myc-Glu(OH) synthesis slowed down. In turn, under dark/PAR irradiation with simultaneous deprivation of CO2 in the atmosphere surrounding C. arbuscula and during darkness with continuous access to atmospheric CO2 , its production was insignificant. Obtained data confirmed that Myc-Glu(OH) plays an important role in protecting C. arbuscula from UV damage and favours its adaptation to environmental stress in its natural habitat. They also suggest that its synthesis is a synergism of multiple factors. Consequently, further studies should focus on their evaluation and the identification of a lichen partner actively involved in Myc-Glu(OH) biogenesis. Keywords: Myc-Glu(OH); mycosporine-like amino acid; PAR exposure; stress conditions; UV protection; UV-B exposure.
34488Mohammadi M., Zambare V., Suntres Z. & Christopher L. (2022): Isolation, characterization, and breast cancer cytotoxic activity of gyrophoric acid from the lichen Umbilicaria muhlenbergii. - Processes, 10(7): 1361 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10071361.
Lichens produce a large variety of secondary metabolites with diverse bioactivities, chemical structures, and physicochemical properties. For this reason, there is a growing interest in the use of lichen-derived bioactive molecules for drug discovery and development. Here, we report on the isolation, identification, and cytotoxic evaluation of gyrophoric acid (GA) from the lichen Umbilicaria muhlenbergii, a largely unexplored and scantly described lichen species. A simple purification protocol was developed for the fractionation of lichen crude extracts with silica gel column chromatography using solvents with changing polarity. GA was identified in one of the fractions with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ion trap mass spectrometry (MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR). The FTIR spectra demonstrated the presence of aromatic and ester functional groups C=C, C-H, and C=O bonds, with the most remarkable signals recorded at 1400 cm−1 for the aromatic region, at 1400 cm−1 for the CH3 groups, and at 1650 cm−1 for the carbonyl groups in GA. The MS spectra showed a molecular ion [M-1]− at (m/z) 467 with a molecular weight of 468.4 and the molecular formula C24H20O10. that correspond to GA. The 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra verified the chemical shifts that are typical for GA. GA reduced the cell viability of breast cancer cells from the MCF-7 cell line by 98%, which is indicative of the strong cytotoxic properties of GA and its significant potential to serve as a potent anticancer drug. Keywords: lichen; Umbilicaria muhlenbergii; secondary metabolites; gyrophoric acid; breast cancer; cytotoxicity.
34487Zhang T., Zhang X., Yang Q. & Wei X. (2022): Hidden species diversity was explored in two genera of catapyrenioid lichens (Verrucariaceae, Ascomycota) from the deserts of China. - Journal of Fungi, 8(7): 729 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8070729.
Verrucariaceae is the third-largest lichen family with high species diversity. However, this diversity has not been well-explored in China. We carried out a wide-scale field investigation in the arid and semi-arid regions of Northwest China from 2017 to 2021. A large number of lichen groups, especially those commonly distributed in deserts, were collected. Based on molecular phylogeny using ITS and nuLSU sequences by Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses, combining morphological characters, seven taxa of catapyrenioid lichens in Verricariaceae were found in this study, including one genus (Clavascidium) and one species (Clavascidium lacinulatum) new to China; one genus (Placidium) new to the mainland of China; and four species (Clavascidium sinense, Placidium nitidulum, Placidium nigrum, and Placidium varium) new to science. It enriched our understanding of the high species diversity in Verrucariaceae and the lichen flora of Chinese arid and semi-arid deserts. Keywords: catapyrenioid lichens; Clavascidium; new species; Placidium; taxonomy; Verrucariaceae.
34486Balčiūnaitienė A., Štreimikytė P., Puzerytė V., Viškelis J., Štreimikytė-Mockeliūnė Ž., Maželienė Ž., Sakalauskienė V. & Viškelis P. (2022): Antimicrobial activities against opportunistic pathogenic bacteria using green synthesized silver nanoparticles in plant and lichen enzyme-assisted extracts. - Plants, 11: 1833 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11141833.
Enzyme-assisted extraction is a valuable tool for mild and environmentally-friendly extraction conditions to release bioactive compounds and sugars, essential for silver nanoparticle (AgNP) green synthesis as capping and reducing agents. In this research, plant and fungal kingdoms were selected to obtain the enzyme-assisted extracts, using green synthesized AgNPs. For the synthesis, pseudo-cereal Fagopyrum esculentum (F. esculentum) and lichen Certaria islandica (C. islandica) extracts were used as environmentally-friendly agents under heating in an aqueous solution. Raw and enzyme-assisted extracts of AgNPs were characterized by physicochemical, phytochemical, and morphological characteristics through scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), as well as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical in shape and well dispersed, with average sizes ranging from 10 to 50 nm. This study determined the total phenolic content (TPC) and in vitro antioxidant activity in both materials by applying standard methods. The results showed that TPC, ABTS•+ , FRAP, and DPPH• radical scavenging activities varied greatly in samples. The AgNPs derived from enzymatic hydrolyzed aqueous extracts C. islandica and F. esculentum exhibited higher antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial pathogens than their respective crude extracts. Results indicate that the extracts’ biomolecules covering the AgNPs may enhance the biological activity of silver nanoparticles and enzyme assistance as a sustainable additive to technological processes to achieve higher yields and necessary media components. Keywords: green synthesis; silver nanoparticles; Cetraria islandica; Fagopyrum esculentum; enzyme-assisted extraction; Trichoderma reese.
34485Potenza G., Gerardi G., Fascetti S. & Rosati L. (2022): Habitat fragmentation and lichen diversity in peri‐urban woodlands: A case study in the municipality of Potenza (southern Italy). - Plants, 11(14): 1858 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11141858.
The fragmentation of the natural habitat is a process that is exponentially increasing world‐ wide and represents one of the biggest threats to biological diversity. Habitat destruction and frag‐ mentation have a major impact on landscapes and may also affect ecosystems, populations, and spe‐ cies. The ongoing anthropogenic process can result in habitat loss for some species, habitat creation for others,reduced patch size, and increased distance between patches, which may lead to local extinction. We analyzed the effects of patch size and isolation on lichens in Quercus pubescens woods surrounding the city of Potenza (south Italy). We randomly sampled 11 forest patches with homogeneous environ‐ mental variables using circular plots with a 10 m radius; the patches ranged from 0.3 to 30 ha. For each plot, we collected data about presence and abundance of epiphytic lichens. We performed the analyses at the patch level using linear regression and multivariate analysis, searching for effects on species richness, life forms, and community compositions. Multivariate analyses were used to study the effect of fragmentation on the structure of lichen vegetation. We investigated the main predictor of lichen species richness in habitat fragmentations and concluded that patch area per se is an important (posi‐ tive) driver of lichen species richness in Mediterranean peri‐urban forests. Keywords: air pollution; epiphytic lichens; landscape ecology; Mediterranean ecosystems; Quercus pubescens forests; species richness.
34484Manojlovic N., Vasiljević P., Nikolić D., Bogdanović-Dušanović G., Marković Z. & Najman S. (2011): The isolation, analytical characterization by HPLC–UV and NMR spectroscopy, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of baeomycesic acid from Thamnolia vermicularis var. subuliformis. - Hemijska industrija, 65: 591-598. doi: 10.2298/HEMIND110414035M.
The aim of this work was the analytical characterization of the β-orcinol depside, baeo-mycesic acid in lichens extracts. The extract of Thamnolia vermicularis var. subuliformis was analyzed by two different methods, namely HPLC–UV and 1 H-NMR analysis. The re-sults showed that baeomycesic acid was the most abundant depside in the lichens. These results could be of use for rapid identification of this metabolite in other lichen species. Be-sides baeomycesic acid, three depsides and one monocyclic phenolic compound were iso-lated from the lichen extract on the chromatographic column. The structure of baeomy-cesic acid was confirmed by HPLC–UV and spectroscopic methods. In addition, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of baeomycesic acid were determined. The result of the testing showed that baeomycesic acid exhibited a moderate radical scavenging activity (IC 50 = = 602.10±0.54 μg/mL) and good cytotoxic activity. This is the first report of detailed ana-lytical characterization and isolation, as well as antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of baeo-mycesic acid from Thamnolia vermicularis. These results may be helpful in future industrial production of herbal medicines that include this important natural product
34483Acharius E. (1796): Anmärkningar rörande Laf-arterne. - Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar, [ser. 2], 17: 206–216. .
34482Ashwell A. (2000): Phylogenetic, ecological and population studies on the genus Diplotomma. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 86: 11-12. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2086%20Summer%202000.pdf.
34481Acharius E. (1795): Nya och mindre kända Svenska Laf-arter, beskrifne; (V:te Fortsaettning). - Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar, [ser. 2], 16[4]: 207–215, tab.. .
34480Trobajo S., Fernández-Salegui A.B, Hurtado P., Terrón A. & Martínez I. (2022): Interspecific and intraspecific variability of water use traits in macrolichen species in a fragmented landscape along a climatic ecotone area. - Fungal Biology, 126: 438–448. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2022.04.008.
Water use traits in lichens are important attributes that determine the duration of hydration and metabolically active periods. In this study, the water holding capacity (WHC) and specific thallus mass (STM) were measured for seven macrolichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Parmelina tiliacea, Evernia prunastri, Ramalina farinacea, Lobaria pulmonaria, Lobarina scrobiculata and Nephroma resupinatum) from a Temperate-Mediterranean fragmented landscape. Twenty Quercus forests with different environmental conditions were selected to gather therein five lichen samples of each species in order to analyse their interspecific and intraspecific variation in WHC and STM. The type of photobiont was mainly responsible for differences in the WHC and the water content per biomass among species. Lichens with cyanobacteria as the main or secondary photobiont showed the highest value for both parameters. However, particular features of species were more important in modulating STM, while growth form had a minor explanatory importance. At the intraspecific level, variation in WHC relied on climatic, microclimatic and forest structure factors, while STM variability was only dependent on the two last predictors. Future research should be focused on other drivers at the microscale to unveil the environmental conditions that shape WHC and STM in lichens. Keywords: Growth form; Photobiont; Specific thallus mass; Temperate-Mediterranean region; Water holding capacity.
34479Allen J.L., Calabria L.M., Braid H.E., Peterson E., Villella J., Sheehy S., Glew K., Graves J.M., Berim A., Bull R.D., Lymbery C.T. & McMullin R.T. (2022): Umbilicaria phaea var. coccinea: conservation status, variety rank, and secondary chemistry. - Bryologist, 125(3): 387–405. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.3.387.
Originally described from a single collection in northern California, Umbilicaria phaea var. coccinea has since been reported from additional sites in California, Oregon and Washington. Although relatively rare in all three states, there is currently no conservation status for U. phaea var. coccinea in California. Developing conservation strategies and status ranks requires a sound understanding of distribution, frequency, habitat requirements and taxonomic placement. Therefore, we evaluated distributions and constructed climate envelope models for both varieties of U. phaea. Umbilicaria phaea var. coccinea appears to be restricted to relatively small habitats within the range of U. phaea var. phaea and is only locally common in portions of the Klamath River watershed. To assess evolutionary relationships between the varieties, we evaluated four molecular loci: ITS2, LSU, Mcm7, and mtSSU. A combined phylogeny using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian inference indicated that U. phaea is monophyletic. Within the U. phaea clade, var. coccinea and var. phaea do not form mutually exclusive, monophyletic clades; instead, individuals are intermixed. Based on variation in pigment production, morphology, and geographic distribution, we recommend continued designation of U. phaea var. coccinea as a variety. To better understand the chemical diversity within U. phaea, we compared qualitative differences between secondary metabolite profiles of U. phaea var. phaea and U. phaea var. coccinea acetone extracts using ultraperformance-liquid chromatography high resolution tandem mass spectrometry in negative ion mode. UV spectroscopy, thin-layer chromatography and chemical spot testing were used to further characterize the compounds present. Overall, ten compounds were detected in extracts of U. phaea var. phaea and U. phaea var. coccinea. Five previously known chemical substances were identified in both U. phaea varieties including: orsellinic acid, lecanoric acid, hiascic acid, gyrophoric acid, and orsellinylgyrophorate, along with four unknown metabolites. One additional unknown substance whose chemical properties are consistent with a polyhydroxylated anthraquinone pigment was detected only in U. phaea var. coccinea. Given its rarity, chemical uniqueness, and distinct ecological association, U. phaea var. coccinea warrants a protected status throughout its range. Keywords: Conservation biology, biodiversity, biogeography, Pacific Northwest, climate change, integrative taxonomy.
34478Komposch H. & Taurer-Zeiner C. (2022): Flechten (Lichenes) – Zunder für die Vegetation. – In: Komposch C., Glatz-Jorde S., Jungmeier M. & Wagner H.C., Biodiversität im Biosphärenpark Kärntner Nockberge. Ergebnisse des 6. GEOTages der Natur 2021 - Am Fuß der Zunderwand. - Carinthia II, 212/132: 67–71. .
Keywords: Biodiversity, species diversity, GEO-Day of Nature, BioBlitz, endemics, calcareous island, silicates, Biosphere Reserve, Central Alps, Carinthia, Austria. 87 lichen species identified.
34477Davydov E.A., Smirnova L.Y., Storozhenko Yu.V., Zyatnina M.V., Ryzhkova P.Y. & Yakovchenko L.S. (2022): New localities of protected lichen species on the Salair Ridge in Altai Territory. - Acta Biologica Sibirica, 8: 143–153. https://doi.org/10.14258/abs.v8.e06.
New localities of eight lichen species included in the Red Data Book of the Altai Territory, Lobaria pulmonaria, Ramalina roesleri, R. sinensis, Graphis scripta, Heterodermia speciosa, Nephroma bellum, Ramalina vogulica, and Usnea longissima are reported for the Salair Ridge. The last five species recorded to the Salair Ridge within Altai Territory for the first time. Localities and ecological preferences are indicated for each species. Keywords: Biodiversity, lichenized fungus, Red Data Book, Salair National Park.
34476Abbot A., Coppins B.J., Cayton P., Hitch C.J.B. & Gilbert O.L. (1985): New, rare or interesting British lichen records. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 56: 31-32. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2056%20Summer%201985.pdf.
34475Anonymous (1986): New evidence for lichens on Mars. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 59: 24-24. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2059%20Winter%201986.pdf.
34474Hale M.E. (1986): Control of lichen growths on Mayan archaeological ruins. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 59: 18-19. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2059%20Winter%201986.pdf.
34473Henderson A. (1986): Etymological notes on lichen names. Part 2. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 59: 15-16. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2059%20Winter%201986.pdf.
34472Dalby C. (1986): Revelations of a Lichen Illustrator. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 59: 1-7. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2059%20Winter%201986.pdf.
34471Coppins, B.J. (ed.) (1985): New, rare or interesting British lichen records. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 56: 33-34. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2056%20Summer%201985.pdf.
34470Anonymous (P.B.T., F.H.B. & O.L.G) (1985): Ursula K. Duncan (1910-1985) remembered. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 56: 19-20. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2056%20Summer%201985.pdf.
34469Rose F. (1985): The old forests of Western Europe and their epiphytic lichens. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 56: 1-8. https://britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2056%20Summer%201985.pdf.
The epiphytic lichen vegetation of British forests is now' quite well known, having received much attention in the last 18 years. Accordingly, I' Have in collaboration with a number of. continental . 1ichenologist friends, been attempting to carry out a survey of the lichen flora of as many as possible of the old forests of western continental Europe. This work began in 1968, and in recent years has covered many regions and' forests; About 260 individual forests have now. been sampled in the epiphyte survey: 105 in most parts of. France, 12 in West Germany, 60 in Denmark, '33 in Norway, 10 in Belgium, 2 in Luxembourg, 1 in Holland, 30 in N and central Italy, and 2 in NE Spain.
34468Anonymous (2022): Recent literature on australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 90: 71-71. .
34467McCarthy P.M. & Kantvilas G. (2022): A new species of Dictyomeridium (lichenized Ascomycota, Trypetheliaceae) from Tasmania. - Australasian Lichenology, 90: 10-13. .
Dictyomeridium tasmanicum sp. nov. (Trypetheliaceae) is described from the bark of coastal Allocasuarina verticillata in south-eastern Tasmania. The new lichen has a thin, UV–, epiphloeodal thallus, small but prominent, pleurothelioid ascomata with eccentric to lateral ostioles, and bisporous asci containing comparatively large, muriform-euseptate ascospores
34466McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2022): New species of Megalaria (lichenized Ascomycota, Ramalinaceae) from Queensland, Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island, Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 90: 38-52. .
Four species of Megalaria Hafellner are described as new from tropical and subtropical Australia: M. australiensis from eastern Queensland and Lord Howe Island (corticolous and containing atranorin; excipulum bilayered, internally pale with variously orientated hyphae; epihymenium N+ maroon or blood-red; hymenium 70–100 μm thick; ascospores 12–23 × 4–7.5 μm); M. crystallifera from Lord Howe Island (corticolous and containing atranorin; excipulum internally pale, with tightly packed, radiating hyphae, the oblong to moniliform cells containing K-soluble crystals; epihymenium N+ purple; hymenium 55–90 μm thick; ascospores 10–17 × 4.5–7 μm); M. norfolkensis from Norfolk Island (corticolous and containing atranorin; excipulum bilayered, internally pale with variously orientated hyphae; epihymenium N+ deep maroon; hymenium 100–160 μm thick; ascospores 13–24 × 6–11 μm); and M. stratosa from north-eastern Queensland and Lord Howe Island (saxicolous and lacking lichen substances; excipulum multilayered, internally dense and very dark; epihymenium N+ violet or purple-violet; hymenium 60–100 μm thick; ascospores 9.5–18 × 4–7 μm)
34465McCarthy P.M. (2022): A new species of Leiorreuma Eschw. (lichenized Ascomycota, Graphidaceae) from Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. - Australasian Lichenology, 90: 14-17. .
Leiorreuma norsticticum sp. nov. (Graphidaceae) is described from the bark of a rainforest tree in Christmas Island, an Australian territory in the north-eastern Indian Ocean. The pale olive-green thallus contains norstictic acid, and the simple, adnate to subsessile lirellae have a strikingly pruinose disc and a thin thalline margin. The proper excipulum is brown-black and thickest at the ascomatal base, and the heavily granule-inspersed hymenium contains simple paraphyses, 8-spored asci and brownish, 6-locular, non-amyloid ascospores,19–28 × 5.5–9 μm
34464McCarthy P.M. (2022): A new saxicolous species of Enterographa (lichenized Ascomycota, Roccellaceae) from Lord Howe Island, Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 90: 24-27. .
Enterographa reticulata sp. nov. (Roccellaceae) is described from basalt in Lord Howe Island (New South Wales). In addition, E. ophiolithica Kantvilas, recently described from Tasmania, is reported for the first time from the south coast of New South Wales.
34463Elvebakk A. (2022): Pannaria crispella comb. nov. and P. campbelliana Hue, two overlooked lichens from New Zealand. - Australasian Lichenology, 90: 28-37. .
Psoroma sphinctrinum var. crispellum has been considered a synonym of Pannaria implexa, but it is a distinct species, recombined here as P. crispella. It forms a thin, filmy thallus on tree trunks, and consists of rounded, confluent squamules surrounded by a distinct black prothallus. The apothecia are initially simple with a well-defined central thalline plug. However, the plug soon expands into a labyrinth-like structure with undulate margins, unlike those of any other Pannariaceae. The ascospores are long-tailed, as in P. implexa, but otherwise smooth, and the species contains argopsin, very rarely reported from the family except for the parmelielloid clade. Pannaria campbelliana, previously also considered to be a synonym of P. implexa, is shown here to represent a second well-founded species, characterized by thick, geotropically arranged squamules, a distinct fibrous prothallus, apothecia with a prominent simple thalline plug and short-ellipsoid spores lacking apiculate extensions.
34462Elix J.A. & van den Boom P.P.G. (2022): Three new species of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from Cape Verde. - Australasian Lichenology, 90: 18-23. .
Amandinea santantaoensis Elix & van den Boom, Buellia rugulata Elix & van den Boom and Cratiria capeverdensis Elix & van den Boom, from Cape Verde, are described as new to science.
34461Elix J.A. & McCarthy P.M. (2022): Additional lichen records from Australia 88. - Australasian Lichenology, 90: 57-69. .
Lepra variolina (Nyl.) Q.Ren and Pseudopyrenula papuana Aptroot are reported for the first time from Australia. New State, Territory and oceanic island records are provided for 60 other species.
34460Elix J.A. (2022): Four new species of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 90: 3-9. .
Amandinea meridionalis Elix from the Flinders Ranges in South Australia, A. wagoorooensis Elix from Carnarvon National Park in central Queensland, Buellia gaahnabulensis Elix from Mt Canobolas in central New South Wales, and B. purdieae Elix from southern Northern Territory and northern South Australia, are described as new to science.
34459Øvstedal D.O. (2022): The genera Aspicilia and Oxneriaria (Megasporaceae) in Antarctica. - Australasian Lichenology, 90: 53-56. .
Three species are reported from Antarctica: A. gremmenii Øvstedal sp. nov., A. narssaquensis (Lynge) Thomson, which is new to the Southern Hemisphere, and Oxneriaria virginea (Hue) S.Y.Kondr. & L.Lökös, which is already known from the region.
34458Dohi T., Iijima K., Machida M., Suno H., Ohmura Y., Fujiwara K., Kimura S. & Kanno F. (2022): Accumulation mechanisms of radiocaesium within lichen thallus tissues determined by means of in situ microscale localisation observation. - PLoS ONE, 17(7): e0271035 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0271035.
Many lichens are well known to accumulate radiocaesium and, thus acting as biomonitors of contamination levels. However, the actual localisation and chemical forms of radiocaesium in contaminated lichens have not yet been elucidated because, despite their high radioactivity, these forms are present in trace amounts as chemical entities. Here, we use autoradiography and demonstrate for the first time in situ microscale localisation of radiocaesium within thallus tissues to investigate the radiocaesium forms and their accumulation mechanism. Radiocaesium distributions showed similar trends in lichen tissues collected two and six years after the Fukushima nuclear accident. The radiocaesium was localised in the brown pigmented parts i.e., melanin-like substances, in the lower cortex of lichen thallus. Quantum chemical calculations showed that functional group of melanin-like substances can chelate Cs+ ion, which indicates that the Cs+ ions form complexes with the substances. Based on these findings, we suggest that radiocaesium ions may be retained stably in melanin-like substances for long periods (two to six years) due to steric factors, such as those seen in porphyrin-like structures and via multimer formation in the lower cortex. In addition, electron microscopy and autoradiography were used to observe radiocaesium-bearing microparticles (CsMPs) on/in the upper cortex and around the medullary layer. Micron-sized particles appeared to adhere to the surface tissue of the thallus, as shown by electron microscopy, suggesting that the particles were trapped by development of an adhesive layer; that is, CsMPs were trapped both physically and physiologically. These findings provide information on in situ localisation of two chemical forms of radiocaesium, cations and particles, in lichen thallus tissues and their accumulation mechanisms.
34457Inashvili Ts., Kupradze I. & Batsatsashvili K. (2022): A revised catalog of lichens of Georgia (South Caucasus). - Acta Mycologica, 57: 571 [46 p.]. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0792-9854.
A revised lichen catalog for Georgia, the South Caucasus, the second after 1986, is presented here. It is based on a literature survey and recent study of herbarium material. The list includes 713 species of lichens and nine species of nonlichenized fungi traditionally treated by lichenologists. As a basis for the present catalog, 106 literature sources reporting the first findings of the listed taxa in floristic regions of Georgia were used. The accepted taxa in bold are followed by references from the literature, if applicable, as well as references from herbarium specimens seen by us at local and several foreign herbaria. Specimens of the 547 of the 722 reported species are stored in the local herbaria: 542 at the National Herbarium of Georgia, the Institute of Botany, Ilia State University, Tbilisi (TBI), and 94 in the Herbarium of the State Museum of Georgia, Tbilisi (TGM). In each literature citation and herbarium code, the occurrence of respective species in Georgia’s floristic regions is given. In addition, a short historical background and comprehensive bibliography are provided. Keywords: lichenized fungi; fungi; Ascomycota; biodiversity; the Caucasus.
34456Wurzel W. & Breitfeld M. (2022): Prof. Dr. Eduard Hertel (1938–2021). - Herzogia, 35(1): 1–5. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.1.2022.1.
obituary, biography
34455Fałtynowicz W. (2022): Participation and role of German lichenologists in understanding the lichen biota of the areas currently within the borders of Poland. - Herzogia, 35(1): 6–21. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.1.2022.6.
German naturalists initiated lichenological research in the areas lying within the Polish borders as early as in the 17th century. For over 200 years of their activity, they have published over 100 books and articles on lichens, making a significant contribution to the knowledge of the lichen biota of Poland. The results of their research, together with numerous preserved herbarium collections, constitute important documentation and comparative material, which is still used by Polish lichenologists. Key words: Lichens, German lichenologists in Poland, history of lichenological investigations.
34454Bauer N., Hüvös-Récsi A., Lőkös L. & Farkas E. (2022): A new steppe element in the Vienna Basin, the first record of Xanthoparmelia pulvinaris (Parmeliaceae) for Austria. - Herzogia, 35(1): 22–31. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.1.2022.22.
The first observation of Xanthoparmelia pulvinaris in Austria is reported. The soil-dwelling lichen species was found in significant amounts (~1,000 thalli) in the eastern periphery of the Vienna Basin at two locations in the Hainburg Hills. The typical habitats are basic rocky grassland patches on flat or low-slope plateau areas of dolomite hills. The occurrence of the species is significant from a biogeographical point of view, as it supports the assumption that the region belongs to the Pannonicum floristic province. Key words: Hainburg Hills, nature conservation, biogeography, phytosociology.
34453Christensen S.N. (2022): Umbilicaria subpolyphylla Oxner: notes on its morphology and ecology, and new records for Italy and Greece. - Herzogia, 35(1): 32–40. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.1.2022.32.
Variation in morphology and colour of Umbilicaria subpolyphylla is illustrated and discussed, and its ecology is examined. It is reported from Sicily and Macedonia as new for Italy and Greece, respectively, and its European distribution is mapped. Key words: Greece, Italy, Leptochidium albociliatum, lichen-forming fungi, polymorphism, Umbilicaria.
34452Christensen S.N. (2022): Contribution to the knowledge of the lichenized mycota of the East Aegeanis land Kos, Dodekanisos island group, Greece . - Herzogia, 35(1): 41–60. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.1.2022.41.
One hundred and sixteen taxa are reported from Kos. One species, Candelariella subdeflexa, is new for Greece and 54 are new for Kos. The number of lichen species known from Kos is thus raised from 227 to 282. The distribution in the Aegean of the lichens new for Kos is briefly discussed. Contrary to what is observed for vascular plants, an Asian element among the lichens recorded from Kos is not detected. The species composition of different trees and substrata is presented, including lichens on Pinus halepensis subsp. brutia, Pistacia terebinthus and Prunus dulcis. Key words: Biogeography, Candelariella subdeflexa, lichen biota, morphology of Xanthoria parietina, rural environment, species composition.
34451Türk R., Berger F., Berger A., Berger M., Cezanne R., Dolnik C., Eichler M., Gruber J.P., Grünberg H., Hafellner J., Klüssendorf J., Neumann P., Otte V., Schultz M., Stapper N., Teuber D., Thüs H. & Weber L. (2022): Flechten und lichenicole Pilze im UNESCO-Biosphärenpark Salzburger Lungau (BLAM-Exkursion 2019). - Herzogia, 35(1): 61–104. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.1.2022.61.
The list of lichens and lichenicolous fungi determined in the course of the 2019 BLAM excursion to the Lungau biosphere reserve is presented with their substrates. The high number of detected taxa in the nine study areas – 546 lichen taxa and 69 lichenicolous fungi – indicates the importance of the Lungau as a refuge for lichen taxa endangered elsewhere in Europe. Significant lichen localities for amphibian lichens and Verrucariaceae include the rapids of the Lonka River in the Weißpriach Valley and the forefield areas of the Preberkessel. The following species are new to Austria: Ephebe perspinulosa, Lempholemma cladodes, Polyblastidium japonicum agg., Pyrenopsis sanguinea, Scytinium biatorinum, Verrucaria cernaensis, V. hunsrueckensis, V. pallidomurina and the lichenicolous fungus Crittendenia coppinsii. The following species are new to the province of Salzburg: Absconditella sphagnorum, Absconditella trivialis, Bryobilimbia sanguineoatra, Flavoplaca oasis, Lecanora allophana f. sorediata, Lempholemma dispansum, Lepraria borealis, Placynthium tantaleum, Protothelenella xylina, Ramalina europaea, Scutula dedicata, Scytinium subtile, Spilonema revertens, Staurothele fissa, Trapelia corticola, Usnea wasmuthii, Verrucaria alpicola, V. bryoctona, V. foveolata, V. praetermissa, V. umbrinula and Zahlbrucknerella calcarea and the lichenicolous fungi Arthonia digitatae, Didymocyrtis pseudeverniae, Epicladonia simplex, Epithamnolia rangiferinae, Heterocephalacria bachmannii, Lecanora lecanoricola, Lichenostigma cosmopolites, Muellerella atricola, Neoburgoa freyi, Opegrapha lamyi, Pronectria robergei, Raesaenenia huuskonenii, Sclerococcum parasiticum, Skyttea tephromelarum, Sphaerellothecium leratianum, Stigmidium microcarpum, Tremella cetrariicola, T. cladoniae and T. hypogymniae. Key words: freshwater lichens, Austria, lichenicolous fungi, Verrucariaceae, cyanolichens.
34450Zhurbenko M.P. (2022): Sclerococcum knudsenii (Ascomycota, Sclerococcales), a new lichenicolous fungus on Polycauliona bolacina from California. - Herzogia, 35(1): 131–137. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.1.2022.131.
Sclerococcum knudsenii, a lichenicolous discomycete growing on Polycauliona bolacina, is described as new to science from California. The species is characterized by aseptate ascospores, not previously known in this genus, and polyspored asci. An updated key to the eight accepted polyspored species of Sclerococcum is provided. Key words: key, lichen-dwelling fungi, taxonomy, U.S.A.
34449Halıcı M.G., Möller E., Timdal E., Kahraman Yiğit M. & Bölükbaşı E. (2022): Rhizocarpon ozsoyae sp. nova (Rhizocarpaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes) from James Ross Island (Antarctic Peninsula). - Herzogia, 35(1): 105–114. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.35.1.2022.105.
The new lichen species Rhizocarpon ozsoyae is described from James Ross Island, located in the north-eastern Antarctic Peninsula region. The nrITS and mtSSU gene regions of the new species are studied and the phylogenetic position of the species is in the Rhizocarpon geographicum group. It differs from the other species of the group by having mostly 1-septate and smaller ascospores, and from nearly all of them by containing norstictic acid. Key words: Antarctica, biodiversity, lichenized fungi, Rhizocarpales.
34448Salih S.A. (2022): New reports of lichens from Mawat and Gapelon districts in northeastern Iraq. - Lindbergia, 45: linbg.01160 [4 p.]. https://doi.org/10.25227/linbg.01160.
As a result of lichenological fieldwork in Mawat and Gapelon locations in the northeast of Iraq, a total of 22 lichens were identified from nine different localities. Acarospora epiaspicilia, Acarospora murorum, Aspicilia contorta subsp. hoffmanniana, Caloplaca saxicola, Caloplaca xantholyta, Caloplaca oblongula, Candelariella coralliza, Immersaria cupreoatra, Immersaria usbekica, Lecaimmeria qinghaiensis, Lecania polycycla, Lecanora gangaleoides, Lepraria membranacea, Lobothallia radiosa, Lobothallia recedens, Parvoplaca tiroliensis, Physcia stellaris, Physconia grisea subsp. algeriensis, Rinodina ascociscana, Rinodina calcarea, Rinodina oleae, Tephromela atra var. calcarea were reported for the first time from Iraq. The substrata and their collecting localities of the newly recorded lichens are presented. Keywords: Immersaria, Iraq, Lecaimmeria, Lobothallia, new records.
34447Shiromi P., Hewawasam R.P., Jayalal R.G.U., Rathnayake H., Wijayaratne W. & Wanniarachchi D. (2021): Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Two Sri Lankan Lichens, Parmotrema rampoddense, and Parmotrema tinctorum against Methicillin-Sensitive and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. - Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2021: 18. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/9985325.
Introduction. Medicinal utility of lichens is ascribed to the presence of various secondary metabolites of low molecular weight and they have been used in traditional medicine including Ayurveda in the treatment of wounds and skin disorders. Despite the urgent need to effectively address the antibiotic resistance worldwide, the discovery of new antibacterial drugs has declined in the recent past. This emphasizes the increasing importance of investigating and developing new classes of antibiotics that can withstand antibiotic resistance. Aims of the study. The present study was conducted to investigate the chemical composition and the antibacterial activity of hexane, ethanol, and aqueous extracts of Parmotrema rampoddense and Parmotrema tinctorum, two lichens collected from Belihuloya, Sri Lanka, against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including twenty clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Materials and methods. Phytochemical analysis, thin layer chromatography (TLC), and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) were performed to determine the chemical composition of the two lichens. Hexane, ethanol, and aqueous extracts of both lichens were tested against clinical isolate of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including twenty clinical isolates of MRSA. Bacterial susceptibility was tested using a disc diffusion assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by a broth microdilution method. Vancomycin was used as the positive control. Results. Alectorialic acid, atranorin, atraric acid, orcinol, and O-orsellinaldehyde were among the secondary metabolites identified by the TLC and GC-MS analysis. None of the lichen extracts were active against Gram-negative bacteria but both lichens showed a concentration-dependent activity against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and MRSA. Ethanol extract of P. rampoddense showed the highest activity against MSSA with the MIC, 0.0192 mg/ml, but all MRSA isolates investigated showed MIC between 0.096 and 2.4 mg/ml for the same extract. Conclusion. Both lichens, P. rampoddense and P. tinctorum, represent potentially important sources of future antimicrobial drugs. Further investigation on the ethanol extract of P. rampoddense will enable us to determine the most active phytoconstituents responsible for the activity, their mechanism of action against bacterial pathogens, and also their cytotoxicity against normal cells
34446Masters K.S. & Bräse S. (2012): Xanthones from Fungi, Lichens, and Bacteria: The Natural Products and Their Synthesis. - Chemical reviews, 112: 3717-76. DOI: 10.1039/C4NP00050A.
Xanthones from fungi, lichens, and bacteria comprise an ever- growing and considerably diverse group of compounds in terms of structure, occurrence, and bioactivity. General biosynthetic pathways have been defined; however, some pathways are complex, and significant pathway branching during the sequence of xanthone synthesis from polyketide through anthraquinone has been described in the primary literature, sometimes even within a single species. Additionally, the biochemical sources of structural components, for example, oxygen or methyl atoms, can differ between molecules, even those that are structurally similar. The xanthones represent attractive targets for both total synthesis and associated exploration of analogues for the purpose of exploiting the plethora of diverse and specific bioactivities that this class of compounds possesses. The syntheses of the more challenging unsaturated xanthone derivatives is an exciting contemporary area of chemical research
34445Guttová A. & Halda J.P. (2022): Dvojhlasne blahoželáme Zdeňkovi Palicemu k jeho päťdesiatym narodeninám [Dvojhlasně gratulujeme Zdeňkovi Palicemu k jeho padesátým narozeninám]. - Bryonora, 69: 56–72. .
34444Palice Z. (2022): Česká a slovenská lichenologická bibliografie XXXIV [Czech and Slovak lichenological bibliography, XXXIV]. - Bryonora, 69: 41–45. .
34443Malíček J. (2022): Lišejníky přírodní rezervace Getsemanka v Brdech [Lichens of the Getsemanka Nature Reserve in the Brdy Hills]. - Bryonora, 69: 19-29. .
The Brdy Hills represent an island of submontane landscape in the centre of Bohemia. They are important site for lichen biodiversity and harbour many rare species. The area is quite rich in small fragments of old-growth forests which are important site for epiphytic lichens. One of woodland site is the studied locality – Getsemanka Nature Reserve (56.64 ha). It is covered mainly by planted beech and spruce forests, but small areas are occupied by old-growth beech and scree forests. In total, 140 lichen species and seven non-lichenized fungi have been recorded in the reserve. Micarea perparvula is published here as new for the Czech Republic. Absconditella celata, Alyxoria ochrocheila, Bacidia circumspecta, Brianaria lutulata, Catinaria atropurpurea, Chaenotheca chlorella, Cladonia norvegica, Lecanora intumescens, Parmelia submontana, Pyrenula nitida, Thelotrema lepadinum and Verrucaria cf. maculiformis represent other remarkable records. beech forest, biodiversity, Micarea perparvula, old-growth forest
34442Malíček J., Bouda F., Konečná E., Steinová J. & Syrovátková L. (2022): Lišejníky zaznamenané během bryologicko-lichenologických dní na Kokořínsku [Lichens recorded during the bryological and lichenological days in the Kokořín region]. - Bryonora, 69: 7-18. .
This contribution provides records on 160 lichenized fungi observed during several excursions in the Kokořín region in northern Bohemia. The landscape is dominated by extensive sandstone rock complexes and pine forests, which are generally poor in lichen diversity, but quite rich in the occurrence of some specialized and rare species. Some communities, such as heathlands, rock outcrops and relic pine forests on rocks are even dominated by lichens, mostly by various Cladonia species. For example, local populations of Cladonia portentosa belong to the richest ones within the country. Besides sandstones, we briefly explored also some volcanic rocks. Porpidia cf. pachythallina is published as new for the Czech Republic. Sequenced specimens of Porpidia sp. and Schaereria sp. from acidic sandstones may represent undescribed species. Acarospora versicolor, Aspiciliella intermutans agg., Cladonia strepsilis, Endocarpon adscendens, Fuscidea austera, F. praeruptorum, Hypotrachyna revoluta, Pertusaria amarescens, P. ocellata, Stereocaulon condensatum, and Trapelia involuta s. str. are among additional valuable records. biodiversity, Porpidia pachythallina, sandstones, volcanic rocks
34441Oset M. (2022): Validation of the typifications of Pertusaria atropallida and P. uralensis. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 59: 1–2. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2022.59.01.
The issue of valid publication and typification of Pertusaria atropallida and P. uralensis is discussed. According to Art. F.5.4 ICN the names were published in 2021 invalidly because the author did not provide a registration number in MycoBank. Keywords: Pertusaria, nomenclature, taxonomy.
34440Kossowska M., Kubiak D., Kowalewska A., Fałtynowicz & Kukwa M. (2022): Five lichen species new to Poland. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 59: 3–10. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2022.59.02.
Athallia cerinelloides, Caloplaca ulcerosa, Flavoplaca arcis, Lecanora sinuosa and Sclerophora amabilis are reported for the first time from Poland. Descriptions, notes on similar species, habitat preferences and general distribution are provided for each species. Keywords: lichenized fungi, distribution, Poland.
34439Fayyaz I., Iftikhar F., Afshan N., Niazi A.R., Habib K. & Khalid A.N. (2022): Some new lichen records from Pakistan. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 59: 11–15. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2022.59.03.
During a survey of the lichens in the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, many specimens were collected from the Jhelum and Neelum valley and characterized using morpho-anatomical, molecular and chemical test methods. Two taxa new for Pakistan, i.e., Physciella chloanta and Xanthoparmelia protomatrae s. l., were found in the collection while Physconia enteroxantha represent range extensions within Pakistan. Morpho-anatomical descriptions, ecology and distribution are provided. Keywords: Chikar, lichen biota, mycobiont, phycobiont.
34438Himelbrant D.E., Stepanchikova I.S., Tsurykau A. & Andreev M.P. (2022): New records of lichens and allied fungi from the Leningrad Region, Russia. XII. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 59: 17–22. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2022.59.04.
Three lichen species and eight lichenicolous fungi were recorded for the first time for St. Petersburg or Eastern Leningrad Region. In addition, the protected species Lobaria scrobiculata was rediscovered in the Leningrad Region. The lichenicolous fungus Arthonia parietinaria is new to Russia, and two species, Didymocyrtis melanelixiae and Tremella everniae, are new for European Russia. Keywords: lichen diversity, protected areas, St. Petersburg, Kotlin Island.
34437Popovici V., Bucur L., Gîrd C.E., Popescu A., Matei E., Cozaru G.C., Schröder V., Ozon E.A., Fița A.C., Lupuliasa D., Aschie M., Caraiane A., Botnarciuc M. & Badea V. (2022): Phenolic secondary metabolites and antiradical and antibacterial activities of different extracts of Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H.Wigg from Călimani Mountains, Romania. - Pharmaceuticals, 15(7): 829 [24 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15070829.
Phenolic compounds represent an essential bioactive metabolites group with numerous pharmaceutical applications. Our study aims to identify and quantify phenolic constituents of various liquid and dry extracts of Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg (U. barbata) from Calimani Mountains, Romania, and investigate their bioactivities. The extracts in acetone, 96% ethanol, and water with the same dried lichen/solvent ratio (w/v) were obtained through two conventional techniques: maceration (mUBA, mUBE, and mUBW) and Soxhlet extraction (dUBA, dUBE, and dUBW). High-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) was performed for usnic acid (UA) and different polyphenols quantification. Then, the total phenolic content (TPC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging activity (AA) were determined through spectrophotometric methods. Using the disc diffusion method (DDM), the antibacterial activity was evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria known for their pathogenicity: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 49619), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 13883). All extracts contain phenolic compounds expressed as TPC values. Five lichen extracts display various UA contents; this significant metabolite was not detected in dUBW. Six polyphenols from the standards mixture were quantified only in ethanol and water extracts; mUBE has all individual polyphenols, while dUBE shows only two. Three polyphenols were detected in mUBW, but none was found in dUBW. All U. barbata extracts had antiradical activity; however, only ethanol and acetone extracts proved inhibitory activity against P. aeruginosa, S. pneumoniae, and S. aureus. In contrast, K. pneumoniae was strongly resistant (IZD = 0). Data analysis evidenced a high positive correlation between the phenolic constituents and bioactivities of each U. barbata extract. Associating these extracts’ properties with both conventional techniques used for their preparation revealed the extraction conditions’ significant influence on lichen extracts metabolites profiling, with a powerful impact on their pharmacological potential. Keywords: Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg extracts; phenolic secondary metabolites; usnic acid; polyphenols; DPPH free-radical scavenging activity; antibacterial activity.
34436Valencia-Islas N.A., Arguello J.J. & Rojas J.L. (2021): Antioxidant and Photoprotective Metabolites of Bunodophoron melanocarpum, A Lichen from the Andean Páramo. - Pharm. Sci., 27(2): 281-290. doi:10.34172/PS.2020.83.
Background: Oxidative stress caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation has been associated with dermal problems, including skin cancer. In this study, we determined the photoprotective and antioxidant activity of isolated metabolites from the lichen Bunodophoron melanocarpum (Sphaerophoraceae) to find new sunscreens prototypes. Methods: The constituents of B. melanocarpum were isolated by phytochemical methods and their structures were determined by spectroscopy (IR, 1D and 2D NMR). Antioxidant activity was measured by scavenging DPPH free radicals (EC50), ferric reducing power (FRP), and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (% ILP). The photoprotective capacity against ultraviolet (UVA and UVB) radiations was determined in vitro by calculating their sun protection factor (SPF), critical wavelength and UVA ratio and these values were compared against commercial sunscreens. The lipophilicity and possible skin penetration to the lipid-rich stratum corneum of the isolates, was determined by calculating their octanol/water partition coefficients (Log P) and Gibbs free energy of transfer (ΔtG0 ). Results: Sphaerophorin (1), everninic acid (2), sphaerophorol carboxylic acid (3) and friedelin (4) were isolated from B. melanocarpum. Orsellinic acid-type compounds 1 and 3 are dual agents with antioxidant capacity as free radical scavengers (EC50= 0.0857 and 0.1828 mol compound / mol DPPH•, respectively) and photoprotective properties particularly against UVB radiation (SPF 25.78 ± 0.53 and 22.00 ± 1.03, respectively). In addition, they had lipophilicity (Log P 7.07 ± 0.64 and 4.03 ± 0.32, respectively) and ΔtG0 (-40.32 ± 3.67 and -22.97 ± 1.82 kJmol-1, respectively) suitable to act on the skin Conclusion: Sphaerophorin (1) and sphaerophorol carboxylic acid (3) are dual agents with antioxidant and UVB photoprotective properties and are also lipophilic substances that spontaneously would diffuse across the skin
34435Stojanović I.Z., Stanković M., Jovanović O., Petrović G., Smelcerović A. & Stojanović G.S. (2013): Effect of Hypogymnia physodes extracts and their depsidones on micronucleus distribution in human lymphocytes. - Nat Prod Commun., 8(1): 109-12. PMID: 23472471. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23472471/.
Three lichen depsidones, physodalic acid (1), physodic acid (2), and 3-hydroxy physodic acid (3), were isolated from Hypogymnia physodes diethyl ether extract using column chromatography, and their structures determined by comparing their UV, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic and MS data with those given in the literature, as well as with data computed by CHEM draw ultra 11 software. The contents of 1, 2 and 3 were determined in the methanol (ME), acetone (AE), and diethyl ether (EE) extracts using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The extracts, isolated depsidones 1-3 and EE fraction F23 (consisting of 90% 2 and 3, in the ratio 5.5: 1) were evaluated for their in vitro effects on chromosome aberrations in peripheral human lymphocytes using the cytochalasin-B blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay in doses of 1 microg/mL and 2 microg/mL of final culture solution. The frequency of MN was scored in binucleated cells, and nuclear proliferation index was calculated. It was found that 1, 2, 3, F23, and EE at 1.0 microg/mL exerted a beneficial effect on lymphocyte cells giving a significant decrease of the frequency of MN in comparison with the positive control Amifostin WR-2721.Among the tested depsidones at a concentration of 1 microg/mL, 3 exhibited the most prominent effect decreasing the frequency of MN by 30.3%, followed by 2 (28.2%) and 1 (22.0%). The extracts were less effective than the isolated depsidones
34434Sprengel K. P. J. (1821): Neue Entdeckungen im ganzen Umfang der Pflanzenkunde. - Leipzig, F. Fleischer, 386 p. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/50218.
34433Marshall A.J., Blanchon D.J., Aptroot A., Lücking R. & de Lange P.J. (2022): Five new additions to the lichenized mycobiota of the Aotearoa / New Zealand archipelago. - Український ботанічний журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 79(3): 130–141. https://doi.org/10.15407/ukrbotj79.130.
As part of ongoing studies of the lichenized mycobiota of the Aotearoa / New Zealand archipelago we provide formal documentation of the occurrence of Alyxoria ochrocheila, Anisomeridium anisolobum, Fissurina dumastii, Porina americana and Zwackhia viridis. Through their formal documentation in peer-reviewed literature these species can now be accepted as new additions to the lichenized mycobiota of that region. Keywords: Alyxoria ochrocheila, Anisomeridium anisolobum, Fissurina dumastii, Porina americana, Zwackhia viridis, Aotearoa / New Zealand, lichenized mycobiota, new additions.
34432Dembitsky V.M. (2022): Microbiological aspects of unique, rare, and unusual fatty acids derived from natural amides and their pharmacological profile. - Microbiology Research, 13: 377–417. https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13030030.
In the proposed review, the pharmacological profile of unique, rare, and unusual fatty acids derived from natural amides is considered. These amides are produced by various microor- ganisms, lichens, and fungi. The biological activity of some natural fatty acid amides has been de- termined by their isolation from natural sources, but the biological activity of fatty acids has not been practically studied. According to QSAR data, the biological activity of fatty acids is shown, which demonstrated strong antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory ac- tivities. Moreover, some fatty acids have shown rare activities such as antidiabetic, anti-infective, anti-eczematic, antimutagenic, and anti-psoriatic activities. For some fatty acids that have pro- nounced biological properties, 3D graphs are shown that show a graphical representation of unique activities. These data are undoubtedly of both theoretical and practical interest for chemists, phar- macologists, as well as for the pharmaceutical industry, which is engaged in the synthesis of biolog- ically active drugs. Keywords: fatty acids; bacteria; fungal endophytes; fungi; lichens; amides.
34431Lu Y., Tao Y., Yin B., Li Y., Tucker C., Zhou X. & Zhang Y. (2022): Nitrogen deposition stimulated winter nitrous oxide emissions from bare sand more than biological soil crusts in cold desert ecosystem. - Science of the Total Environment, 841: 156779 [10 p.]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156779.
Dryland ecosystems are often nitrogen-limited, and small nitrogen inputs may produce large responses to dryland ecological processes, such as gaseous nitrogen emission. The effect of increased anthropogenic nitrogen deposition on N2O and NO emissions in desert ecosystems is unclear, especially in non-growing seasons when the surface is covered with snow. In this study, nitrogen applications were performed on biological soil crusts (lichen crust and moss crust, bare sand for control) in the Gurbantunggut Desert, Northwest China. We measured the fluxes of N2O and NO and related nitrogen cycle functional gene abundances in winter for three-years period. Nitrogen addition significantly affected N2O emissions and increased the abundances of key functional gene for nitrogen cycle, while it only slightly influenced NO emissions. These effects of nitrogen addition depended on composition of biological soil crusts. For bare sand and lichen crust, nitrogen addition significantly increased N2O emissions, whereas for moss crust, only a negligible effect was observed. Meanwhile, significant differences in nitrogen cycle functional gene abundances were found among different composition of biological soil crusts. Abundance of amoA, narG, and nosZ genes were highly related to N2O and NO emissions. Thus, our results indicate that gaseous nitrogen emissions were generally increased by nitrogen addition through their effects on related functional microbial groups. The effects were regulated by composition of biological soil crusts which can buffer the effects of increasing nitrogen addition during winter. Keywords: Nitrous oxide; Nitric oxide; Biological soil crust; Nitrogen cycle functional genes; Nitrogen addition.
34430Xiao B., Bowker M.A. , Zhao Y., Chamizo S. & Issa O.M. (2022): Biocrusts: Engineers and architects of surface soil properties, functions, and processes in dryland ecosystems. - Geoderma, 424: 116015 [5 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2022.116015.
Biocrusts are photosynthetic biotic communities of cryptogams and microbes that aggregate minerals at the soil surface in many ecosystems. Due to their high tolerance to harsh environments, biocrusts are present in a wide range of habitats, but are especially representative ground covers in regions with restricted vegetation growth, such as drylands (hyperarid, arid, semiarid, and dry subhumid regions) where water is a limiting factor, or high latitude or altitude regions where cold is a limiting factor. Since biocrusts fulfill a large range of ecological roles particularly in modifying soil properties and regulating functions, their rehabilitation and management is believed to be a promising measure for combating land degradation. We organized this article collection to further highlight the importance of biocrusts and their fundamental roles in reshaping soil properties and multifunctionality in drylands and other ecosystems, and to elucidate the ways in which global change factors are influencing biocrust-soil systems. The special issue brings together 27 research articles pertinent to soil-biocrust interactions or biocrust response to global change and disturbance from 12 countries worldwide (10 papers from China, 6 papers from the USA, 2 papers from Spain, 2 papers from Australia, in addition to studies from Antarctica, Argentina, Brazil, Iceland, Iran, Mexico, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden). The discussed topics include biocrust roles in regulating soil hydrology (6 papers), reducing soil erosion (4 papers), affecting soil carbon fixation and respiration (2 papers), and influencing soil microbial biodiversity (5 papers). The responses of biocrusts themselves and their functions to trampling disturbance (2 papers), land use shifts (2 papers), and climate change (5 papers) are also emphasized. On the whole, we highlight the capability of biocrusts in reshaping most properties of surface soil, acting as engineers and architects of surface soil properties, functions, and processes in dryland or other harsh environments, and we recognize the necessity of their protection and consideration as valuable nature-based measures to combat soil and land degradation. Keywords : Biological soil crust ; Soil multifunctionality ; Dryland hydrology ; Soil erosion ; Soil carbon cycling ; Human disturbance ; Global climate change.
34429Keuler R., Jensen J., Barcena-Peña A., Grewe F., Lumbsch H.T., Huang J.-P. & Leavitt S.D. (2022): Interpreting phylogenetic conflict: Hybridization in the most speciose genus of lichen-forming fungi. - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 174: 107543 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2022.107543.
While advances in sequencing technologies have been invaluable for understanding evolutionary relationships, increasingly large genomic data sets may result in conflicting evolutionary signals that are often caused by biological processes, including hybridization. Hybridization has been detected in a variety of organisms, influencing evolutionary processes such as generating reproductive barriers and mixing standing genetic variation. Here, we investigate the potential role of hybridization in the diversification of the most speciose genus of lichen-forming fungi, Xanthoparmelia. As Xanthoparmelia is projected to have gone through recent, rapid diversification, this genus is particularly suitable for investigating and interpreting the origins of phylogenomic conflict. Focusing on a clade of Xanthoparmelia largely restricted to the Holarctic region, we used a genome skimming approach to generate 962 single-copy gene regions representing over 2 Mbp of the mycobiont genome. From this genome-scale dataset, we inferred evolutionary relationships using both concatenation and coalescent-based species tree approaches. We also used three independent tests for hybridization. Although different species tree reconstruction methods recovered largely consistent and well-supported trees, there was widespread incongruence among individual gene trees. Despite challenges in differentiating hybridization from ILS in situations of recent rapid radiations, our genome-wide analyses detected multiple potential hybridization events in the Holarctic clade, suggesting one possible source of trait variability in this hyperdiverse genus. This study highlights the value in using a pluralistic approach for characterizing genome-scale conflict, even in groups with well-resolved phylogenies, while highlighting current challenges in detecting the specific impacts of hybridization. Keywords: Conflict; Incomplete lineage sorting; Introgression; Phylogenetic incongruence; Phylogenomics; Reticulation.
34428Srimani S., Schmidt C.X., Gómez-Serranillos M.P., Oster H. & Divakar P.K. (2022): Modulation of cellular circadian rhythms by secondary metabolites of lichens. - Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 16: 907308 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2022.907308.
Background: Most mammalian cells harbor molecular circadian clocks that synchronize physiological functions with the 24-h day-night cycle. Disruption of circadian rhythms, through genetic or environmental changes, promotes the development of disorders like obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. At the cellular level, circadian, mitotic, and redox cycles are functionally coupled. Evernic (EA) and usnic acid (UA), two lichen secondary metabolites, show various pharmacological activities including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective action. All these effects have likewise been associated with a functional circadian clock. Hypothesis/Purpose: To test, if the lichen compounds EA and UA modulate circadian clock function at the cellular level. Methods: We used three different cell lines and two circadian luminescence reporter systems for evaluating dose- and time-dependent effects of EA/UA treatment on cellular clock regulation at high temporal resolution. Output parameters studied were circadian luminescence rhythm period, amplitude, phase, and dampening rate. Results: Both compounds had marked effects on clock rhythm amplitudes and dampening independent of cell type, with UA generally showing a higher efficiency than EA. Only in fibroblast cells, significant effects on clock period were observed for UA treated cells showing shorter and EA treated cells showing longer period lengths. Transient treatment of mouse embryonic fibroblasts at different phases had only minor clock resetting effects for both compounds. Conclusion: Secondary metabolites of lichen alter cellular circadian clocks through amplitude reduction and increased rhythm dampening. Keywords: evernic acid, usnic acid, circadian clocks, amplitude, dampening, in vitro models.
34427Evdokimov G., Afonina O., Konoreva L., Obabko R., Mamontov Yu., Chesnokov S., Frolov I.A. & Babiy U.V. (2022): Flora of lichens, mosses and liverworts of Wrangel Island: New records. - Polish Polar Research, 43(2): 145–163. DOI: 10.24425/ppr.2022.140361.
New records to lichen flora and bryoflora of Wrangel Island are presented. The additions to the island cryptogam flora include 32 lichens and one lichenicolous fungus, 26 mosses and eleven liverwort species. Acarospora sinopica, Alectoria gowardii, Austroplaca sibirica, Calogaya bryochrysion, Hymenelia ceracea, Porpidia ochrolemma, and Sagiolechia protuberans are new to the island and to the Russian Far East. Two lichen species (Lecidea lithophila and Rinodina terrestris), as well as two liverwort taxa (Clevea hyaline, Lophoziopsis excisa var. elegans and Pseudolophozia debiliformis), are new to the Chukotka Autonomous Area. Two of the reported moss species (Funaria arctica and Schistidium umbrosum) are extremely rare. Location data and ecological descriptions for the newly reported species are included. Keywords: Arctic, biodiversity, checklist, new records, cryptogams.
34426Alonso-García M., Pino-Bodas R. & Villarreal A.J.C. (2022): Co-dispersal of symbionts in the lichen Cladonia stellaris inferred from genomic data . - Fungal Ecology, 60: 101165 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2022.101165.
We tested the congruence in dispersal patterns of the two main symbionts of the lichen Cladonia stellaris using genotyping-by-sequencing data. Based on 122 samples from eastern Canada, we recovered more than 21000 loci from the photobiont of C. stellaris. We described the population structure and estimate genetic diversity of the photobiont and identified the factors that contribute to explain genetic variation in both lichen partners. We also determined the identity of the dominant photobiont associated to C. stellaris using two molecular markers. Our results showed that C. stellaris is associated with Asterochloris glomerata, A. irregularis, and A. pseudoirregularis. Congruence in the genetic structure of photobiont and mycobiont were confirmed, suggesting co-dispersal of thallus fragments of C. stellaris. Genetic diversity of each symbiont was the factor that explained most of the genetic variation of the other symbiont, whereas geographical location and bioclimatic region seemed to have small or null explanatory power. Keywords: Asexual reproduction ; Asterochloris ; Congruence ; Dispersal ; Eastern Canada ; Genotyping-by-sequencing Reindeer lichen ; Long-distance dispersal ; Spatial genetic structure.
34425Calabon M.S., Hyde K.D., Jones E.B.G., Luo Z.-L., Dong W., Hurdeal V.G., Gentekaki E., Rossi W., Leonardi M., Thiyagaraja V., Lestari A.S., Shen H.-W., Bao D.-F., Boonyuen N. & Zeng M. (2022): Freshwater fungal numbers. - Fungal Diversity, 114: 3–235. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-022-00503-2.
A review paper. A comprehensive account of fungal classification from freshwater habitats is outlined and discussed in the present review based on literature of biodiversity studies and recent morpho-phylogenetic analyses. A total of 3,870 freshwater fungal species are listed with additional details on the isolation source, habitat, geographical distribution, and molecular data. The Ascomycota (2,968 species, 1,018 genera) dominated the freshwater fungal taxa wherein Sordariomycetes (823 species, 298 genera) had the largest number, followed by Dothideomycetes (677 species, 229 genera), Eurotiomycetes (276 species, 49 genera), and Leotiomycetes (260 species, 83 genera). Other phyla included in the updated classification of freshwater fungi are: Chytridiomycota (333 species, 97 genera), Rozellomycota (221 species, 105 genera), Basidiomycota (218 species, 100 genera), Blastocladiomycota (47 species, 10 genera), Monoblepharomycota (29 species, 6 genera), Mucoromycota (19 species, 10 genera), Aphelidiomycota (15 species, 3 genera), Entomophthoromycota (6 species, 4 genera), Mortierellomycota (5 species, 3 genera), Olpidiomycota (4 species, 1 genus), Zoopagomycota (3 species, 2 genera), and Sanchytriomycota (2 species, 2 genera). The freshwater fungi belong to 1,361 genera, 386 families and 145 orders. The Pleosporales and Laboulbeniaceae are the largest freshwater fungal order and family comprised of 391 and 185 species, respectively. The most speciose genera are Chitonomyces (87, Laboulbeniomycetes), Verrucaria (50, Eurotiomycetes), Rhizophydium (52, Rhizophydiomycetes), Penicillium (47, Eurotiomycetes), and Candida (42, Saccharomycetes). Keywords: Fungal classification · Fungal taxonomy · Freshwater fungi · Higher fungi · Molecular taxonomy · Basal clades.
34424Baldrian P., Větrovský T., Lepinay C. & Kohout P. (2022): High‑throughput sequencing view on the magnitude of global fungal diversity. - Fungal Diversity, 114: 539–547. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-021-00472-y.
High-throughput DNA sequencing has dramatically transformed several areas of biodiversity research including mycology. Despite limitations, high-throughput sequencing is nowadays a predominant method to characterize the alpha and beta diversity of fungal communities. Across the papers utilizing high-throughput sequencing approaches to study natural habitats in terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, > 200 studies published until 2019 have generated over 250 million sequences of the primary mycological metabarcoding marker, the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2). Here we show that at a 97% sequence similarity threshold, the total richness of non-singleton fungal taxa across the studies published so far is 1.08 million, mostly Ascomycota (56.8% of the taxa) and Basidiomycota (36.7% of the taxa). The Chao-1 estimate of the total extant fungal diversity based on this dataset is 6.28 million taxa, representing a conservative estimate of global fungal species richness. Soil and litter represent the habitats with the highest alpha diversity of fungi followed by air, plant shoots, plant roots and deadwood with Chao-1 predictions, for samples containing 5000 sequences, of 1219, 569, 392, 228, 215 and 140 molecular species, respectively. Based on the high-throughput sequencing data, the highest proportion of unknown fungal species is associated with samples of lichen and plant tissues. When considering the use of high-throughput sequencing for the estimation of global fungal diversity, the limitations of the method have to be taken into account, some of which are sequencing platform-specific while others are inherent to the metabarcoding approaches of species representation. In this respect, high-throughput sequencing data can complement fungal diversity predictions based on methods of traditional mycology and increase our understanding of fungal biodiversity. Keywords: High-throughput sequencing · Metabarcoding · Internal transcribed spacer · Alpha diversity · Meta-analysis.
34423He M.-Q., Zhao R.-L., Liu D.-M., Denchev T.T., Begerow D., Yurkov A., Kemler M., Millanes A.M., Wedin M., McTaggart A.R., Shivas R.G., Buyck B., Chen J., Vizzini A., Papp V., Zmitrovich I.V., Davoodian N. & Hyde K.D. (2022): Species diversity of Basidiomycota. - Fungal Diversity, 114: 281–325. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-021-00497-3.
A review paper. Fungi are eukaryotes that play essential roles in ecosystems. Among fungi, Basidiomycota is one of the major phyla with more than 40,000 described species. We review species diversity of Basidiomycota from five groups with different lifestyles or habitats: saprobic in grass/forest litter, wood-decaying, yeast-like, ectomycorrhizal, and plant parasitic. Case studies of Agaricus, Cantharellus, Ganoderma, Gyroporus, Russula, Tricholoma, and groups of lichenicolous yeast-like fungi, rust fungi, and smut fungi are used to determine trends in discovery of biodiversity. In each case study, the number of new species published during 2009–2020 is analysed to determine the rate of discovery. Publication rates differ between taxa and reflect different states of progress for species discovery in different genera. The results showed that lichenicolous yeast-like taxa had the highest publication rate for new species in the past two decades, and it is likely this trend will continue in the next decade. The species discovery rate of plant parasitic basidiomycetes was low in the past ten years, and remained constant in the past 50 years. We also found that the establishment of comprehensive and robust taxonomic systems based on a joint global initiative by mycologists could promote and standardize the recognition of taxa. We estimated that more than 54,000 species of Basidiomycota will be discovered by 2030, and estimate a total of 1.4–4.2 million species of Basidiomycota globally. These numbers illustrate a huge gap between the described and yet unknown diversity in Basidiomycota. Keywords: Biodiversity · Fungi · Species number · Taxonomy.
34422Wijayawardene N.N., Phillips A.J.L., Pereira D.S., Dai D.-Q., Aptroot A., Monteiro J.S., Druzhinina I.S., Cai F., Fan X.L., Selbmann L., Coleine C., Castaneda Ruiz R.F., Kukwa M., Flakus A., Fiuza P.O., Kirk P.M., Kumar K.C.R., Arachchi I.S.I., Suwannarach N., Tang L.-Z., Boekhout T., Tan C.S., Jayasinghe R.P.P.K. & Thines M. (2022): Forecasting the number of species of asexually reproducing fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota). - Fungal Diversity, 114: 463–490. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-022-00500-5.
A review paper. Asexually reproducing fungi play a significant role in essential processes in managed and wild ecosystems such as nutrients cycling and multitrophic interactions. A large number of such taxa are among the most notorious plant and animal pathogens. In addition, they have a key role in food production, biotechnology and medicine. Taxa without or rare sexual reproduction are distinguished based on their sporulating structures and conidiomata in traditional morphology-based taxonomy. The number, variation and diversity of asexually reproducing taxa are insufficiently known, even though fungi capable of asexual reproduction may provide an untapped, rich biological resource for future exploitation. Currently, ca. 30,000 asexual species belonging to ca. 3800 genera have been reported (including 1388 coelomycetous and 2265 hyphomycetous genera). Recent reports (2017–2020) reiterate that the number of asexually producing fungi is higher than the number of frequently sexually-reproducing fungi. With the advent of molecular tools and the abandonment of the dual nomenclature system for pleomorphic fungi, priority criteria were established and revisited in the latest outline of fungi and fungus-like taxa. However, species numbers and taxonomic boundaries of pleomorphic taxa and their synanamorphs or synasexual morphs have yet to be addressed. The number of species of speciose genera (e.g. Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cercospora, Fusarium, Phoma and Pseudocercospora), cryptic species, species of pleomorphic genera, less studied life modes (such as lichenicolous taxa, taxa from extreme environments) and species from biodiversity-rich areas still need evaluation to achieve more reliable estimates of their diversity. This paper discusses the current knowledge on the matter, with diversity estimates, and potential obstacles in several chapters on (1) speciose genera; (2) pleomorphic genera; (3) cryptic species; (4) well-studied but insufficiently resolved taxa, e.g. leaf inhabiting species, marine fungi, (5) less studied life modes, e.g. lichenicolous, rock-inhabiting fungi, insect-associated and yeast-forming taxa and (6) species from biodiversity-rich areas. Keywords: Cryptic species · DNA sequences · Morphology · Pleomorphism · Speciose genera · Species identification.
34421Senanayake I.C., Pem D., Rathnayaka A.R., Wijesinghe S.N., Tibpromma S., Wanasinghe D.N., Phookamsak R., Kularathnage N.D., Gomdola D., Harishchandra D., Dissanayake L.S., Xiang M., Ekanayaka A.H., Mckenzie E.H.C., Hyde K.D., Zhang H. & Xie N. (2022): Predicting global numbers of teleomorphic ascomycetes. - Fungal Diversity, 114: 237–278. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-022-00498-w.
A review paper. Sexual reproduction is the basic way to form high genetic diversity and it is beneficial in evolution and speciation of fungi. The global diversity of teleomorphic species in Ascomycota has not been estimated. This paper estimates the species number for sexual ascomycetes based on five different estimation approaches, viz. by numbers of described fungi, by fungus:substrate ratio, by ecological distribution, by meta-DNA barcoding or culture-independent studies and by previous estimates of species in Ascomycota. The assumptions were made with the currently most accepted, “2.2–3.8 million” species estimate and results of previous studies concluding that 90% of the described ascomycetes reproduce sexually. The Catalogue of Life, Species Fungorum and published research were used for data procurement. The average value of teleomorphic species in Ascomycota from all methods is 1.86 million, ranging from 1.37 to 2.56 million. However, only around 83,000 teleomorphic species have been described in Ascomycota and deposited in data repositories. The ratio between described teleomorphic ascomycetes to predicted teleomorphic ascomycetes is 1:22. Therefore, where are the undiscovered teleomorphic ascomycetes? The undescribed species are no doubt to be found in biodiversity hot spots, poorly-studied areas and species complexes. Other poorly studied niches include extremophiles, lichenicolous fungi, human pathogens, marine fungi, and fungicolous fungi. Undescribed species are present in unexamined collections in specimen repositories or incompletely described earlier species. Nomenclatural issues, such as the use of separate names for teleomorph and anamorphs, synonyms, conspecific names, illegitimate and invalid names also affect the number of described species. Interspecies introgression results in new species, while species numbers are reduced by extinctions. Keywords: Ascomycota · Estimates · Habitat diversity · Molecular techniques · Species concepts.
34420Wiersma Y.F. & McMullin R.T. (2022): Are calicioids useful indicators of boreal forest continuity or condition?. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 31: 1647–1664. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-022-02418-5.
Calicioids are a group of lichenized and non-lichenized fungi that are superficially similar to each other in appearance. Many members of this group tend to be restricted to oldgrowth forests, for which they have been used as indicators. However, the definition of old-growth varies among jurisdictions and forest types. In addition, variables other than tree age, which is often used to define old-growth, have been postulated to be important for influencing the presence of calicioids (e.g., continuity, scale, and ecological and structural variability). These variables, in combination, can be taken to indicate something about forest condition, particularly its ecological integrity. To understand better the ability of calicioids to serve as indicators of forest condition, we recorded the number of species in 51 stands across a chronosequence in Canada’s most homogenous forest ecosystem with the most frequent natural disturbance regime; the boreal forest. We restricted our sampling spatially and temporally in stands with similar tree cover and soil type. We recorded the number of species and biomass of all lichens in each stand along with forest stand attributes. We constructed 13 competing models to explain calicioid species diversity and show that stand age is important, but only in combination with stand condition. The strongest positive correlations were between calicioid density and lichen biomass and richness. Therefore, calicioid diversity appears to be a good indicator of habitat condition or conservation value in the boreal forest, which includes continuity. Similar research in other forest types that are more heterogeneous and have longer natural disturbance regimes will help build a better understanding of how calicioids can be reliably used as indicators of forest quality more broadly for conservation purposes. Keywords: Biodiversity · Forest management · Old-growth · Ontario · Bioindicators.
34419Somphong A., Poengsungnoen V., Buaruang K., Suriyachadkun C., Sripreechasak P., Tanasupawat S. & Phongsopitanun W. (2022): Diversity of the culturable lichen‑derived actinobacteria and the taxonomy of Streptomyces parmotrematis sp. nov.. - Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 115: 911–920. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10482-022-01744-6.
A total of 37 actinobacteria were isolated from eighteen lichen samples collected in Thailand. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, they were identified into five genera including Actinoplanes (1 strain), Actinomadura (1 strain), Pseudosporangium (1 strain), Wangella (1 strain) and Streptomyces (33 strains). Among these isolates, strain Ptm05T, Ptm01 and Ptm12 showed low 16S rRNA gene similarity and was selected for the further taxonomic study using the polyphasic approach. These strains showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Streptomyces sparsogenes ATCC 25498T (97.44–97.72%). Strain Ptm05T was selected for the type strain. The chemical cell composition of the strain was similar to the members of Streptomyces genus. LL-diaminopimelic acids were detected in the peptidoglycan. Menaquinones were MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6). Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, one unidentified phospholipid, one unidentified glycolipid and one unidentified lipid were detected as the polar lipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids are anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, iso-C17:0 and C16:0. The dDNA-DNA hybridization values among strain Ptm05T and its closely related Streptomyces type strains were 17.2–18.0%. In addition, the ANIb and ANIm between strain Ptm05T and related Streptomyces type strains were ranged from 75.69 to 76.13% and 85.21 to 85.35%, respectively. Based on phenotypic and genomic evidence, strain Ptm05T (= TBRC 14546T = NBRC 115203T) represents the novel species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces parmotrematis sp. nov. is proposed. This study showed that the lichens are the promising source of the novel actinobacterial taxa. Keywords: Actinobacteria · Actinomycetes · Lichen · Parmotrema · Streptomyces parmotrematis.
34418Kossowska M., Krzewicka B., Kościelniak R., Kukwa M., Kowalewska A., Szymczyk R., Smoczyk M., Markiewicz K. & Adamski M. (2022): Materiały do rozmieszczenia porostów i grzybów naporostowych Polski, 2. - Wiadomości Botaniczne, 66: 661 [26 p.]. DOI: 10.5586/wb.661.
Materials for the Distribution of Lichens and Lichenicolous Fungi in Poland, 2. [in Polish with English abstract: ] The paper presents new localities of 39 species of lichens and 10 species of lichenicolous fungi (marked by an asterisk), which are endangered in Poland or are regionally rare. Didymocyrtis epiphyscia s. l. is reported from Poland for the frst time. The name of each taxon is followed by data on its diagnostic features and distribution in Poland. Provided lists of localities contain geographic coordinates and ATPOL grid squares, modifed by S. Cieśliński and W. Fałtynowicz for the purposes of the Atlas of the Geographical Distribution of Lichens in Poland (published by W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, 1993). Keywords: lichenized fungi; lichenicolous fungi; biodiversity; rare species; distribution in Poland.
34417Kocovic A., Jeremic J., Bradic J., Sovrlic M., Tomovic J., Vasiljevic P., Andjic M., Draginic N., Grujovic M., Mladenovic K., Baskic D., Popovic S., Matic S., Zivkovic V., Jeremic N., Jakovljevic V. & Manojlovic N. (2022): Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Cytotoxic Activity of Different Extracts of Xanthoparmelia stenophylla Lichen from Stara Planina, Serbia. - Plants, 11(13): 1624 [26 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11131624.
The aim of this study was to identify some of the secondary metabolites present in acetonic, methanolic, and hexanic extracts of lichen Xanthoparmelia stenophylla and to examine their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activity. Compounds of the depsid structure of lecanoric acid, obtusic acid, and atranorin as well as usnic acid with a dibenzofuran structure were identified in the extracts by HPLC. The acetone extract was shown to have the highest total phenolic (167.03 ± 1.12 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoid content (178.84 ± 0.93 mg QE/g) as well as the best antioxidant activity (DPPH IC50 = 81.22 ± 0.54). However, the antimicrobial and antibiofilm tests showed the best activity of hexanic extract, especially against strains of B. cereus, B. subtilis, and S. aureus (MIC < 0.08, and 0.3125 mg/mL, respectively). Additionally, by using the MTT method, the acetonic extract was reported to exhibit a strong cytotoxic effect on the HeLa and HCT-116 cell lines, especially after 72 h (IC50 = 21.17 ± 1.85 and IC50 = 21.48 ± 3.55, respectively). The promising antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic effects of Xanthoparmelia stenophylla extracts shown in the current study should be further investigated in vivo and under clinical conditions. Keywords: ethnopharmacology; usnic acid; pharmaceutical potential; biological activities; flavonoid content; phenolic content; DPPH.
34416Arup U. & Ekman S. (1991): Lavfloran på Hallands Väderö [The lichen flora of Hallands Väderö]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 85: 263–308. .
[in Swedish wih English abstract: ] The lichen flora of the island of Hallands Väderö (southernmost Sweden) has been investigated during 1988-90. The island is 3.1 km2 in area. The landscape is dominated by deciduous forests, rock outcrops, grassy and shrubby areas. In comparison with a study published by Ove Almborn in 1955, 36 (13%) of the species have disappeared. Several other species have decreased, and a few have increased. The changes are mainly due to air pollution. The greatest effect can be seen on Pinus mugo, P. nigra, P. sylvestris and Prunus spinosa. Lichens on twigs and thin branches, and on nutrient-rich bark have also been greatly affected. Some corticolous species, although about as common as during Almborn's study, have become confined to fewer substrates. 31 species on the Swedish Red Data List were found by us. The species list comprises 393 species, 346 of which were found during the present investigation. Bacidia delicata, B. vezdae, Cladonia merochlorophaea var. novochlorophaea. Lecania hutchinsiae, L. turicensis, Macentina stigonemoides, Porina borreri and Rinodina parasitica are new to Sweden. Lecanora saxorum H. Magn., L. kauegallensis H. Magn., L. confusa Almb. and Biatora straminea Stenhammar are lectotypified. The taxonomy of Lecanora helicopis, L. salina, the L. umbrina group, L. sublivescens and L. argentata is discussed.
34415Areche C., Parra J.R., Sepulveda B., García-Beltrán O. & Simirgiotis M.J. (2022): UHPLC-MS metabolomic fingerprinting, antioxidant, and enzyme inhibition activities of Himantormia lugubris from Antarctica. - Metabolites, 12(6): 560 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12060560.
Himantormia lugubris is a Chilean native small lichen shrub growing in the Antarctica region. In this study, the metabolite fingerprinting and the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory potential from this species and its four major isolated compounds were investigated for the first time. Using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS), several metabolites were identified including specific compounds as chemotaxonomical markers, while major metabolites were quantified in this species. A good inhibition activity against cholinesterase (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) IC50: 12.38 ± 0.09 µg/mL, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) IC50: 31.54 ± 0.20 µg/mL) and tyrosinase (22.32 ± 0.21 µg/mL) enzymes of the alcoholic extract and the main compounds (IC50: 28.82 ± 0.10 µg/mL, 36.43 ± 0.08 µg/mL, and 7.25 ± 0.18 µg/mL, respectively, for the most active phenolic atranol) was found. The extract showed a total phenolic content of 47.4 + 0.0 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g. In addition, antioxidant activity was assessed using bleaching of DPPH and ORAC (IC50: 75.3 ± 0.02 µg/mL and 32.7 ± 0.7 μmol Trolox/g lichen, respectively) and FRAP (27.8 ± 0.0 μmol Trolox equivalent/g) experiments. The findings suggest that H. lugubris is a rich source of bioactive compounds with potentiality in the prevention of neurodegenerative or noncommunicable chronic diseases. Keywords: Himantormia; phenolics; enzyme inhibition; native lichens; antioxidant; depsides; dibenzofurans; Antarctica; Alzheimer.
34414van den Boom P.P.G., Sipman H.J.M., Divakar P.K. & Ertz D. (2017): New or interesting records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Panama, with descriptions of ten new species. - Sydowia, 69:47-72. .
Altogether 274 taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are reported from PANAMA. of which 185 are new records for the country. Beside that, ten species are described as new to science, including seven lichenized fungi (Bacidina convexa, Cliostomum subcorrugatum, Halecania panamensis, Micarea granuloblastidiata, Myriotrema hypoconsticticum, Ocellularia etayoi and Toninia submesoidea) and three lichenicolous fungi (Arthonia amandineicola, Didymocyrtis graphidacearum and Niesslia coenogonii). Notes on morphology, chemistry and ecology are given.
34413Jurado V., Cañaveras J.C., Gomez-Bolea A., Gonzalez-Pimentel J.L., Sanchez-Moral S., Costa C. & Saiz-Jimenez C. (2022): Holistic approach to the restoration of a vandalized monument: The cross of the inquisition, Seville City Hall, Spain. - Applied Sciences, 12(12): 6222 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12126222.
The Cross of the Inquisition, sculpted in 1903 and raised on a column with a fluted shaft and ornamented with vegetable garlands, is located in a corner of the Plateresque façade of the Seville City Hall. The Cross was vandalized in September 2019 and the restoration concluded in September 2021. A geological and microbiological study was carried out in a few small fragments. The data are consistent with the exposure of the Cross of the Inquisition to an urban environment for more than 100 years. During that time, a lichen community colonized the Cross and the nearby City Hall façades. The lichens, bryophytes and fungi colonizing the limestone surface composed an urban community, regenerated from the remains of the original communities, after superficial cleaning of the limestone between 2008 and 2010. This biological activity was detrimental to the integrity of the limestone, as showed by the pitting and channels, which evidence the lytic activity of organisms on the stone surface. Stone consolidation was achieved with Estel 1000. Preventol RI80, a biocide able to penetrate the porous limestone and active against bacteria, fungi, lichens, and bryophytes, was applied in the restoration. Keywords: green algae; lichens; Trebouxia aggregata; black fungi; bryophytes; limestone; mineralogy; restoration; Seville City Hall.
34412da Silva M.K., da Silva A.V., Fernandez P.M., Montone R.C., Alves R.P., de Queiroz A.C., de Oliveira V.M., Dos Santos V.P., Putzke J., Rosa L.H. & Duarte A.W.F. (2022): Extracellular hydrolytic enzymes produced by yeasts from Antarctic lichens. - Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 94(Suppl.1): e20210540 [14 p.]. DOI 10.1590/0001-3765202220210540.
In the Antarctic environment, yeasts are versatile eukaryotes that have shown wide dispersion in different substrates, producing active enzymes in extreme conditions, but their relevance in biotechnological applications is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of extracellular hydrolases by yeasts isolated from Antarctic lichens and molecularly identify these isolates. From a total of 144 isolates on the screening, 109 (76%) produced at least one of the hydrolases tested, with most activities for proteases 59 (41%), cellulases 58 (40%), esterases 57 (39%), lipases 29 (20%), amylases 23 (16%) and pectinases 20 (14%). Among these isolates, 76 were identifi ed, most belonged to the phylum Basidiomycota (n=73) with the dominance of Vishniacozyma victoriae (n=27), Cystobasidium alpinum (n=3), Mrakia niccombsii (n=3), Cystobasidium laryngis (n=2), Bannozyma yamatoana (n=2), Holtermanniella nyarrowii (n=2), and Glaciozyma martinii (n=2). This study is the fi rst one reporting extracellular enzyme production by yeasts isolated from thallus of the species of Antarctic lichens Lecania brialmontii, Polycauliona candelaria, Usnea capillacea, Cladonia metacorallifera, and Polycauliona regalis. With these data, it’s possible to confi rm lichens as a source of hydrolase-producing yeasts, reinforcing the potential of these microorganisms in bioprospecting studies of catalytic molecules from polar regions that may be useful in promising biotechnological applications. Key words: Bioprospection, cellulase, fungi, lichensphere, Vishniacozyma.
34411Curtis T. & Lendemer J.C. (2022): Catillaria fungoides (Catillariaceae; Lecanoromycetes) an inconspicuous crustose lichen previously overlooked in eastern North America. - Castanea , 87(1): 12–19. https://doi.org/10.2179/0008-7475.87.1.12.
Catillaria fungoides is newly reported for North America based on collections from the temperate eastern United States. A detailed description based on North American material is provided, the distribution is mapped, and images are provided. The species is likely widespread but overlooked due to its inconspicuous appearance. Key words: Appalachian Mountains, biodiversity, corticolous, floristics, lichenized fungi, new record.
34410Rosli N.S. & Zulkifly S. (2022): Application of Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) along elevation gradients in Gunung Jerai, Kedah, Malaysia. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 194: 496 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-022-10108-6.
The utilisation of biological organisms, especially lichens in the environmental biomonitoring approach, has been proven to be an effective and lowcost technique suitable for developing countries like Malaysia. Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) tracked compositional changes in lichen communities which correlate with changes in levels of atmospheric pollution. Gunung Jerai was formed during the Cambrian Period; thus, it is a biodiversity hotspot ideal for a diverse range of lichens. In the present work, a total of 44 corticolous lichen species were sampled and identified to evaluate the pollution status of Gunung Jerai using IAP, starting from 80 to 1200 m with 300 m intervals. The samples were collected within 10 × 50 cm sampling grids attached to 60 trees, bringing a total of 120 000 cm2 of the sampling area. The air quality of the sampling area was determined by IAP score, a low score indicated by high levels of pollution. Results showed that the lowest IAP score was recorded at 300 m; meanwhile, the highest IAP score was recorded at 900 m elevation. Elevational gradient and pollution have a significant effect on the IAP score of Gunung Jerai. On average, Gunung Jerai is indicated as having a low pollution status. However, several elevations of the rainforest showed high and moderate pollution status. The IAP method is best to assess environmental pollution and provide quicker results than chemical monitoring methods. Further research could be done to evaluate the other sampling sites adjacent to other areas of Gunung Jerai. Keywords: Bioindicator · Ecological index · Elevation gradient · Epiphytic lichens · IAP · Malaysia · Mountain · Pollution.
34409Abas A., Aiyub K. & Awang A. (2022): Biomonitoring potentially toxic elements (PTEs) using lichen transplant Usnea misaminensis: A case study from Malaysia. - Sustainability, 14(12): 7254 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127254.
Urban air pollution has been a major concern due to its impact on global public health. Various techniques for monitoring urban air quality have been developed. However, there is currently a dearth of research on how effective bioaccumulators such as lichen are at monitoring urban air pollution. As a result, the purpose of this research is to investigate the use of U. misaminensis as a biological indicator for biomonitoring urban air quality in Malaysia. Three months were spent exposing lichen samples in three Malaysian cities (Kuala Lumpur, Penang, and Johor Bahru). The trace element content and vitality of the lichens were assessed. The results of this study revealed that U. misaminensis is an effective biological indicator for measuring 25 elements of air pollutants in metropolitan areas. They also revealed that all 25 elements accumulated in the urban area sample were greater than in the control sample. The vitality rate of lichens dropped in the urban area sample when compared with the control sample, indicating that an increase in elements in the air will impact the vitality rate of any biological component. In this study, two arguments are made: (a) Lichen is an excellent biological indicator, particularly for urban air pollutants such as potentially toxic elements; and (b) traffic is the primary contributor to urban air pollution; hence, the local government requires a better plan and design for urban areas to decrease air pollutants build-up. Keywords: ecological indicator; lichens; air pollution; traffic; ecosystem management.
34408Chavarria-Pizarro T., Resl P., Kuhl-Nagel T., Janjic A., Fernandez Mendoza F. & Werth S. (2022): Antibiotic-induced treatments reveal stress-responsive gene expression in the endangered lichen Lobaria pulmonaria. - Journal of Fungi, 8(6): 625 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8060625.
Antibiotics are primarily found in the environment due to human activity, which has been reported to influence the structure of biotic communities and the ecological functions of soil and water ecosystems. Nonetheless, their effects in other terrestrial ecosystems have not been well studied. As a result of oxidative stress in organisms exposed to high levels of antibiotics, genotoxicity can lead to DNA damage and, potentially, cell death. In addition, in symbiotic organisms, removal of the associated microbiome by antibiotic treatment has been observed to have a big impact on the host, e.g., corals. The lung lichen Lobaria pulmonaria has more than 800 associated bacterial species, a microbiome which has been hypothesized to increase the lichen’s fitness. We artificially exposed samples of L. pulmonaria to antibiotics and a stepwise temperature increase to determine the relative effects of antibiotic treatments vs. temperature on the mycobiont and photobiont gene expression and the viability and on the community structure of the lichen-associated bacteria. We found that the mycobiont and photobiont highly reacted to different antibiotics, independently of temperature exposure. We did not find major differences in bacterial community composition or alpha diversity between antibiotic treatments and controls. For these reasons, the upregulation of stress-related genes in antibiotic-treated samples could be caused by genotoxicity in L. pulmonaria and its photobiont caused by exposure to antibiotics, and the observed stress responses are reactions of the symbiotic partners to reduce damage to their cells. Our study is of great interest for the community of researchers studying symbiotic organisms as it represents one of the first steps to understanding gene expression in an endangered lichen in response to exposure to toxic environments, along with dynamics in its associated bacterial communities. Keywords: symbiotic organisms; differential expression; transcriptomic; toxic environments.
34407Nawrot J., Gornowicz-Porowska J., Budzianowski J., Nowak G., Schroeder G. & Kurczewska J. (2022): Medicinal herbs in the relief of neurological, cardiovascular, and respiratory symptoms after COVID-19 infection. A literature review. - Cells, 11(12): 1897 [25 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11121897.
COVID-19 infection causes complications, even in people who have had a mild course of the disease. The most dangerous seem to be neurological ailments: anxiety, depression, mixed anxiety–depressive (MAD) syndromes, and irreversible dementia. These conditions can negatively affect the respiratory system, circulatory system, and heart functioning. We believe that phytotherapy can be helpful in all of these conditions. Clinical trials confirm this possibility. The work presents plant materials (Valeriana officinalis, Melissa officinalis, Passiflora incarnata, Piper methysticum, Humulus lupulus, Ballota nigra, Hypericum perforatum, Rhodiola rosea, Lavandula officinalis, Paullinia cupana, Ginkgo biloba, Murraya koenigii, Crataegus monogyna and oxyacantha, Hedera helix, Polygala senega, Pelargonium sidoides, Lichen islandicus, Plantago lanceolata) and their dominant compounds (valeranon, valtrat, apigenin, citronellal, isovitexin, isoorientin, methysticin, humulone, farnesene, acteoside, hypericin, hyperforin, biapigenin, rosavidin, salidroside, linalool acetate, linalool, caffeine, ginkgolide, bilobalide, mihanimbine, epicatechin, hederacoside C,α-hederine, presegenin, umkaline, 6,7,8-trixydroxybenzopyranone disulfate, fumaroprotocetric acid, protolichesteric acid, aucubin, acteoside) responsible for their activity. It also shows the possibility of reducing post-COVID-19 neurological, respiratory, and cardiovascular complications, which can affect the functioning of the nervous system. Keywords: COVID-19; complications; viral infections; phytotherapy; medicinal herbs.
34406Hemberg J. (2014): SLFs vårexkursion till Blekinge den 26-28 April 2013. - Lavbulletinen, 2-2013: 36–43. .
[in Swedish] Sweden; report on an excursion with photodocumentation by Ulf Arup (Biatoridium delitescens, Bacidia friesiana, Gyalecta derivata, Lecanora sublivescens, Bacidia incompta, Buellia violaceofusca, Lecanora confusa, Bacidia laurocerasi, Megalaria laureri, Phlyctis agelaea, the pyrenomycete Hypoxylon howenum), and by Joakim Hemberg (Diploicia canescens, Arthonia pruinata)
34405Razzaq F., Habib K., Aslam S. & Khalid A.N. (2022): Additions to the list of Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycetes) in Pakistan. - Biology Bulletin, 49(1): 14–20. DOI: 10.1134/S1062359022020066.
As part of comprehensive study of lichen diversity of northern areas of Pakistan using molecular and morphological approaches, we found four species of the family Graphidaceae. The phylogenetic analysis revealed two new records in the lichen biota of Pakistan namely, Diploschistes candidissimus and Xalocoa ocellata while D. scruposus and D. muscorum are new records for state Azad Jammu & Kashmir. Brief descriptions and phylogenetic analyses of the taxa are given. Keywords: AJ&K, Gilgit-Baltistan, taxonomy, phylogeny.
34404de los Ríos A., Garrido‑Benavent I., Limón A., Cason E.D., Maggs‑Kölling G., Cowan D. & Valverde A. (2022): Novel lichen‑dominated hypolithic communities in the Namib Desert. - Microbial Ecology, 83: 1036–1048. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-021-01812-w.
The ventral surfaces of translucent rocks from hot desert pavements often harbor hypolithic microbial communities, which are mostly dominated by cyanobacteria. The Namib Desert fog belt supports extensive hypolithic colonization of quartz rocks, which are also colonized by lichens on their dorsal surfaces. Here, we aim to evaluate whether lichens colonize the ventral surface of the rocks (i.e., show hypolithic lifestyle) and compare the bacterial composition of these coastal hypolithic communities with those found inland. Fungal DNA barcoding and fungal and bacterial Illumina metabarcoding were combined with electron microscopy to characterize the composition and spatial structure of hypolithic communities from two (coastal and inland) areas in the Namib Desert. We report, for the frst time, the structure and composition of lichendominated hypolithic communities found in the coastal zone of the Namib Desert with extensive epilithic lichen cover. Lichen modifed areoles with inverted morphology of the genus Stellarangia (three lineages) and Buellia (two lineages) were the main components of these hypolithic communities. Some of these lineages were also found in epilithic habitats. These lichen-dominated hypolithic communities difered in structural organization and bacterial community composition from those found in inland areas. The hypolithic lichen colonization characterized here seems not to be an extension of epilithic or biological soil crust lichen growths but the result of specifc sublithic microenvironmental conditions. Moisture derived from fog and dew could be the main driver of this unique colonization. Keywords: Cyanobacteria · Lichens · Lithobionts · Habitat specifcity · Dew · Fog · Stellarangia · Buellia.
34403Reddy S.T., Ramakrishna M., Makani V.K.K., Mendonza J.J., Edathara P.M., Bhadra M.P. & Uppuluri V.M. (2022): Synthesis of novel 1,2,3‑triazole hybrids of methyl β‑orsellinate with capabilities to arrest cell cycle and induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells (MCF‑7). - Monatshefte für Chemie - Chemical Monthly, 153: 461–473. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00706-022-02922-y.
A total of eleven novel 1,2,3-triazole hybrids were synthesized in excellent yields from methyl β-orsellinate through a twostep protocol with 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition as the key step. The newly synthesized compounds have been evaluated for their anti-proliferative potential against a panel of cancer cell lines viz. DU-145, MCF-7, PC-3, IMR-32, and HEK-293T. Interestingly, one of the compounds exhibited higher cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 5 µM as compared to noncancerous HEK293T cells (23.28 µM). Flow cytometry analysis and acridine orange/ethidium bromide dual staining have showed the signifcant G0/G1 phase arrest and efective induction of apoptosis, respectively. Furthermore, the inhibition of CDK4/Cyclin D1 complex proteins and thereby downregulation of p-Rb and E2F1 showed that this compound can act as a potent cell-cycle inhibitor. Docking studies also indicated that the compound may act as a strong ATP competitive inhibitor of CDK4/Cyclin D1 complex. Evidently, the methyl β-orsellinate conjugates of 1,2,3-triazole hybrids could be the efective anticancer leads in breast cancer therapeutics. Keywords: Methyl β-orsellinate · 1,2,3-Triazole hybrids · Cell-cycle arrest · Breast cancer · Molecular modelling · Antitumor agents. Parmotrema mesotropum.
34402Phinney N.H., Asplund J. & Gauslaa Y. (2022): The lichen cushion: A functional perspective of color and size of a dominant growth form on glacier forelands. - Fungal Biology , 126: 375–384. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2022.03.001.
Mat-forming lichens dominating high-latitudinal habitats vary in color and geometry. Widespread species are light greenish yellow (usnic acid) and reflect solar radiation, whereas melanic species absorbing most solar wavelengths are spatially more restricted. Color thereby influences lichens’ energy budget and thus their hydration and photosynthetically active periods. By using well-defined cushions from early successional stages on glacier forelands e three melanic(m) and three usnic(u) mat-forming lichens with hair-like branches (Alectoria ochroleuca(u), Gowardia nigricans(m)), hollow terete branches (Cladonia uncialis(u), Cetraria muricata(m)), and flat branches (Flavocetraria nivalis(u), Cetraria islandica(m)) e we quantified hydration traits and analyzed how color and cushion size affect water loss rate (WLR) and duration of active periods. Main findings: 1) WLR declined with cushion size and was highest in melanic lichens. 2) Active periods were longer for usnic than for melanic lichens and increased with size in all groups. 3) Size, color, and taxon nested in color significantly influenced WLR and duration of active periods in linear mixed models. 4) Hair lichen cushions had shorter active periods than growth forms with terete or flat branches due to their more open canopy architecture and lower water holding capacity (WHC). 5) WHC measured for isolated branches highly underestimated WHC for intact cushions. Keywords: Hydration traits; Mat-forming lichens; Size; Thallus color; Water loss rate.
34401Xu M., Oppong-Danquah E., Wang X., Oddsson S., Abdelrahman A., Pedersen S.V., Szomek M., Gylfason A.E., Snorradottir B.S., Christensen E.A., Tasdemir D., Jameson C.J., Murad S., Andresson O.S., Magnusson K.P., de Boer H.J., Thorsteinsdottir M., Omarsdottir S., Heidmarsson S. & Olafsdottir E.S. (2022): Novel methods to characterise spatial distribution and enantiomeric composition of usnic acids in four Icelandic lichens. - Phytochemistry, 200: 113210 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2022.113210.
Usnic acid is an antibiotic metabolite produced by a wide variety of lichenized fungal lineages. The enantiomers of usnic acid have been shown to display contrasting bioactivities, and hence it is important to determine their spatial distribution, amounts and enantiomeric ratios in lichens to understand their roles in nature and grasp their pharmaceutical potential. The overall aim of the study was to characterise the spatial distribution of the predominant usnic acid enantiomer in lichens by combining spatial imaging and chiral chromatography. Specifically, separation and quantification of usnic acid enantiomers in four common lichens in Iceland was performed using a validated chiral chromatographic method. Molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to rationalize the chiral separation mechanism. Spatial distribution of usnic acid in the lichen thallus cross-sections were analysed using Desorption Electrospray Ionization-Imaging Mass Spectrometry (DESI-IMS) and fluorescence microscopy. DESI-IMS confirmed usnic acid as a cortical compound, and revealed that usnic acid can be more concentrated around the algal vicinity. Fluorescence microscopy complemented DESI-IMS by providing more detailed distribution information. By combining results from spatial imaging and chiral separation, we were able to visualize the distribution of the predominant usnic acid enantiomer in lichen cross-sections: (+)-usnic acid in Cladonia arbuscula and Ramalina siliquosa, and (− )-usnic acid in Alectoria ochroleuca and Flavocetraria nivalis. This study provides an analytical foundation for future environmental and functional studies of usnic acid enantiomers in lichens. Keywords: Alectoria ochroleuca ; Cladonia arbuscula ; Flavocetraria nivalis ; Ramalina siliquosa ; Parmeliaceae ; Usnic acid Imaging mass spectrometry ; Fluorescence microscopy ; Enantioseparation ; Molecular dynamics simulation.
34400Kalın Ş.N., Altay A. & Budak H. (2022): Diffractaic acid, a novel TrxR1 inhibitor, induces cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and antimigration in human breast cancer cells. - Chemico-Biological Interactions, 361: 109984 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2022.109984.
Breast cancer represents one of the most frequently encountered cancer types among women worldwide. Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) is a therapeutic target for breast cancer therapy due to its overexpression in tumor cells. The current research aims to determine the anticancer effect of diffractaic acid, a lichen acid, in breast cancer, and research whether the anticancer effect of diffractaic acid occurs through TrxR1 targeting. According to the XTT assay results, diffractaic acid induced cytotoxicity in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-453 cells with IC50 values of 51.32 μg/ml and 87.03 μg/ml, respectively. Flow cytometry and cell migration analyses revealed the apoptotic, necrotic, and antimigratory effects of diffractaic acid. qPCR analysis indicated the upregulation of the BAX/BCL2 ratio and the P53 gene in MCF-7 cells with only the P53 gene in MDA-MB-453 cells. The gene, protein, and enzyme activity of TrxR1 were suppressed in MCF-7 cells, whereas only enzyme activity was suppressed in MDA-MB-453 cells. These findings illustrate the anticancer effect of diffractaic acid on breast cancer targeting TrxR1. In conclusion, these data reveal that diffractaic acid may be considered an effective therapeutic agent for breast cancer treatment. Keywords: Thioredoxin reductase 1 ; Lichens ; Diffractaic acid ; Expression ; Enzyme activity ; Breast cancer.
34399Pinna D. (2022): Can we do without biocides to cope with biofilms and lichens on stone heritage?. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 172: 105437 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2022.105437.
In the past several years, products and methods alternative to conventional biocides, used in the conservation of cultural heritage objects, have been investigated increasingly to eradicate or prevent the growth of microorganisms and lichens on stone artworks. Although some concerns about conventional biocides are legitimate, the “run” to alternative substances is growing concern as well. This review aims at contributing to the interpretation of recent findings in innovative methods and substances focusing on i) resistance of biofilms to environmental stressors, including antimicrobials; ii) metals and metal-based compounds including nanoparticles; iii) mixtures of metal nanoparticles and metal oxides with water repellents and consolidants; iv) natural compounds (essential oils of plants, secondary metabolites of lichens, microbial by-products, microorganisms, extracts from marine organisms); v) toxicity of essential oils; vi) alternative chemicals (Ionic liquids, dimethyl sulfoxide gel, hydrolase enzymes). This review also includes a discussion on the advantages, drawbacks and limitations of the examined studies to encourage a constructive discussion among professionals involved in the field of stone heritage conservation, and to develop a sustainable path for managing the biological colonization. This state-of-the-art review indicates that further research is needed to propose alternative compounds to conventional biocides. Keywords: Stone artworks ; Microbial colonization ; Conventional biocides ; Alternative substances ; Novel control and preventive strategies.
34398Chowaniec K., Latkowska E. & Rola K. (2022): Does long-term salt stress of environmentally relevant concentrations affect the physiology of inland lichens? – The importance of rainfall to restore thallus vitality. - Environmental and Experimental Botany, 200: 104937 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2022.104937.
During winter seasons, sodium chloride is the most widely used de-icing agent for road maintenance. The aim was to determine the effect of long-term spraying with salt solutions of environmentally relevant concentrations on the physiology of two epigeic lichens i.e., Peltigera didactyla and Cladonia rei. We also aimed at studying lichen responses to rainfall simulations between salt treatments to verify whether the liquid water supply would improve the physiological condition of both symbiotic partners. Long-term salt stress led to a gradual loss of cell membrane integrity, but the damage was lower in the case of an experiment in which thalli were treated with salt solutions and water. Salt stress significantly affected the peroxidation of membrane lipids in both studied species, but their responses differed. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level in P. didactyla increased very late in comparison to C. rei, in which the highest TBARS concentrations were observed at the beginning of the experiment, and then decreased over time. This may be associated with the activation of defence mechanisms protecting against reactive oxygen species. The cyanobiont in P. didactyla was more sensitive to salt stress than the green algal photobiont in C. rei. A low possibility of photosynthesis reactivation of P. didactyla at high humidity may explain the earlier decrease in FV/FM compared to C. rei; whereas the stronger reaction of this species may result from irreversible changes associated with ionic effects. Moreover, significantly higher FV/FM values were recorded in the salt-water experiment in both species. Therefore, we conclude that rainfall could cause at least a partial recovery of the water potential by photobionts and trigger the process of photosynthesis. This is of key importance for lichens, which are constantly exposed to salt stress in the winter season, and rainfall may enable them to continue their physiological processes and survival. Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence ; Salt stress ; Lichens ; Cell membrane damage ; Lipid peroxidation ; Road salting.
34397Pakeman R.J., O’Brien D., Genney D. & Brooker R.W. (2022): Identifying drivers of change in bryophyte and lichen species occupancy in Scotland. - Ecological Indicators, 139: 108889 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2022.108889.
The attribution of biodiversity trends to the action of individual drivers is a first step in developing strategies to conserve, enhance and restore that diversity. One approach to that identification is to link information on species trends with information on ecological preferences that relate to the drivers. Long-term and short-term occupancy trends for 326 bryophyte species (1972–2015 and 2005–2015, respectively) and 437 lichen species (1971–2015 and 2005–2015, respectively) for Scotland were linked with appropriate indicators to assess the action of specific drivers. Bryophyte species of heathlands and woodlands showed positive trends, whilst lichen species from these habitats showed negative trends. Bryophytes and lichens of drier habitats and locations tended to have more positive trends whilst those of wetter habitats tended to be negative. Similarly, evidence suggested that bryophytes and lichens of open areas had more negative trends than those of shadier habitats and that species from both groups of higher fertility habitats had more positive trends than those of less fertile ones. Bryophyte species from warmer areas tended to increase in range. Opposite trends for bryophytes and lichens in heathlands and woodlands suggest competition for space or opposite reactions to other drivers, but it is clear that they should not be lumped into a single functional grouping. There were clear trends for suggesting that increased temperatures (bryophytes only), cumulative nitrogen pollution and reduced land use intensity were shifting assemblages. The overall predominance of negative trends for lichens suggests that many species have lost habitat through decreasing light availability and increased dryness, and potentially through competition with bryophytes. Given the international importance of Scotland for both these groups, these trends for lichens are of concern. Keywords: Bryophyte ; Climate Change ; Disturbance ; Ellenberg indicators ; Lichen ; Pollution.
34396Roos R.E., Birkemoe T., Bokhorst S., Wardle D.A. & Asplund J. (2022): The importance of foundation species identity: A field experiment with lichens and their associated micro-arthropod communities. - Basic and Applied Ecology, 62: 45–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2022.04.004.
Foundation species provide habitat and modify the availability of resources to other species. In nature, multiple foundation species may occur in mixture, but little is known on how their interactions shape the community assembly of associated species. Lichens provide both structural habitat and resources to a variety of associated organisms and thereby serve as foundation species. In this study, we use mat-forming lichens and their associated micro-arthropods as a miniature ecosystem to study potential synergies between foundation species diversity and the abundance and functional diversity of higher trophic levels. We created lichen patches with monocultures and mixtures of up to four species, and extracted Collembola (identified to species level), Oribatida, Mesostigmata, Pseudoscorpiones, and Araneae with Tullgren apparatuses after 106 days of incubation within a natural lichen mat. We found that different lichen species supported different arthropod abundances. For 19 out of a total of 55 lichen mixtures and arthropod groups, we found non-additive, synergistic effects on arthropod abundance, although the specific lichen mixture causing synergistic effects differed with arthropod group. In addition, synergistic effects on arthropod abundance were more common for arthropod groups at lower trophic levels. The functional diversity of lichen mixtures explained patterns in Collembola abundance, but in the opposite direction than hypothesized because synergistic responses were more frequent in functionally similar lichen mixtures. Finally, we found few effects of lichen mixture identity or diversity on the functional diversity of Collembola communities. When applied to large-scale ecosystems, our results suggest that understanding interactions between coexisting foundation species and identifying those species that drive synergistic effects of foundation species on consumer biota, is likely to be of importance to biodiversity conservation and restoration efforts. Keywords: Collembola; Community assembly; Habitat heterogeneity; Oribatida; Functional traits; Functional diversity.
34395Schmidt A.R., Steuernagel L., Behling H., Seyfullah L.J., Beimforde C., Sadowski E-M., Rikkinen J. & Kaasalainen U. (2022): Fossil evidence of lichen grazing from Palaeogene amber. - Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 302: 104664 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2022.104664.
Lichens are important in many modern terrestrial ecosystems, but their fossil record has been very sparse. This has limited the chances for finding any evidence of their interactions with animals in past ecosystems. Recently, the fossil record of lichens has improved significantly with the discovery of numerous new inclusions from European Palaeogene ambers. Here, we report the first fossil evidence of animal–lichen interactions from one new fossil from Bitterfeld amber of central Germany. A foliose fossil lichen, possibly belonging to the Physciaceae, exhibits three feeding marks and co-preserved invertebrate faecal pellets. To gain insights into this Palaeogene lichen-invertebrate interaction, we compared the fossil grazing damage and faecal pellets to those obtained from several extant lichen feeders, including mites, collembolans, psocopterans, coleopteran larvae and gastropods. The results of the grazing experiments suggest that gastropods and mites most likely caused the feeding marks preserved in the fossil lichen. Keywords: Animal–lichen interactions; Bitterfeld amber; Fossil lichens; Palaeoecology; Physciaceae.
34394Kantvilas G. (2022): The genus Lambiella Hertel (lichenised fungi) in Tasmania: new combinations, new species and a revised key. - Phytotaxa, 549(2): 209–218. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.549.2.6.
Two new species of Lambiella Hertel from Tasmania are described and illustrated: L. parvipsephota Kantvilas, which is similar to the widespread L. psephota (Tuck.) Hertel but differs by lacking norstictic acid in the thallus and sedifolia-grey pigment in the apothecia, and by having smaller apothecia and ascospores, 8−13 × 5−7.5 μm; and L. plumbea Kantvilas, characterised by a grey thallus lacking lichen substances, minute apothecia 0.075−0.13 mm wide, and small ascospores 4−8.5 × 3−5 μm. Both are currently known only from Tasmania. A further 11 species of Rimularia are transferred to Lambiella: Lambiella albotessellata (Kantvilas) Kantvilas, Lambiella applanata (Kantvilas & Coppins) Kantvilas, Lambiella aspicilioides (Kantvilas) Kantvilas, Lambiella asteriphila (Kantvilas) Kantvilas, Lambiella campestris (Kantvilas & Elix) Kantvilas, Lambiella circumgrisea (Kantvilas) Kantvilas, Lambiella coppinsiana (Kantvilas) Kantvilas, Lambiella exigua (Hertel & Rambold) Kantvilas, Lambiella globulispora (Sipman & Aptroot) Kantvilas, Lambiella ramboldiana (Kantvilas & Elix) Kantvilas and Lambiella umbratilis (Kantvilas & Coppins) Kantvilas. The complexities of assigning many, chiefly Southern Hemisphere taxa to new generic concepts derived essentially from molecular data are discussed briefly. Lambiella is considered to be the genus of best fit for a suite of lichens that share many salient features, particularly with respect to apothecial anatomy and their Trapelia-type asci. An identification key to the 14 species of Lambiella in Tasmania is provided. Keywords: asci, Rimularia, lichens, new species, Trapeliaceae, taxonomy, Xylographaceae.
34393Frolov I.V., Prokopiev I.A., Yakovchenko L.S., Galanina I.A. & Ezhkin A.K. (2022): Coppinsiella extremiorientalis (Teloschistaceae, lichenized Ascomycota), a new species from the Russian Far East and a new genus to the region. - Phytotaxa, 549(2): 219–229. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.549.2.7.
A new epiphytic species of crustose Teloschistaceae, Coppinsiella extremiorientalis, is described from the floodplain forests of the boreal zone of the Russian Far East. It is characterized by its white to whitish grey, thin to disappearing thallus mostly without anthraquinones, dull orange zeorine pruinose apothecia with an anthraquinones composition corresponding to chemosyndrome A. Phylogeny of the genus Coppinsiella, which was previously unknown in the Far East, is discussed, as well as the morphology, ecology and geographical distribution of Coppinsiella species. A new combination for Caloplaca fiumana, an older name for Coppinsiella orbicularis, is also formally proposed. Keywords: Boreal zone, Caloplaca s. lat., Coppinsiella fiumana, floodplain forests, Khabarovsk Territory, new taxa, phylogeny, Sakhalin Region.
34392Joshi Y., Bansal P. & Yadav A.L. (2022): Cercidospora navarroi, a new species of lichenicolous fungus from the Central Himalayan region of India. - Phytotaxa, 549(2): 241–246. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.549.2.10.
Cercidospora navarroi colonizing the thallus and the apothecial discs of Rinodina intermedia is described as new to science from India and is compared with C. exiguella, C. rinodinae, and C. cf. rinodinae which also colonize the lichen genus Rinodina. Keywords: Himalaya, Physciaceae, Rinodina.
34391Fagnani L., Nazzicone L., Bellio P., Franceschini N., Tondi D., Verri A., Petricca S., Iorio R., Amicosante G., Perilli M. & Celenza G. (2022): Protocetraric and salazinic acids as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease: biochemical, cytotoxic, and computational characterization of depsidones as slow-binding inactivators. - Pharmaceuticals, 15: 714 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15060714.
The study investigated the inhibitory activity of protocetraric and salazinic acids against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. The kinetic parameters were determined by microtiter plate-reading fluorimeter using a fluorogenic substrate. The cytotoxic activity was tested on murine Sertoli TM4 cells. In silico analysis was performed to ascertain the nature of the binding with the 3CLpro. The compounds are slow-binding inactivators of 3CLpro with a Ki of 3.95 μM and 3.77 μM for protocetraric and salazinic acid, respectively, and inhibitory efficiency kinact/Ki at about 3 × 10−5 s−1μM−1. The mechanism of inhibition shows that both compounds act as competitive inhibitors with the formation of a stable covalent adduct. The viability assay on epithelial cells revealed that none of them shows cytotoxicity up to 80 μM, which is well below the Ki values. By molecular modelling, we predicted that the catalytic Cys145 makes a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of the cyclic ester common to both inhibitors, forming a stably acyl-enzyme complex. The computational and kinetic analyses confirm the formation of a stable acyl-enzyme complex with 3CLpro. The results obtained enrich the knowledge of the already numerous biological activities exhibited by lichen secondary metabolites, paving the way for developing promising scaffolds for the design of cysteine enzyme inhibitors. Keywords: cysteine enzyme; SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease; lichen secondary metabolites; inhibition assay; slow binding inhibitor; inactivator.
34390Farkas E., Varga N., Veres K., Matus G., Sinigla M. & Lőkös L. (2022): Distribution types of lichens in Hungary that indicate changing environmental conditions. - Journal of Fungi, 8: 600 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8060600.
Distribution data originating from earlier herbarium collections and recent biodiversity records form the basis of distribution analyses in lichen species with different ecological requirements, where the records allowed comparisons or showed clear trends. As the occurrences of lichens are strongly correlated to background environmental conditions (e.g., air pollution, global warming), confirmed byWirth’s ecological indicator values, the analysis of distribution types has a great value for bioindication and the establishment of current and future climatic and pollution situations. Five distribution types were introduced—presented by characteristic examples (13)—according to lichen distribution maps prepared in different periods of time (representing changing environmental conditions): (1) species of decreasing occurrences by time (e.g., Lobaria pulmonaria, Menegazzia terebrata, suboceanic, acidic pollution sensitive species), (2) species with no or few former records but with increasing occurrences in recent decades (e.g., Flavoparmelia soredians, Hyperphyscia adglutinata, Solenopsora candicans, sub-Mediterranean species), (3) species with increasing and then (from c. 2000) decreasing occurrences (e.g., Scoliciosporum chlorococcum, Straminella conizaeoides, acidofrequent species), (4) species with widely increasing occurrences in recent decades (e.g., Physcia aipolioides, Piccolia ochrophora, Xanthoria parietina, nitrofrequent species), and (5) species with rapidly increasing occurrences (e.g., Absconditella lignicola, Coenogonium pineti, Evernia divaricata, rapidly spreading species). The proposed distribution types of lichen species may be applied to wider regions (the European or the global level).
34389Adjiri F. & Ramdani M. (2022): Distribution maps of the fifferent levels of elemental concentrations accumulated by the lichen in the northeast of Algeria. - Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 12(2): 14–22. DOI: 10.7176/JEES/12-2-03.
An evaluation of environmental pollution in the region of Bordj Bou Arreridj (BBA), Algeria according to metallic trace elements has been carried out, to determine the levels of the 10 elements accumulated in lichens and the different sources found in the region. A total of 192 samples of Xanthoria parietina lichen were collected over an area of 3920.42 km². Sampling sites include urban sites, rural sites, green parks, sites near high traffic streets and industrial enterprises. The lichen samples were analyzed by FAAS for the ten elements and their concentrations were mapped. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Sb and Zn were higher at urban sites and increased with proximity to highways and industrial areas. These results suggest that the composition of lichen elements is strongly affected by road traffic. While the sources of the elements Co, Ni, Fe, Mn and Cr probably come from dust from quarrying and contaminated soil deposits in particular, to the north and west of the region. This mapping of metal pollution can establish the first biological monitoring network in the study area. Keywords: Biomonitoring of lichens, Metallic elements, Pollution sources, Distribution maps, BBA.
34388Stapper N. (2022): Exkursion: Düsseldorf, Moose und Flechten entlang eines Transektes durch die Stadt, die Wirkung der Großstadt auf die Natur erleben. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 13: 84–86. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jahrb-Bochumer-Bot-Ver_13_0084-0086.pdf.
Report on excursion
34387Stapper N.J. (2022): Phaeophyscia orbicularis – Kreisförmige Schwielenflechte (Physciaceae), Stadtpflanze des Jahres 2021. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 13: 222–240. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jahrb-Bochumer-Bot-Ver_13_0222-0240.pdf.
34386Боровичев Е.А., Кожин М.Н., Мелехин А.В., Урбанавичюс Г.П., Химич Ю.Р. & Копеина Е.И. [Borovichev E.A., Kozhin M.N., Melekhin A.V., Urbanavichus G.P., Khimich Yu.R. & Kopeina E.I.] (2021): Значимые находки растений, лишайников и грибов на территории Мурманской области. IV [Noteworthy records of plants, lichens and fungi in Murmansk region. IV]. - Труды Карельского научного центра РАН, Серия "Биология", Петрозаводск [Proceedings of the Karelian Research Centre of Russian Academy of Science, ser. Biology, Petrozavodsk], 8: 5–18. DOI: 10.17076/bg1463.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Seventy nine important findings of 46 species of vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens and fungi acquired lately from the Kandalaksha District of the Murmansk Region are reported. The findings were considered important if they were red-listed in Russia and/or Murmansk Region, represented other particularly rare species known from not more than five locations in the Murmansk Region, or came from the northernmost locations in Europe or globally. Six fungal species (Boletopsis grisea, Cystostereum murrayi, Irpex lacteus, Lenzites betulinus, Peniophora erikssonii, Steccherinum fimbriatum) were found in the region for the second time. New locations in the Kandalaksha District were found for four rare fungal species (Crustoderma corneum, Cystostereum murrayi, Phellodon melaleucus, Vuilleminia comedens). New location of 35 species listed in the Red Data Book of the Murmansk Region (Leptoporus mollis, Arctoparmelia subcentrifuga, Bryoria fremontii, Chaenotheca brachypoda, C. chlorella, C. gracillima, C. laevigata, C. subroscida, Chaenothecopsis nigra, Evernia divaricata, Lichenomphalia hudsoniana, Lobaria pulmonaria, Melanohalea exasperata, Pertusaria coronata, Phlyctis argena, Usnea glabrescens, Arnellia fennica, Metzgeria furcata, Scapania spitsbergensis, Crossocalyx hellerianus, Riccardia palmata, Buxbaumia aphylla, Asplenium viride, Botrychium lanceolatum, B. multifidum, Butomus umbellatus, Diplazium sibiricum, Epipogium aphyllum, Isoëtes echinospora, Nymphaea candida, Potamogeton filiformis, P. pectinatus, Ribes nigrum, Salix aurita, Viola selkirkii) were found. Keywords: vascular plants; bryophytes; lichens; fungi; new records; rare species; Red Data Book; Kandalaksha District.
34385Тарасова В.Н., Андросова В.И. & Сонина А.В. [Tarasova V.N., Androsova V.I. & Sonina A.V.] (2021): Лишайники национального парка «Водлозерский» (Россия) [Lichens of the National Park «Vodlozersky», Russia]. - Nature Conservation Research. Заповедная наука, 6(Suppl. 1): 32–46. https://dx.doi.org/10.24189/ncr.2021.003.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Based on long-term (> 25 years) data analysis, the species diversity of lichens of the largest (4683 km2) Protected Area in Northwest Russia, the National Park «Vodlozersky», is presented for the first time. The National Park «Vodlozersky» was established in 1991 to preserve unique natural communities in the basin of Lake Vodlozero and the River Ileksa. The territory of the Protected Area is located along the eastern borders of the Fennoscandian Shield in two administrative regions: the Republic of Karelia and the Arkhangelsk region. This study is the first attempt to generalise all available data on the lichen flora of NP «Vodlozersky». The paper summarises the information from literature and the authors' data on lichen species diversity obtained in 19 expeditions to different parts of the National Park «Vodlozersky» over a 30-year period of study. Field material was collected by combination of floristic (route methods) and geobotanical studies – by the methods of establishing and description of sample plots ranging in size from 400 to 10 000 m2. For a detailed study of the species composition of lichens in the sample plots, all types of substrates were examined: the trunks and branch surface of different tree species under various conditions (living, falling, dead wood), as well as rotting wood, soil and stones. The collection of lichens (565 herbarium specimens) from the National Park «Vodlozersky» deposited in the herbarium of the Helsinki University (H) (H) were revised. A brief history of the lichen study in the Protected Area was described and the dynamics of the accumulation of information on the species diversity of lichens and allied fungi was revealed by years, from 170 species in 1991 to 469 species and 4 subspecies in 2020. The recent studies resulted in a list of 30 new findings, including 13 species for the Karelian part, and 17 for the whole area of the National Park «Vodlozersky». A total of 473 taxa are reported for the National Park «Vodlozersky», including 445 species and 4 subspecies of lichens, 11 species of non-lichenised fungi and 13 species of lichenicolous fungi. The distribution of lichen species number between the two parts of the Protected Area belonging to different regions of the Russian Federation is as follows: 327 are registered on the Karelian territory of the National Park «Vodlozersky», 402 species on the Arkhangelsk part; the number of common species is 259. Among the recorded lichens in the National Park «Vodlozersky» 18 species are listed in the Red Data Book of the Republic of Karelia and 16 species are in the Red Data Book of the Arkhangelsk Region. The obtained data indicate the high potential of the Protected Area in preserving and maintaining the general diversity of lichen species. The number of species found in the Arkhangelsk part of the National Park «Vodlozersky» is 64% of the currently known lichen diversity for the mainland of the Arkhangelsk region. In the Karelian part there are 25% species of lichens known for the Republic of Karelia. The authors emphasise the publication scarcity of accumulated material on the lichen flora of National Park «Vodlozersky», which makes the study relevant. Keywords: Arkhangelsk region, biodiversity, history of the research, intact forest, new species, Republic of Karerlia, taiga.
34384Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N. (2022): First records of lichenised and lichenicolous fungi for the lichen flora of Russia and Eastern Europe. - Nature Conservation Research. Заповедная наука, 7(2): 95–97. https://dx.doi.org/10.24189/ncr.2022.024.
Noteworthy findings of two lichen species and four lichenicolous fungi are presented. Two species, Celothelium ischnobelum collected from the Nizhnii Novgorod Region and Opegrapha reactiva from the Murmansk Region, are reported for the first time for Russia and Eastern Europe. Four species, Arthonia destruens, Lichenochora gal- ligena, and Schizoxylon albescens collected in the Nizhnii Novgorod Region, and Sphaeropezia cucularis in the Murmansk Region, are new for European Russia. The genus Celothelium is reported for the first time for Russia. Key words: Celothelium ischnobelum, Kerzhensky State Nature Reserve, lichens, new records, Opegrapha reactiva.
34383Simon A., Goffinet B., Wang L.-S., Spribille T., Goward T., Pystina T., Semenova N., Stepanov N.V., Moncada B., Lücking R., Magain N. & Sérusiaux E. (2022): Global phylogeny and taxonomic reassessment of the lichen genus Dendriscosticta (Ascomycota: Peltigerales). - Taxon, 71(2): 256–287. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12649.
The genus Dendriscosticta (Ascomycota: Peltigerales) encompasses several distinctive lichen-forming fungal species restricted to the Northern Hemisphere. Most are flagship species of old-growth forests with good air quality. A global phylogeny of the genus based on multilocus sequence data (ITS, RPB1, EF-1α, MCM7), model-based phylogenetic methods, and morphological and chemical assessments, reveals a high level of cryptic speciation often associated with restricted geographical distribution and/or chemical characters. Using sequence-based species delimitation approaches, we circumscribe two main clades referred to as the D. wrightii clade, with five unequivocal species, including D. gelida sp. nov., and the D. praetextata clade, with eight putative species, including D. phyllidiata sp. nov. The absence of recently collected material of D. hookeri comb. nov. from the type locality unfortunately prevents assignment of this epithet to one of the five supported lineages sharing this morphotype. Three new combinations are proposed: D. hookeri, D. insinuans comb. nov. andD. yatabeana comb. nov. Epitypes are designated for D. wrightii and D. yatabeana. Species diversity within the genus increased from four to nine. Our morphological assessment confirmed that Sticta and Dendriscosticta can be readily distinguished by the presence of excipular algae whereas the structure of the lower surface pores is not a reliable diagnostic feature. Keywords: Dendriscocaulon; epitypification; lichenized fungi; Lobariaceae; Lobarioideae; Peltigeraceae; Sticta.
34382Killmann D., Leh B. & Fischer E. (2021): Felsstandorte und Rosselhalden des Nationalparks Hunsrück-Hochwald als Hotspots der Diversität von Flechten und Moosen. - Forschungsband Nationalpark Hunsrück-Hochwald, 1: 158–165. .
34381Fayyaz I., Afshan N.S., Niazi A.R., Khalid A.N. & Orange A. (2022): A new species of Porpidia (Lecideales, Ascomycota) from Pakistan. - Nova Hedwigia, 114: 221–235. DOI: 10.1127/nova_hedwigia/2022/0676.
Porpidia kashmirensis sp. nov. is described from Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. ITS and nrLSU sequences confirm its position within the genus Porpidia and, together with its morphology and chemistry, suggest that it is separate from other species of this genus. The species is characterized by a well-developed, pale grey thallus, up to 2.5 mm thick with areoles, containing confluentic acid, immersed apothecia, ascospores relatively small, 13–16 × 6.3–9.9 µm, paraphyses with relatively wider cap cells, upto 4.5 µm wide; differing from related species. Keywords: Peer chinasi; phylogeny; saxicolous lichens; taxonomy.
34380Nadeem S., Niazi A.R., Habib K. & Khalid A.N. (2022): A new species of Gyalolechia (Teloschistaceae, lichen-forming Ascomycota) from Pakistan. - Nova Hedwigia, 114: 237–249. DOI: 10.1127/nova_hedwigia/2022/0667.
Gyalolechia pakistanica sp. nov. is described and illustrated from dry hot hilly areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The new taxon is characterized by a sublobate thallus with short, indistinct lobes, and by relatively large, 8–20 µm long ascospores with variable shape. According phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences, the new species is sister to G. subbracteata, from which differs by the less distinctly lobed thallus and the larger ascospores. A tabular comparison between the new species and related and similar taxa is provided. Keywords: Caloplacoideae; Fulgensia; Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; taxonomy.
34379Schiefelbein U. & Sheard J.W. (2021): Rinodina capensis and three other Rinodina species from Chile. - Gayana Botanica, 78(2): 156–161. .
Records of four Rinodina species and Orcularia insperata from the Los Lagos region and Aysén Region in Chile are presented. Orcularia insperata and Rinodina capensis are new to Chile. Information on the worldwide distribution of these species and three others is provided. Furthermore, a key is provided to the Rinodina and related species currently known from Chile. Keywords: distribution, lichens, new records, Physciaceae.
34378Lendemer J.C. (2022): Recent literature on lichens—265. - Bryologist, 125(2): 380–386. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.2.380.
34377Mayrhofer H., Mašić E. & Bilovitz P.O. (2019): Additions to the “Catalogue of Lichenized and Lichenicolous Fungi of Bosnia and Herzegovina”. - Phyton (Horn), 59: 55–67. DOI: 10.12905/0380.phyton59-2019-0055.
The additions are based on an evaluation of 53 published sources concerning Bosnia and Herzegovina and on unpublished herbarium specimens. The actual lichen biota of the country includes 648 species (with 4 subspecies and 14 varieties) of lichenized, 13 non-lichenized or doubtfully lichenized, and 26 lichenicolous fungi. Key words: Ascomycota, lichenized fungi, lichenicolous fungi. – Floristics. – Lichen biota of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Balkan Peninsula, Europe.
34376Mollier S., Kunstler G., Dupouey J.-L. & Bergès L. (2022): Historical landscape matters for threatened species in French mountain forests. - Biological Conservation, 269: 109544 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2022.109544.
Ancient forests are known to host a biodiversity of high ecological distinctiveness and are likely to provide habitat for red-listed species. Yet, few studies have investigated the role of forest continuity for the conservation of threatened species. We used species-presence data on red-listed species from 12 taxonomic groups (Spermatophyta, Pteridophyta, Bryophyta, Lichens, Chiroptera, Aves, Squamata, Amphibia, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata and Orthoptera) to ascertain if ancient forests are an important habitat for threatened species in five mountain and subalpine protected areas in France. We compared the effect of the amount of historical forest (1853–1860) with the effect of the amount of current forest on the distribution of red-listed species in six circular landscape buffers ranging in radius from 100 to 1500 m. We showed that the amount of historical forest in the landscape had a positive effect on forest Spermatophyta, Bryophyta, Coleoptera and edge forest Pteridophyta with a better predictive power than current forest area, highlighting a colonization credit in recent forests. Conversely, edge-forest lepidopterans were more negatively affected by historical than by current forest area, highlighting an extinction debt in recent forests. Our findings underline that implementing protective measures of ancient forests would be a better strategy than afforestation to preserve threatened forest species in mountain and subalpine forest landscapes. Keywords: Threatened species ; Colonization credit ; Forest continuity ; Legacy effect ; Conservation biology ; Temperate forests.
34375Roser L.A., Erkoc P., Ingelfinger R., Henke M., Ulshöfer T., Schneider A.-K., Laux V., Geisslinger G., Schmitt I., Fürst R. & Schiffmann S. (2022): Lecanoric acid mediates anti-proliferative effects by an M phase arrest in colon cancer cells. - Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 148: 112734 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2022.112734.
Lichen extracts containing, among other compounds, depsides such as evernic acid, atranorin, and lecanoric acid possess anti-proliferative effects. We aimed to identify lichen metabolites that are responsible for the observed anti-proliferative effects. We performed cytotoxicity, cell colony, cell cycle and apoptosis assays in various cell lines or primary immune cells. We analyzed several cell cycle proteins and apoptosis-related proteins to gain insights into the underlying mechanism. All depsides reduced the viability of the tested cell lines (HCT-116, HEK293T, HeLa, NIH3T3, RAW246.7) in a cell line-dependent manner with lecanoric acid being the most effective. Atranorin did not influence the cell cycle or colony formation in HCT-116 cells, but induced apoptosis in HCT-116 cells. Evernic acid showed no anti-proliferative effects. Lecanoric acid inhibited cell colony formation already at 0.03 µg/ml in HCT-116 cells and induced a G2 cell cycle block in several cell lines. Moreover, lecanoric acid arrested the cell cycle, presumably in the M phase, since expression of cyclin B1 and phosphorylated histone H3 was upregulated, whereas the inactive cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) was reduced in HCT116 cells. Most importantly, cell death induced by lecanoric acid was more prominent in cancer cells than in primary human immune and endothelial cells. In conclusion, lecanoric acid seems to mediate its antiproliferative effects via arrest of cells in the M phase. Our data suggest lecanoric acid may be a potential new candidate for anti-cancer therapy, because it has anti-proliferative effects on cancer cell lines, and does not affect primary immune cells. Keywords: Lecanoric acid; Atranorin; Evernic acid; M cell cycle arrest; Cyclin B1; CDK1; Lichens.
34374Simonyan A.G., Sargsyan R.R., Panosyan H.H. & Trchounian A.H. (2020): Study of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of saxicolous lichen Xanthoparmelia stenophylla. - Proceedings of the Yerevan State University B: Chemical and Biological Sciences, 54(2): 132–137. https://doi.org/10.46991/PYSU:B/2020.54.2.132.
Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of different extracts of saxicolous lichen Xanthoparmelia stenophylla sampled from Norashen, Gegharkunik Province of Armenia were studied. Methanol, ethanol and acetone extracts of lichen thalli were demonstrated to have activity against only tested gram-positive bacteria. Methanol extract of the lichen showed the highest amount of DPPH radical scavenging activity (~68%). Our studies did not reveal any significant antibacterial and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract. Keywords: Xanthoparmelia stenophylla, saxicolous lichens, antibacterial and antioxidant activities.
34373Yazici K., Aslan A. & Etayo J. (2022): Lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the Bingol Province in Turkey. - Phytologia Balcanica, 28(1): 11–38. DOI 10.7546/PhB.28.2022.2.
This study is a contribution to the Lichen Biota of Turkey. As a result of the examination of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from 169 stations, 341 lichens and 23 lichenicolous fungi have been identified. While Sphaerellothecium contextum, a lichenicolous fungus, is new to Turkey, 19 lichenized and three lichenicolous fungi were found for the second time in Turkey. Key words: Ascomycota, Bingöl, biodiversity, lichen, Turkey.
34372Zakeri Z., Junne S., Jäger F., Dostert M., Otte V. & Neubauer P. (2022): Lichen cell factories: methods for the isolation of photobiont and mycobiont partners for defned pure and co-cultivation. - Microbial Cell Factories, 21: 80 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12934-022-01804-6.
Background: Due to their huge biodiversity and the capability to produce a wide range of secondary metabolites, lichens have a great potential in biotechnological applications. They have, however, hardly been used as cell factories to date, as it is considered to be difcult and laborious to cultivate lichen partners in pure or co-culture in the laboratory. The various methods used to isolate lichen fungi, based on either the ascospores, the conidia, or the thallus, have so far not been compared or critically examined. Therefore, here we systematically investigate and compare the known methods and two new methods to identify the most suitable technology for isolation of fungi from lichens. Results: Within this study six lichen fungi species were isolated and propagated as pure cultures. All of them formed colonies within one month. In case of lichens with ascocarps the spore discharge was the most suitable method. Spores were already discharged within 2 days and germinated within only four days and the contamination rate was low. Otherwise, the soredia and thallus method without homogenization, as described in this work, are also well suited to obtain pure fungal cultures. For the isolation of algae, we were also successful with the thallus method without homogenization. Conclusion: With the methods described here and the proposed strategic approach, we believe that a large proportion of the lichen fungi can be cultivated within a reasonable time and efort. Based on this, methods of controlled cultivation and co-cultivation must now be developed in order to use the potential of lichens with regard to their secondary metabolites, but also for other applications. Keywords: Ascomycota, Lichen cultivation, Isolation method, Colony development, Pure culture, Axenic culture, Co-culture, Secondary metabolites, Biotechnology.
34371Yang M.X., Wang L.S., Miao C.C. & Scheidegger C. (2022): From cradle to grave? A global hotspot and new species of the genus Lobaria discovered in the Himalayas and the Hengduan Mountains. - Persoonia, 48: 150–174. https://doi.org/10.3767/persoonia.2022.48.04.
n this study, the East Asian diversity of green-algal Lobaria was evaluated by applying both morphological and phylogenetic approaches. A multi-locus phylogenetic analysis of 72 green-algal Lobaria specimens was performed using a three-locus and time-calibrated species-tree approach. The analyses demonstrate that pairs of sexually and vegetatively reproducing lineages split into highly supported monophyletic clades. Taxonomically, 11 green-algal Lobaria species were identified as new to science, while 10 were previously described species. The species differentiated during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. The coincidence of paleoclimatic events with estimated dates of divergence support a bioclimatic hypothesis for species evolution in the green-algal Lobaria. Molecular phylogenies, a summary of diversity, detailed new species descriptions and geographical analyses are provided. Special recognition of species with a long evolutionary history, which merit high conservation priority, will be critical for preserving geographically restricted endemics in the Himalayas and the Hengduan Mountains, where habitat loss is driving rapid declines. Key words: East Asia; evolution; lichen-forming ascomycetes; Lobaria; multi-locus phylogeny; new taxa.
34370Resl P., Bujold A.R., Tagirdzhanova G., Meidl P., Freire Rallo S., Kono M., Fernández-Brime S., Guðmundsson H., Andrésson Ó.S., Muggia L., Mayrhofer H., McCutcheon J., Wedin M., Werth S., Willis L.M. & Spribille T. (2022): Large differences in carbohydrate degradation and transport potential among lichen fungal symbionts. - Nature Communications, 13: 2634 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-30218-6.
Lichen symbioses are thought to be stabilized by the transfer of fixed carbon from a photosynthesizing symbiont to a fungus. In other fungal symbioses, carbohydrate subsidies correlate with reductions in plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, but whether this is true of lichen fungal symbionts (LFSs) is unknown. Here, we predict genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and sugar transporters in 46 genomes from the Lecanoromycetes, the largest extant clade of LFSs. All LFSs possess a robust CAZyme arsenal including enzymes acting on cellulose and hemicellulose, confirmed by experimental assays. However, the number of genes and predicted functions of CAZymes vary widely, with some fungal symbionts possessing arsenals on par with well-known saprotrophic fungi. These results suggest that stable fungal association with a phototroph does not in itself result in fungal CAZyme loss, and lends support to long-standing hypotheses that some lichens may augment fixed CO2 with carbon from external source.
34369Paukov A., Teptina A., Ermoshin A., Kruglova E. & Shabardina L. (2022): The role of secondary metabolites and bark chemistry in shaping diversity and abundance of epiphytic lichens. - Frontiers in Forests and Global Change, 5: 828211 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/ffgc.2022.828211.
Diversity of secondary lichen metabolites was studied in epiphytic lichens on six phorophytes—spruce, pine, birch, alder, aspen and poplar in the Middle Urals of Russia. Atranorin, usnic, fumarprotocetraric acid, zeorin, and gyrophoric acid were found in 31, 24, 23, 18, and 14 species, respectively, of 237 taxa collected. Seventy-seven species (i.e., 32% of total species documented) contained no secondary metabolites. Spectra of secondary metabolites of fruticose and foliose lichens varied on different phorophytes, while in crustose species the strong dependence on the tree species was not detected. This is different to the pH dependence of saxicolous lichens where crustose lichens were more susceptible to the rock chemistry. The results of Canonical Correspondence Analysis reveal the affinity of species containing depsides, depsidones or usnic acid to acidic substrata and those lacking secondary metabolites or containing terpenes and antraquinones to the pH-neutral bark. We suppose that phenolic compounds and flavonoids, as chemical constituents of bark, may interact with lichen symbioses and elements in phellem, and similarly to the lichen acids shape the affinity of species to the substrata. Keywords: substrate ecology, phorophyte, flavonoids, terpenes, Middle Urals, CCA analysis.
34368Ruas S., Rotchés-Ribalta R., Ó hUallacháin D., Volpato A., Gormally M., White B. & Moran J. (2022): Assessing stone walls habitat quality – Which factors affect bryophytes and macrolichens on farmland stone walls in Ireland?. - Ecological Indicators, 139: 108948 [5 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2022.108948.
Stone walls are ubiquitous field boundaries used to restrict livestock movement or to separate property. Bryophytes and lichens are often the dominant vegetation in dry stone walls and are strongly affected by local microhabitat characteristics. Bryophytes and lichens related metrics can be used to define habitat quality of stone walls. The current study assessed how richness and cover of bryophytes and macrolichens in dry stone walls related to each other and how different environmental variables and farm management descriptors determined richness and cover of both groups in dry stone walls. Bryophytes and macrolichens were sampled in stone walls on sixteen farms across a management intensity gradient in Ireland. Bryophyte cover correlated positively and significantly with bryophyte richness and macrolichen cover and richness, and can thus be used to assess stone walls quality. Farm management intensity emerged as the variable most strongly related with species richness of bryophytes and cover of both groups. Altitude also emerged as a strong predictor of both groups’ richness and cover. This study provides a novel perspective on stone wall habitat quality and results indicate that by promoting extensive farming it is possible to increase stone walls quality. Keywords: Agricultural landscapes; Dry stone walls; Bryophytes; Macrolichens; Farm management intensity.
34367Halda J. (2022): Cryptodiscus foveolaris (Stictidaceae, Lecanoromycetes) z NPR Broumovské stěny. - Mykologické Listy, 151: 53‒56. .
Cryptodiscus foveolaris je nově zaznamenaným druhem mykobioty ČR. V Evropě je známý pouze z několika lokalit. Od lichenizovaných druhů známých z ČR Ramonia interjecta a Cryp­todiscus gloeocapsa se odlišuje stavbou plodnic a tvarem spor
34366Mejstřík V. (1998): Lišejníky ve středních Brdech. - In: Němec J. [red.], Příroda Brd a perspektivy její ochrany, pp. 93–95, EnviTypo Praha, Příbram, . .
34365Mejstřík V. (1998): Lišejníky centrálních Brd. - In: Němec J. [red.], Příroda Brd a perspektivy její ochrany, pp. 33–34, EnviTypo Praha, Příbram, . .
34364Mejstřík V. (1993): Lichenologický průzkum centrálních Brd. - In: Němec J. [red.], Příroda Brd a perspektivy její ochrany, pp. 45–46, Okr. úřad Příbram, . .
34363Suza J. (1936): Funaria mediterranea Lindb., nový příslušník mechové flory české. - Časopis Národního musea, sect. natur., Praha, 110: 55-56. .
Toninia coeruleonigricans, Caloplaca fulgens, Dermatocarpon hepaticum
34362Suza J. (1936): Fimbriaria fragrans Nees, nová zajímavá jatrovka v Čechách. - Časopis Národního musea, sect. natur., Praha, 110: 54-55. .
Cladonia rangiformis
34361Šimr J. (1936): Další lokality Montagnites De Candolleii Fr. v Čes. Středohoří. - Časopis Národního musea, sect. natur., Praha, 110: 125. .
Parmelia Pokornyi, Cladonia alcicornis, Cl. strepsilis, Cl. rangiformis, Cornicullaria tenuissima, Toninia coeruleonigricans
34360Šimr J. (1936): Nové naleziště Rinodina oreina Mass. v Českém Středohoří. - Časopis Národního musea, sect. natur., Praha, 110: 58. .
34359Slavík F. A. (1930): Rožmitál pod Třemšínem a okolí. – Rožmitál p. Tř., 294 pp. [Lichenes p. 30]. - , . .
34358Pilous Z. (1939): Poslední živé rašeliniště v Brdech. - Krása našeho domova, 31: 2–6. .
Umbilicaria (Gyrophora) cylindrica, Parmelia lanata, Parmelia encausta
34357Pilous Z. (1936): Pozoruhodné nálezy Bryophyt v Brdech. - Časopis Národního musea, sect. natur., Praha, 110: 102–103. .
Parmelia encausta, Parmelia lanata, Umbilicaria cylindrica
34356Los V. (1928): Geobotanický ráz lišejníkové oblasti brdské. - In: Panýrek D. [red.], Věstník VI. sjezdu československých přírodozpytců, lékařů a inženýrů v Praze 25.–30. května 1928, díl II., p. 64, Praha., . .
34355Bajpai R., Shukla V., Raju A., Singh C.P. & Upreti D.K (2022): A geostatistical approach to compare metal accumulation pattern by lichens in plain and mountainous regions of northern and central India. - Environmental Earth Sciences, 81: 203 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-022-10336-6.
Based on the physicochemical characteristics, metals emitted from the source (both natural and anthropogenic) contributes towards spatial continuity at a regional scale. Apart from the intrinsic properties of metals, meteorological conditions and topography of the region are also known to contribute towards spatial continuity. In the present study, a comparative spatial assessment of 12 metals in lichen Phaeophyscia hispidula collected from mountains and plains of northern and north-central India was carried out with the help of the indicator kriging method. The total metal concentration varies between 25.4–429 µgg−1 and 22.8–507 µgg−1 dry weight in plains and mountains, respectively. The ‘Indicator Kriging’, a cokriging non-parametric approach has been applied to predict the total metal load (TML) probability from a regional lichen database derived from the diferent metals in the mountain and plain regions. Cr, Cd, Cu and Pb had higher concentrations having higher coverage area, while metals like Cd and Hg had the highest localized distribution indicating point sources. The probability values of TML are further related with topography, population density and land cover attributes to specifc factors responsible for metal accumulation in the study area. Observations indicated that apart from local sources, topography, population density and land cover, also plays an essential role in the spatial behaviour of the metals, which has been verifed by the bioaccumulation pattern of metals in lichen samples from the mountainous region. Among which three mountainous states of Northern India, Uttarakhand has a higher concentration of metals which may be attributed to the topography and local anthropogenic sources. Keywords: Lichens · Metal accumulation · Biomonitoring · Indicator Kriging · Geostatistical mapping · Bivariate relationship.
34354Zhang Y., Clancy J., Jensen J., McMullin R.T., Wang L. & Leavitt S.D. (2022): Providing scale to a known taxonomic unknown—At least a 70-fold increase in species diversity in a cosmopolitan nominal taxon of lichen-forming fungi. - Journal of Fungi, 8: 490 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8050490.
Robust species delimitations provide a foundation for investigating speciation, phylogeography, and conservation. Here we attempted to elucidate species boundaries in the cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungal taxon Lecanora polytropa. This nominal taxon is morphologically variable, with distinct populations occurring on all seven continents. To delimit candidate species, we compiled ITS sequence data from populations worldwide. For a subset of the samples, we also generated alignments for 1209 single-copy nuclear genes and an alignment spanning most of the mitochondrial genome to assess concordance among the ITS, nuclear, and mitochondrial inferences. Species partitions were empirically delimited from the ITS alignment using ASAP and bPTP. We also inferred a phylogeny for the L. polytropa clade using a four-marker dataset. ASAP species delimitations revealed up to 103 species in the L. polytropa clade, with 75 corresponding to the nominal taxon L. polytropa. Inferences from phylogenomic alignments generally supported that these represent evolutionarily independent lineages or species. Less than 10% of the candidate species were comprised of specimens from multiple continents. High levels of candidate species were recovered at local scales but generally with limited overlap across regions. Lecanora polytropa likely ranks as one of the largest species complexes of lichen-forming fungi known to date. Keywords: alpine/arctic/Antarctic; ASAP; cosmopolitan; cryptic species; genome skimming; species delimitation; symbiotic phenotype.
34353Rodi D. (1974): Trockenrasengesellschaften des nordwestlichen Tertiärhügellandes. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 45: 151–172. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Berichte-Bayerischen-Bot-Ges-Erforschung-Flora_45_0151-0172.pdf.
Phytosociology; terricolous lichens included in the phytosociological relevés
34352Ricek E.W. (1982): Die Flora der Umgebung von Gmünd im niederösterreichischen Waldviertel. - Abhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Österreich, 21: 1–204. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/AZBG_21_0001-0204.pdf.
Upper Austria; vegetation; numerous notes on lichens in various parts of the publication; a sketch ("Abb. 8") of a lichen community on illuminated solitary boulder and surrounding ground at p. 28; a separate commented list of lichens at p. 83–89.
34351Trobajo S., Fernández-Salegui A.B, Terrón A. & Martínez I. (2022): Functional traits of epiphytic lichen communities in a Temperate-Mediterranean fragmented landscape: Importance of patch size, tree diameter and summer rainfall. - Fungal Ecology, 57–58: 101160 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2022.101160.
Functional traits have become important tools for evaluating the response of epiphytic lichens to environmental changes. In this study, we evaluated which predictors related to fragmentation, habitat quality and climate were driving the richness and cover of lichen growth form, type of photobiont and reproduction traits, at both fragment and plot levels in a Temperate-Mediterranean area dominated by Quercus forests. At fragment level, patch size and summer rainfall positively contributed to richness in most of the traits, while tree diameter and slope were the most important drivers, especially for the type of reproduction and growth form at plot scale. High coverage of growth forms especially sensitive to fragmentation were indicative of high values of total species richness, while early-colonizers indicated the opposite. These results provide important information on how lichen traits respond to environmental conditions in an ecotone area where a shift towards a drier climate is more likely to occur. Keywords: Epiphytic lichens ; Fragment size ; Functional traits ; Growth forms ; Photobiont ; Reproduction ; Summer rainfall Temperate-Mediterranean climate ; Total species richness ; Tree diameter.
34350Fayyaz I., Afshan N.S., Niazi A.R. & Khalid A.N. (2022): Aspicilia nigromaculata sp. nov. (Megasporaceae, Pertusariales, Ascomycota) from Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan, evidence from morphology and DNA sequencing data. - Botanica Serbica, 46(1): 105–111. https://doi.org/10.2298/BOTSERB2201105F .
A new species of Megasporaceae, Aspicilia nigromaculata sp. nov. is described and illustrated from Pakistan. A comparative morpho–anatomical study and ITS–LSU-based molecular analyses confirmed its position within the genus Aspicilia. It differs from the other species of the genus by the following set of features: a well–developed, grey to greenish grey frequently black spotted thick thallus, well–developed thicker peripheral and flat to slightly concave areoles, and small conidia 10–15 × 0.5–1 µm. Its positioning in a separate branch in the phylogenetic tree also makes it distinct from the other known species of the genus. Keywords: ITS nrDNA, nrLSU, phylogeny, saxicolous lichens.
34349Sugimoto M. & Ohmura Y. (2022): Pyrgillus mammosus (Pyrenulaceae, lichenized Ascomycota), a new species from Taiwan. - Taiwania, 67(2): 267‒270. DOI: 10.6165/tai.2022.67.267.
Pyrgillus mammosus, a new species from Xitou, Taiwan is described and illustrated. It is similar to P. tibellii and P. rufus but differs in its potassium hydroxide reaction of the thallus (K+ red) as a main distinguishing feature, additional chemical compounds detected by thin layer chromatography, and larger conical to hemispherical ascomata. Morphological and chemical differences among the closely similar taxa are discussed. Key words: Chemistry, eastern Asia, lichenized fungi, mazaedia, morphology, Pyrgillus rufus, P. tibellii, taxonomy, TLC.