33768Galanty A., Węgrzyn M., Wietrzyk-Pełka P., Fołta M., Krośniak M., Podolak I. & Zagrodzki P. (2021): Quantitative variations of usnic acid and selected elements in terricolous lichen Cladonia mitis Sandst., with respect to different environmental factors – A chemometric approach. - Phytochemistry, 192: 112948 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2021.112948.
In the present study, quantitative analysis of usnic acid and the selected elements (Ag, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in samples of Cladonia mitis thalli collected along a North-Central Europe transect, was performed. Additionally, we analysed geographical and environmental factors that could potentially influence the levels of the analytes. With the constructed partial least square (PLS) chemometric model we aimed to establish the relationships between the analysed factors. Our study is the first to provide comparative quantitative data on usnic acid in C. mitis. We proved this lichen species is a rich source of usnic acid (4.52 ± 0.54–21.58 ± 2.23 mg/g dry wt). Significant differences in usnic acid content between samples collected in the open and forest areas were noted, with the predominance of the former (mean 17.4 ± 2.8 and 8.8 ± 2.3 mg/g dry wt, respectively). Our results supported the hypothesis on the relationship between usnic acid and selected heavy metals content in lichens, as the positive correlation of the compound was noted with Pb. Our PLS model indicated also a positive correlation between usnic acid and Cr content, which was reported for the first time. Keywords: Cladonia mitis Sandst.; Cladoniaceae; Quantitative analysis; Chemometric analysis; Usnic acid; Trace elements; Environmental factors.
33767Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2021): Находки новых и редких видов лишайников и лихенофильных грибов в Мурманской области [Findings of species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi new and rare for the Murmansk region]. - Труды Карельского научного центра РАН, Серия "Биология", Петрозаводск [Proceedings of the Karelian Research Centre of Russian Academy of Science, ser. Biology, Petrozavodsk], 8: 61–69. DOI: 10.17076/bg1340.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Based on field research in the Murmansk Region in the past two years, twenty lichen species (Acolium karelicum, Bacidina inundata, Biatora chrysantha, B. efflorescens, Bryoria glabra, Hymenelia rhodopis, Lecanora albellula, L. anopta, L. cadubriae, Lecidea albohyalina, Lepraria elobata, L. jackii, Micarea melaena, M. misella, Rhexophiale rhexoblephara, Thelidium submethorium, Verrucaria hydrela, Xylographa pallens, X. trunciseda, Xylopsora caradocensis) and three lichenicolous fungi (Dactylospora deminuta, Homostegia piggotii, Raesaenenia huuskonenii) are reported as new to the biogeographic provinces Lapponia Tulomensis, Lapponia Imandrae, and Kuusamo. Three species – Homostegia piggotii, Thelidium submethorium, and Xylographa trunciseda are reported for the Murmansk Region for the first time. The globally rare hydrophilic lichen Thelidium submethorium was found on the southern shore of Lake Kuolajärvi (Kuusamo) on willow branches submerged in water. This is second finding of this species in Russia and the third in Northern Europe. Xylographa trunciseda was found on pine wood in the nature-monument area of regional significance “Pines at the northern limit of the distribution range” (Lapponia Tulomensis). Lichenicolous fungus Homostegia piggotii was recorded on Rakhmoiva Mountain (Kuusamo). The new records for the lichen Bryoria glabra in the vicinity of Polyarnye Zori town and the lichenicolous fungus Raesaenenia huuskonenii from Isokumpu locality, situated to the west of the Alakurtti settlement, represent their second detections in the Murmansk Region. Fifteen new species were found in the biogeographic province of Kuusamo, four species – in Lapponia Tulomensis, and two species – in Lapponia Imandrae. The species Lepraria jackii is new to the lichen flora of the Lapland Nature Reserve. Information about the localities, ecology and collection dates is presented for all the said species. The distribution of these species in the Murmansk Region and in adjacent territories is outlined.
33766Klein J., Low M., Thor G., Sjögren J., Lindberg E. & Eggers S. (2021): Tree species identity and composition shape the epiphytic lichen community of structurally simple boreal forests over vast areas. - PLoS ONE, 16(9): e0257564 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0257564.
Greatly simplified ecosystems are often neglected for biodiversity studies. However, these simplified systems dominate in many regions of the world, and a lack of understanding of what shapes species occurrence in these systems can have consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services at a massive scale. In Fennoscandia, ~90% of the boreal forest (~21Mha) is structurally simplified with little knowledge of how forest structural elements shape the occurrence and diversity of for example epiphytic lichens in these managed forests. One form of structural simplification is the reduction of the number and frequency of different tree species. As many lichen species have host tree preferences, it is particularly likely that this simplification has a huge effect on the lichen community in managed forests. In a 40–70 years old boreal forest in Sweden, we therefore related the occurrence and richness of all observed epiphytic lichens to the host tree species and beta and gamma lichen diversity at the forest stand level to the stand’s tree species composition and stem diameter. Picea abies hosted the highest lichen richness followed by Pinus sylvestris, Quercus robur, Alnus glutinosa, Betula spp., and Populus tremula. However, P. tremula hosted twice as many uncommon species as any of the other tree species. Stand level beta and gamma diversity was twice as high on stands with four compared to one tree species, and was highest when either coniferous or deciduous trees made up 40–50% of the trees. The stem diameter was positively related to lichen richness at the tree and stand level, but negatively to beta diversity. For biodiversity, these findings imply that leaving a few trees of a different species during forest thinning is unlikely as effective as combining life-boat trees for endangered species with an even tree species mixture.
33765Richardson G., Leblanc S.G., Lovitt J., Rajaratnam K. & Chen W. (2021): Leveraging AI to estimate caribou lichen in UAV orthomosaics from ground photo datasets. - Drones, 5(3): 99 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/drones5030099.
Relating ground photographs to UAV orthomosaics is a key linkage required for accurate multi-scaled lichen mapping. Conventional methods of multi-scaled lichen mapping, such as random forest models and convolutional neural networks, heavily rely on pixel DN values for classification. However, the limited spectral range of ground photos requires additional characteristics to differentiate lichen from spectrally similar objects, such as bright logs. By applying a neural network to tiles of a UAV orthomosaics, additional characteristics, such as surface texture and spatial patterns, can be used for inferences. Our methodology used a neural network (UAV LiCNN) trained on ground photo mosaics to predict lichen in UAV orthomosaic tiles. The UAV LiCNN achieved mean user and producer accuracies of 85.84% and 92.93%, respectively, in the high lichen class across eight different orthomosaics. We compared the known lichen percentages found in 77 vegetation microplots with the predicted lichen percentage calculated from the UAV LiCNN, resulting in a R2 relationship of 0.6910. This research shows that AI models trained on ground photographs effectively classify lichen in UAV orthomosaics. Limiting factors include the misclassification of spectrally similar objects to lichen in the RGB bands and dark shadows cast by vegetation. Keywords: image classification; lichen mapping; orthomosaics; artificial intelligence; UAV.
33764Magnusson A.H. (1930): New or interesting Swedish lichens VI. - Botaniska Notiser, 1930(5): 459–476. .
33763Magnusson A.H. (1924): New or interesting Swedish lichens II. - Botaniska Notiser, 1924(4): 377–391. .
33762Magnusson A.H. (1923): New or interesting Swedish lichens I. - Botaniska Notiser, 1923(5): 401–416. .
33761Яцына А.П., Гигиняк Ю.Г., Бородин O.И., Андреев М.П., Лукашанец Д.А. & Гайдашов А.А. [Yatsyna А.P., Hihiniak Yu.H., Borodin О.I., Andreev М.P., Lukashanets Dz.А. & Gaidashov А.А.] (2021): Антарктические сборы лишайников в гербарии Института экспериментальной ботаники им. В. Ф. Купревича Национальной академии наук Беларуси [Antarctic collection of lichens in the herbarium of V. F. Kuprevich Institute of experimental botany of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus]. - Природные Ресурсы [Natural Resources], 1/2021: 68–75. .
[in Russian with English abstract: ] As a result of the revision of the MSK-L collection, lichens of 11 localities of maritime and continental Antarctic, diverse in species composition, were revealed. The collection includes three ecological groups of lichens. The material for this article was the lichen samples stored in the MSK-L collection in the amount of about 600 herbarium packages collected during 1 CAE, 5 SAE, 63 Russian Antarctic expeditions and 2, 3, 4, 6, 11, 12 Belarusian Antarctic expeditions. 82 species of lichens from 54 genera were identified. Most of the identified species were found in maritime Antarctic. 16 species of lichens were common to maritime and continental Antarctic. Most of the species are classified as bipolar lichens. Thin layer chromatography of genus Lepraria lichens was carried out. It has been shown that usnic acid and zeorin are present only in the Antarctic endemic L. straminea. Keywords: Antarctica, collection, lichens, thin layer chromatography, taxonomy.
33760Blanco-Sacristán J., Panigada C., Gentili R., Tagliabue G., Garzonio R., Martín M.P., Ladron de Guevara M., Colombo R., Dowling T.P.F. & Rossini M. (2021): UAV RGB, thermal infrared and multispectral imagery used to investigate the control of terrain on the spatial distribution of dryland biocrust. - Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 46: 2466–2484. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.5189.
Biocrusts (topsoil communities formed by mosses, lichens, bacteria, fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria) are a key biotic component of dryland ecosystems. Whilst climate patterns control the distribution of biocrusts in drylands worldwide, terrain and soil attributes can influence biocrust distribution at landscape scale. Multi‐source unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery was used to map and study biocrust ecology in a typical dryland ecosystem in central Spain. Red, green and blue (RGB) imagery was processed using structure‐from‐motion techniques to map terrain attributes related to microclimate and terrain stability. Multispectral imagery was used to produce accurate maps (accuracy > 80%) of dryland ecosystem components (vegetation, bare soil and biocrust composition). Finally, thermal infrared (TIR) and multispectral imagery was used to calculate the apparent thermal inertia (ATI) of soil and to evaluate how ATI was related to soil moisture (r 2 = 0.83). The relationship between soil properties and UAV‐derived variables was first evaluated at the field plot level. Then, the maps obtained were used to explore the relationship between biocrusts and terrain attributes at ecosystem level through a redundancy analysis. The most significant variables that explain biocrust distribution are: ATI (34.4% of variance, F = 130.75; p < 0.001), Elevation (25.8%, F = 97.6; p < 0.001), and potential solar incoming radiation (PSIR) (52.9%, F = 200.1; p < 0.001). Differences were found between areas dominated by lichens and mosses. Lichen‐dominated biocrusts were associated with areas with high slopes and low values of ATI, with soil characterized by a higher amount of soluble salts, and lower amount of organic carbon, total phosphorus (Ptot) and total nitrogen (Ntot). Biocrust‐forming mosses dominated lower and moister areas, characterized by gentler slopes and higher values of ATI with soils with higher contents of organic carbon, Ptot and Ntot. This study shows the potential to use UAVs to improve our understanding of drylands and to evaluate the control that the terrain has on biocrust distribution. We used in synergy multi‐source UAV‐based imagery to map and study biocrusts’ ecology in a typical dryland ecosystem in central Spain. We processed RGB imagery by means of Structure from Motion techniques to map terrain attributes related to microclimate and terrain stability. We used thermal infrared imagery to calculate the apparent thermal inertia (ATI) of soils and to estimate how ATI was related to soil moisture. Finally, we used multispectral imagery to produce accurate maps of dryland ecosystem components (i.e., vegetation, bare soil and biocrust composition). We integrated traditional field approaches with new methodologies to explore the relationship between biocrusts and terrain attributes at landscape level. The very fine spatial resolution maps provided by UAVs were essential for a detailed description and monitoring of these complex and threatened ecosystems. Keywords: UAV; apparent inertia; biocrusts; biological soil crusts; drylands; lichen; moss; multispectral; thermal.
33759Zhou R., Yang Y., Park S.-Y., Nguyen T.T., Seo Y.-W., Lee K.H., Lee J.H., Kim K.K., Hur J.-S. & Kim H. (2021): Author Correction: The lichen secondary metabolite atranorin suppresses lung cancer cell motility and tumorigenesis. - Scientific Reports, 11: 13132 [3 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91474-y.
33758Dulamsuren C. & Hauck M. (2021): Drought stress mitigation by nitrogen in boreal forests inferred from stable isotopes. - Global Change Biology, 27: 5211–5224. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15813.
Forest growth in most parts of the boreal zone is originally limited by low temperatures and low nitrogen availability. Due to the rapid climate warming at high latitudes, an increasing forest area is switching to drought limitation, especially in continental and southern parts of the boreal forest. Studies addressing this issue were mostly dendrochronological and remote-sensing analyses focusing on climatic effects, but not answering the question whether drought is effective alone or in combination with nitrogen shortage at limiting the forests’ productivity and vitality. Here we show in a case study from larch forests of Mongolia with a combination of stable isotope analyses, tree-ring analysis and bioindication of the local variability of livestock densities using epiphytic lichens that, in the studied highly drought-prone forests at the southern fringe of the boreal forest in Inner Asia, the trees’ vulnerability to drought is modified by nitrogen fertilization from livestock kept in the vicinity and the edge of the forests. The most likely mechanism behind this drought-nitrogen interaction is the reduction of stomatal conductance, which is known to be induced by low nitrogen levels in plants. Nitrogen fertilization by the livestock could, thus, shorten the times of stomatal closure and thereby increase tree growth, which we measured as radial stem increment. Even though the underlying mechanisms, which were so far examined in angiosperms, should be experimentally tested for conifers, our results indicate that focusing on water alone is not enough to understand the climate change response of drought-limited boreal forests. Keywords: boreal forests, climate change, dendrochronology, drought limitation, nitrogen limitation, productivity, soil organic carbon, δ15N signature.
33757Roos R.E., Asplund J. & van Zuijlen K. (2021): Covered by a blanket of lichens: how mat-forming lichens affect microclimate and ecological processes. A commentary on: ‘Lichens buffer tundra microclimate more than the expanding shrub Betula nana’. - Annals of Botany, 128(4): i–iii. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcab075.
Key words: Lichen traits, Betula nana, climate change.
33756Wolski G.J., Piwowarczyk R., Plášek V., Kukwa M. & Ruraż K. (2021): Tea plantations and their importance as host plants and hot spots for epiphytic cryptogams. - Scientifc Reports, 11: 18242 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-97315-2.
Bryophytes and lichens are outstanding bioindicators, not only of the plant community in which they develop, but also the substrates on which they grow. Some epiphytic cryptogams, particularly the rare ones, are stenotopic and require a long habitat continuity, for example substrates such as old trees. It could also be a tea plantation, this is because the shrubs are not felled, and most of them may have several dozen years. In addition, the shrubs are not subject to sudden changes in microclimatic conditions as only the young leaves are harvested. As the importance of tea plantations as host plants for mosses and lichens has not yet been studied, the present study examines the species diversity of cryptogams of two tea plantations in Georgia (Caucasus). The study also examines the phytogeography, spatial pattern, environmental conditions and ecological indicators of the cryptogams. Thirty-nine cryptogam taxa were identifed; typical forest taxa dominated, even in the absence of typical forest communities. Some of these species are obligatory epiphytes, rare or even critically endangered in most European countries (e.g., Orthotrichum stellatum, O. stramineum, Lewinskya striata). The fairly abundant record of such species on tea plantations indicates the importance of these phytocoenoses for the preservation of rare species, and indicates that these habitats are hot spots for these cryptogams in otherwise changed envirnonment. Additionally, as indicated the analysis of the species composition of individual plantations and the mathematical analysis made on this basis, plantations difer from each other. Another interesting result is also the spatial distributions of cryptogams on tea bushes resemble those of forest communities and lichens seems to be more sensitive than bryophytes to antropogenic changes of environment.
33755Стороженко Ю.В., Давыдов Е.А. & Яковченко Л.С. [Storozhenko Y.V., Davydov E.A. & Yakovchenko L.S.] (2020): Первые данные о лишайниках Монгун-Тайгинского кластера заповедника Убсунурская котловина: напочвенные макролишайники [The first data on the lichens of the Mongun-Taiga cluster of the Ubsunur Hollow Biosphere Reserve: epigeic macrolichens]. - Проблемы ботаники Южной Сибири и Монголии [Problems of Botany of South Siberia and Mongolia], 19(1): 174–178. https://doi.org/10.14258/pbssm.2020035.
[in Russian with English summary: ] 34 species of soil macrolichensare reported for the first time for Ubsunur Hollow Biosphere Reserve. The species belong to 15 genera and 6 families. Most of them are representatives of Parmeliaceae and the lichen genera Peltigera, Cladonia, Stereocaulon, and Cetraria. All studied species inhabit soil; some species also mosses, or plant debris in addition. The studied species are characterized by fruticose (19 species) and foliose (15) growth form. The majority of the marcolichens have been found in mountain tundras, alpine meadows and sparse larch forests. Key words. Altai Mts., biodiversity, lichenized fungus, specially protected natural area, substrate ecology.
33754Зятнина М.В., Яковченко Л.С. & Давыдов Е.А. [Zyatnina M.V., Yakovchenko L.S. & Davydov E.A.] (2020): Материалы к лихенобиоте Сайлюгемского национального парка [Materials to the lichen biota of the Sailugemsky National Park]. - Проблемы ботаники Южной Сибири и Монголии [Problems of Botany of South Siberia and Mongolia], 19(1): 124–128. https://doi.org/10.14258/pbssm.2020025.
[in Russian with English summary: ] Thirty three lichen species from 24 genera and 12 families are listed for the first time for the Sailugemsky National Park. Lichen families Parmeliaceae (12 species), Teloschistaceae (4), Peltigeraceae (3), and Physciaceae (3) comprise a majority of the species. The studied lichens are characterized by various growth forms. Only three squamulose species represent the true epigeic lichens. 16 macrolichens (13 fruticose and 3 foliose) are hemiepigeic. The group on plant debris is represented by 13 microlichens (9 crustose and 4 squamulose). Among them, 5 species were found, usually inhabit bark of trees. In the studied area, they grow on the limit of their ecological capabilities. Key words: Altai Mts., biodiversity, lichenized fungus, specially protected natural area, substrate ecology.
33753Давыдов Е.А., Яковченко Л.С., Хрусталева И.А. & Елесова Н.В. [Davydov E.A., Yakovchenko L.S., Khrustaleva I.A. & Elesova N.V.] (2020): Экологические особенности и плотность популяций охраняемых лишайников в лесах с участием ели, пихты и сосны сибирской на Салаирском кряже (Алтайский край) [Ecological features and population density of protected lichens in forests with spruce, fir and siberian pine on the Salair ridge (Altai territory)]. - Проблемы ботаники Южной Сибири и Монголии [Problems of Botany of South Siberia and Mongolia], 19(2): 275–280. https://doi.org/10.14258/pbssm.2020118.
[in Russian with English summary: ] For a comprehensive assessment of the habitats of rare and vulnerable lichen species, 4 key sites in the Eltsovsky, Togulsky and Zarinsky districts of the Altai territory were studied. Plant communities – spruce forests, forests with spruce and cedar pine, as well as fir and aspen forests were described. Seven species of lichens listed in the Red data book of the Altai territory (2016) were found in the studied forests: Graphis scripta, Lobaria pulmonaria, Nephroma bellum, Ramalina roesleri, R. sinensis, R. vogulica, and Usnea longissima. Ecological preferences are indicated for each species, and the population density is calculated. Key words. Biodiversity, biologically valuable forests, lichenized fungus, monitoring the state of populations, population structure, red data book.
33752Круглова Е.П., Пауков А.Г., Тептина А.Ю. & Ширяева А.С. [Kruglova E.P., Paukov A.G., Teptina A.Yu. & Shiryaeva A.S.] (2020): Ржавоокрашенные представители рода Circinaria Link. (лихенизированные аскомицеты) в аридных сообществах Богдинско-Баскунчакского заповедника [Rusty-colored representatives of genus Circinaria Link. (lichenized ascomycetes) in arid habitats of Bogdinsko-Baskunchakskiy nature reserve]. - Проблемы ботаники Южной Сибири и Монголии [Problems of Botany of South Siberia and Mongolia], 19(2): 249–251. https://doi.org/10.14258/pbssm.2020113 .
[in Russian with English summary: ] Diversity of Aspicilia desertorum s. l. was studied in Bogdinsko-Baskunchakskiy reserve (Astrakhan region, Russia). The group comprises eight species in the region. Six of them include specimens with rusty-colored thalli. We found that trivalent iron in the cortex of the studied species is not a taxonomic character but has a connection with chemistry of the substrate and may act as a sun-screen, decreasing levels of UV-B reaching the photobiont. Key words: Aspicilia desertorum, iron accumulation, Megasporaceae, species delimitation, taxonomy.
33751Аристархова Е.А. & Суслова Е.Г. [Aristarkhova E.A. & Suslova E.G.] (2020): Редкие эпифитные лишайники в растительных сообществах нарушенных территорий и их применение в биоиндикации на примере Московской области [Rare epiphytic lichens in phytocenoses of anthropogenic disturbed territories and their application in bioindication (Moscow region)]. - Проблемы ботаники Южной Сибири и Монголии [Problems of Botany of South Siberia and Mongolia], 19(2): 177–183. https://doi.org/10.14258/pbssm.2020098 .
[in Russian with English summary: ] The article analyzes the ecology and distribution of species of genera: Bryoria Brodo et D. Hawksw., Ramalina Ach., Usnea Dill. ex Adans., found in Moscow region and listed in the red book of the region (2018). It is based on literature materials and monitoring data that we conducted as part of the «Verkhovye» Nature protection Fund in 2010– 2019. In the period from 1906 to 1995, a greater number of Ramalina species were cited for Moscow region than at present, some of the finds of Usnea species were made on the outskirts of Moscow and in the near Moscow region, meanwhile the distribution of genus Bryoria was not studied. Currently, the most favorable conditions for the development of lichens are formed in the North, West and North-West of the Moscow region, where the largest number of finds of various species with maximum abundance is noted. In the South-east, their settlement is probably hindered by dust, increased dryness of the air and the presence of harmful compounds in the atmosphere. In their distribution, lichens prefer intact habitats with high humidity and minimal air pollution: large fragments of preserved protected old-growth forests (spruce and sprucesmall- leaved), swampy forests and forest swamps. For the most common species with a high abundance (Bryoria fuscescens (Gyeln.) Brodo et D. Hawksw. and B. capillaris (Ach.) Brodo et D. Hawksw., Usnea hirta (L.) Weber ex F. H. Wigg.), it is possible to track the dynamics of changes in the environment. The rarest species are recommended to keep category 1–2 in the Red book of the Moscow region (Bryoria nadvornikiana (Gyeln.) Brodo et D. Hawksw., B. vrangiana (Gyeln.) Brodo et D. Hawksw., B. osteola (Gyeln.) Brodo et D. Hawksw., Usnea lapponica Vain.). Key words. Bioindication, distribution maps, epiphytic lichens, rare species, Red book of the Moscow region.
33750Хрусталева И.А., Давыдов Е.А., Елесова Н.В. & Яковченко Л.С. [Khrustaleva I.A., Davydov E.A., Elesova N.V. & Yakovchenko L.S.] (2020): Лесные сообщества Салаирского кряжа как места обитания охраняемых видов лишайников [Forest communities of the Salair ridge as habitats of protected lichen species]. - Проблемы ботаники Южной Сибири и Монголии [Problems of Botany of South Siberia and Mongolia], 19(2): 386–393. DOI: 10.14258/pbssm.2020140. URL: http://journal.asu.ru/bpssm/article/view/pbssm.2020140.
[in Russian with English summary: ] For a comprehensive assessment of the habitats of rare and vulnerable lichen species, four key sites in the Eltsovsky, Togulsky and Zarinsky districts of the Altai territory were studied, which described plant communities – spruce forests, forests with spruce and cedar pine, as well as fir-aspen forests. In total, 20 geobotanical descriptions were performed, each with an area of 400 sq. m; the vertical and horizontal structure and composition of species were described. Fir-aspen forests and their derivatives are distributed along the peaks and slopes and are dominant in the axial part of the ridge. They are significantly disrupted by logging. Spruce forests occupy low relief elements – river valleys, small in area. Despite the good development of spruce trees in these forests, they do not have any significant economic significance, as they are located in hard-to-reach places, often swampy. However, they can also be transformed as a result of fires. The main threat to their existence is the process of gold mining in the valleys of small rivers, which destroys not only spruce forests, but also the entire complex of environmental conditions necessary for their existence. Five species of lichens listed in the Red data book of the Altai territory were found in the studied forests. Key words. Biodiversity, biologically valuable forests, lichenized fungus, monitoring the state of populations, population structure, Red data book, spruce.
33749Olech M. & Alstrup V. (1996): Dactylospora dobrowolskii sp. nov. and additions to the flora of lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Bunger Oasis, East Antarctica. - Polish Polar Research, 17: 165–168. https://journals.pan.pl/Content/110963/PDF/1996-3-4_165-168.pdf.
A lichenicolous fungus, Dactylospora dobrowolskii Olech et Alstrup, new to science is described. The paper reports on 9 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi collected in the Bunger Oasis (East Antarctica). Key words: Antarctic, Bunger Oasis, lichens, lichenicolous fungi, taxonomy, distribution, Dactylospora dobrowolskii sp. nov.
33748Zaady E., Stavi I. & Yizhaq H. (2021): Hillslope geodiversity effects on properties and composition of biological soil crusts in drylands. - European Journal of Soil Science, 72: 2308–2315. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.13097.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) play important roles in ecosystem functioning and are considered ecosystem engineers: stabilizing the soil surface, preventing soil erosion, changing soil surface hydrology, and enriching the soil with carbon and nitrogen. The link between geodiversity and biodiversity incorporates physical aspects from geology, geomorphology and pedology. We aimed to assess the effects of hillslope geodiversity on the cover, composition and biophysiological properties of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) in a dryland ecosystem. The geodiversity of the hillslope is determined by the stone cover on the ground surface, the content, stones in the soil profile, and the soil depth. It is known from the scientific literature that geodiversity affects biodiversity; thus, we hypothesized that the hillslope type may affect biocrust properties that develop on these hillslopes. The results indicate that the mean covers of biocrust types in the homogeneous (low geodiversity) hillslopes were 60.6% cyanobacterial crusts and 39.4% biocrusts composed of cyanobacteria, moss and lichens, whereas those of the heterogeneous (high geodiversity) hillslopes were 81.6% cyanobacterial crusts and 18.4% biocrusts composed of cyanobacteria, moss and lichens. It was concluded that geodiversity enhances the growth of biocrust species that require higher soil moisture. The results imply that wherever restoration activities are planned, and especially in drylands, the geodiversity of the area should be taken into account. Highlights: Geodiversity expressed by the degree of stoniness impacts ecosystem functioning and soil properties. Geodiversity impacts the biocrust's cover and composition. Geodiversity enhances the growth of biocrusts that require high soil moisture. Chlorophyll a, b and a + b in biocrusts are increased in heterogeneous hillslopes. Keywords: biocrust composition, bio-geodiversity, chlorophyll, dryland ecosystems.
33747Paz-Bermúdez G., Calvino-Cancela M., López de Silanes M.E. & Prieto B. (2021): Lichen saxicolous communities on granite churches in Galicia (NW Spain) as affected by the conditions of north and south orientations. - Bryologist, 124(3): 414–428. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.3.461.
Lichens constitute the largest organisms among the stone colonisers. Several studies have shown that lichen species and their traits respond to environmental changes, but none of them focused on saxicolous communities. Five granite Galician churches were studied to characterize the lichen saxicolous communities established in the four façades. In four of the churches two climatic stations were placed, on the N and the S façades. Sampling was also more systematic on N and S walls, as these tend to show the most extreme microclimatic characteristics: relatively cool and humid in the N vs. warm and dry in the S. We aimed at identifying the species and traits associated with these conditions, so as to predict the possible evolution over time in these communities in the prospect of further climate warming in the future. Climatic data were subjected to two-way analyses of variance (ANOVA). We computed species accumulation curves and species richness estimators with EstimateS, analysed the effect of the church, the aspect (N vs. S) and the position of sampling squares on the number of lichen species and on lichen abundance, and community composition in terms of species and lichen traits. Richness analysis showed that only orientation had a significant effect on the number of species present on the walls. Lichen cover was always higher in the N, but the difference was not significant, and only the church factor had a significant effect. Taxa characterizing the N façades were the two varieties of Haematomma ochroleucum, Ochrolechia parella, together with the lichen species with Trentepohlia as photobiont. On the S façades, the characteristic species were Candelariella vitellina and Lepra leucosora; there was a higher diversity of biotype, size and color; with a total absence of sorediate species or with Trentepohlia as photobiont. There was a clear difference between the lichen species requirements in sunlight and aridity on the N and S façades. We hypothesize that a warmer and more arid climate may result in an expansion of the S-dominant lichen species and/or lichen traits to the detriment of those N-dominant. Keywords: Lichen traits, cultural heritage, siliceous rocks, Europe, global warming.
33746Lendemer J.C. (2021): Recent literature on lichens—262. - Bryologist, 124(3): 461–466. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.3.461.
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33742Coleine C. & Selbmann L. (2021): Black fungi inhabiting rock surfaces. In: Büdel, B. & Friedl, T. (eds.), Life at rock surfaces: Challenged by extreme light, temperature and hydration fluctuations. - Berlin, Boston: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, pp. 57–86. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110646467-003.
The fungal kingdom includes millions of species [1], ranging from yeast to mushrooms, and represents one of the most diverse and ancient branches of the tree of life, being critical in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Based on current knowledge, nineteen phylum‐level clades can be defined, as reported by Wijayawardene et al. [2]. Fungi have a worldwide distribution because of their small size and their cryptic lifestyle in soil, and decomposing matter, as symbionts with algae, bryophyte, plants, and animals [3, 4]. They are found in every biome such as polar, temperate, and tro- pical environments, as well in the bottom of the Dead Sea, where they play an essen- tial role in global geological processes, namely, “geomycology,” including organic and inorganic transformations and element cycling, bioweathering, and mycogenic mineral formation [5]. Fungi are highly resilient and capable of successfully occupy- ing extreme environments. In contrast to the majority of fungi, which live more or less comfortably inside of hosts or substrates, black fungal lineages have evolved and adapted to thrive on bare naked rock surfaces in nutrient-deprived conditions and excessive radiation, among other challenging stressors. The phenotypes of these commonly called “black fungi” have evolved in different highly adapted and specialized lineages of ascomycetes; they are phylogenetically more diverse than previously thought and primarily belong to the classes Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Arthoniomycetes. This chapter will first provide an overview of the current understanding or RIF. We will then describe the diversity, taxonomy, occurrence, and ecology of black fungi colonizing both worldwide natural rocks and stone monuments, with a particu- lar focus on insights into the whole-genome sequencing approach. We will finally explore the future perspectives, including the biotechnological, bioremediation, and radioprotection potential
33741Bowker M.A., Rengifo‐Faiffer M.C., Antoninka A.J., Grover H.S., Coe K.K., Fisher K., Mishler B.D., Oliver M. & Stark L.R. (2021): Community composition influences ecosystem resistance and production more than species richness or intraspecific diversity. - Oikos, 130(8): 1399–1410. https://doi.org/10.1111/oik.08473.
Biodiversity describes the variety of life and may influence properties and processes of ecosystems, such as biomass production and resistance to disturbance. We investigated the effects of multiple facets of biodiversity – species richness and composition of the community, and intraspecific diversity in two key species – on both production and resistance of experimentally‐assembled biological soil crusts (biocrusts). We found that productivity was most strongly influenced by community composition (variation in the presence and relative proportions of community members), and weakly positively influenced by species richness. Intraspecific diversity, encompassing both the richness and composition of clones, had a neutral effect on community productivity within one focal species (Syntrichia caninervis), but a moderately negative effect on productivity within the other focal species (S. ruralis). Resistance was also most strongly influenced by community composition, although different sets of species contributed most to resistance and production. Resistance was not affected by either species richness or intraspecific diversity in either focal species. Our findings supported our general expectation that community‐level facets of biodiversity would be more influential than intraspecific diversity within a species because trait variability among species is usually greater than that within. These results also indicated that although species richness is often thought to strongly affect both productivity and resistance, the presence, absence and relative abundance of particular species may be more influential to both. Simultaneous manipulation of multiple facets of biodiversity in experiments may lead to a more complete understanding of the variety of ways in which biodiversity may regulate ecological systems. Keywords: biocrust; biodiversity; biological soil crust; ecosystem function and services; ecosystem stability; intraspecific diversity; lichen; moss; species richness.
33740Singh G., Calchera A., Schulz M., Drechsler M., Bode H.B., Schmitt I. & Dal Grande F. (2021): Climate‐specific biosynthetic gene clusters in populations of a lichen‐forming fungus. - Environmental Microbiology, 23(8): 4260–4275. https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15605.
Natural products can contribute to abiotic stress tolerance in plants and fungi. We hypothesize that biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), the genomic elements that underlie natural product biosynthesis, display structured differences along elevation gradients. We analysed biosynthetic gene variation in natural populations of the lichen‐forming fungus Umbilicaria pustulata. We collected a total of 600 individuals from the Mediterranean and cold‐temperate climates. Population genomic analyses indicate that U. pustulata contains three clusters that are highly differentiated between the Mediterranean and cold‐temperate populations. One entire cluster is exclusively present in cold‐temperate populations, and a second cluster is putatively dysfunctional in all cold‐temperate populations. In the third cluster variation is fixed in all cold‐temperate populations due to hitchhiking. In these two clusters the presence of consistent allele frequency differences among replicate populations/gradients suggests that selection rather than drift is driving the pattern. We advocate that the landscape of fungal biosynthetic genes is shaped by both positive and hitchhiking selection. We demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of climate‐associated BGCs and BGC variations in lichen‐forming fungi. While the associated secondary metabolites of the candidate clusters are presently unknown, our study paves the way for targeted discovery of natural products with ecological significance.
33739Keepers K.G., Pogoda C.S., Lendemer J.C., Kane N.C. & Manzitto‐Tripp E.A. (2021): Author response to Tagirdzhanova et al. (2021): “Lichen fungi do not depend on alga for ATP production: A comment on Pogoda et al. (2018)”. - Molecular Ecology, 30(17): 4160–4161. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.16053.
33738Tagirdzhanova G., McCutcheon J.P. & Spribille T. (2021): Lichen fungi do not depend on the alga for ATP production: A comment on Pogoda et al. (2018). - Molecular Ecology, 30(17): 4155–4159. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.16010.
Lichen fungi live in a symbiotic association with unicellular phototrophs and most have no known aposymbiotic stage. A recent study in Molecular Ecology postulated that some of them have lost mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and rely on their algal partners for ATP. This claim originated from an apparent lack of ATP9, a gene encoding one subunit of ATP synthase, from a few mitochondrial genomes. Here, we show that while these fungi indeed have lost the mitochondrial ATP9, each retain a nuclear copy of this gene. Our analysis reaffirms that lichen fungi produce their own ATP. Keywords: ATP synthase, ATP9, gene loss, mitochondrial genome, symbiosis.
33737Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2021): Находки новых и редких видов лишайников и лихенофильных грибов в Мурманской области [Findings of species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi new and rare for the Murmansk Region]. - Труды Карельского научного центра РАН [Transactions of the Karelian Research Centre of Russian Academy of Science], 2021/8: 61–69. DOI: 10.17076/bg1340.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Based on field research in the Murmansk Region in the past two years, twenty lichen species (Acolium karelicum, Bacidina inundata, Biatora chrysantha, B. efflorescens, Bryoria glabra, Hymenelia rhodopis, Lecanora albellula, L. anopta, L. cadubriae, Lecidea albohyalina, Lepraria elobata, L. jackii, Micarea melaena, M. misella, Rhexophiale rhexoblephara, Thelidium submethorium, Verrucaria hydrela, Xylographa pallens, X. trunciseda, Xylopsora caradocensis) and three lichenicolous fungi (Dactylospora deminuta, Homostegia piggotii, Raesaenenia huuskonenii) are reported as new to the biogeographic provinces Lapponia Tulomensis, Lapponia Imandrae, and Kuusamo. Three species – Homostegia piggotii, Thelidium submethorium, and Xylographa trunciseda are reported for the Murmansk Region for the first time. The globally rare hydrophilic lichen Thelidium submethorium was found on the southern shore of Lake Kuolajärvi (Kuusamo) on willow branches submerged in water. This is second finding of this species in Russia and the third in Northern Europe. Xylographa trunciseda was found on pine wood in the nature-monument area of regional significance “Pines at the northern limit of the distribution range” (Lapponia Tulomensis). Lichenicolous fungus Homostegia piggotii was recorded on Rakhmoiva Mountain (Kuusamo). The new records for the lichen Bryoria glabra in the vicinity of Polyarnye Zori town and the lichenicolous fungus Raesaenenia huuskonenii from Isokumpu locality, situated to the west of the Alakurtti settlement, represent their second detections in the Murmansk Region. Fifteen new species were found in the biogeographic province of Kuusamo, four species – in Lapponia Tulomensis, and two species – in Lapponia Imandrae. The species Lepraria jackii is new to the lichen flora of the Lapland Nature Reserve. Information about the localities, ecology and collection dates is presented for all the said species. The distribution of these species in the Murmansk Region and in adjacent territories is outlined. K e y w o r d s: lichens; lichenicolous fungi; rare species; new findings; diversity; distribution.
33736Galanty A., Popiół J., Paczkowska-Walendowska M., Studzińska-Sroka E., Paśko P., Cielecka-Piontek J., Pękala E. & Podolak I. (2021): (+)-Usnic acid as a promising candidate for a safe and stable topical photoprotective agent. - Molecules, 26(17): 5224 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26175224.
The study aimed to examine whether usnic acid—a lichen compound with UV-absorbing properties—can be considered as a prospective photoprotective agent in cosmetic products. Moreover, a comparison of two usnic acid enantiomers was performed to preselect the more effective compound. To meet this aim, an in vitro model was created, comprising the determination of skin-penetrating properties via skin-PAMPA assay, safety assessment to normal human skin cells (keratinocytes, melanocytes, fibroblasts), and examination of photostability and photoprotective properties. Both enantiomers revealed comparable good skin-penetrating properties. Left-handed usnic acid was slightly more toxic to keratinocytes (IC50 80.82 and 40.12 µg/mL, after 48 and 72 h, respectively) than its right-handed counterpart. The latter enantiomer, in a cosmetic formulation, was characterized by good photoprotective properties and photostability, comparable to the UV filter octocrylene. Perhaps most interestingly, (+)-usnic acid combined with octocrylene in one formulation revealed enhanced photoprotection and photostability. Thus, the strategy can be considered for the potential use of (+)-usnic acid as a UV filter in cosmetic products. Moreover, the proposed model may be useful for the evaluation of candidates for UV filters. Keywords: usnic acid; photoprotection; normal skin cells; octocrylene.
33735Matesanz M.C., Villa-Carvajal M., Linares J., Morante-Zarcero S., Sierra I., Barreno E., Catalá M. & Portolés M.T. (2021): Chemical characterization of the lichen-symbiont microalga Asterochloris erici and study of its cytostatic effect on the L929 murine fibrosarcoma cell Line. - Processes, 9(9):1509 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9091509.
New resources of food, pharmaceuticals or biotechnological products are needed. The huge biodiversity of aero-terrestrial lichen-symbiont microalgae belonging to the Chlorophyta group remains unexplored despite they present interesting features such as extreme stress tolerance and growth in water shortage. Appropriateness for human consumption demands the demonstration of the absence of toxic effects. In vitro biocompatibility of crude homogenates of axenic microalga Asterochloris erici, isolated from the lichen Cladonia cristatella, was analyzed after treatment of cultured L929 fibroblasts with different concentrations of microalgal homogenates. The microalgal protein content (37%) was similar to spirulina or soybean. Antioxidant capacity (10.6 ± 0.6 µmol TE/g WW) or phenolic content (7.5 ± 0.5 mg GAE/g DW) were high compared to Chlorella. The results show that crude homogenates of A. erici do not induce cytotoxicity but seem to have some cytostatic effect inducing slight cell cycle alterations and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase at the highest concentration. Carotenoid analysis demonstrates high contents of lutein (1211 µg/g microalga DW), a xanthophyll with antioxidant and cytostatic properties in vivo and high commercial added value. These findings confirm that Asterochloris erici can be suitable for the development of alimentary or pharmaceutical applications and further in vivo animal testing. The cytostatic effects should be further investigated for antitumor agents. Keywords: bioactivity; phytochemistry; cytostatic; cytotoxicity; microalga.
33734Contardo T., Gazzotti S., Ortenzi M.A., Vannini A. & Loppi S. (2021): Biological effects of air pollution on sensitive bioindicators: A case study from Milan, Italy. - Urban Science, 5(3): 64 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci5030064.
In this study, the physiological response of a sensitive lichen species (Evernia prunastri) exposed for three months in a complex urban area (Milan, Italy) was evaluated in order to verify if the air pollution abatement measures adopted over the years resulted in a suitable air quality for the survival of this sensitive species. Parameters investigated rely on the photosynthetic activity of the photobiont (Fv/Fm, PIabs, and OJIP curves), damage to mycobiont (membrane damage and antiradical activity), and the production of secondary metabolites involved in the protective functions of the organisms. Results showed that although air quality in Milan still suffers from heavy pollution from PM and NOx, the overall situation is not as severe as to induce the death of this sensitive biomonitor, at least in the short term. Nevertheless, the vital status of the samples exposed in the study area showed a significant impairment compared to that of samples exposed in a control area, indicating that the current air quality in Milan still prevents the optimal survival of E. prunastri. Keywords: lichens; secondary metabolites; ecophysiological parameters; air quality.
33733Яцына А.П. [Yatsyna A.P.] (2021): Лишайники и близкородственные грибы дубрав Петриковского района Гомельской области (Республика Беларусь) [Lichens and related fungi of oak forests of the Petrikovsky district, Gomel Region (Republic of Belarus)]. - Разнообразие растительного мира [Diversity of plant world], 2(9): 40–47. DOI: 10.22281/2686-9713-2021-2-40-47.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Based on studies of lichenbiota of oak forests of Petrikovsky district (Gomel Region, Republic of Belarus), carried out in 2021 in 10 localities, an annotated list, including 100 species of lichens and 5 species – related fungi, was compiled. Lichen Coenogonium luteum is published for the first time for Belarus; 16 species are new for the Gomel Region. Calicium adspersum, Chaenotheca chlorella, Hypotrachyna revolutа and Parmotrema stuppeum are included in the Red Data Book of Belarus and are presented for the first time for the Petrikovsky district. The indicator lichens of old-growth forests include 18 species. In all surveyed 10 localities, 31 species were noted. Keywords: biological diversity, Coenogonium luteum, new finds, indicator species, oak forests.
33732Cansaran‑Duman D., Eskiler G.G., Colak B. & Kucukkara E.S. (2021): Vulpinic acid as a natural compound inhibits the proliferation of metastatic prostate cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. - Molecular Biology Reports, 48: 6025–6034. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06605-5.
Background: Lichen secondary metabolites have drawn considerable attention in recent years due to the limitations of current treatment options. Vulpinic acid (VA) obtained from Letharia vulpina lichen species exerts a remarkable cytotoxic efect on diferent cancer types. However, the therapeutic efcacy of VA in metastatic prostate cancer (mPC) cells has not been investigated. In the present study, we aimed to identify VA-mediated cytotoxicity in PC-3 mPC cells compared with control cells. Methods and results: After identifying the cytotoxic concentrations of VA, VA induced apoptosis was analyzed by Annexin V, cell cycle, acridine orange and propidium iodide staining and RT-PCR analysis. Our fndings showed that VA signifcantly decreased the viability of PC-3 cells (p<0.01) and caused a considerable early apoptotic efects through G0/G1 arrest, nuclear blebbing and the activation of particularly initiator caspases. Conclusions: Therefore, VA may be a potential treatment option for mPC patients. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of VA-induced apoptosis with advanced analysis should be further investigated. Keywords: Prostate cancer · Vulpinic acid · Apoptosis · Lichens.
33731Vingiani G.M., Gasulla F., Barón-Sola Á., Sobrino-Plata J., Henández L.E. [recte Hernández L.E.] & Casano L.M. (2021): Physiological and molecular alterations of phycobionts of genus Trebouxia and Coccomyxa exposed to cadmium. - Microbial Ecology, 82: 334–343. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-021-01685-z.
Several studies on aeroterrestrial microalgae are unravelling their resistance mechanisms to different abiotic stressors, including hazardous metals, pointing to their future role as bioremediation microorganisms. In the present study, physiological and molecular alterations of four phycobionts of genus Trebouxia (T. TR1 and T. TR9) and Coccomyxa (C. subellipsoidea and C. simplex) exposed to Cd were studied. Cd accumulation and subcellular distribution, cell wall structure, production of biothiols (GSH and phytochelatins), reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, expression of key antioxidant genes and ROS-related enzymes were evaluated to determine the physiological differences among the four microalgae, with the aim to identify the most suitable microorganism for further biotechnological applications. After 7 days of Cd exposure, Coccomyxa algae showed higher capacity of Cd intake than Trebouxia species, with C. subellipsoidea being the highest Cd accumulator at both intracellular and, especially, cell wall level. Cd induced ROS formation in the four microalgae, but to a greater extent in both Coccomyxa algae. Trebouxia TR9 showed the lowest Cd-dependent oxidative stress probably due to glutathione reductase induction. All microalgae synthetized phytochelatins in response to Cd but in a species-specific and a dose-dependent manner. Results from this study agree with the notion that each microalga has evolved a distinct strategy to detoxify hazardous metals like Cd and to cope with oxidative stress associated with them. Coccomyxa subellipsoidea and Trebouxia TR9 appear as the most interesting candidates for further applications. Keywords: Biothiols . Bioremediation . Cadmium . Coccomyxa . Hazardousmetal . Lichen Microalgae . Trebouxia.
33730Pozo-Antonio J.S., Barreiro P., Paz-Bermúdez G., González P. & Fernandes A.B. (2021): Effectiveness and durability of chemical- and laser-based cleanings of lichen mosaics on schists at archaeological sites. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 163: 105276 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2021.105276.
Lichen mosaics on different-textured schists located in the Coa Valley (Portugal) and Siega Verde (Spain) archaeological sites were cleaned using different chemicals, namely ethanol (50% v/v in distilled water), benzalkonium chloride (3% v/v) or Biotin T® (3% v/v), and different Nd:YAG laser wavelengths (1064 nm or 266 nm). The surfaces were evaluated 24 h and 4 years after cleaning to determine its durability using colour spectrophotometry and Raman spectroscopy. Unlike lasers, chemicals achieved overall satisfactory results. Cleaning effectiveness, harmfulness and durability of chemicals were highly influenced by the orientation of the schistosity planes of the stone; in Siega Verde samples, the schistosity planes parallel to the surface contributed to a low impact of the methods on the surface colour and absence of lichen recolonization. Cleaning carried out upon the devitalization of lichens with benzalkonium chloride and Biotin T were maintained longer in both sites. Keywords: Rock art; Archaeology; Schist; Lichen; Biocide; Laser; Raman spectroscopy; Cleaning effectiveness.
33729Bower D.M., Yang C.S.C., Hewagama T., Nixon C.A., Aslam S., Whelley P.L., Eigenbrode J.L., Jin F., Ruliffson J., Kolasinski J.R. & Samuels A.C. (2021): Spectroscopic characterization of samples from different environments in a Volcano-Glacial region in Iceland: Implications for in situ planetary exploration. - Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 263: 120205 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.120205.
Raman spectroscopy and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are complementary techniques that together can provide a comprehensive characterization of geologic environments. For landed missions with constrained access to target materials on other planetary bodies, discerning signatures of life and habitability can be daunting, particularly where the preservation of organic compounds that contain the building blocks of life is limited. The main challenge facing any spectroscopy measurements of natural samples is the complicated spectra that often contain signatures for multiple components, particularly in rocks that are composed of several minerals with surfaces colonized by microbes. The goal of this study was to use the combination of Raman spectroscopy and LIBS to discern different environmental regimes based on the identification of minerals and biomolecules in rocks and sediments. Iceland is a terrestrial volcano-glacial location that offers a range of planetary analog environments, including volcanically active regions, extensive lava fields, geothermal springs, and large swaths of ice-covered terrain that are relevant to both rocky and icy planetary bodies. We combined portable VIS (532 nm) and NIR (785 nm) Raman spectroscopy, VIS micro-Raman spectroscopic mapping, and UV/VIS/NIR (200 – 1000 nm) and Mid-IR (5.6 – 10 μm, 1785 – 1000 cm−1) laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to characterize the mineral assemblages, hydrated components, and biomolecules in rock and sediment samples collected from three main sites in the volcanically active Kverkfjöll-Vatnajökull region of Iceland: basalt and basalt-hosted carbonate rind from Hveragil geothermal stream, volcanic sediments from the base of Vatnajökull glacier at Kverkfjöll, and lava from the nearby Holuhraun lava field. With our combination of techniques, we were able to identify major mineral polytypes typical for each sample set, as well as a large diversity of biomolecules typical for lichen communities across all samples. The anatase we observed using micro-Raman spectroscopic mapping of the lava compared with the volcanic sediment suggested different formation pathways: lava anatase formed authigenically, sediment anatase could have formed in association with microbial weathering. Mn-oxide, only detected in the carbonate samples, seems to have two possible formation pathways, either by fluvial or microbial weathering or both. Even with our ability to detect a wide diversity of biomolecules and minerals in all of the samples, there was not enough variation between each set to distinguish different environments based on the limited measurements done for this study. Keywords: Raman spectroscopy; LIBS; Biosignatures; Field spectroscopy; Astrobiology.
33728Gauslaa Y., Maslać Mikulec M. & Solhaug K.A. (2021): Short-term growth experiments – A tool for quantifying lichen fitness across different mineral settings. - Flora, 282: 151900 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2021.151900.
Lichens are frequently used as indicators of air-borne depositions, yet the differential effect of different mineral nutrients on lichen growth is still poorly understood. Here we quantify relative lichen growth rates (RGR) in representatives of three functional groups (chloro-, cephalo-, cyanolichens; Xanthoria parietina, Lobaria pulmonaria, Lobarina scrobiculata, respectively) placed in growth cabinets and subjected to eight fertilization regimes, i.e. four concentrations of NH4NO3 with and without the addition of other essential nutrients. After the experimental period of 14 days, we were able to document: (1) most N in the sprayed solutions that could fill the lichen's water holding capacity (WHC) was taken up, except for lower uptake in the cyanolichen at high N irrigation; (2) an increase in chlorophyll a (Chl a – a proxy of photosynthetic capacity) in the chlorolichen with increasing N irrigation; (3) a strong corresponding decline in Chl a in the cyanolichen; (4) unchanged Chl a in the cephalolichen; and (5) a decline in RGR in all species with increasing N irrigation. Addition of other essential nutrients significantly boosted RGR in all species, suggesting that N was not the most limiting element. We conclude that (1) short-term growth experiments can characterize lichens’ fitness in response to mineral nutrient deposition, and that (2) WHC contributes to lichens’ capacity to capture mineral nutrients from wet depositions. Keywords: Chlorophyll; Lichen symbiosis; Mineral nutrients; Nitrogen pollution; Nitrogen uptake; Relative growth rate.
33727Vannini A., Tedesco R., Loppi S., Di Cecco V., Di Martino L., Nascimbene J., Dallo F. & Barbante C. (2021): Lichens as monitors of the atmospheric deposition of potentially toxic elements in high elevation Mediterranean ecosystems. - Science of the Total Environment, 798: 149369 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149369.
In this study we used a terricolous lichen (Cetraria islandica) as bioaccumulator of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) to explore spatial patterns of air pollutant deposition along elevational gradients in the Majella Massif (Italy). Samples of C. islandica were collected at 200 m intervals along 6 transects from 1600 to 2600 m, both along the eastern and thewestern slope of theMajellamassif, and analyzed for their PTE content. The results supported the hypothesis that the deposition of PTEs to the Majella massif is largely influenced by elevation and slope. Two main patterns emerged connected either with local soil erosion and long-range atmospheric transport. For some PTEs, namely Al, Cr, Li, Mg, in the absence of any other data, it is supposed that the anthropogenic input is very small compared to the natural input fromweathering processes. In contrast, the group of air pollutants subjected to long-range transport, as in the case of Cd, Hg, and Pb, has very limited local input and the main sources responsible for the higher concentrations on the eastern slope are probably to be searched in the Balkan area. Highlights: • The lichen Cetraria islandica is a valid bioaccumulator of potentially toxic elements. • The deposition of potentially toxic elements is influenced by elevation and slope. • Soil erosion and long-range transport are the main inputs of airborne elements. Keywords: Air pollution; Biomonitoring; Cetraria islandica; Elevational gradient; Long-range atmospheric transport; Mediterranean mountains.
33726Szufa K.M., Mietelski J.W. & Olech M.A. (2021): Assessment of internal radiation exposure to Antarctic biota due to selected natural radionuclides in terrestrial and marine environment. - Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 237: 106713 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2021.106713.
The present article introduces data on natural radioactivity (40K, 230,232Th, 234,238U) in the Antarctic marine and terrestrial environment. Various biota samples were analysed due to internal exposure to 40K, 230,232Th, 234,238U. Activity concentration of 40K was the highest in both marine and terrestrial samples. Mean values of 40K activity concentration are 1340 Bq/kg and 370 Bq/kg for the marine and terrestrial samples respectively. 234U/238U ratios analysis revealed that sea waters and sea spray are the main source of the uranium in the terrestrial samples. Average 230,232Th, 234,238U activity concentrations in the Antarctic biota do not exceed 6 Bq/kg. Weighted internal dose rates are relatively low; they range from approximately 0.1 to 0.6 μGy/h. Statistically significant differences in radionuclide accumulation were discovered between the mosses and lichens. It may point to various mechanisms of the nutrient absorption from the environment by these organisms. Keywords: The Antarctic; Doses to biota; Potassium; Thorium; Uranium.
33725Goodenough U. & Roth R. (2021): Lichen 2. Constituents. - Algal Research, 59: 102356 [31 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2021.102356.
Lichens are slow-growing niche-constructing organisms that form a thallus via scripted symbiotic/mutualist relationships between fungi, algae, and bacteria. Here we use quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy (QFDEEM) to document the ultrastructure of the eukaryotic organisms and the extracellular matrix materials that are found in four lichens. Previous studies have shown that each thallus in a complex lichen consists of a central medullary layer containing aligned fungal hyphae. These medullary hyphae send lateral branches to an upper layer, some making contact with resident algae, and usually to a lower layer. As the thallus ages, such “regular” branches transform into acellular versions called “struts” and “honeycombs.” We conclude with a consideration of two materials that are synthesized and secreted by lichenized fungi: abundant secondary products/metabolites that often crystallize, and hydrophobin proteins that self-assemble into films. Keywords: Lichen; Ascomycete; Alga; Hydrophobin; Secondary products; Quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy.
33724Goodenough U. (2021): Erratum: Introduction to the lichen ultrastructure series. - Algal Research, 59: 102460 [3 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2021.102460.
33723Leavitt S.D., Hollinger J., Summerhays S., Munger I., Allen J. & Smith B. (2021): Alpine lichen diversity in an isolated sky island in the Colorado Plateau, USA—Insight from an integrative biodiversity inventory. - Ecology and Evolution, 11: 11090–11101. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.7896.
Lichens are major components of high altitude/latitude ecosystems. However, accurately characterizing their biodiversity is challenging because these regions and habitats are often underexplored, there are numerous poorly known taxonomic groups, and morphological variation in extreme environments can yield conflicting interpretations. Using an iterative taxonomic approach based on over 800 specimens and incorporating both traditional morphology-based identifications and information from the standard fungal DNA barcoding marker, we compiled a voucher-based inventory of biodiversity of lichen-forming fungi in a geographically limited and vulnerable alpine community in an isolated sky island in the Colorado Plateau, USA—the La Sal Mountains. We used the newly proposed Assemble Species by Automatic Partitioning (ASAP) approach to empirically delimit candidate species-level lineages from family-level multiple sequence alignments. Specimens comprising DNA-based candidate species were evaluated using traditional taxonomically diagnostic phenotypic characters to identify specimens to integrative species hypotheses and link these, where possible, to currently described species. Despite the limited alpine habitat (ca. 3,250 ha), we document the most diverse alpine lichen community known to date from the southern Rocky Mountains, with up to 240 candidate species/species-level lineages of lichen-forming fungi. 139 species were inferred using integrative taxonomy, plus an additional 52 candidate species within 29 different putative species complexes. Over 68% of sequences could not be assigned to species-level rank with statistical confidence, corroborating the limited utility of current sequence repositories for species-level DNA barcoding of lichen-forming fungi. By integrating vouchered specimens, DNA sequence data, and photographic documentation, we provide an important baseline of lichen-forming fungal diversity for the limited alpine habitat in the Colorado Plateau. These data provide an important resource for subsequent research in the ecology and evolution of lichens alpine habitats, including DNA barcodes for most putative species/species-level lineages occurring in the La Sal Mountains, and vouchered collections representing any potentially undescribed species that can be used for future taxonomic studies. Keywords: ASAP, DNA barcoding, La Sal Mountains, Rocky Mountains, vouchered collections.
33722 Урбанавичюс Г.П., Боровичев E.A. & Ершов В.В. [Urbanavichus G.P., Borovichev E.A. & Ershov V.V.] (2021): Криптогамные организмы – пионеры восстановления северотаежных лесов при снижении воздушного промышленного загрязнения [Cryptogamic organisms as pioneers of the northern taiga recovery affected under the conditions of lowered industrial air pollution]. - Лесоведение [Lesovedenie], 2021/2: 195–207. DOI: 10.31857/S0024114821020108.
[in Russian with English summary: ] The restoration process of the ground vegetation cover in the areas affected by the Severonikel Smelter in Monchegorsk, Murmansk Region is studied. Cryptogamic organisms are the first to colonize areas where the ground vegetation cover was destroyed as a result of industrial air pollution above the critical level. For the first time, lichen and bryophyte species with the highest tolerance to toxicity and capable of growing in the conditions of an anthropogenic desert have been determined. These are liverworts Isopaches bicrenatus, Nardia geoscyphus, Gymnocolea inflata, Solenostoma confertissimum and mosses Pohlia nutans and Dicranella cerviculata. It was found that colonization by pioneer lichen species, even those highly adapted to extreme concentrations of heavy metals (Stereocaulon leucophaeopsis and St. pileatum), requires a bryophyte sod layer as a substrate. In total, within the area directly affected by the copper and nickel smelter (1.7–10 km), 18 bryophyte species and 13 lichen species were found: in the anthropogenic desert (1.7–2.7 km), six and one species; in the anthropogenic wasteland (4–6.5 km), ten and five species; in the anthropogenic sparse woodland (7– 10 km), 15 and 11 species, respectively. Signs of ground cover recovery and a noticeable (by a factor of 2 to 3) increase in the diversity of the ground layer cryptogamic biota were observed at a distance of 6.5–10 km from the pollution source with a decrease in the deposition of sulfates by a factor of 2.5–3, of Ni by a factor of 17, and of Cu by a factor of 20. Keywords: Subarctic, northern taiga forests, pollution, biodiversity, recovery, lichens, bryophytes.
33721Урбанавичюс Г.П., Урбанавичене И.Н. & Головлёв А.А. [Urbanavichus G.P., Urbanavichene I.N. & Golovlev A.A.] (2020): О небольшой коллекции лишайников из ущелья р. Адыл-Су (Кабардино-Балкарская Республика) [About a small collection of lichens from the gorge Adyl-Su river (Kabardino-Balkar Republic)]. - Ботанический вестник Северного Кавказа [Botanical Herald of the North Caucasus], 2020/1: 66–72. DOI: 10.33580/2409-2444-2020-6-1-66-72.
[in Russian with English summary: ] Based on the results of field works by A.A. Golovlev in July 2017, data on new and noteworthy species for the lichen flora of the Prielbrusiy National Park are presented. The specimens were collected in the Adyl-Su River gorge, Elbrus district, Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria. In total 75 species from 44 genera are listed here with their localities and substrates, and novelties data. Eighteen species are new for the Prielbrusiy National Park, of which twelve were found for the first time in the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic (Aspicilia cf. laevata, Blastenia hungarica, Bryoria vrangiana, Cladonia cyathomorpha, Henrica melaspora, Lasallia rossica, Lecidea promiscens, Normandina pulchella, Parmelina tiliacea, Ramalina pollinaria, Rinodina trevisanii, Rusavskia sorediata). Henrica melaspora is reported for the first time for Caucasus, Cladonia cyathomorpha is new to the Russian Caucasus. Two species (Lecidea promiscens and Rinodina trevisanii) are reported for the first time for the Central Caucasus. The genus Henrica is reported as new to the Caucasus, and the genus Normandina is new for the lichen flora of Kabardino-Balkaria. Keywords: lichens, new findings, diversity, National Park, Caucasus.
33720Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichus G.P.] (2021): Tholurna dissimilis (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) в России [Tholurna dissimilis (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) in Russia]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 106(7): 683–687. DOI: 10.31857/S0006813621050069.
[in Russian with English summary: ] Tholurna dissimilis, a rare corticolous dwarf fruticose lichen with a specific ecology, was discovered in Russia for the first time since 1936 in the Sallatunturi Ridge in the southwestern part of the Murmansk Region. Tholurna has a specialized ecology occurring in extremely exposed habitats, on decaying twigs in the uppermost parts of low spruce trees growing above the tree-line. Information on all early findings of T. dissimilis in the territory of Russia is provided. For the first time, a complete description of the species in Russian, its ecology and distribution in Russia and the world are presented. Keywords: lichens, new finding, distribution, Murmansk Region.
33719Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2021): Находки новых и редких для Мурманской области видов лишайников [Findings of lichen species new and rare to Murmansk Region]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 106(8): 801–806. DOI: 10.31857/S0006813621080093.
[in Russian with English summary: ] Based on field research by the first author, nine rare and noteworthy lichen species from the Murmansk Region are recorded. Among them, five species, namely Bryonora castanea, Bryoria americana, B. kuemmerleana, B. vrangiana and Xylographa difformis are reported for the first time for the Murmansk Region. Gyalecta biformis and Schadonia alpina are found for the second time in Russia and the Murmansk Region. The information on the localities, ecology and distribution of all mentioned species is provided. Keywords: lichens, new findings, distribution, Murmansk region.
33718Tønsberg T., Gauslaa V., Haugan R., Holien H. & Timdal E. (1996): The Threatened Macrolichens of Norway - 1995. - Sommerfeltia, 23: 1–258. https://doi.org/10.2478/som-1996-0002.
On request from The Directorate for Nature Management (DN), Trondheim, a revised red list for Norwegian macrolichens is presented. The present list supersedes the preliminary list published by Direktoratet for naturforvaltning ( 1992) and includes 69 species of the currently known c. 430 species of macrolichens in Norway. The compiling of the list is mainly based on studies of relevant herbarium material in all major Fennoscandian herbaria of all species believed to be rare or endangered in Norway and on field work carried out on the localities in 1992-1994. Of 1938 known localities for threatened macrolichens in Norway, 1046 were investigated. Collema coccophorum and Leptogium britannicum are classified as extinct (Ex), 16 species as endangered (E), 11 as vulnerable (V), 9 as in need of monitoring (V+), 18 as rare (R), 5 as indeterminate (I), and 7 as insufficiently known (K). Parmeliopsis esorediata is assigned to category A (special responsibility). Special maps summarize the distribution of all species within each of the categories E, V, V+, and R. Norway has European responsibility for 18 species and Fennoscandian responsibility for 55 species of macrolichens. Among the species included in the red list, Norway has the only or the main population for several species on a Fennoscandian (55 species), European (18), or world-wide basis (1). Each species is described and discussed with respect to substrate and habitat preferences, threats, and status in Norway. For species known from more than five localities, maps indicate the status in each locality. A complete locality list is given for each species. Distributions in Fennoscandia, Europe and on a world-wide basis are briefly reviewed. Recommendations are given for conservation purposes. Threatened macrolichens are concentrated in deciduous forests and woodlands along the south western coast, old-growth spruce forests in central Norway, and old-growth boreal forests and agricultural landscapes in eastem Norway. Keywords: Air pollution, Biodiversity, Conservation, Forestry, Landuse changes, Lichens, Norway, Protection, Red list, Threats.
33717Huynh B.L.C., Nguyen T.T.L., Le H.H., Phan H.L., Pham N.K.T., Nguyen T.P. & Nguyen T.A.T. (2021): Triterpenoids and steroids from the lichen Ramalina peruviana Arch [sic!]. - Vietnam Journal of Chemistry, 598(4): 451–456. https://doi.org/10.1002/vjch.202000174.
Five known triterpenes, β-amyrone (1), isoarborinol acetate (2), hopane-6α,22-diol (3), hopane-22-ol (4), hopane-6α,16β,22-triol (5), along with two esgostane-type sterols, 5α,8α-esgosterol peroxide (6), brassicasterol (7) were isolated from the lichen Ramalina peruviana Ach. (Ramalinaceae). Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis and comparison with those reported in the literature. Except 2, this is the first time these compounds are reported in Ramalina genus. Keywords: Ramalina peruviana, triterpenes, esgostane-type sterols.
33716Vail C.A. & Walker A.K. (2021): Vertical zonation of some crustose lichens (Verrucariaceae) in Bay of Fundy littoral zones of Nova Scotia. - Northeastern Naturalist, 28(3): 311–326. https://doi.org/10.1656/045.028.0306.
Despite harsh conditions provided by wave action, salinity, UV exposure, and other pressures, lichens provide most of the substrate cover in the rocky littoral zone. We documented the vertical zonation and general ecology of several littoral members of the lichenized ascomycete family Verrucariaceae from 7 sites along Nova Scotia’s Bay of Fundy coast. We identified lichens morphologically and confirmed species using ITS rDNA barcoding to provide novel biodiversity data. We documented 8 lichens in Nova Scotia littoral zones, with all transects showing low lichen diversity and moderate evenness. Vertical zonation was not strongly correlated with mean low tide; a variety of biotic and abiotic factors likely affected the distribution of the few species determining lichen community composition in this region.
33715Ganyushkin D.A., Lessovaia S.N., Vlasov D.Y., Kopitsa G.P., Almásy L., Chistyakov K.V., Panova E.G., Derkach E. & Alekseeva A. (2021): Application of rock weathering and colonization by biota for the relative dating of moraines from the arid part of the Russian Altai mountains . - Geosciences, 11: 342 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11080342.
For the Altai Mountains’ region, especially the arid southeastern part of the Russian Altai, the data on glacier fluctuations in the Pleistocene and Holocene are still inconsistent. The study area was the Kargy River’s valley (2288–2387 m a.s.l.), a location that is not currently affected by glaciation and the glacial history of which is poorly studied. Field observations and geomorphological mapping were used to reveal the configuration of Pleistocene moraines. The relative dating method was applied to define the degree of weathering as an indicator of age. Three moraine groups of different ages (presumably MIS 6, MIS 4, and MIS 2) were identified based on a detailed investigation of their morphological features and the use of relative dating approaches. The latter were primarily based on weathering patterns. Data on the rock mineralogy, porosity, and specificity of biological colonization as an agent of weathering were obtained for the moraine debris. The studied moraines were composed of fine-grained schist, in which the specific surface area and fractality (self-similarity) were more developed in the older moraine. The growth of biota (crustose lichen and micromycetes) colonizing the rock surface led to rock disintegration and the accumulation of autochthonous fragments on the rock surface. Despite the fact that the initial stage(s) of moraine weathering affected by biota was fixed, the correlation trends of biota activity and moraine ages were not determined. Keywords: biota colonization; weathering; rock porosity; Pleistocene moraines; moraine relative dating.
33714Hofmeister J., Vondrák J., Malíček J., Palice Z. & Šoun J. (2021): Ochrana biodiverzity horských smrčin za kůrovcové kalamity – lišejníky v NPR Boubínský prales. - Živa, 4/2021: 157–161. .
popular paper on lichens in one of the oldest protected forest reserves - Boubín / Kubany; Czech Republic; old-growth spruce forests; indication organisms; bark beetle; forestry management
33713Nascimbene J., Gheza G., Hafellner J., Mayrhofer H., Muggia L., Obermayer W., Thor G. & Nimis P.L. (2021): Refining the picture: new records to the lichen biota of Italy. - MycoKeys, 82: 97–137. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.82.69027.
Based on the analysis of both historical and recent collections, this paper reports an annotated list of taxa which are new to the lichen biota of Italy or of its administrative regions. Specimens were identified using a dissecting and a compound microscope; routine chemical spot tests and standardized thin-layer chromatography (TLC or HPTLC). The list includes 225 records of 153 taxa. Twenty taxa are new to Italy, the others are new to one or more administrative regions, with 15 second records and 5 third records for Italy. Some of the species belong to recently-described taxa, others are poorly known, sterile or ephemeral lichens which were largely overlooked in Italy. Several species are actually rare, either because of the rarity of their habitats (e.g. old-growth forests), or because in Italy they are at the margins of their bioclimatic distribution. The picture of the lichen biota of Italy has now new pixels, but its grain is still coarse. Further analysis of historical collections, increased efforts in the exploration of some areas, and the taxonomic revision of critical groups are still necessary to provide more complete distributional data for new biogeographic hypotheses, taxonomic and ecological research, and biodiversity conservation. Keywords: Alps, biodiversity, floristics, herbarium specimens, rarity.
33712Joshi T., Sharma P., Joshi T., Pundir H., Mathpal S. & Chandra S. (2021): Structure‑based screening of novel lichen compounds against SARS Coronavirus main protease (Mpro) as potentials inhibitors of COVID‑19. - Molecular Diversity , 25: 1665–1677. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11030-020-10118-x.
The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 and deaths caused by it all over the world have imposed great concern on the scientifc community to develop potential drugs to combat Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). In this regard, lichen metabolites may ofer a vast reservoir for the discovery of antiviral drug candidates. Therefore, to fnd novel compounds against COVID-19, we created a library of 412 lichen compounds and subjected to virtual screening against the SARS-CoV-2 Main protease (Mpro). All the ligands were virtually screened, and 27 compounds were found to have high afnity with Mpro. These compounds were assessed for drug-likeness analysis where two compounds were found to ft well for redocking studies. Molecular docking, drug-likeness, X-Score, and toxicity analysis resulting in two lichen compounds, Calycin and Rhizocarpic acid with Mpro-inhibiting activity. These compounds were fnally subjected to molecular dynamics simulation to compare the dynamics behavior and stability of the Mpro after ligand binding. The binding energy was calculated by MM-PBSA method to determine the intermolecular protein–ligand interactions. Our results showed that two compounds; Calycin and Rhizocarpic acid had the binding free energy of −42.42 kJ mol/1 and −57.85 kJ mol/1 respectively as compared to reference X77 (−91.78 kJ mol/1). We concluded that Calycin and Rhizocarpic acid show considerable structural and pharmacological properties and they can be used as hit compounds to develop potential antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2. These lichen compounds may be a suitable candidate for further experimental analysis. Keywords: COVID-19 · Lichen COMPOUNDS · Main protease · Molecular docking · Molecular dynamics simulation.
33711Knudsen K. & Kocourková J. (2020): The real Acarospora socialis. - Bulletin of the California Lichen Society, 27(2): 41–46. .
Acarospora socialis is recognized as a coastal species from central California to Baja California in Mexico. Acarospora radicata is not recognized as a synonym of A. socialis. It is the common yellow squamulose species in the New Mexican, Mojave and Sonoran Deserts. Acarospora amabilis and A. rimulosa are not recognized as synonyms of A. socialis. Keywords: California distributions, Channel Islands, taxonomy.
33710Sahin E., Dabagoglu Psav S., Avan I., Candan M., Sahinturk V. & Koparal A.T. (2021): Lichen-derived physodic acid exerts cytotoxic and anti-invasive effects in human lung cancer. - Rendiconti Lincei. Scienze Fisiche e Naturali, 32: 511–520. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12210-021-00996-0.
Lichens can produce secondary metabolites with important biological activities such as antioxidants, antibacterial, etc. Physodic acid (PA) is an important lichen secondary metabolite. The anticancer activity of PA has been shown in many tumor types other than lung cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PA on A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. In this study, A549 lung cancer cell line was used. MTT and colony formation assays were used to evaluate cytotoxic effects of PA at 24, 48, and 72 h; hematoxylin–eosin staining and DAPI staining were used for determining cell and nucleus morphology, respectively, and wound healing assay was used for investigating cell migration. PA was shown to be cytotoxic in 24, 48, and 72 h by increasing concentrations. IC50 concentrations at 24, 48, and 72 h were found to be 382.0, 235.4, and 175.8 μM, respectively. PA was found to inhibit colony formation completely at non-toxic concentration. It was observed that PA disrupted cell and nuclear morphology and showed apoptotic activities by increasing concentrations. It was determined that non-toxic and higher concentrations of PA inhibited cell migration widely. In conclusion, PA was shown to have cytotoxic, apoptotic and cell migration inhibitory effects on A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Keywords: Lichen acids · Physodic acid · A549 cell line · Lung adenocarcinoma · Natural molecules.
33709Papierska K., Krajka-Kuźniak V., Paluszczak J., Kleszcz R., Skalski M., Studzińska-Sroka E. & Baer-Dubowska W. (2021): Lichen-derived depsides and depsidones modulate the Nrf2, NF-κB and STAT3 signaling pathways in colorectal cancer cells. - Molecules, 26: 4787 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26164787.
The study aimed to evaluate the possible modulation of Nrf2, NF-ĸB and STAT3 signaling pathways in the colorectal cancer (CRC) cells line DLD-1 and HCT116 by secondary metabolites of lichens. An attempt was made to indicate the most promising targets in these signaling pathways. Attention was also paid to the effects of the compounds tested on CRC cells using anakoinosis—that is, simultaneous analysis of several signaling pathways. The effects of the tested natural compounds on the activity of selected transcriptional factors related to CRC were analyzed by Western blot and RT-PCR assays. The highest activity against CRC cells was shown by physodic and salazinic acids from the studied secondary metabolites of lichens. As a result, an increase in the activation of transcription factor Nrf2 and the expression of its selected target genes was observed. Physodic and salazinic acids induced the opposite effect in relation to the NF-κB and STAT3 pathways. These results confirmed our earlier observations that lichen-derived compounds have the ability to modulate signaling pathway networks. While caperatic acid affected Wnt/β-catenin to the most extent, salazinic acid was the most potent modulator of Nrf2, NF-κB and STAT3 pathways. Physodic acid seemed to affect all the investigated pathways. Keywords: colorectal cancer; lichens; NF-κB; Nrf2; STAT3.
33708Romtveit L., Strand O., Mossing A., Kastdalen L., Hjeltnes A.W., Bjerketvedt D.K., Odland A. & Heggenes J. (2021): Optimal foraging by a large ungulate in an extreme environment: Wild mountain reindeer select snow-free feeding habitats in winter. - Ecology and Evolution, 11(5): 10409–10420. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.7843.
Optimal foraging models predict that individual animals will optimize net energy gain by intensifying forage activity and/or reducing forage energy cost. Then, the free distribution model predicts an animal's distribution in a patchy landscape will match the distribution of the resources. If not modified by other factors, such patterns may be expected to be particularly explicit in variable and extreme, forage-limited, and patchy environments, notably alpine and Arctic environments during winter. The large ungulate wild mountain reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) surviving in such environments is used as a model during the forage-limited winter season. The largest wild reindeer area in Western Europe (Hardangervidda, 8130 km2) is actively managed to sustain 10,000–12,000 wild reindeer. Since 2001, 104 different individuals have been GPS-tracked at 3-hr intervals. In winter, mountain reindeer may either choose to seek out and forage in patchy snow-free habitats, typically on top of wind-blown ridges, or use energy-demanding digging through the snow to reach ground forage (cratering). We use late April satellite data from Landsat 5 and 8 (30 × 30 m), airborne laser scanning subsampling (processed to 1 × 1 m grid), and topographic information (1 m resolution) derived from digital aerial photographs (0.25 × 0.25 m resolution) to delineate snow-free patches, constituting less than 694 km2. By overlaying recorded wild reindeer GPS positions winters 2001–2017 (188,942 positions), we document a strong positive selection for snow-free patches, which were used about four times more frequently than expected from a “random walk” model. On a daily basis, the preference for snow-free areas was slightly stronger in the evenings. In the sustainable management of wild mountain reindeer, the area of snow-free patches is an important predictor of winter forage availability and important winter source areas. It may be derived from remote sensing data.
33707Mejstřík V. (2014): Epifytické lišejníky středních Brd a Příbramského Podbrdska. - Erica, 21: 57–99. .
The paper presents the occurence of epiphytic lichens in central Brdy Mts and the adjacent area along their eastern edge (Central Bohemia, Czech Republic). In total, 78 lichen taxa were recorded in 440 localities. The data were used for bioindication study: five zones were defined for estimating air pollution within the studied region. Several localities were repeatedly monitored during three time intervals (1978–1980, 1992–1994, 2005–2007), thus, the changes in lichen flora composition are discussed. The distribution maps of several lichen taxa are included.
33706Scheidegger C. (2021): High alpine lichens. – In: Büdel, B. & Friedl, T. (eds.), Life at rock surfaces: Challenged by extreme light, temperature and hydration fluctuations. - Berlin, Boston: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, pp. 161–173. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110646467-006.
Mountain regions host an overproportionate fraction of global biodiversity, supporting an estimated one-third of terrestrial biological diversity. In alpine land- scapes, lichen diversity has often been reported to follow a unimodal distribution along altitudinal gradients with a midaltitudinal peak. In the European Alps, the montane belt includes the highest number of lichen species, but the mid altitu- dinal peak for rocks with a low calcareous content (saxicolous intermediate), terricolous and bryophilous species, and the growth form of umbilicate species peak at the subalpine belt. Alpine landscapes are strongly influenced by glacial oscillations during the Pleistocene and most prominently by the last glaciation. We hypothesize that Umbilicaria virginis, the only macrolichen restricted to the nival belt in the Alps, is a candidate species that survived the last glacial maximum on central alpine nunataks in the Alps and possibly also on ice-free peaks in other mountain systems. Survival on central alpine nunataks is also a likely hypothesis for a number of other alpine lichen species, including the rare saxicolous Lecanora diaboli and Lecanora freyi on rocks with a low content in carbonates, Lecanora concolor, and several lecideoid lichens on siliceous rocks. High alpine regions, including the nival belt, provide key habitats for extremophile lichen species that depend on cold climates, which are unavailable at lower altitudes. Nival regions of mountain systems are therefore important “museums” for a considerable number of lichens, many of them with boreal arctic-alpine distributions across diverse mountain systems. However, more studies are needed to test if high alpine and nival environments also act as “cradles” for lichen diversity, and immediate studies on threats and a possible decline of high alpine and nival lichens is needed to avoid that alpine and nival environments turn into “graves” because of the dra- matic retreat of glaciers and permanent snow due to climate change
33705Jung P. & Büdel B. (2021): Lichen as pioneers of rock surfaces. – In: Büdel, B. & Friedl, T. (eds.), Life at rock surfaces: Challenged by extreme light, temperature and hydration fluctuations. - Berlin, Boston: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, pp. 141–159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9783110646467-005.
Lichens can be understood as multiorganismic complex organisms with a symbiotic character that represents a self-sustaining ecosystem formed by the interaction of an exhabitant fungus (sometimes more) and an extracellular arrangement of one or more photosynthetic partners, as well as an indeterminate number of other microscopic organisms. Lichens are among the first microbial organisms colonizing barren sur- faces as, for example, rocks, where they have various benefits that make them supe- rior to other organisms and thus they are considered pioneers. Although the greatest proportion of lichens colonize the rock’s surfaces (saxicolous lichens), others prefer to colonize deeper structures underneath the rock’s surface (endolithic lichens), which interact with the lithomatrix. Here, we discuss the ecology of lichens as pioneers from various biomes, their adaptations to a life on rocks, and the succession of lichen com- munities and give insights into their interactions with the lithomatrix
33704Ossowska E., Guzow-Krzemińska B., Szymczyk R. & Kukwa M. (2021): A molecular re-evaluation of Parmelia encryptata with notes on its distribution. - Lichenologist, 53(4): 341-345. doi:10.1017/S0024282921000219.
Parmelia encryptata is morphologically and chemically identical to P. sulcata but genetically different (Molina et al. 2011), and despite similarities, these species are not closely related (Molina et al. 2017). Both P. encryptata and P. sulcata have adnate to loosely adnate thalli, lobes that are sublinear with a greyish upper surface with brown tips and laminal and marginal pseudocyphellae, rhizines simple to squarrose, and soralia that are laminal (Molina et al. 2011). When examining the specimens of P. encryptata from Poland, we found that rhizines were predominantly simple, and squarrose ones appeared only in the central parts of the thalli, whereas in P. sulcata they are usually squarrose in all thallus parts. The type of rhizine is an important feature that distinguishes another morphologically similar species, P. barrenoae, from P. sulcata s. str. (Divakar et al. 2005; Barreno & Herrera-Campos 2009; Hodkinson et al. 2010). Therefore, the abundance of squarrose in proportion to simple rhizines might be a diagnostic feature which is worth considering in the identi- fication of P. encryptata. However, we examined only two samples of the species, which were very young, thus more material needs to be studied to evaluate whether this character is diagnostic. Another feature that separates P. sulcata from P. barrenoae is the ontogeny and abundance of the soralia (Hodkinson et al. 2010; Ossowska & Kukwa 2016); however, in the case of P. encryptata, we have not observed any differences in comparison to P. sulcata. The new records of P. encryptata suggest that a certain degree of caution and critical evaluation should be exercised during Parmelia species identification, as rare species may be accidentally overlooked. Parmelia encryptata is a morphologically cryptic spe- cies that can only be identified by molecular techniques. This approach is also recommended for other Parmelia species (Divakar et al. 2016; Corsie et al. 2019). Our assumptions about the shape and abundance of the rhizines and the ecological requirements can be a good basis for further detailed research. Nevertheless, at this point there are too few comparative specimens and localities of the species to draw any far-reaching conclusions
33703Pentecost A. (2021): Estimates of abundance and biomass of cephalodia and their relationship to nitrogen deposition in some British populations of Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. - Lichenologist, 53(4): 335-339. doi:10.1017/S0024282921000281.
Internal cephalodia of Lobaria pulmonaria were examined in two British locations, one in western Scotland (Isle of Skye) and the other in England (Cumbria, Lake District), sites which were predicted to have contrasting levels of fixed nitrogen deposition. Cephalodia were found to occupy a small proportion of the total biomass averaging (<1%) in both areas. Modelled nitrogen deposition in the sites in Cumbria was 3–6 times higher than in the Skye sites but the cephalodium relative biomass was not significantly different. It is suggested that local climatic and topographic effects might have reduced the estimated rate of nitrogen deposition at the former sites. biomass, climate, lichen, nitrogen deposition, Nostoc
33702Wang W., Sangvichien E., Buaruang K., Jiang S., Wei T. & Wei J. (2021): A preliminary study of Badimia Vězda (Ramalinaceae) in East Asia. - Lichenologist, 53(4): 327-334. doi:10.1017/S002428292100013X.
The tropical areas of eastern Asia contain a high diversity of foliicolous lichens, including various species of the genus Badimia. Badimia xanthocampylidia W. C. Wang & J. C. Wei is described from tropical rainforests in southern China and Thailand based on morphology, chemistry, and combined mtSSU, ITS and nrLSU sequences. It is characterized by a pale green thallus with yellow verrucae and bright yellow campylidia and the presence of isousnic acid. Three other species, B. multiseptata Papong & Lücking, B. pallidula (Kremp.) Vězda and B. polillensis (Vain.) Vězda, are discussed and the genus Badimia is newly reported from China. A worldwide key to currently known species in the genus is presented. foliicolous lichens, ITS, mtSSU, new species, nrLSU
33701Kantvilas G., Suija A. & Motiejūnaitė J. (2021): Caloplaca tephromelae (Teloschistaceae), a new lichenicolous species from Tasmania. - Lichenologist, 53(4): 317-325. doi:10.1017/S0024282921000207.
Caloplaca tephromelae Kantvilas, Suija & Motiej., a lichenicolous species growing on saxicolous thalli of species of Tephromela, is described from Tasmania. The new species is characterized by lecanorine to zeorine apothecia with a whitish grey thalline margin devoid of anthra- quinone pigments, a non-inspersed hymenium, paraphyses without oil vacuoles and ascospores 10–14 × 5–8 μm, with a septum 5–8 μm thick. It is compared with selected taxa of Caloplaca s. lat. that share these salient features. Molecular data support the distinctiveness of the new species but do not suggest any obvious close relatives. Australia, biodiversity, lichens, Tephromela
33700Fryday A., Wheeler T. & Etayo J. (2021): A new species of Aspicilia (Megasporaceae), with a new lichenicolous Sagediopsis (Adelococcaceae), from the Falkland Islands. - Lichenologist, 53(4): 307-315. doi:10.1017/S0024282921000244.
The new species Aspicilia malvinae is described from the Falkland Islands. It is the first species of Megasporaceae to be discovered on the islands and only the seventh to be reported from South America. It is distinguished from other species of Aspicilia by the unusual secondary metabolite chemistry (hypostictic acid) and molecular sequence data. The collections of the new species support two lichenicolous fungi: Endococcus propinquus s. lat., which is new to the Falkland Islands, and a new species of Sagediopsis with small perithecia and 3-septate ascospores c. 18–20 × 4–5 μm, which is described here as S. epimalvinae. A total of 60 new DNA sequences obtained from species of Megasporaceae (mostly Aspicilia) are also introduced. DNA sequences, Endococcus, Lecanora masafuerensis, lichen, southern South America, southern subpolar region
33699Frolov I., Himelbrant D., Stepanchikova I. & Prokopiev I. (2021): Polycauliona comandorica, a new fruticulose species in the family Teloschistaceae from the Commander Islands, Russia. - Lichenologist, 53(4): 299-306. doi:10.1017/S0024282921000268.
A new fruticulose species, Polycauliona comandorica, is described from the supralittoral zone of the Commander Islands in the Russian Far East. This growth form is very rare in the family Teloschistaceae where the new species belongs. It is the only fruticulose species of the family that forms vegetative propagules (soredia and blastidia). Polycauliona comandorica is similar to the North American P. thamnodes but differs in having a lighter yellow to grey thallus, longer and thicker branches with a rough surface, soredia and blastidia, and in lacking apothecia. Two fruticulose-lobate pairs of species in Polycauliona are briefly discussed: P. comandorica-P. verruculifera and P. thamnodes-P. brattiae. Aleutian Arc, Ascomycota, Beringia, Caloplaca s. lat., Far East, Kamchatka Territory, ornithocoprophilous lichens
33698Elvebakk A. (2021): Gibbosporina cyanea (Pannariaceae), a new bipartite cyanolichen from Sri Lanka with comparisons to related palaeotropical cyanogenera. - Lichenologist, 53(4): 291-298. doi:10.1017/S002428292100027X.
Gibbosporina cyanea is described here as new to science, based on its holotype collected in Sri Lanka in the 1860s. The species is a bipartite cyanolichen in contrast to all other known Gibbosporina species, which are tripartites. The species appears to have evolved through cephalodia emancipation followed by divergence. Phyllidia indicate a cephalodiate evolutionary origin with a continued function similar to vegetative propagules. The species is considered to represent a relatively young speciation within an evolutionary old genus and G. sphaerospora is discussed as a possible candidate for being its closest known relative based on spore morphology. As the species appears to be so different from the remaining Gibbosporina species, it is compared here to representatives of other related palaeotropical cyanogenera, such as Leightoniella, Lepidocollema, Pannaria and Physma. Perispore structure is shown to be a useful character in separating these genera, including distinct clades of the non-monophyletic genera Physma and Lepidocollema. Leightoniella zeylanensis is reported here as new to Japan, and it is concluded that Pannaria lurida needs to be restudied in India and Sri Lanka. iodiversity, evolution, Palaeotropics, photobionts, taxonomy, tripartite lichens, vegetative propagation
33697Libby E. & Ratcliff W. (2021): Lichens and microbial syntrophies offer models for an interdependent route to multicellularity. - Lichenologist, 53(4): 283-290. doi:10.1017/S0024282921000256.
The evolution of multicellularity paved the way for significant increases in biological complexity. Although multicellularity has evolved many times independently, we know relatively little about its origins. Directed evolution is a promising approach to studying early steps in this major transition, but current experimental systems have examined only a subset of the possible evolutionary routes to multicellularity. Here we consider egalitarian routes to multicellularity, in which unrelated unicellular organisms evolve to become a multicellular organism. Inspired by microbial syntrophies and lichens, we outline three such routes from a system of different species to an interdependent relationship that replicates. We compare these routes to contemporary experimental systems and consider how physical structure, the threat of invasion, division of labour and co-transmission affect their evolution. division of labour, experimental evolution, major transitions, microbes, multicellularity, syntrophy
33696Kocakaya M. (2021): Didymocyrtis epiphyscia, Lichenochora weillii, and Lichenoconium xanthoriae newly recorded from Turkey. - Mycotaxon, 136: 523–528. https://doi.org/10.5248/136.523.
Three lichenicolous fungal species, Didymocyrtis epiphyscia, Lichenochora weillii, and Lichenoconium xanthoriae, are reported for the first time from Turkey. Comments on the taxonomy, ecology, and hosts and photographic illustrations are provided for each species.Key words—biodiversity, lichens, Lichenoconiaceae, Phaeosphaeriaceae, Phyllachoraceae.
33695Wilk K. (2021): Calogaya miniata comb. nov., Huneckia crocina comb. nov., and new neotropical records of Wetmoreana brouardii. - Mycotaxon, 136: 387–400. https://doi.org/10.5248/136.387.
New combinations Calogaya miniata and Huneckia crocina are proposed for species previously placed in Caloplaca s.lat., following the revised classification of Teloschistaceae. The taxonomy of Wetmoreana brouardii is discussed in relation to Caloplaca ochraceofulva, and its current world distribution is presented, including new records from Chile, Colombia, Peru, and Uruguay. Key words—lichenized Ascomycota, nomenclature, South America, Teloschistaceae.
33694Poengsungnoen V., Buaruang K., Boonpragob K. & Lumbsch H.T. (2021): A key to the identification of the genera of lichenized fungi occurring in Thailand. - Mycotaxon, 136: 409–444. https://doi.org/10.5248/136.409.
A key to the identification of the 258 genera of lichenized fungi in Thailand is presented. Species names are provided for genera for which only a single species has been recorded for Thailand. Recent available keys that include all species known from Thailand are referenced. The replacement name Ionaspis aptrootii is proposed for I. tropica Aptroot (non Riddle). Key words—biodiversity, lichens, Southeast Asia, tropics.
33693Marcano V. (2021): Siphula paramensis V. Marcano & L. Castillo (Icmadophilaceae, Lichenized Fungi), a new species from the high paramo in Venezuela. - Phytotaxa, 512(3): 169–178. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.512.3.4.
A new species of the genus Siphula is described from the Cordillera de Merida and Sierra La Culata in the Venezuelan Andes: Siphula paramensis V. Marcano & L. Castillo sp. nov. This species closely resembles Siphula subsimplex V. Marcano from the Guayana Highlands. Siphula paramensis differs by its very small thallus, obovoid or globuliform lobes, ochre-coloured, yellowish or whitish gray (in older thalli) surface, rugose, rounded and entire apices having usually reticulated lines, less thick cortex and shorter rhizines; the thalli are K–, C+ yellow, and P+ yellow in the cortex, and contain baeomycesic and squamatic acids. This is the Siphula species that grows at the highest altitude in Venezuela. It is considered to be endemic to the Venezuelan Andes. Key words: lichen, new species, endemic species, Venezuelan Andes.
33692Vicol I. (2020): Multi-aged forest fragments in Atlantic France that are surrounded by meadows retain a richer epiphyte lichen flora. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 41(15): 235–247. https://doi.org/10.5252/cryptogamie-mycologie2020v41a15.
This project was focused on identifying the effect of environmental factors on epiphytic lichen species by using a multiscale design applied within multi-aged forest fragments. The field investigations were performed within 20 forest fragments, of which 14 were surrounded by crops and six were surrounded by meadows. Sampling units of 10 by 10 m were selected from the exterior to the interior of each forest fragment following the perimeter line; other sampling units were selected following the same perimeter line to the centre of the forests. The spatial gradient represented by the exterior and interior parts of the forest fragments, surrounding matrix and forest structure (i.e., the presence of larger trees) significantly supported patterns of lichen abundance and diversity. Lichen abundance and diversity were significantly influenced by microhabitat and macrohabitat drivers on the relatively large trees in the forest fragments surrounded by both crops and meadows. Lichen species replacement was significantly described by both larger and thinner trees situated in the interior and at the exterior of the forest fragments surrounded by meadows. The lichen richness was significantly higher on larger trees situated in the interior of the forest fragments surrounded by meadows. The mature structure of forests and the surrounding matrix significantly determined the pattern of epiphytic lichen species. Furthermore, larger and thinner trees harbour very rare lichen species within forest fragments surrounded by both crops and meadows. Forest management practices based on selective cutting on a short rotation cycle did not exert a negative impact on epiphytic lichen. Key words: Larger trees, lichen diversity, lichen abundance, surrounding matrix, thinner trees, tree species.
33691de Lange P.J. (2021): An update on Lecanora kohu (Lecanoraceae)—new locations and a review of its conservation status. - Trilepidea, 209: 5–9. .
33690Zhang T., Liu M., Wang Y.-Y., Wang Z.-J., Wei X.-L. & Wei J.-C. (2017): Two new species of Endocarpon (Verrucariaceae, Ascomycota) from China. - Scientific Reports, 7: 7193 [11 p.]. DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-07778-5.
Endocarpon species are key components of biological soil crusts. Phenotypic and systematic molecular analyses were carried out to identify samples of Endocarpon collected from the southeast edge of the Tengger Desert in China. These morphological and molecular analyses revealed two previously undescribed species that form highly supported independent monophyletic clades within Endocarpon. The new taxa were named Endocarpon deserticola sp. nov. and E. unifoliatum sp. nov. Furthermore, our results indicated that the newly developed protein coding markers adenylate kinase (ADK) and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme h (UCEH) are useful for assessing species boundaries in phylogenic analyses.
33689Sargsyan R., Gasparyan A., Tadevosyan G. & Panosyan H. (2021): Antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of non‑cytotoxic extracts of corticolous lichens sampled in Armenia. - AMB Express, 11: 110 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13568-021-01271-z.
Due to wide range of secondary metabolites, lichens were used from antiquity as sources of colorants, perfumes and medicaments. This research focuses on exploring the antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of methanol, ethanol, acetone extracts and aqueous infusions of corticolous lichens sampled from Armenia. Methanol, ethanol and acetone extracts from all tested lichens were active against Gram-positive bacterial strains. The most effective solvent to retrieve antimicrobial compounds was methanol. Aqueous infusions of tested lichens didn’t show any significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. The highest antimicrobial activity was observed for methanol extract of Ramalina sinensis. The minimum inhibitory concentration of methanol extract of Ramalina sinensis were 0.9–1.8 mg mL− 1. Pseudevernia furfuracea demonstrated antifungal activity (Ø 12 mm). Methanol extract of Parmelia sulcata demonstrated largest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (71 %). The cytotoxicity was measured on human HeLa (cervical carcinoma) cell lines using microculture tetrazolium test assay. The IC50 values estimated for methanol extracts of Peltigera praetextata, Evernia prunastri, Ramalina sinensis and Ramalina farinacea species in HeLa cell line were within 1.8–2.8 mg mL− 1 and considered as non-cytotoxic. Obtained results suggest that studied lichens can be prospective in biotechnologies as alternative sources of antimicrobial and antioxidant substances. Keywords: Lichens, Crude extracts, Antimicrobial activity, Antioxidant activity, Cytotoxic activity.
33688Lendemer J.C. & Keepers K.G. (2021): Bacidia depriestiana (Ramalinaceae), a new species from the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. - Bryologist, 124(3): 362–375. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.3.362.
Bacidia depriestiana is described as new to science based on material from the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. The species has a granular to minutely areolate thallus, with minute, erumpent soralia, produces atranorin and zeorin, and is not known to produce apothecia. The combination of chemistry and thallus type appears to be unique within the genus. Originally identified as Lecanora nothocaesiella, the species was recognized as distinct in conjunction with study of a large metagenomic dataset for lichens from the region. In connection with obtaining molecular loci use for phylogenetic placement of the material, the mitochondrial genome was assembled, found to be 38,546 bp in length, and encoded for the full suite of protein coding genes previously found in lichen fungi, with the exception of atp9. Keywords: Asexual reproduction, biodiversity, collection bias, endemism, granule, molecular phylogeny, soredia.
33687Habib K., Zulfiqar R. & Khalid A.N. (2021): Additions to the lichen genus Rhizocarpon in Pakistan and their comparative analysis. - Webbia, 76(1): 123–134. doi: 10.36253/jopt-9889.
As part of a comprehensive study of lichen diversity of northern areas of Pakistan using molecular and morphological approaches, we found four species of the genus Rhizocarpon. The analysis revealed two new species in the lichen biota of Pakistan namely, Rhizocarpon lavatum and Rhizocarpon petraeum, while the other two, Rhizocarpon disporum and Rhizocarpon geminatum are reported for the second time, from new localities. In comparison to literature information and GenBank sequences of the same taxa, variation in the morpho-anatomical features and nucleotide differences in the ITS marker of nrDNA have been documented. Descriptions and phylogenetic analysis of the taxa are given, along with information on ecology and distribution. Keywords: Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Lichens, Rhizocarpaceae, Taxonomy.
33686Muhoro A.M. & Farkas E.É. (2021): Insecticidal and antiprotozoal properties of lichen secondary metabolites on insect vectors and their transmitted protozoal diseases to humans. - Diversity, 13(8): 342 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13080342.
Since the long-term application of synthetic chemicals as insecticides and the chemotherapy of protozoal diseases have had various negative effects (non-target effects, resistance), research on less harmful biological products is underway. This review is focused on lichens with potential insecticidal and antiprotozoal activity. Literature sources (27) were surveyed from five bibliographic databases and analyzed according to the taxonomic group of the insect, the protozoal disease and the lichen, the type of bioactive compounds (including method of application and mount applied), and the potential bioactivity based on mortalities caused after 24 h of exposure on insects and on parasitic protozoa. Six species of protozoa and five species of mosquitoes, three kinds of larval stages of insects and three protozoa stages were tested. Insecticidal and antiprotozoal effects of crude extracts and seven lichen secondary metabolites (mostly usnic acid) of 32 lichen species were determined. Physiological and morphological changes on parasitic protozoa were observed. Mortality rates caused by LSMs on insect vectors closer to (or somewhat above) the WHO threshold were considered to be insecticides. The results are based on laboratory experiments; however, the efficacy of metabolites should be confirmed in the field and on non-human primates to control the insect vectors and human protozoal diseases transmitted by insects. Keywords: antiprotozoal; bioactivity; insect bite; human illnesses; human infections; insecticidal; larvicidal; lichens; literature survey; secondary substances.
33685Dal Forno M., Lawrey J.D., Sikaroodi M., Gillevet P.M., Schuettpelz E. & Lücking R. (2021): Extensive photobiont sharing in a rapidly radiating cyanolichen clade. - Molecular Ecology, 30: 1755–1776. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.15700|.
Recent studies have uncovered remarkable diversity in Dictyonema s.lat. basidiolichens, here recognized as subtribe Dictyonemateae. This group includes five genera and 148 species, but hundreds more await description. The photobionts of these lichens belong to Rhizonema, a recently resurrected cyanobacterial genus known by a single species. To further investigate photobiont diversity within Dictyonemateae, we generated 765 new cyanobacterial sequences from 635 specimens collected from 18 countries. The ITS barcoding locus supported the recognition of 200 mycobiont (fungal) species among these samples, but the photobiont diversity was comparatively low. Our analyses revealed three main divisions of Rhizonema, with two repeatedly recovered as monophyletic (proposed as new species), and the third mostly paraphyletic. The paraphyletic lineage corresponds to R. interruptum and partnered with mycobionts from all five genera in Dictyonemateae. There was no evidence of photobiont-mycobiont co-speciation, but one of the monophyletic lineages of Rhizonema appears to partner predominantly with one of the two major clades of Cora (mycobiont) with samples collected largely from the northern Andes. Molecular clock estimations indicate the Rhizonema species are much older than the fungal species in the Dictyonemateae, suggesting that these basidiolichens obtained their photobionts from older ascolichen lineages and the photobiont variation in extant lineages of Dictyonemateae is the result of multiple photobiont switches. These results support the hypothesis of lichens representing "fungal farmers," in which diverse mycobiont lineages associate with a substantially lower diversity of photobionts by sharing those photobionts best suited for the lichen symbiosis among multiple and often unrelated mycobiont lineages. Keywords: fungi, lichens, pantropic, species interactions, symbiosis.
33684Vaez M. & Davarpanah S.J. (2021): New insights into the biological activity of lichens: bioavailable secondary metabolites of Umbilicaria decussata as potential anticoagulants. - Chemistry and Biodiversity, 18: e2100080 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202100080.
This study reports the in vitro anticoagulation activity of acetonic extract (AE) of 42 lichen species and the identification of potential bioavailable anticoagulant compounds from Umbilicaria decussata as a competent anticoagulant lichen species. Lichens’ AEs were evaluated for their anticoagulant activity by monitoring activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) assays. A strong, positive correlation was observed between total phenolics concentration (TPC) of species and blood coagulation parameters. U. decussata was the only species with the longest clotting time in both APTT and PT assays. The research was moved forward by performing in vivo assays using rats. The results corroborated the dose-dependent impact of U. decussata’s AE on rats’ clotting time. Major secondary metabolites of U. decussata and their plasma-related bioavailability were also investigated using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Atranol, orsellinic acid, D-mannitol, lecanoric acid, and evernic acid were detected as possible bioavailable anticoagulants of U. decussata. Our findings suggest that U. decussata might be a potential anticoagulant lichen species that can be used for the prevention or treatment of coagulation-related issues such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Keywords: Umbilicaria decussata, clotting time, natural products, metabolic profiling, biological activity. .
33683Wu H.-X., Ren W.-B., Li X.-H. & Yang Z.-X. (2021): A new species of foliicolous lichenized fungi from southwest China: Calopadia ruiliensis sp. nov.. - Turkish Journal of Botany, 45: 371–377. doi:10.3906/bot-2101-32.
Calopadia ruiliensis, found on living leaves in southwest China, is described as a new species, based on morphology and phylogenetic analysis. It is characterized by a foliicolous thallus with yellow greenish to creamy yellow color, rounded apothecia with nonpruinose to thinly pruinose disc, a dark olive-green hypothecium and black-brown subhymenium, and 1-spored asci producing muriform ascospores. Phylogenetic analysis of LSU sequence data shows that the new species clusters in the genus Calopadia with high bootstrap support. The new species is compared with closely related and similar species of Calopadia and a comprehensive description and micrographs are provided. Key words: Pilocarpaceae, new taxon, morphology, phylogeny, taxonomy.
33682Jeong M.-H., Park C.-H., Kim J.A., Choi E.D., Kim S., Hur J.-S. & Park S.-Y. (2021): Production and activity of cristazarin in the lichen-forming fungus Cladonia metacorallifera. - Journal of Fungi, 7(8): 601 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7080601.
Lichens are a natural source of bioactive compounds. Cladonia metacorallifera var. reagens KoLRI002260 is a rare lichen known to produce phenolic compounds, such as rhodocladonic, thamnolic, and didymic acids. However, these metabolites have not been detected in isolated mycobionts. We investigated the effects of six carbon sources on metabolite biosynthesis in the C. metacorallifera mycobiont. Red pigments appeared only in Lilly and Barnett’s media with fructose at 15 °C after 3 weeks of culture and decreased after 6 weeks. We purified these red pigments using preparative-scale high performance liquid chromatography and analyzed them via nuclear magnetic resonance. Results indicated that 1% fructose-induced cristazarin and 6-methylcristazarin production under light conditions. In total, 27 out of 30 putative polyketide synthase genes were differentially expressed after 3 weeks of culture, implying that these genes may be required for cristazarin production in C. metacorallifera. Moreover, the white collar genes Cmwc-1 and Cmwc-2 were highly upregulated at all times under light conditions, indicating a possible correlation between cristazarin production and gene expression. The cancer cell lines AGS, CT26, and B16F1 were sensitive to cristazarin, with IC50 values of 18.2, 26.1, and 30.9 μg/mL, respectively, which highlights the value of cristazarin. Overall, our results suggest that 1% fructose under light conditions is required for cristazarin production by C. metacorallifera mycobionts, and cristazarin could be a good bioactive compound. Keywords: Cladonia metacorallifera; cristazarin; lichen bioresource; polyketide synthase (PKS) genes; secondary metabolites.
33681Svensson M. & Owe-Larsson B. (2021): Synonymizations and lectotypifications of some lecideoid lichens (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes) described from Finland or Sweden. - Nordic Journal of Botany, 39(7): e03236 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/njb.03236.
Between 1850 and 1950, hundreds of lecideoid lichen-forming fungi were described from Fennoscandia, mainly in the genus Lecidea. The status of many of these species is still uncertain and some have not been revised since their description. We examined types and nomenclature of nine such lecideoid taxa, and found that they represent synonyms of earlier described species: Bacidia dolera (= Lecidea albofuscescens), Lecidea aviaria (= Rhizocarpon richardii), L. cavernarum (= Porpidia soredizodes), L. cuculi (= Schaereria fuscocinerea), L. frustulenta (= Micarea subnigrata), L. ivalensis (= Carbonea vorticosa), L. melaphanoides (= Scoliciosporum intrusum), L. mustialensis (= L. albofusces-cens) and L. submilvina (= Miriquidica leucophaea). In addition, we examined types and nomenclature of three synonyms of Lecanora cadubriae: Biatora admixta, B. pinicola and Lecidea subinsequens. Lectotypes are designated for the basionyms Biatora admixta Th.Fr., Biatora pinicola Th.Fr. ex Hellb., Lecidea cuculi Vain., Lecidea fuscocinerea Nyl., Lecidea ivalensis Vain., Lecidea melaphanoides Nyl. and Lecidea subinsequens Nyl.bKeywords: Fennoscandia, fungi, lichens, nomenclature, taxonomy.
33680Martins C.C., de Abreu-Mota M.A., do Nascimento M.G., Dauner A.L.L., Lourenço R.A., Bícego M.C. & Montone R.C. (2021): Sources and depositional changes of aliphatic hydrocarbons recorded in sedimentary cores from Admiralty Bay, South Shetland Archipelago, Antarctica during last decades. - Science of the Total Environment, 795: 148881 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148881.
Organic biomarkers, as aliphatic hydrocarbons, are present in sedimentary organic matter and have been largely applied to the evaluation of recent environmental changes in the marine environment around the globe, including the Antarctic continent. Five sediment cores were taken in the Admiralty Bay, South Shetland Archipelago, Antarctica to evaluate changes in the signature of aliphatic hydrocarbons such as n-alkanes (n-C10 to n-C40) and isoprenoids as pristane and phytane, over the last decades. The total n-alkanes concentration ranged from 0.17 to 1.67 μg g−1 (mean = 0.74 ± 0.42) which is considered low and similar to pristine sediments. Aliphatic hydrocarbons present in the sedimentary pool came mostly from terrestrial sources as Antarctic lichens and mosses, and frommarine sources as the macroalgae forest debris and emergent macrophytes. Anthropogenic inputs of aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g., petroleum and their by-products) may be neglected based on the multiproxy approach used to distinct sources of these organic compounds. In general, no significant changes in the sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons were observed along the sediment cores; however, an increased aliphatic hydrocarbons input registered between 1975 and 1992 may be related to the increase in meltwater runoff and the relatively high abundance of marine producers more adapted to increased sea temperatures. Keywords: Sediments; n-Alkanes; Pristane; Phytane; Organic matter; Proxies; King George Island. Highlights: • Aliphatic hydrocarbons were studied in sediment cores from a marine Antarctic region. • Lichens, mosses, macroalgae forest debris and macrophytes are main sources of n-alkanes. • Meltwater runoff contributed to the increased n-alkanes input between 1975 and 1992. • Petroleum and related sources inputs may be neglected based on the multiproxy applied.
33679Goodenough U., Wagner R. & Roth R. (2021): Lichen 4. The Algal Layer. - Algal Research, 58: 102355 [53 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2021.102355.
A lichen is a slow-growing niche-constructing organism that forms a thallus via scripted symbiotic/mutualist relationships between fungi, algae, and bacteria. Here we use quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy (QFDEEM) and light microscopy to probe a hallmark lichen construction wherein clusters of algae and hyphae, inter-connected by wall-to-wall junctions, form stable consortia that we call green modules. These assemble in the pseudo-meristem and then localize to the algal layer of the thallus. In the foliose lobes of Candelaria concolor, the cells in each module are enveloped in a continuous 10-nm-thick film of hydrophobin proteins, which binds to wall and matrix surfaces on its hydrophilic side and faces air or water on its hydrophobic side. We document patterned relationships between modules and associated cords of hyphae destined for the outer layers, and propose ways that these relationships could form the structural foundation for water and air regulation within foliose lobes. Keywords: Lichen; Ascomycete; Alga; Green module; Hydrophobin; Fungal secondary products; Quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy.
33678Kakeh J., Gorji M., Mohammadi M.H., Asadi H., Khormali F., Sohrabi M. & Eldridge D.J. (2021): Biocrust islands enhance infiltration, and reduce runoff and sediment yield on a heavily salinized dryland soil. - Geoderma, 404: 115329 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2021.115329.
Salinity and sodicity are major forms of land degradation in drylands worldwide, reducing soil function, and threatening pastoral livelihoods. Dryland soils are often dominated by biocrusts, surface aggregations of lichens, bryophytes, fungi and other minute organisms that stabilize surface soils. Biocrusts could have a role in maintaining hydrological functions in heavily salinized areas, but there have been few studies, and the mechanisms are poorly understood. We tested whether biocrust mosses and lichens enhanced infiltration, and reduced runoff and sediment yield, on biocrusted islands scattered among extensive patches of bare highly saline soils in northeaster Iran. Biocrusted soils had greater cumulative infiltration and hydraulic conductivity, less runoff, which commenced later, and lower sediment yields than bare soils. The water content of biocrusted soils was greater than bare soils, but only at low matric potentials. Biocrusted surfaces were alkaline, more sandy, had lower levels of sodium, chloride, and calcium-plus-magnesium ions, and a lower sodium absorption ratio than bare soils. Structural equation modelling showed that increasing salinity was associated with a suppression of the negative effect of biocrusts on runoff. Potential mechanisms for reduced runoff likely relate to enhanced soil aggregation and porosity of biocrusted soils leading to greater retention of soil water content at low matric potentials, as well as an ability of mosses and lichens to capture and store surface water or to permit infiltration into the uppermost surface layers. Overall, our findings reveal a strong association between moss- and lichendominant biocrusts and soil hydrological processes, and suggest that these crusts play an important role in maintaining hydrological function in heavily salinized soils. Keywords: Biological soil crusts; Hydrological function; Runoff; Sediment yield; Soil salinity.
33677Agnelli A., Corti G., Massaccesi L., Ventura S. & D’Acqui L.P. (2021): Impact of biological crusts on soil formation in polar ecosystems. - Geoderma, 401: 115340 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2021.115340.
We tested the impact of biological soil crusts (BSC) at different degrees of development on soil formation in Polar ecosystems, specifically in two Arctic sites, Svalbard Island (Norway) and Tarfala (Sweden), and in an Antarctic site, Apostrophe Island (Victoria Land). In each site, slightly developed BSC (thin and made by green algae and cyanobacteria associations – SD-BSC) highly developed BSC (thick and dominated by green algae and cyanobacteria associations with/without mosses and/or lichens – HD-BSC), and moderately developed BSC (MD-BSC) with intermediate characteristics between the slightly and the highly developed, were sampled together with the AC and A horizons immediately under the crust. After separating the organic residue of the biocrust from the mineral phase by density fractionation, in the heavy fractions obtained from HD-BSC, MD-BSC and SD-BSC we determined the amount of soil organic carbon and its radiocarbon natural abundance, total nitrogen content, mineralogical assemblage by x-ray diffraction, and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) by infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). We found that when BSC were able to develop on stable ice-free surfaces, they modified the soil by supplying new organic substances. These new substances, in addition to diluting the old C inherited from the substrate and darkening the upper mineral horizon, promoted acidification, which is responsible for mineral weathering and neogenesis of clay minerals. With their development, BSC act as ecosystem engineers and promote soil formation in Polar ecosystems by increasing soil stability, organic matter content and nutrient availability, which indirectly improve aggregation, water holding capacity, and soil heating. Keywords: Gelisols; Biocrusts; Soil organic C; Weathering; Radiocarbon; Infrared photoacoustic spectrometry (FTIRPAS).
33676Looney C.E., D’Amato A.W. & Jovan S. (2021): Investigating linkages between the size-growth relationship and drought, nitrogen deposition, and structural complexity in western U.S. Forests. - Forest Ecology and Management, 497: 119494 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2021.119494.
Understanding how stand structure responds to stresses such as drought and pollution could aid forest managers in evaluating silvicultural treatment success, predicting treatment durability, and designing adaptive management approaches. The size-growth relationship (SGR), a measure of growth partitioning among different size trees in a stand, may provide a means of linking stresses impacting individual trees to forest stand development and growth. No study to date has tested SGR’s response to drought and pollution, specifically N deposition, across landscapes. We combined Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) stand development and plot-level lichen bioindicator data on N deposition with climate data denoting moisture availability. Using linear regression, we examined SGR, stand structural complexity, individual tree growth and mortality in largely multi-aged, mixed species stands in California, Oregon, and Washington, USA, coniferous and pine-oak forests. Our goals were to determine a) the influence of moisture availability and/or N deposition on SGR, b) whether SGR translates to differences in stand structural complexity over time, and c) the extent to which SGR mediates the impacts of abiotic stress on tree growth and mortality. Consistent with previous research, our results indicated that SGR increased with stand density, indicative of larger trees possessing a disproportionate advantage in aboveground competition for light. SGR declined linearly with stand age, trending over time towards disproportionately slow large-tree growth. SGR strongly increased with low-moderate bioindicated N deposition, which is consistent with past findings that SGR increases with site quality and suggests that N deposition disproportionately increases growth in larger trees. We did not find evidence that drought stress (as indicated by the Palmer Drought Severity Index) influenced SGR. Stands that were already more structurally complex showed further gains in complexity under high SGR (disproportionately rapid large-tree growth), whereas stands that were initially structurally simpler increased in complexity under low SGR (disproportionately slow large tree growth). As such, individualtree growth and mortality may drive changes in complexity. Our results support the utility of SGR as a predictor of how stress impacts stand structure, but only when accounting for initial structural complexity. Our findings also have implications for the design and durability of silvicultural treatments, given that silvicultural prescriptions often involve the manipulation of tree size distributions. Moreover, these findings underscore the importance of accounting for the historical influence of N deposition on stand development during treatment planning, as well as the likelihood of socioeconomic changes altering N deposition in the future. Keywords: Growth dominance; Climate change; Air pollution; Competition symmetry; Structural heterogeneity; Lichen bioindicator.
33675McCann E., Reed S.C., Saud P., Reibold R.H., Howell A. & Faist A.M. (2021): Plant growth and biocrust-fire interactions across five North American deserts. - Geoderma, 401: 115325 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2021.115325.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are communities predominately comprised of lichens, bryophytes, fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria that form at the soil surface in dryland ecosystems worldwide. Biocrusts can influence the vascular plant community by altering surface hydrology, nutrient cycling, and the availability of microsites suitable for germination. Fire frequency has increased in many dryland systems, but the potential impacts of fire on biocrust-plant interactions remains unclear. Our study explores how biocrusts and the heating associated with fire affect plant growth across five North American desert sites: the Chihuahuan, Colorado Plateau, Great Basin, Mojave, and Sonoran. Using field-collected biocrusts and mineral soil samples from each of these five deserts, we investigated soil biogeochemical differences and the implications of soil heating and biocrust cover on greenhouse grown Elymus elymoides plants. Results showed plant biomass and leaf production were largely determined by the desert where soils originated, and that the soils collected from the Great Basin site, whether heated or not, were generally higher in nutrients and distinct from the other North American desert sites. In contrast, the Chihuahuan site was lower in nutrients and plant biomass growth compared with the other desert sites. In the short term, biocrusts and heating did not significantly affect the biogeochemical profile of individual desert site soils. However, biocrusts and soil heating positively influenced plant growth, and the combination of these factors influenced plants more strongly than either factor considered separately. These findings highlight the importance of biocrusts in mediating resources and suggest additional mechanisms through which fire may alter or accentuate dynamics between biocrusts and vascular plants. Keywords: Biological soil crusts; Drylands; Ecosystem recovery; Great Basin; First order fire effects; North American deserts; Plant biomass; Elymus elymoides.
33674Chaparro M.A.E. (2021): Airborne particle accumulation and loss in pollution-tolerant lichens and its magnetic quantification. - Environmental Pollution, 288: 117807 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117807.
Pollution-tolerant lichens are recognized ecological indicators of air pollution in cities, which can also collect airborne anthropogenic particles in their tissues. Harmful (sub)micron-sized magnetites are a ubiquitous component of air particle pollution, adversely impacting human health. In this work, in situ magnetic susceptibility κis of well-characterized ultrafine magnetite and lichen thalli were measured to quantify the amount of airborne magnetic particles (AMP) after calibration and to assess the lichen’s decontamination over time. Up to 2850 magnetic measurements were carried out in twenty-nine transplanted lichens (collected in urban and clean areas) from winter 2020 to winter 2021. Before the transplants, their initial κis values were 0.23–9.45 × 10
33673Dietrich M., Krekeler M.P.S., Kousehlar M. & Widom E. (2021): Quantification of Pb pollution sources in complex urban environments through a multi-source isotope mixing model based on Pb isotopes in lichens and road sediment. - Environmental Pollution, 288: 117815 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117815.
Despite a growing focus on anthropogenic toxic metal pollution in urban environments, few studies have addressed the problem of quantification when more than two pollution sources are likely present, particularly within complex urban settings in the United States (U.S.). In this study, we utilize the MixSIAR package in R for source apportionment based on Pb isotopic signatures in lichen and road sediment in two urban-industrial centers in SW Ohio (OH). We show that ranges of pollutant contributions are more useful than only visualizing mean or raw values of source apportionment, because this avoids overinterpretation of data when certain sources have a large range of uncertainty. We point out both the dominance of industrial pollution as well as the legacy of leaded gasoline pollution in typical mid-sized U.S. cities, which is evident in both road sediment and lichens. Leaded gasoline contribution to Pb in Middletown, OH lichens mostly vary between ~10 and 25%, while in Hamilton, OH the contribution to lichens and road sediment tends to be relatively negligible except for two road sediment samples and one lichen sample, where median contributions are ~20–30%. Industrial combustion pollution source contributions vary between ~25 and 75% in Hamilton, and ~50–100% in Middletown, OH. Furthermore, comparing pollution sources in lichens to modern particulate matter can provide a record of how pollutant sources change over time, such as our traffic lichen (Sample Li-9) plotting closer to leaded gasoline on a bivariate mixing diagram than modern traffic particulate matter, or our coke plant lichen containing slightly less Pb contribution from industrial combustion sources relative to modern coke plant particulate matter. Lastly, when applicable, multi-source mixing models should be complimented in future studies with additional isotopic source tracers such as Cu, Zn, Nd, and Os to further elucidate unique sources of metal pollutants in addition to Pb. Keywords: Pb isotopes; Pollution source apportionment; MixSIAR; Urban pollution; Road dust; Lichens.
33672Pino-Bodas R. & Stenroos S. (2021): Global biodiversity patterns of the photobionts associated with the genus Cladonia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota). - Microbial Ecology, 82: 173–187. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-020-01633-3.
The diversity of lichen photobionts is not fully known. We studied here the diversity of the photobionts associated with Cladonia, a sub-cosmopolitan genus ecologically important, whose photobionts belong to the green algae genus Asterochloris. The genetic diversity of Asterochloris was screened by using the ITS rDNA and actin type I regions in 223 specimens and 135 species of Cladonia collected all over the world. These data, added to those available in GenBank, were compiled in a dataset of altogether 545 Asterochloris sequences occurring in 172 species of Cladonia. A high diversity of Asterochloris associated with Cladonia was found. The commonest photobiont lineages associated with this genus are A. glomerata, A. italiana, and A. mediterranea. Analyses of partitioned variation were carried out in order to elucidate the relative influence on the photobiont genetic variation of the following factors: mycobiont identity, geographic distribution, climate, and mycobiont phylogeny. The mycobiont identity and climate were found to be the main drivers for the genetic variation of Asterochloris. The geographical distribution of the different Asterochloris lineages was described. Some lineages showed a clear dominance in one or several climatic regions. In addition, the specificity and the selectivity were studied for 18 species of Cladonia. Potentially specialist and generalist species of Cladonia were identified. A correlation was found between the sexual reproduction frequency of the host and the frequency of certain Asterochloris OTUs. Some Asterochloris lineages co-occur with higher frequency than randomly expected in the Cladonia species. Keywords: Asterochloris . Lichens . Specificity . Symbiosis . Trebouxiophyceae.
33671Lyanguzova I.V. (2021): Airborne heavy metal pollution and its effects on biomass of ground vegetation, foliar elemental composition and metabolic profiling of forest plants in the Kola Peninsula (Russia). - Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 68, Suppl. 1: S140–S149. DOI: 10.1134/S1021443721070086.
In this work a quantitative estimation of biomass accumulation in the ground cover of pine forests of northern taiga in the background area of the Kola Peninsula (Russia) and in the territory of the buffer and impact zones of non-ferrous metallurgical plant, producing air emissions containing sulfur dioxide and polymetallic dust, was carried out. It was found that under the influence of airborne pollution in the first place the moss–lichen layer is destroyed with elimination of sensitive species of mosses and lichens; the structure of biomass changes and both the total stock of aboveground biomass and stocks of individual components decrease. The results of studying the elemental composition of dominant species of plants (Vaccinium myrtillus L., V. vitis-idaea L., V. uliginosum L., Empetrum hermaphroditum Hagerup), mosses (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt.) and lichens (Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouza et Vĕzda) of northern taiga forests revealed an imbalance in their mineral nutrition. Using metabolomic analysis, the macroprofile of the component composition of the secondary metabolites in the leaves of 3 species of the Vaccinium genus was characterized, the specificity of the composition of metabolites in each studied species was revealed. Despite the reduction in atmospheric emissions by Severonickel Combine, the restoration of the ground cover in pine forests is inhibited (buffer zone) or it cannot even begin (impact zone) due to the high level of soil contamination with heavy metals. The mineral nutrition of higher plants, mosses and lichens is disturbed: as one approaches the source of pollution, the accumulation of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Co, Fe) increases; their ratio changes; the content of micro- (Mn) and essential macroelements (Ca, Mg) decreases in the leaves of the dwarf shrubs and the moss. The changes in the metabolite profiles of the leaves of the genus Vaccinium are due to both the plant species and the level of airborne pollution. Keywords: Vaccinium genus, Empetrum hermaphroditum, Pleurozium schreberi, Cladonia stellaris, heavy metals, airborne technogenic pollution, biomass, mineral composition, metabolic profiling, northern pine forests, Kola Peninsula.
33670Trindade D.P.F., Pärtel M., Carmona C.P., Randlane T. & Nascimbene J. (2021): Integrating dark diversity and functional traits to enhance nature conservation of epiphytic lichens: a case study from Northern Italy. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 30: 2565–2579. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-021-02211-w.
Mountains provide a timely opportunity to examine the potential effects of climate change on biodiversity. However, nature conservation in mountain areas have mostly focused on the observed part of biodiversity, not revealing the suitable but absent species—dark diversity. Dark diversity allows calculating the community completeness, indicating whether sites should be restored (low completeness) or conserved (high completeness). Functional traits can be added, showing what groups should be focused on. Here we assessed changes in taxonomic and functional observed and dark diversity of epiphytic lichens along elevational transects in Northern Italy spruce forests. Eight transects (900–1900 m) were selected, resulting in 48 plots and 240 trees, in which lichens were sampled using four quadrats per tree (10 × 50 cm). Dark diversity was estimated based on species co-occurrence (Beals index). We considered functional traits related to growth form, photobiont type and reproductive strategy. Linear and Dirichlet regressions were used to examine changes in taxonomic metrics and functional traits along gradient. Our results showed that all taxonomic metrics increased with elevation and functional traits of lichens differed between observed and dark diversity. At low elevations, due to low completeness and harsh conditions, both restoration and conservation activities are needed, focusing on crustose species. Towards high elevations, conservation is more important to prevent species pool losses, focusing on macrolichens, lichens with Trentepohlia and sexual reproduction. Finally, dark diversity and functional traits provide a novel tool to enhance nature conservation, indicating particular threatened groups, creating windows of opportunities to protect species from both local and regional extinctions. Keywords: Biodiversity conservation · Climate change · Crustose · Functional diversity · Macrolichens · Species pool.
33669Huynh B.L.C. (2021): A new diphenyl ether from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum . - Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 57(4): 667–669. DOI 10.1007/s10600-021-03446-3.
A new diphenyl ether, named praesorether P (1), was isolated from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale. Its chemical structure was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis including HR-ESI-MS and NMR as well as comparison with previously published data. Keywords: Parmotrema praesorediosum, diphenyl ether, praesorether.
33668Rabahi‑Touloum N., Brara A. & Dessandier D. (2021): Weathering patterns of the hard grey‑striped limestone in the typical Mediterranean climate of northeastern Algeria at the Roman city of Djemila. - Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 80: 6003–6022. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-021-02344-w.
The ancient ruins of Djemila, located in northeastern Algeria, represent the most important Roman archaeological site in North Africa. Originally named “Cuicul” in 96 or 97 A.D./C.E. when the Roman emperor Nerva built and established it as a Roman colony, Djemila (“beautiful” in Arabic) has been included on the UNESCO World Heritage list since 1982. The primary research objective at these ruins was to explain the major decay patterns observed, and the related processes affecting the hard grey-striped limestone widely used in the construction of the city. Mineralogical, petrophysical, and mechanical tests were performed on samples of this limestone collected from both the ancient city and the original quarry using different tools (XRD, XRF, SEM-EDX, etc.) and methods. Results obtained show that this stone has a high compressive strength with very low porosity and capillary absorption. The linear thermal coefficient showed a marked difference between the matrix and the veinlet of the same sampled stone. Hence, exposure over many centuries to strong climatic variations due to the typical Mediterranean climate of Northeastern Algeria naturally resulted in the characteristic yet spectacular decay patterns exhibited on the stone, namely cracks, fractures, contour scaling, large fragmentation, and delamination, as well as orange patina and lichens. The main effective parameters involved are temperature variations (thermal gradient), along with the wet–dry cycles resulting from climatic changes, and insolation decay due to the extreme radiant energy. These factors work in conjunction with the heterogeneity of the stone (presence of the calcite veinlets on the matrix) causing a fatigue phenomenon which, in turn, catalyzes deterioration patterns. Keywords: Djemila · Stone decay · Micritic limestone · Mediterranean climate.
33667Hintz L., Fischer D., Ferrari N. & Crisafulli C.M. (2021): Vegetation dynamics under residual large trees following a volcanic eruption in a Valdivian temperate rainforest. - Plant Ecology, 222: 915–931. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-021-01151-3(0123456789.
Airborne volcanic ejecta (tephra) can strongly influence forest ecosystems through initial disturbance processes and subsequent ecological response. Within a tephra-disturbed forest, large trees may promote plant growth and create favorable sites for colonization. Three primary ways trees can influence posteruption vegetation response include: (1) amelioration of volcanic substrates, (2) providing source propagules from the tree or from associated epiphytes, and (3) sheltering understory vegetation, thereby increasing the rate of recovery near tree bases. Here, we evaluate Valdivian temperate rainforest understory vegetation responses in close proximity to large trees that survived the 2015 eruption of Calbuco Volcano. Understory vegetative cover was higher near the base of trees for mosses, many epiphytes, and some herbaceous, shrub, and trees species. However, significant interactions with year of measurement, and individualistic responses by many species made generalizations more difficult. Shrubs and trees in particular demonstrated patterns of recovery that were frequently independent of distance. In some cases, percent cover of colonizing vegetation actually increased away from trees by 2019. The soil surface was similarly variable where bare soil cover was associated with locations proximal to tree bases, but material shed from living and dead standing vegetation increased wood and litter abundances on the soil surface away from the base of trees. Soils near trees had lower pH, elevated organic matter, and higher nitrogen and carbon. Our results support the assertion that in this temperate rainforest ecosystem large trees may provide important early refugia for vegetative regrowth following a tephra-fall event with altered edaphic conditions. Nevertheless, individualistic dynamics of different species and growth forms suggest the influence of large trees on nearby understory plants is more complex than a simple facilitative model might suggest. Keywords: Calbuco Volcano;  Chile;  Patagonia; Tephra;  Disturbance ecology;  Vegetation.
33666Aoussar N., Achmit M., Es‑sadeqy Y., Vasiljević P., Rhallabi N., Mhand R.A., Zerouali K., Manojlović N. & Mellouki F. (2021): Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and antistaphylococcal activities of Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach., Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf. and Ramalina farinacea (L.) Ach. from Morocco. - Archives of Microbiology, 203: 2887–2894. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-021-02288-5.
The purpose of this work was to assess chemical composition, antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus isolates from catheter-associated infections and antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of three lichens collected from Morocco. The phytochemical analysis of the methanol extracts of these lichens was performed by HPLC–UV method, the predominant phenolic compounds were evernic acid, physodalic acid and usnic acid for Evernia prunastri, Pseudevernia furfuracea and Ramalina farinacea, respectively. Total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid content of all extracts were also determined. As a result, Pseudevernia furfuracea extract had the strongest effect and the highest phenolic compounds content. All extracts showed antibacterial activity against all tested strains (MIC values ranging from 0.078 to 0.625 mg/mL), the strongest inhibition was obtained with the extract of Evernia prunastri. Keywords: Antioxidant activity · Antibacterial activity · Evernia prunastri · Pseudevernia furfuracea · Ramalina farinacea · Staphylococcus aureus.
33665Saini K.C., Bast F., Nayaka S. & Gautam A.K. (2021): Morpho‑molecular characterization of rock‑inhabiting lichen Dermatocarpon miniatum (Verrucariaceae, Ascomycota) and its symbiont in Indian Himalayas. - Nucleus, 64: 193–202. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13237-021-00349-0.
The genus Dermatocarpon (Verrucariaceae) is a rock-inhabiting lichen, mostly grows along the edges of lakes, rivers, streams, and watercourses. Dermatocarpon species are widely distributed from the tropics to the polar regions. In present study, D. miniatum samples were collected from the Indian Himalayas; the mycobiont and their photobionts are identified using morphological and molecular methods. The ITS rDNA markers was amplified for the DNA extracted from cultured photobiont isolates and mycobiont. The light and confocal laser scanning microscope were used for morphological evaluation of the photobionts. The nuclear ITS rDNA gene of the mycobionts and photobionts were sequenced to confirm identity. The phylogenetic trees of mycobionts and photobionts were constructed using the Maximum likelihood method that revealed an evolutionary affinity of lichen D. miniatum and photobiont Diplosphaera chodatii with similar taxa. The D. chodatii (Trebouxiophyceae) was associated with all samples of D. miniatum. This study concludes that Diplosphaera chodatii is the primary photobiont associated with D. miniatum. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of diversity for the photobiont associated with D. miniatum from India. Keywords: Diplosphaera · ITS rDNA · Mycobionts · Phylogeny · Symbionts.
33664Lechat C., Gardiennet A. & Fournier J. (2017): First report of a lichenicolous species of Hypomyces (Hypocreaceae), H. peltigericola sp. nov.. - Ascomycete.org, 9(2): 23–26. https://ascomycete.org/Portals/0/Archives/AscomyceteOrg%2009-02%2023-26.pdf.
Hypomyces peltigericola sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on material collected in France on thalli of the lichen Peltigera canina. In culture the ascospores yielded a cladobotryum-like asexual morph that was sequenced. The placement of this new species in the aurofusarin-group of the genus Hypomyces is based on the combination of morphological characters of sexual and asexual morphs as well as the comparison of its ITS rDNA sequence with those of this group available in GenBank. Keywords: Ascomycota, aurofusarin, Hypocreales, ribosomal DNA, taxonomy.
33663Etayo J. (2018): Hongos liquenícolas de las islas Azores. I. Terceira. - Ascomycete.org, 10(3): 107–116. https://ascomycete.org/Portals/0/Archives/AscomyceteOrg%2010-03%20107-116.pdf.
A total of 66 different lichenicolous fungi have been found in Terceira (Azores Islands) of which 55 have been named at least to genus. A new species is described: Arthonia albotrachynae on Hypotrachyna endochlora. A further 20 species are recorded first time in the Azores islands. Keywords: Arthonia, new species, taxonomy.
33662van den Boom P.P.G. & Etayo J. (2017): Further interesting lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Fuerteventura, Canary Islands (Spain), with three new species and notes on Mixtoconidium. - Ascomycete.org, 9(4): 124–134. https://ascomycete.org/Portals/0/Archives/AscomyceteOrg%2009-04%20124-134.pdf.
Fifty-two taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Fuerteventura (Canary Islands) are presented as a result of recent fieldwork. For each taxon, information about habitat and substrata is given. Forty-seven species are newly recorded from the island, including the rare lichenicolous fungi Arthonia follmanniana and Stigmidium epistigmellum, the latter previously only known from America, and three new species described here: Lecania euphorbiae, Staurothele alboterrestris and Stigmidium seirophorae. The new combination Variospora fuerteventurae is proposed for Caloplaca fuerteventurae. In a revision of the genus Mixtoconidium the new combinations Mixtoconidium insidens and M. nashii are proposed. Keywords: biodiversity, Macaronesia, mycoflora, new records, taxonomy.
33661van den Boom P.P.G., Sipman H.J.M., Divakar P.K. & Ertz D. (2018): New or interesting records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Suriname, with descriptions of eight new species. - Ascomycete.org, 10(6): 244–258. https://ascomycete.org/Portals/0/Archives/AscomyceteOrg%2010-06%20244-258.pdf.
Altogether 193 taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are reported from Suriname of which many are new records for the country. These include eight species which are described as new to science: Bacidia fellhaneroides, B. multicarpa, B. surinamensis, Bactrospora ochracea, Cryptolechia submyriadella, Graphis triseptata, Lasioloma pauciseptatum and Zwackhiomyces parmotrematis. notes on morphology, chemistry and ecology are given. Keywords: biodiversity, chemistry, ecology, lichenized Ascomycetes, South America, taxonomy.
33660Popovici V., Bucur L., Vochita G., Gherghel D., Mihai C.T., Rambu D., Calcan S.I., Costache T., Cucolea I.E., Matei E., Badea F.C., Caraiane A. & Badea V. (2021): In vitro anticancer activity and oxidative stress biomarkers status determined by Usnea barbata (L.) F.H. Wigg. dry extracts. - Antioxidants, 10(7): 1141 [27 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10071141.
Lichens represent an important resource for common traditional medicines due to their numerous metabolites that can exert diverse pharmacological activities including anticancer effects. To find new anticancer compounds with fewer side effects and low tumor resistance, a bioprospective study of Usnea barbata (L.) F.H. Wigg. (U. barbata), a lichen from the Călimani Mountains (Suceava county, Romania) was performed. The aim of this research was to investigate the anticancer potential, morphologic changes, wound healing property, clonogenesis, and oxidative stress biomarker status of four extracts of U. barbata in different solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate), and also of usnic acid (UA) as a positive control on the CAL-27 (ATCC® CRL-2095™) oral squamous carcinoma (OSCC) cell line and V79 (ATCC® CCL-93™) lung fibroblasts as normal cells. Using the MTT assay and according to IC50 values, it was found that the most potent anticancer property was displayed by acetone and ethyl acetate extracts. All U. barbata extracts determined morphological modifications (losing adhesion capacity, membrane shrinkage, formation of abnormal cellular wrinkles, and vacuolization) with higher intensity in tumor cells than in normal ones. The most intense anti-migration effect was established in the acetone extract treatment. The clonogenic assay showed that some U. barbata extracts decreased the ability of cancer cells to form colonies compared to untreated cells, suggesting a potential anti-tumorigenic property of the tested extracts. Therefore, all the U. barbata extracts manifest anticancer activity of different intensity, based, at least partially, on an imbalance in antioxidant defense mechanisms, causing oxidative stress. View Full-Text Keywords: Usnea barbata dry extracts; usnic acid; CAL-27 cancer cells; V79 healthy cells; cytotoxicity; clonogenesis; wound healing assay; antioxidant enzymes activity.
33659Castellani M.B., Bianchi E., Coppi A., Nascimbene J. & Benesperi R. (2021): Revision of the Parmelia saxatilis group in Italy based on morphological, chemical, and molecular data. - Phytotaxa, 512(1): 28–40. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.512.1.2.
Recent molecular studies on Parmelia revealed several new semi-cryptic and cryptic species, suggesting the existence of considerable genetic diversity within this genus that may not yet be expressed at the phenotypic level. This is the case of the two species Parmelia ernstiae and P. serrana that have been described in the P. saxatilis group from Europe and that are still poorly known in Italy. The main aim of this study is to shed light into the Italian distribution of these cryptic species on the basis of a systematic and taxonomic revision of exiccata and new specimens of the Parmelia saxatilis group collected along a biogeographical gradient through the Italian peninsula. In this revision, we combined morphological, chemical, and molecular data and evaluated their reliability for identification at the species level. Results indicate that P. saxatilis is the most widespread species and that P. ernstiae is much more widespread than previously thought. In contrast, P. serrana seems to be a rare species in Italy. Our results also indicate that the combined use of morphological and chemical data does not provide a reliable tool to discriminate the cryptic species of this group and that molecular data are thus indispensable for identification at the species level. Finally, our phylogenetic analysis supports the existence of an unrecognized diversity in parmelioid lichens that should be further investigated. Keywords: parmelioid lichens, Parmelia ernstiae, Parmelia serrana, phylogeny, secondary metabolites, taxonomy.
33658Käffer M.I., Piasa V., Weber D.D., Araújo J.F. & Martins S.M.A. (2020): Composição da comunidade liquênica na área da nascente do Rio dos Sinos, Caraá, RS, Brasil. - Pesquisas, Botânica, 74: 383–397. .
[in Portuguese with English abstract: ] The conservation units are areas that hold an expressive number of species, including lichens. The objective of this study was to verify the lichen composition around Rio dos Sinos source, which can be found at the Environmental Protection Area of Caraá, RS. Samples were collected from tree trunks, branches/leaves, and from the soil, in the interior of the forest and at its edge. The identification of species was carried out through usual identification techniques for lichens. One hundred and thirty-three species were recorded, being Lobaria asperula (Stirt.) Yoshim. a new occurrence for Brazil. Leptogium, Parmotrema and Heterodermia were the most representative genera. And, the foliose and crustose morphological groups were more predominant. Over 50% the species of genus Leptogium recorded within the area are reported to Rio Grande do Sul State. Recording the different organisms composing the ecosystem is essential, considering the fragility of the environment such as water sources, as well as to know the ecological role that they play in the environment, which can help decision taking on conservation and protection of the areas inserted in conservation units. Key-words: Lichenized fungi. Atlantic Forest. Hydrographic Basin. Conservation Unit.
33657Habib K., Firdous Q., Sohrabi M. & Khalid A.N. (2021): Aspiciliella pakistanica a new lichen species (Megasporaceae, Pertusariales, Ascomycota) from Pakistan. - Phytotaxa, 511(2): 175–182. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.511.2.5.
A new species in Megasporaceae, Aspiciliella pakistanica is described and illustrated from Pakistan. A comparative morpho– anatomical study and ITS–based molecular analysis confirmed its position within the recently resurrected genus Aspiciliella. The taxon is characterized by whitish–grey thalli having large and thick areoles without pale lines on the surface, and a discontinuous algal layer arranged in groups of vertical rows. Its positioning in a separate branch in the phylogenetic tree also makes it distinct from the other known species of the genus. Keywords: Azad Jammu & Kashmir, lichenized fungi, new species, Pakistan, taxonomy.
33656Malíček J., Bouda F., Hlisnikovský D., Konečná E., Peksa O. & Syrovátková L. (2021): Lišejníky zaznamenané během bryologicko-lichenologických dní ve Spáleném Poříčí. - Bryonora, 65: 8–23. https://botanospol.cz/sites/default/files/2021-07/BRYONORA_67_2021_06_02.pdf.
This contribution provides records on 224 lichenized fungi and one non-lichenized fungus observed during several excursions in the Brdy highlands and the Příbram region in central Bohemia. Uranium spoil heaps in the surroundings of the town of Příbram harbour many rare species such as lichens adapted to metal-rich substrates or early succession stages. Acarospora rugulosa, A. sinopica, Bacidina brandii, Leptogium subtile and Rhizocarpon ridescens are the best examples. Lecanora flavoleprosa, traditionally known as an arctic-alpine species, is locally common in the Příbram region on siliceous stones in screes. The specific and valuable habitats on uranium spoil heaps are currently endangered by restoration activities. The localities visited in the Brdy highlands included boulder screes, a valley of a brook and avenues. Bellemerea sanguinea, Cetraria sepincola, Cladonia amaurocraea, C. bellidiflora, C. stellaris, Rhizocarpon postumum, R. timdalii represent the most important records. Surprisingly, the pyrenocarpous lichen Porina rivalis was collected in the valley of the Klabava brook at its first locality outside of Great Britain, where the species has recently been described. Key words: biodiversity, boulder screes, Porina rivalis, uranium spoil heaps.
33655Palice Z. (2021): Česká a Slovenská lichenologická bibliografie XXXIII [Czech and Slovak lichenological bibliography, XXXIII]. - Bryonora, 65: 36–41. https://botanospol.cz/sites/default/files/2021-07/BRYONORA_67_2021_06_04.pdf.
bibliography; Czech Republic, Slovakia
33654Yang M.-X., Devkota S., Wang L.-S. & Scheidegger C. (2021): Ethnolichenology—The use of lichens in the Himalayas and southwestern parts of China. - Diversity, 13(7): 330 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070330.
Lichens are used in traditional medicine, food and various other ethnic uses by cultures across the Himalayas and southwestern parts of China. Evidence-based knowledge from historical and modern literatures and investigation of ethnic uses from 1990 proved that lichen species used as medicine in the Himalayas and southwestern parts of China totaled to 142 species; furthermore, 42 species were utilized as food. Moreover, some lichens are popularly used for lichen produce in ethnic and modern life. An understanding and clarification of the use of lichens in the Himalayas and southeastern parts of China can therefore be important for understanding uses of lichens elsewhere and a reference for additional research of lichen uses in the future. Keywords: lichen; ethnic use; medicinal; edible species; Himalayas; southwestern China.
33653Kalra R., Conlan X.A. & Goel M. (2021): Lichen allelopathy: a new hope for limiting chemical herbicide and pesticide use. - Biocontrol Science and Technology, 31(8): 773–796. https://doi.org/10.1080/09583157.2021.1901071.
Agriculture development remains the most significant and integral part of the economic growth of any country with pests, such as plant pathogens, weeds, insects, nematodes and animal, imposing a major threat to the overall productivity. Approximately 25% of the total crop production worldwide is damaged due to these weeds, animal and microbial pest attacks and thus application of agrochemicals to enhance crop productivity has become an integral part of agriculture practices. Beyond their desired activity these chemical pesticides have been associated with side effects that their direct impact on human health, soil and water quality and the residue having immensurable impact on the environment. Due to the severe side effects associated with synthetic pesticides, integrated pest management crop health practices have been developed to use biological products with allelopathic activity as pesticides. Here, we review lichen diversity, allelopathic potential from different lichen species and the lichen metabolites involved in allelopathic interactions. This review also highlights the various modes of actions of lichen metabolites, which include the lichenplant, lichen-herbivore, lichen-insect and lichen-microbe interactions. Furthermore, a crisp swot on the most promising lichen-derived allelochemical metabolites, their biosynthetic pathways and scope of metabolomics in lichenological research has been discussed. Keywords: Allelochemicals allelopathy; anti-herbivorous; lichen.
33652Bennett K.L., Skiles-Jones S.L. & Strawn S. (2021): Efficacy of commercial-grade materials for thin-layer chromatography (TLC). - Evansia, 38(2): 73–83. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-38.2.73.
Identification of many lichens require determination of their chemical constituents. Thin-layer chromatography is a chemical method for separating out chemicals by their solubility in organic solvents. We present here a tested, simplified protocol for performing thin-layer chromatography using locally available materials and reagents, based on solvent system C of standard lichen chromatographic protocols. Adapting Solvent System C, commercial-grade reagents were substituted and the protocol modified to be performed outside of a laboratory without the need of a special license for purchasing laboratory-grade chemicals and without special handling of hazardous chemicals and waste. Commercial-grade materials and chemicals were exchanged step-wise throughout the process. Trials completed using commercial-grade materials and chemicals were successfully compared to using labgrade materials and chemicals. Key words: Crowdsourcing, biodiversity, monitoring, species identification, TLC.
33651St. Clair L.L., Leavitt S.D., St. Clair S.B., Newberry C.C. & Rosentreter R. (2021): Lichen checklist for the Jarbidge Wilderness Area and adjacent Forest Service Lands in northeastern Nevada, USA. - Evansia, 38(2): 43–59. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-38.2.43.
Based on field collections made during the summers of 1987, 1988, and 1989, we report 159 species of lichens in 69 genera for the Jarbidge Wilderness Area (JWA) and adjacent Forest Service lands, located in the northern Great Basin, USA. Specimens were collected at 25 sites, distributed across the JWA along with two additional sites north of the wilderness boundary on Forest Service land. Collections were made from all available substrates, including rocks, bark, lignum, mosses, soil, and from the thalli of various saxicolous lichens. All basic growth forms were found, especially crustose and foliose species. Umbilicate species (Dermatocarpon spp., Rhizoplaca spp., and Umbilicaria spp.) were commonly found on rocks, while a limited number of fruticose species (Letharia spp. and Bryoria spp.) were found on bark and lignum substrates. A single, fruticose species was found on rocks (Pseudephebe minuscula). Saxicolous substrates supported the richest lichen communities, followed by corticolous and lignicolous substrates. Specifically, cottonwood spp., various conifer species, and curled leaf mountain mahogany were important bark and lignum substrates. Other taxa occurred on soil/bryophyte/detritus substrates with one species commonly collected on the thalli of various saxicolous lichens (i.e., Caloplaca epithallina). The JWA lichen flora is richer than other Nevada wilderness areas so far surveyed, with 33 putative new species records for the state of Nevada. Species richness and abundance in the JWA is likely due in part to the more mesic conditions found in the wilderness as well as its proximity to the more abundant and diverse lichen communities found in the Northern Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Northwest. Samples of two sensitive indicator species (Rhizoplaca melanophthalma and Letharia lupina) were analyzed to determine thallus concentrations of three potential air pollutants (sulfur, copper, and lead). All pollutant element concentrations were within background levels except for percent sulfur in two samples of Letharia lupina from Hummingbird Ridge (0.226%) and Emerald Lake (0.215%). Both sites are upper elevation (˃ 2700 m ASL) suggesting possible accumulation due to long-range transport of sulfur species from large urban areas in the Pacific Northwest. Key words. Air quality bio-monitoring, biodiversity inventory, collections-based research, Great Basin.
33650DeBolt A. (2021): Transplant success of Cladonia perforata (Florida perforate cladonia) at the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Outstanding Natural Area. - Evansia, 38(2): 32–42. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-38.2.32.
At the 120-acre Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Outstanding Natural Area (ONA) located in southeast Florida, 30 Cladonia perforata thalli were translocated in 2009. Thalli were transplanted from an area with a large C. perforata population, where sand pine fuels had accumulated and were at risk of a fire, to an area that had either been recently burned, or where no fuel treatments were planned in the near future. There was no C. perforata at or near the four transplant recipient locations, which were selected for habitat suitability and their protected locations within the ONA. The four C. perforata recipient sites have been monitored annually since 2009. Across the four transplant locations, C. perforata thalli have increased, numbering 173 in 2015 and 443 in 2020. Based on our findings, translocation of C. perforata was highly successful at the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse ONA, with an over 14-fold increase in number of individuals in an 11-year period, assisting the colonization of new sites and buffering the lichen’s vulnerable population at this location. Larger thallus size, transplant recipient site protection, and site characteristics that facilitated thalli stabilization probably contributed to this success. While habitat conservation of in situ populations is the preferred management practice for species conservation, it is encouraging to know that, with proper methodology and timing, translocation can be a tool for certain species. Key words. Lichen conservation, translocation, Florida scrub, natural area, species recovery.
33649Urbanavichene I.N. & Urbanavichus G.P. (2021): Additions to the lichen flora of the Kologriv Forest Reserve and Kostroma Region. - Turczaninowia, 24(2): 28–41. https://doi.org/10.14258/turczaninowia.24.2.4.
As a result of determining the lichens collected in summer 2020 in the territory of the Kologriv Forest State Nature Reserve (Kostroma Region), 57 species (44 lichens, 5 non-lichenized and 8 lichenicolous fungi) new to the lichen flora of the Reserve were identified. Among them, 49 species and 17 genera ( Acrocordia, Allocalicium, Aca - rospora, Biatoridium, Catinaria, Cryptodiscus, Didymocyrtis, Fellhanera, Inoderma, Intralichen, Lichenoconium, Melaspileella, Rebentischia, Schismatomma, Sclerococcum, Thelidium, and Tremella ) are new for the Kostroma Re - gion. Micarea melanobola is new for Russia. The genus Rebentischia with species R. massalongii as well as Ramalina vogulica are published for the first time for the European Russia. Five species: Allocalicium adaequatum, Bryoria glabra, Japewia subaurifera, Sclerococcum simplex, and Tremella hypogymniae – are reported as new records for the Middle Russia. Information on habitats, substrates and distribution in the neighboring regions is provided. Keywords : diversity, European Russia, Micarea melanobola , Nature Reserve, new records.
33648Belguidoum A., Lograda T. & Ramdani M. (2021): Ability of metal trace elements accumulation by Lichens, Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea, in Megres area (Setif, Algeria). - Acta Scientifica Naturalis, 8(1): 91–108. DOI: 10.2478/asn-2021-0008.
The accumulating ability of the atmospheric Metal Trace Elements (MTE) of two lichenic species thalli; Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea were evaluated in the region of Megres. The recorded concentrations of MTE (Fe, Cu, Mn, Cd, and Pb) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AASF). The ability to accumulate MTE in X. parietina thalli is considerably greater than that of the fruticulous lichen R. farinacea in all stations studied. The general pattern of the elements accumulated in the thalli of the two species in decreasing order of their concentrations was Fe> Mn> Pb> Cu> Cd. The Fe values are very high in X. parietina thalli with an average of 35237.5 ± 3394.2 mg/kg dry wt. In contrast, the Pb concentrations are high, especially in the southern station of the Megres region. The results showed that X. parietina is a hyper-accumulating species of MTE, compared to R. farinacea. This work highlights the ecological importance of this species as a stable and resistant pioneer in this fragile region. Keywords: Air pollution; Biomonitoring; Ramalina farinacea; Xanthoria parietina; Megres; Algeria.
33647Gerasimova J., Ruthensteiner B. & Beck A. (2021): MicroCT as a useful tool for analysing the 3D structure of lichens and quantifying internal cephalodia in Lobaria pulmonaria. - Applied Microbiology, 1(2): 189–200. https://doi.org/10.3390/applmicrobiol1020015.
High-resolution X-ray computer tomography (microCT) is a well-established technique to analyse three-dimensional microstructures in 3D non-destructive imaging. The non-destructive three-dimensional analysis of lichens is interesting for many reasons. The examination of hidden structural characteristics can, e.g., provide information on internal structural features (form and distribution of fungal-supporting tissue/hypha), gas-filled spaces within the thallus (important for gas exchange and, thus, physiological processes), or yield information on the symbiont composition within the lichen, e.g., the localisation and amount of additional cyanobacteria in cephalodia. Here, we present the possibilities and current limitations for applying conventional laboratory-based high-resolution X-ray computer tomography to analyse lichens. MicroCT allows the virtual 3D reconstruction of a sample from 2D X-ray projections and is helpful for the non-destructive analysis of structural characters or the symbiont composition of lichens. By means of a quantitative 3D image analysis, the volume of internal cephalodia is determined for Lobaria pulmonaria and the external cephalodia of Peltigera leucophlebia. Nevertheless, the need for higher-resolution tomography for more detailed studies is emphasised. Particular challenges are the large sizes of datasets to be analysed and the high variability of the lichen microstructures. Keywords: X-ray computer tomography; 3D image analysis; Bacidia rubella; Evernia divaricata; Hypogymnia physodes; Lobaria pulmonaria; Peltigera leucophlebia; Xanthoria parietina.
33646Cornet L., Magain N., Baurain D. & Lutzoni F. (2021): Exploring syntenic conservation across genomes for phylogenetic studies of organisms subjected to horizontal gene transfers: A case study with Cyanobacteria and cyanolichens. - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 162: 107100 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2021.107100.
Understanding the evolutionary history of symbiotic Cyanobacteria at a fine scale is essential to unveil patterns of associations with their hosts and factors driving their spatiotemporal interactions. As for bacteria in general, Horizontal Gene Transfers (HGT) are expected to be rampant throughout their evolution, which justified the use of single-locus phylogenies in macroevolutionary studies of these photoautotrophic bacteria. Genomic approaches have greatly increased the amount of molecular data available, but the selection of orthologous, congruent genes that are more likely to reflect bacterial macroevolutionary histories remains problematic. In this study, we developed a synteny-based approach and searched for Collinear Orthologous Regions (COR), under the assumption that genes that are present in the same order and orientation across a wide monophyletic clade are less likely to have undergone HGT. We searched sixteen reference Nostocales genomes and identified 99 genes, part of 28 COR comprising three to eight genes each. We then developed a bioinformatic pipeline, designed to minimize inter-genome contamination and processed twelve Nostoc-associated lichen metagenomes. This reduced our original dataset to 90 genes representing 25 COR, which were used to infer phylogenetic relationships within Nostocales and among lichenized Cyanobacteria. This dataset was narrowed down further to 71 genes representing 22 COR by selecting only genes part of one (largest) operon per COR. We found a relatively high level of congruence among trees derived from the 90-gene dataset, but congruence was only slightly higher among genes within a COR compared to genes across COR. However, topological congruence was significantly higher among the 71 genes part of one operon per COR. Nostocales phylogenies resulting from concatenation and species tree approaches based on the 90- and 71-gene datasets were highly congruent, but the most highly supported result was obtained when using synteny, collinearity, and operon information (i.e., 71-gene dataset) as gene selection criteria, which outperformed larger datasets with more genes. Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Lichen; Horizontal gene transfers; Phylogenomics.
33645Dembicz I., Dengler J., Steinbauer M.J., Matthews T.J., Bartha S., Burrascano S., Chiarucci A., Filibeck G., Gillet F., Janišová M., Palpurina S., Storch D., Werner U., Aćić S., Boch S., Campos J.A., Cancellieri L., Carboni M., Ciaschetti G., Conradi T., De Frenne P., Dolezal J., Dolnik C., Essl F., Fantinato E., García-Mijangos I., del Galdo G.P.G., Grytnes J.-A., Guarino R., Güler B., Kapfer J., Klichowska E., Kozub Ł., Kuzemko A., Löbel S., Manthey M., Marcenò C., Mimet A., Naqinezhad A., Noroozi J., Nowak A., Pauli H., Peet R.K., Pellissier V., Pielech R., Terzi M., Ugurlu E., Valkó O., Vasheniak I., Vassilev K., Vynokurov D., White H.J., Willner W., Winkler M., Wolfrum S., Zhang J. & Biurrun I. (2021): Fine-grain beta diversity of Palaearctic grassland vegetation. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 32: e13045 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvs.13045.
Questions: Which environmental factors influence fine-grain beta diversity of vegetation and do they vary among taxonomic groups? Location: Palaearctic biogeographic realm. Methods: We extracted 4,654 nested-plot series with at least four different grain sizes between 0.0001 m² and 1,024 m² from the GrassPlot database, covering a wide range of different grassland and other open habitat types. We derived extensive environmental and structural information for these series. For each series and four taxonomic groups (vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, all), we calculated the slope parameter (z-value) of the power law species–area relationship (SAR), as a beta diversity measure. We tested whether z-values differed among taxonomic groups and with respect to biogeographic gradients (latitude, elevation, macroclimate), ecological (site) characteristics (several stress–productivity, disturbance and heterogeneity measures, including land use) and alpha diversity (c-value of the power law SAR). Results: Mean z-values were highest for lichens, intermediate for vascular plants and lowest for bryophytes. Bivariate regressions of z-values against environmental variables had rather low predictive power (mean R² = 0.07 for vascular plants, less for other taxa). For vascular plants, the strongest predictors of z-values were herb layer cover (negative), elevation (positive), rock and stone cover (positive) and the c-value (U-shaped). All tested metrics related to land use (fertilization, livestock grazing, mowing, burning, decrease in naturalness) led to a decrease in z-values. Other predictors had little or no impact on z-values. The patterns for bryophytes, lichens and all taxa combined were similar but weaker than those for vascular plants. Conclusions: We conclude that productivity has negative and heterogeneity positive effects on z-values, while the effect of disturbance varies depending on type and intensity. These patterns and the differences among taxonomic groups can be explained via the effects of these drivers on the mean occupancy of species, which is mathematically linked to beta diversity. Keywords: disturbance, elevation, fine-grain beta diversity, heterogeneity, land use, macroecology, mean occupancy, Palaearctic grassland, productivity, scale dependence, species–area relationship (SAR), z-value.
33644Zhong Q., Zhang Y., Wang X., Timdal E., Gong H., Wang Z. & Wang L. (2021): Phaeorrhiza (Physciaceae), a new lichen genus record to China. - Phytotaxa, 510(3): 228–238. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.510.3.3.
The genus Phaeorrhiza is reported as new for the Chinese lichen biota, including the two species, Phaeorrhiza nimbosa (Fr.) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt and P. sareptana var. sphaerocarpa. (Tr. Fr.) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt. The genus grows on soil in alpine meadows, morphologically characterized by a squamulose to subfoliose thallus, rhizohyphae, and Beltraminia-type ascospores. P. nimbosa has cryptolecanorine to eulecanorine apothecia, while P. sareptana var. sphaerocarpa has lecideine apothecia. Descriptions, a key and a phylogram of these species are provided. Keywords: Fungi, lichenized fungi, Tibetan Plateau, taxonomy, phylogeny, alpine biota.
33643Mitchell R.L., Strullu-Derrien C., Sykes D., Pressel S., Duckett J.G. & Kenrick P. (2021): Cryptogamic ground covers as analogues for early terrestrial biospheres: Initiation and evolution of biologically mediated proto-soils. - Geobiology, 19: 292–306. https://doi.org/10.1111/gbi.12431.
Modern cryptogamic ground covers (CGCs), comprising assemblages of bryophytes (hornworts, liverworts, mosses), fungi, bacteria, lichens and algae, are thought to resemble early divergent terrestrial communities. However, limited in situ plant and other fossils in the rock record, and a lack of CGC-like soils reported in the pre-Silurian sedimentological record, have hindered understanding of the structure, composition and interactions within the earliest CGCs. A key question is how the earliest CGC-like organisms drove weathering on primordial terrestrial surfaces (regolith), leading to the early stages of soil development as proto-soils, and subsequently contributing to large-scale biogeochemical shifts in the Earth System. Here, we employed a novel qualitative, quantitative and multi-dimensional imaging approach through X-ray micro-computed tomography, scanning electron, and optical microscopy to investigate whether different combinations of modern CGC organisms from primordial-like settings in Iceland develop organism-specific soil forming features at the macro- and micro-scales. Additionally, we analysed CGCs growing on hard rocky substrates to investigate the initiation of weathering processes non-destructively in 3D. We show that thalloid CGC organisms (liverworts, hornworts) develop thin organic layers at the surface (<1 cm) with limited subsurface structural development, whereas leafy mosses and communities of mixed organisms form profiles that are thicker (up to ~ 7 cm), structurally more complex, and more organic-rich. We term these thin layers and profiles proto-soils. Component analyses from X-ray micro-computed tomography data show that thickness and structure of these proto-soils are determined by the type of colonising organism(s), suggesting that the evolution of more complex soils through the Palaeozoic may have been driven by a shift in body plan of CGC-like organisms from flattened and appressed to upright and leafy. Our results provide a framework for identifying CGC-like proto-soils in the rock record and a new proxy for understanding organism–soil interactions in ancient terrestrial biospheres and their contribution to the early stages of soil formation. Keywords: palaeobotany, plant evolution, soil development, plant-soil interactions, weathering, X-ray computed tomography.
33642Stark S., Ylänne H. & Kumpula J. (2021): Recent changes in mountain birch forest structure and understory vegetation depend on the seasonal timing of reindeer grazing. - Journal of Applied Ecology, 58(5): 941–952. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13847.
Subarctic forest‐tundra ecotones dominated by mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) are an important habitat for semi‐domestic reindeer Rangifer tarandus. The seasonal timing of reindeer grazing may direct vegetation trajectories in these systems, because in the summer ranges, mountain birches are subjected to browsing, while in the winter ranges, reindeer feed on understorey vegetation and arboreal lichens but leave the mountain birches intact. Based on earlier research, we predicted that (a) summer browsing dampens ongoing vegetation ‘shrubification’ in semi‐dry and dry mountain birch forests and (b) ‘shrubification’ is accompanied by a decline in lichens. We tested these predictions through re‐analysing forest structure and understorey vegetation after 12 years in areas where winter and summer ranges had been separated since the 1980s. We also tested how changes in lichen abundances align with changes in shrub abundances through correlation analyses. The number of tall mountain birch seedlings had increased twice as fast in winter than summer ranges, while big mountain birches had increased in summer ranges. The dominant evergreen dwarf shrub mountain crowberry (Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum) had increased to a greater extent in winter ranges in a semidry habitat, and to a greater extent in summer ranges in a dry habitat. Deciduous dwarf shrub and graminoid biomass had increased similarly in summer and winter ranges. We found no evidence to support that increasing shrub abundances had contributed to a decline in lichens; instead, the lichen cover increased with increasing number of mountain birch seedlings. Synthesis and application. The vegetation trajectories of dry and semi‐dry subarctic mountain birch forests depend greatly on whether the area is used as a winter or a summer range for the reindeer. The recent changes in vegetation are likely to lead to improved summer forage availability for the reindeer, while the opposite may be true for the winter forage availability. Keywords: Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii; Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum; browsing; lichens; reindeer; subarctic.
33641Johansson N.R., Kaasalainen U. & Rikkinen J. (2021): Woodpeckers can act as dispersal vectors for fungi, plants, and microorganisms. - Ecology and Evolution, 11(12): 7154–7163. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.7648.
Bird‐mediated dispersal is presumed to be important in the dissemination of many different types of organisms, but concrete evidence remains scarce. This is especially true for biota producing microscopic propagules. Tree‐dwelling birds, such as woodpeckers, would seem to represent ideal dispersal vectors for organisms growing on standing tree trunks such as epiphytic lichens and fungi. Here, we utilize bird natural history collections as a novel source of data for studying dispersal ecology of plants, fungi, and microorganisms. We screened freshly preserved specimens of three Finnish woodpecker species for microscopic propagules. Samples were taken from bird feet, and chest and tail feathers. Propagules were extracted using a sonication–centrifugation protocol, and the material obtained was studied using light microscopy. Diverse biological material was recovered from all specimens of all bird species, from all positions sampled. Most abundant categories of discovered biological material included bryophyte fragments, fungal spores, and vegetative propagules of lichens. Also, freshwater diatoms, bryophyte spores, algal cells, testate amebae, rotifers, nematodes, pollen, and insect scales were identified. The method developed here is applicable to living specimens as well, making it a versatile tool for further research. Our findings highlight the potential of bird‐mediated dispersal for diverse organisms and showcase the use of natural history collections in ecological research. Woodpeckers are ideal candidates for bird‐mediated dispersal for a diverse set of organisms, especially epiphytes. We report high loads of diverse biological propagules extracted from feathers and feet of woodpecker specimens from natural history collections. The study highlights the potential of birds as dispersal vectors of lichens, fungi, bryophytes, and more. Keywords: collection‐based research; dispersal; epizoochory; lichen; spore; woodpecker.
33640Molins A., Moya P., Muggia L. & Barreno E. (2021): Thallus growth stage and geographic origin shape microalgal diversity in Ramalina farinacea lichen holobionts. - Journal of Phycology, 57(3): 975–987. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpy.13140.
Lichen symbioses are microecosystems hosting many other living organisms besides the two major lichen symbionts (i.e., lichenized fungi [the mycobiont] and green microalgae or cyanobacteria [the photobiont]). Recent investigations evidenced that other fungi, non‐photosynthetic bacteria, and microalgae co‐inhabit within the lichen thalli, but their diversity and their roles are still underinvestigated. Here we present an ad hoc stratified sampling design and in‐depth Illumina paired‐end metabarcoding approach to explore microalgal diversity in lichen thalli of the model species Ramalina farinacea from different ecologies. Lichen thalli were surveyed according to three different sizes, and different thallus parts were considered for molecular, bioinformatics, and community diversity analyses. The results revealed that microalgal diversity strongly depends on the growth stage of the thalli, the geographic area, and the habitat type. The results also show that microalgal diversity does not vary along the thallus branches (lacinias)—that is, it does not correlate with the apical growth and founder effects—and that there is no balanced co‐presence of two main photobionts as previously established in R. farinacea. The sampling design performed here minimizes bias in the assessment of photobiont diversity in lichens and is proposed to be reliable and applicable to further study microalgal diversity in lichen symbioses. Keywords: Trebouxia; high‐throughput sequencing; metabarcoding; mycobiont; photobiont; symbiosis.
33639Ulus G. (2021): Antiangiogenic properties of lichen secondary metabolites. - Phytotherapy Research, 35(6): 3046–3058. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.7023.
[Review] Lichens are symbiotic organisms which are composed fungi and algae and/or cyanobacteria. They produce a variety of characteristic secondary metabolites. Such substances have various biological properties including antimicrobial, antiviral, and antitumor activities. Angiogenesis, the growth of new vessels from pre-existing vessels, contributes to numerous diseases including cancer, arthritis, atherosclerosis, infectious, and immune disorders. Antiangiogenic therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of such diseases by inhibiting the new vessel formation. Technological advances have led to the development of various antiangiogenic agents and have made possible antiangiogenic therapy in many diseases associated with angiogenesis. Some lichens and their metabolites are used in the drug industry, but many have not yet been tested for their antiangiogenic effects. The cytotoxic and angiogenic capacities of lichen-derived small molecules have been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro experiments. Therefore, some of them may be used as antiangiogenic agents in the future. The secondary compounds of lichen whose antiangiogenic effect has been studied in the literature are usnic acid, barbatolic acid, vulpinic acid, olivetoric acid, emodin, secalonic acid D, and parietin. In this article, we review the antiangiogenic effects and cellular targets of these lichen-derived metabolites.
33638Liu Y.-R., Eldridge D.J., Zeng X.-M., Wang J., Singh B.K. & Delgado‐Baquerizo M. (2021): Global diversity and ecological drivers of lichenised soil fungi. - New Phytologist, 231(3): 1210–1219. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.17433.
Lichens play crucial roles in sustaining the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems; however, the diversity and ecological factors associated with lichenised soil fungi remain poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we used a global field survey including information on fungal sequences of topsoils from 235 terrestrial ecosystems. We identified 880 lichenised fungal phylotypes across nine biomes ranging from deserts to tropical forests. The diversity and proportion of lichenised soil fungi peaked in shrublands and dry grasslands. Aridity index, plant cover and soil pH were the most important factors associated with the distribution of lichenised soil fungi. Furthermore, we identified Endocarpon, Verrucaria and Rinodina as some of the most dominant lichenised genera across the globe, and they had similar environmental preferences to the lichenised fungal community. In addition, precipitation seasonality and mean diurnal temperature range were also important in predicting the proportion of these dominant genera. Using this information, we were able to create the first global maps of the richness and the proportion of dominant genera of lichenised fungi. This work provides new insight into the global distribution and ecological preferences of lichenised soil fungi, and supports their dominance in drylands across the globe. Keywords: aridity; biodiversity; drylands; environmental DNA; fungi; lichen.
33637Lagostina E., Andreev M., Dal Grande F., Grewe F., Lorenz A., Lumbsch H.T., Rozzi R., Ruprecht U., Sancho L.G., Søchting U., Scur M., Wirtz N. & Printzen C. (2021): Effects of dispersal strategy and migration history on genetic diversity and population structure of Antarctic lichens. - Journal of Biogeography, 48(7): 1635–1653. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.14101.
Aim: The homogenisation of historically isolated gene pools has been recognised as one of the most serious conservation problems in the Antarctic. Lichens are the dominant components of terrestrial biotas in the Antarctic and in high mountain ranges of southern South America. We study the effects of dispersal strategy and migration history on their genetic structure to better understand the importance of these processes and their interplay in shaping population structure as well as their relevance for conservation. Location: Maritime Antarctic and southern South America. Methods: Populations of three fruticose lichen species, Usnea aurantiacoatra, U. antarctica and Cetraria aculeata, were collected in different localities in the Maritime Antarctic and southern South America. Usnea aurantiacoatra reproduces sexually by ascospores, whereas the other two species mostly disperse asexually by symbiotic diaspores. Samples were genotyped at 8–22 microsatellite loci. Different diversity and variance metrics, Bayesian cluster analyses and Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC) were used to study population genetic structure. Historical migration patterns between southern South America and the Antarctic were investigated for U. aurantiacoatra and C. aculeata by approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). Results: The two vegetative species display lower levels of genetic diversity than U. aurantiacoatra. Antarctic populations of C. aculeata and South American populations of U. aurantiacoatra display much stronger genetic differentiation than their respective counterparts on the opposite side of the Drake Passage. Usnea antarctica was not found in South America but shows comparably low levels of genetic differentiation in Antarctica as those revealed for U. aurantiacoatra. Phylogeographic histories of lichens in the region differ strongly with recent colonisation in some instances and potential in situ persistence during Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in others. Patterns of genetic diversity indicate the presence of glacial refugia near Navarino Island (South America) and in the South Shetland Islands. ABC analyses suggest that C. aculeata colonised the Antarctic from Patagonia after the LGM. Results for U. aurantiacoatra are ambiguous, indicating a more complex population history than expressed in the simplified scenarios. Main Conclusions: Mode of propagation affects levels of genetic diversity, but the location of glacial refugia and postglacial colonisation better explains the diversity patterns displayed by each species. We found evidence for glacial in situ survival of U. aurantiacoatra on both sides of the Drake Passage and postglacial colonisation of Antarctica from South America by C. aculeata. Maintaining the strong genetic differentiation of Antarctic populations of C. aculeata requires strict conservation measures, whereas populations of U. aurantiacoatra are exposed to a much lower risk due to their higher diversity and connectivity. Keywords: Cetraria aculeata; Parmeliaceae; U. aurantiacoatra; Usnea antarctica; approximate Bayesian computation; biodiversity; climate change; conservation; microsatellites.
33636Sohrabi M., Esmaeillou M., Fadaei H., Talebian M.H. & Noohi N. (2020): The field monitoring of influential biodeteriogenic agents on the historic rock surfaces in Persepolis-UNESCO World Heritage Site. - Journal of Research on Archaeometry, 6(1): 175–192. http://jra-tabriziau.ir/article-1-236-en.html.
[in Persian with English abstract: ] Cultural heritage has always been the focus of many civilizations and therefore, it needs to be preserved for future generations. From prehistoric times, when grandeur and beauty were the aims of architecture, stone was the most widely used durable material. Biodeterioration of the stone monuments, one of the most important causes for the loss of the cultural heritage, is defined as any undesirable change in the properties of a material caused by the action of biological agents such as fungi, bacteria, cyanobacteria, lichens and plants, as well as animals such as insects. The world heritage of Persepolis, for example, has been unprotected from biodeterioration for the centuries, and has unfortunately not been addressed during this time. The purpose of this study is to provide a new perspective on the study of the destructive biological factors affecting this historic site to provide a framework for future studies and serious consideration of the biological debate in conservation and restoration issues. Therefore, the presence of various factors possibly derived from the action of animals, vascular plants, mosses, fungi, lichens, green microalgae, and photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic bacteria were investigated. Based on objective observations, the presence of biodegradation factors affecting floors and the all sides of walls of various buildings in Persepolis was qualitatively investigated. Based on the results, the studied areas were classified into four classes with very high, high, medium and low risk. In addition to the initial estimate of biodiversity, the factors affecting the biodegradation of Persepolis were presented for the first time and the critical points for the presence of destructive factors were determined. Lichens exist throughout Persepolis and have proved useful in archaeological studies, since their growth can be chronologically employed to measure the age of rocks and indeed ancient monuments, their radial growth increasing logarithmically over time based on the assumed specific rate. In this study, the presence of lichens has been investigated from the perspective of biodeterioration, their presence at the microscopic scale can intensify the weathering and biodeterioration of the rock. Such action is not visible to the naked eye but leaves irreparable damage to the stone surface. It was estimated that this complex process at Persepolis is the result of more than 15 different Vascular plant species and 5 Non-vascular plant (mosses), 16 or 17 different species of birds, 3 to 5 species of snails and 2 to 4 species of reptiles and insects. It was shown that the establishment of a biomonitoring laboratory at Persepolis is the important task of studying the action of microorganisms since it is estimated that more than 20 strains of non-photosynthetic bacteria, more than 10 taxa of cyanobacteria, about 15 plants and mosses, more than 130 lichen species and 20 species of non-lichen fungi are involved in the biodegradation of Persepolis. The results are the estimative and provide the basis for more detailed studies to monitor the factors involved in biodegradation, which is one of the necessities of this World Heritage Site. Keywords: Persepolis, Biodeterioration, Conservation and Restoration, World Cultural Heritage, Critical points, Biodiversity.
33635Scholz P. (1992): Bestand und Wandel in der Flechtenflora des Harzes. - Bryonora, 9: 33–35. http://botanika.prf.jcu.cz/BLS/english/files/bryonora9_10.pdf.
m Rahmen der Dissertation des Autors (Scholz 1992) wurden im Ergebnis der Auswertung vorhandener Literatur, Herbarstudien und eigener Geländearbeit für den Harz 748 Taxa (736 Arten) lichenisierter oder mit diesen verwandter Pilze akzeptiert 408 Taxa (399 Arten) wurden nach 1980 nachgewiesen. 162 weitere Arten konnten an Herbarmaterial überprüft werden, während für die verbleibenden 175 Arten bisher keine Belege gefunden werden konnten. Den aktuellen Durchforschungsgrad bezogen auf ein Viertel der Topographischen Karte 1: 25 000 (sogenannte MTB-quadranten, was etwa 5,5 x 5,5 km entspricht) zeigt Abb. 1
33634Liška J. (1992): The distribution of epiphytic lichen species in Bohemia: preliminary results. - Bryonora, 9: 26–32. http://botanika.prf.jcu.cz/BLS/english/files/bryonora9_9.pdf.
Project of mapping the present distribution of epiphytic lichens started in Czechoslovakia in the sevennes: in Slovakia by LPišút in 1975, in Bohemia and Moravia by JJLiška in 1978. In both cases records from 1970 onwards were regarded. Method of grid mapping was used and coordinate aid squares of 10* to 6’ (MTB grid) were chosen following with the mapping in FJLG. and Austria (Wirth 1984, 1987; Türk & Wittmann 1984). Czechoslovak national project on lichen mapping progressed rapidly namely in Slovakia where field work was finished in 1981 (Pišút 1985). In the Czech Republic field investigations have not proceeded as fast and therefore I decided to concentrate my efforts on Bohemia. The mapping of this territory has finished and preliminary results are presented. Distribution maps are the basic result of the grid mapping. Further, the time factor can be taken into account and a comparison with old records can demonstrate remarkable decline (e.g. Lobaria pulmonaria - see liška & Pišút 1990). Among various causes of lichen decline, air pollution impact is the most important factor responsible for deterioration of tide epiphytic flora in Central Europe. A comparison of the average year concentrations of sulphur dioxide with distribution maps of selected lichens is demonstrated. Only few species are distributed all over investigated area (e.g. Lecanora conizaeoides, Hypocenomyce scalaris, Hypogymnia physodes, Bueilia punctata). Distribution maps of many lichens show good correspondence with various levels of sulphur dioxide concentrations (see Fig. 1). White spots in distributions of relatively less sensitive species, e.g. Parmelia sulcata, Xanthoria parietina and Pseudeventia furfuracea (Fig. 2) show heavy polluted areas as well as sources of medium pollution levels. Presence of damaged thalli on the margins of lichen deserts of these species (open circles with cross) is also typical. Other more sensitive but still frequent species, e.g. Usnea spp. (Fig. 2), Parmelia acetabulum and Ramalina fasúgiata (Fig. 3) are present only in areas with low concentration levels of sulphur dioxide. On the other hand, sensitive species as Parmelia caperata and Anaptychia ciliaris (Fig. 3) demonstrate only relics of relatively rich epiphytic lichen flora and are scattered in areas with the lowest air pollution levels. These species often occur in isolated locality or are often represented by one thallus only. Relic character of habitat (e.g. old tree in park) also plays a role
33633Liška J. (1992): Two hundred years of lichenology in Czechoslovakia. - Bryonora, 9: 20–25. http://botanika.prf.jcu.cz/BLS/english/files/bryonora9_8.pdf.
Investigation of lichens in Czechoslovakia has a relatively long tradition. In 1991 there was the 200th anniversary of the first two published records on lichens from the territory of present Czechoslovakia, one from the Czech Republic, and the other from the Slovak Republic. In spite of differences in further history of investigations in the western ana eastern part of Czechoslovakia, the origin was strikingly coincidental. In 1791 Tadeáš Haenke published a report on his journey to Krkonoše (Riesengebirge) in which some lichen species from Mt Sněžka were mentioned (Haenke 1791). In the same year, Štefan Lumnitzer published floristic data from the vicinity of Bratislava with a list of 55 lichen species (Lumnitzer 1791). Both papers dealt chiefly with flowering plants, but lists of some cryptogams including Sehens were added. The first purely lichenological publication was the list of lichens from the territory of Bohemia by Mann (1825). In Slovakia (Upper Hungary that time), the first purely lichenological papers were published by Hazslinszky (1859a, b, c), dealing with lichens of the High Tatra Mts. and other mountain ranges. Catalogue by Vězda (1980 - manuscript) excerpted 777 publications by Czechoslovak as well as foreign lichenologists and reported 1833 lichen species in 201 genera from the present territory of Czechoslovakia. I used this catalogue for an estimation of intensity of lichenological investigations in different time periods separately for the Czech and Slovak republics. This intensity is expressed as the total number of floristic and taxonomic papers by Czechoslovak and foreign lichenologists concerning Czechoslovak lichen flora in each decade (Le. ecological papers, taxonomic monographs, exsiccata etc. are not included). In a figure concerning Bohemia and Moravia, Le. the Czech republic today (Fig. 1), three peaks in the nineteenth centuty are visible: the twenties (period ot W.Mann and Ph.M.Opiz), the fifties (Ph.M.Opiz, G.W.Koerber, J.von Flotow etc.) and the eighties (EJSayer, P-Hora, J.Novák, V.Spitzner etc.) - see Bayer (1922). In the first half of the twentieth cenmry, intensive investigation of Bohemia and Moravia was done by well known lichenologists: JAnders, F.Kovář, V.Kuťák, AHilitzer, J.Podzimek, J.Suza, M.Servít, J-Nádvomík and Z.Čemohorský. The highest intensity was in the twenties; a distinct decline of the activity later was due to a) death of the old lichenological generation (F.Kovář, JAnders, AHilitzer and later VjCuťák, J.Podzunek, jTSuza and M.Servit), b) concentration of the Czech lichenologists on investigations in Slovak mountains (J.Suza, AVězda), c) specialization, Le. a shift from floristic to taxonomic studies (M.Servit, J.Nádvomík, Z.Černohorský, AVězda). Likewise a significant decline in the activity of lichenological amateurs after the 2nd World War was important The most obvious decrease took place in two last decades. A way how to change this trend would be to stimulate interest in lichens among amateurs and especially students. Hopefully the Bryological and Lichenological Section of the Czechoslovak Botanical Society established in 1988 will play a role.
33632Lipnicki L. (1992): Motive und die erste Ergebnisse des praktischen Flechtenschutzes in Polen. - Bryonora, 9: 17–19. http://botanika.prf.jcu.cz/BLS/english/files/bryonora9_7.pdf.
Wir wissen, dass Flechten aussterben, wir kennen auch den Umfang und die Ursache dieser Erscheinung sehr gut Jeder Biologe muss sich deshalb deutlich ins Bewusstsein bringen, dass aas Ausscheiden irgendeines Elements aus der Umwelt, sogar eines scheinbar sehr geringen, sehr gefährliche Folgen für das gesamte ökologische System in naher oder ferner Zukunft hervomifen kan. Die Flechten sterben leider aus. Diese Tatsache muss sofort Reflexionen erwecken, um sie noch rechtzeitig zu retten. Est ist unmöglich, für diese Gruppe von Organismen spektakuläre Rettungsaktionen durchzufuhren, wie zum Beispiel durch Zucht in von der Umwelt abgeschlossenen Laboratorien oder Gärten. Die fundamentale und wahrscheinlich die einzige Methode des Schutzes ist die Absicherung ihrer Biotope. Wenn beispielsweiseeine Art in einem grossen Raum auf sehr deutliche Art und Weise ausstirbt, es aber Enklaven gibt (z.B. in weiten Wäldern) in denen ihre Entwicklung normal verläuft, dann muss man alles mögliche tun, um solche Gebiete vor dem Untergang zu schützen. Die Konzentration von SOj in der Luft übersteigt sowohl in Polen, als auch in vielen anderen Ländern Europas die zulässige Normen. Dieses Gift eliminiert die Flechten sehr wirksam aus ihrer Umwelt Zur Zeit beobachten wir in den Ländern Mitteleuropas wichtige politische und ökonomische Veränderungen, darunten solche, die mit der Verwendung der Naturschätze verbunden sind. Wir hoffen, dass die Veränderungen in der Industrie auch zur Reduzierung der Luftverschmutzung beitragen werden. Es gibt in diesem Fall auch eine Chance für die Pflanzenwelt also auch für die Flechten, denen man bessere Lebensbedingungen schaffen kann. Diese Prozess erfolgt nicht von einem Tag zum anderen. Aller Wahrschenlichkeit nach werden auch noch in den nächsten Jahren die Flechten an ihren Standorte wird immer geringer werden. Einige Standorte von Rechten unter Schutz stellend, muss man damit rechnen, dass denoch über 90% der Flechten zugrunde geht Manche werden sich jedoch an wenigen Standorten erhalten könen und sich wahrscheinlich unter besseren Bedingungen wiedemim fortpflanzen. Wir sollten es uns zur Pflicht machen, den Flechten eine Lebensgrundlage zu geben, was - und dies möchte ich besonders unterstreichen - nicht allzu kostspielig ist
33631Lackovičová A. & Pišút I. (1992): Flechtenbioindikation im Gebiet von Spišská Nová Ves (Nordostslowakei). - Bryonora, 9: 13–16. http://botanika.prf.jcu.cz/BLS/english/files/bryonora9_6.pdf.
Die Industrie-Agglomeration im Bereich der Stadt Spišská Nová Ves in der Nordostslowakei gehört zu den Gebieten, die sehr tiefgreifend durch Schadstoffe betroffen sind. Dies wird durch die Wirkung bedeutender Immissionsquellen in Spišská Nová Ves und in den ostwärts liegenden Städtchen Rudnany und Krompachy verursacht In der Eisenerzhütte in Rudöany werden ausser Eisenerzkonzentraten auch Kupfer- und Barytkonzentrate, Quecksilber und reines Kupfer produziert Ausser SOj (1 700 Tonnen jährlich) emitieren die Betriebe beträchtliche Mengen von Schwermetallen, insbesondere Quecksilber. Im Städtchen Krompachy werden reines Kupfer und Kupferkonzentrate erzeugt In die Luft gelangen neben SO? (20 000 Tonnen) auch hohe Mengen von Schwermetallen (1 800 Tonnen fester Substanzen) und AsjOj (107 Tonnen). Ein Heizkraftwerk in Spišská Nová Ves emittiert ca 2 000 Tonnen SOj (nach Babuiik & aL 1984).
33630Kyselová Z. (1992): Epiphytische Flechten und Immissionsbelastung in der Tatra. - Bryonora, 9: 9. http://botanika.prf.jcu.cz/BLS/english/files/bryonora9_5.pdf.
Die steigende regionale Luftverschmutzung, in deren Rahmen sich immer mehr entfernte Quellen durchsetzen, stellt das Hauptproblem für die Tatra und umliegende Regionen dar. Für das Tatragebiet sind die Quellen im Sektor vom Westen bis zum Norden, die in einer Entfernung von 150-200 km liegen (Ostrava- Gebiet, Schlesisches Becken, Krakow-Gebiet), von grösster Bedeutung wie Rak & aL (1982) anführen. Der wichtigste Faktor bei der Luftverschmutzung sind die orographischen und klimatischen Verhältnisse des Untersuchungsgebietes. Die Tatra bildet den höchsten Teil des Westkarpatenbogens. Der Hauptkamm verläuft etwa in West-Ost- Richtung. Die klimatischen Verhältnisse sind in der Tatra sehr eigenartig. Die qro e Höhe bewirkt ein häufiges Auftreten von Winden. Auf der Südseite des Gebirges überwiegen grösstenteils Nordwestwinde und ihnen nahestehende Windrichtungen, auf der gegenüberliegenden Seite der Tatra wieder Südwest- und Südwinde. Die Gesamtorientierung des Gebirges in Richtung der überwiegenden Nordwestwinde, die eine erhöhte Niederschlagsmenge zur Folge haben, verursacht grosse Unterschiede in der räumlichen Verteilung der Niederschläge. Die dem Winde ausgesetzten Nord- und Nordwesthänqe der Tatra haben erhönte, während die Süd- und Südosthänge unter dem Durchsdinitt liegende Niederschlagsmengen aufweisen (Konček & aL 1979). Die hohe Empfindlichkeit vieler Flechten gegenüber Einflüssen von Schadgasen ist allgemein bekannt Arbeitsziel ist es, durch quantitative und qualitative Analysen des Flechtenbewuchsen Aussagen über die biologische Wirksamkeit und die flächenmässige Ausbreitung von Immissionen zu treffen und die Ergebnisse in Form einer Zonierungskarte darzustellen. Aus Gründen der Vergleichbarkeit beschränkten sich die Untersuchungen auf die Baumart Fichte (Picea abies Karst.) als Porophyt, die in der Tatra im ganzen Profil der Waldstufe überwiegt (mehr als 70%). Weiterhin erfolgte die Auswahl der Fichtenbestände nach bestimmten, vorgegebenen Kriterien an den durch das 2x2-km Raster festgelegten Stationen. An jeder Station wurde die Makroflechtenvegetation an 5-11 Bäumen an einem Streifen von 03 -13 m. Höhe und 035 m Breite ausgewertet. Für jede Hechtenart wurden der Deckungsgrad und die Vitalität nach einer fünfstofigen Skala zugeordnet Es wurde für jeden Standort (Baum) der L-Lndex (Hechtenindex) wie folgt errechnet
33629Farkas E. & Lökös L. (1992): Mapping of lichens in Hungary - its role in conservation. - Bryonora, 9: 8. http://botanika.prf.jcu.cz/BLS/english/files/bryonora9_4.pdf.
The first lichen maps in Hungary were prepared with the aim of air pollution mapping. Only zone maps of Debrecen (Felföldy 1942), Szeged (Gallé 1979) and Budapest (Farkas 1982) are available. Dot maps have been prepared at the area of the Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Pilis Biosphere Reserve (Farkas 1988, 1990). These maps represent a relatively small area of Hungary. Since these areas are affected by a great amount af air pollution, they are poor in lichen species. During their lichenological exploration of Hungary Antos, Boros, Fóris, Gallé, Gyelnik, Hazslinszky, Kiss, Kizseiv-Vámosi, Koren, Pokorný, Sántha, Solymosi, Szatala, Timkó and Verseghy collected a large amount of lichenological data Serbarium and published records). The mapping of lichens in the entire area of ungary has been started just recently. It was already known that a number of lichen species have become endangered or extinct Our aim is to prepare a database of the herbarium and published records including the grid reference numbers as well as the Ha«Hral collecting data. The international specifications of the UTM- grid have been successfully applied in the Flora Europaea project (using ca. 25x25 km2 squares). We will therefore use this system and one of the Central European Flora project for our lichen database. During the first period of the mapping project the International Lichen Mapping Committee compiled a list of 42 species to map urgently throughout Europe. We are responsible for mapping the European distribution of Cladonia magyarica and SolormeUa asteriscus. From the bioindication point of view it is necessary to separate the data from before and after 1975. Seven of these 42 lichen species are known to occur in Hungary. Seven of them are known only from data older than 15 years. If these species are not found during resurvey of the original habitat, it is necessary to register them as being extinct in Hungary. There is only a slight hope of finding them at a locality where they were unknown before. Studying areas of little known lichen flora, lichens regarded as absent in Hungary or overlooked might be found
33628Bartók K. (1992): European lichen mapping project in Romania. - Bryonora, 9: 7. http://botanika.prf.jcu.cz/BLS/english/files/bryonora9_3.pdf.
Understanding the importance of the "lichen mapping in Europe" programme, I engaged myself to map the species Gyalecta jenensis and Synalissa symphorea in Romania. Not being able to be present at the Congress of Regensburg in 1990,1 did not understand that actually the question was to map 42 lichen species. In Romania this type of mapping was not used in lichenological studies. There is only one work of 1988, the mapping of Diploschistes genus, based on the UTM wide. The problems are the following; - most of the data on lichen distribution are old (before 1974) but the great majority go back to before the World War II or even World War L I have not the necessary time and possibilities to check whether these species still exist in the mentioned places; - not all Romanian regions have been studied from a lichenological point of view, so that the map of the distribution of species does not give the true picture. Practically, the maps will reflect at the same dme the different knowledge of the Romanian lichen flora. Up to now I succeeded mapping the lichen species only for the neighbouring countries, namely; Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, the USSR, Yugoslavia and of course Romania. Out of these 12 studied species, two of them were not found in the country: Cladonia magyanca and Calidum adspermm. After 1974, data on six species only are available. The social and political changes in Romania have put basic research in a new light, so that we hope that the number of the Romanian lichenologists will increase and that we shall have more possibilities to take part in different international programmes and meetings
33627Bartók K. (1992): Lichenological problems in Romania. - Bryonora, 9: 5–6. http://botanika.prf.jcu.cz/BLS/english/files/bryonora9_2.pdf.
In order to understand the lichenologicai problems in Romania today, I should like to present briefly some aspects of its history. In Romania, as in most European countries, no works exclusively concerning lichens were published before 1900; they were treated together with the higher plants, bryophytes, pteridophytes, as components of the vegetal cover. In Transylvania, which belonged to Austro-Hungary before 1918, the first works also containing data about lower plants, are those published by Heufler (1853), Schur (1859), Csemi (1877-78) and Simonkai (1893). Between the years 1862-1878 Fuss M. published over 150 lichen species in the journal Verh. u. Mitt. Siebenbürg. Ver. Naturwiss^ where the works of another well-known Transylvanian botanist Barth (1877-1905) appeared; following his excursions in different mountains, he collected and determined over 100 lichen species, besides higher plants. Hazslinszk/s book (1884) "A Magyar Birodalom zuzmóflórája" in the first one dealing with the lichen distribution in the territory of Hungary of that time; it also comprises the results of Transylvanian collectings, first of all the great material of H. Lojka (1873-1885) and M. Fuss which also comprised such new species as; Opegraphafarinosa Hepp. from Baile Herculas, Opegrapha diaphora var. calcicola, from Portile de Fier. Before 1900, there were two known specialists collecting lichens in Romania; A. Kanitz (1879-1881) after a trip to the mountains of Bucegi and Ceahlaujjublished a paper where he also mentions 22 lichen species; and Loitlesberger (1897) collected a great number of lichens in the Bucegi mountains; they were published by Zanlbruckner in Vienna, where Catiilaria vemicaroides A.Zahlbr. and Toninia bitlesbergi are described. In the 20th century the number of the researches on lichens increased. In Moldavia, M. Stamatin (1904-1907) was the first to study lichens; he collected materials in Iasi, Vasiui and Suceava departments and enumerated over 100 lichen species. Of these, 74 species have been checked up and revised by the best expert of the time, Zahlbruckner. Between the years 1910-1913 H. Zschacke studied the lichens of Transylvania. He published a great number of new taxa; Microglaena butschetschensis Zsch., Thehdium (Amphoroblastia) rodnensis Zsch., Involucrothele transsilvanicum (Zsch.) Servit, etc. After the World War I F. Foriss (1928-1937) and V. Gyelnik (1930-1935) contributed to the knowledge of the lichen flora of Romania Ö. Szatala’s work "lichenes Hungariae" (1927-1937) is fundamental even today, being used in mapping
33626Alstrup V. (1992): Effects of pesticides on lichens. - Bryonora, 9: 2-4. http://botanika.prf.jcu.cz/BLS/english/files/bryonora9_1.pdf.
Lichens are among the most threatened organisms in Denmark. Out of about 900 lichen species 372 are either extinct, endangered, vulnerable or care-demanding. A further 264- are rare and the status of 110 is uncertain. The reason for this situation are diverse. Air pollution with SO2 is responsible for a dramatic reduction of epiphytic lichen vegetation in towns and along roads. Modem forestry methods are a great danger to forest lichens, both epiphytic and the soil-inhabiting. In the agricultural landscape lichens are found on trees in windbreaks, on buildings and especially on stone fences. Stone fences have been built by farmers during centuries to protect forests and cultivated fields against domestic animals, and are now the most important habitat for stone-lichens in most parts of Denmark. The total length of the fences has been reduced by more than 80 % in this century, but probably still exceeds 10.000 km. Pesticides are widely used in agriculture to eliminate weeds and to control attacks of fungi and insects on the crops. As literature records on the effects of pesticides on lichens were not available, small-scale experiments with the application of 2 fungicides and 2 herbicides to stone-inhabiting lichens were performed, and the effects studied for almost a year
33625Lopez-Ramirez M.R., Sancho L.G., de Vera J.P., Baqué M., Böttger U., Rabbow E., Martínez-Frías J. & de la Torre Noetzel R. (2021): Detection of new biohints on lichens with Raman spectroscopy after space- and Mars like conditions exposure: Mission Ground Reference (MGR) samples. - Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 261: 120046 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.120046.
 First report of the Raman spectroscopy study of Mission Ground Reference (MGR) sample of Circinaria gyrosa.  First use of the term ‘‘biohint” to describe what we are detecting in a more ethical way.  Discussion based on Raman results from Space and Mars-like exposure conditions of Circinaria gyrosa.  Dolomite together with whewellite have been identified in the medulla of Circinaria gyrosa.  Prolonged exposure to UV radiation affects the photobiont and crystal structure of whewellite. The extremophile lichen Circinaria gyrosa (C. gyrosa) is one of the selected species within the BIOMEX (Biology and Mars Experiment) experiment. Here we present the Raman study of a biohint found in this lichen, called whewellite (calcium oxalate monohydrate), and other organic compounds and mineral products of the biological activity of the astrobiologically relevant model system C. gyrosa. Samples were exposed to space- and simulated Mars-like conditions during the EXPOSE-R2 mission parallel ground reference experiment MGR performed at the space- and planetary chambers of DLR-Cologne to study Mars’ habitability and resistance to real space conditions. In this work, we complete the information of natural C. gyrosa about the process of diagenesis by the identification of carbonate crystals in the inner medulla together with the biomineral whewellite. The analysis by Raman spectroscopy of simulated Space and Mars exposed samples confirm alterations and damages of the photobiont part of the lichen and changes related to the molecular structure of whewellite. Keywords: Circinaria gyrosa; Biohint; Mars environment; Extremotolerance; Lichens; Raman spectroscopy.
33624Chamizo S., Rodríguez-Caballero E., Moro M.J. & Cantón Y. (2021): Non-rainfall water inputs: A key water source for biocrust carbon fixation. - Science of the Total Environment, 792: 148299 [6 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148299.
• NRWI was measured with automated microlysimeters in different biocrust types. • NRWI deposition increasedwith greater biocrust development. • The effect of NRWI on biocrust CO2 fluxes depended on the main NRWI source. • Dew mainly stimulated biocrust photosynthesis, resulting in a net CO2 uptake. Links between water and carbon (C) cycles in drylands are strongly regulated by biocrusts. These widespread communities in the intershrub spaces of drylands are able to use non-rainfall water inputs (NRWI) (fog, dewfall and water vapour) to become active and fix carbon dioxide (CO2), converting biocrusts into the main soil C contributors during periods in which vegetation remains inactive. In this study, we first evaluated the influence of biocrust type on NRWI uptake using automated microlysimeters, and second, we performed an outdoor experiment to examine how NRWI affected C exchange (photosynthesis and respiration) in biocrusts. NRWI uptake increased from incipient cyanobacteria to well-developed cyanobacteria and lichen biocrusts. NRWI triggered biocrust activity but with contrasting effects on CO2 fluxes depending on the main NRWI source. Fog mainly stimulated respiration of biocrust-covered soils, reaching net CO2 emissions of 0.68 μmol m−2 s−1, while dew had a greater effect stimulating biocrust photosynthesis and resulted in net CO2 uptake of 0.66 μmol m−2 s−1. These findings demonstrate the key role that NRWI play in biocrust activity and the soil C balance in drylands. Keywords: Dew; Fog; Lichen; Biocrust photosynthesis; Dark respiration; Net CO2 uptake.
33623Déleg J., Gradstein R, Aragón G., Giordani P. & Benítez Á. (2021): Cryptogamic epiphytes as indicators of successional changes in megadiverse lowland rain forests of western Amazonia. - Ecological Indicators, 129: 107890 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.107890.
The Amazonian rain forests of Yasuni National Park, Ecuador (YNP), count among the world’s forests regions with highest biodiversity, but are strongly threatened by deforestation. Cryptogams (bryophytes and lichens) are common and characteristic organisms in these forests, are sensitive to environmental changes, and are considered effective ecological indicators. The objective of this study was to explore the response of epiphytic cryptogams to forest succession in the Amazonian forests of YNP. We hypothesized that alteration of structural and micro-environmental characteristics of the forest, including reduction of canopy cover and lowering of tree species richness, lead to a reduction of species richness and changes in species composition of epiphytic cryptogams. We assessed species richness and composition of cryptogams on the bases of 442 trees in three stage of forest succession (early, intermediate, late), using generalized linear mixed models, multivariate analysis, beta diversity components and Mantel test. We registered 146 species of cryptogams, including 50 of lichens and 96 of bryophytes (39 mosses, 57 liverworts). Diversity of epiphytic cryptogams was highest in late succession forest, and lowest in early succession forest. Major changes in species richness and composition correlated with changes in canopy openness relative to the shift from early to late stages of forest succession. The results demonstrate for the first time the importance of tree species richness for cryptogamic epiphyte richness in Amazonian rain forests. Maintenance of high tree species diversity and structural heterogeneity in late succession forests can considerably contribute to the conservation of the cryptogamic epiphytes of Amazonian rain forests. Keywords: Alpha diversity; Beta diversity; Bryophytes; Yasuni National Park; Lichens; Tropical forests.
33622Goodenough U. & Roth R. (2021): Lichen 5. Medullary and bacterial biofilm layers. - Algal Research, 58: 102333 [37 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2021.102333.
A lichen is a slow-growing niche-constructing organism that form a thallus via scripted symbiotic/mutualist relationships between fungi, algae, and bacteria. In preceding papers we have presented quick-freeze deep-etch EM (QFDEEM) images of the algal and outer layers of squamulose, foliose and fruticose lichens. Here we examine the remaining layers, one occupied by medullary fungal hyphae, and the others including a stunning variety of bacterial biofilms and novel extracellular matrix (ECM) materials. We document that the medullary compartment is filled with an ECM wherein fungal hyphae and secondary metabolites, many crystalline, are suspended in a ground substance that we call fog. We propose that fog is a liquid-glass-like mixture of secondary metabolites (synthesized by the fungi), polyols (synthesized by the algae), and polyol-sequestered water. Bacteria are described in several contexts. In the outer cortical layers of foliose Candelaria and Physcia lobes, they form patchy biofilm islands atop the fungal walls and the polysaccharide-based ECM. In the inner surface of Cladonia podetia they form long heterospecific biofilms at the lichen/external water boundary and at the fog boundary, reinforcing the intrinsic fog/water phase separation and preventing the fog from leaking out. In the outer layer of Usnea fibrils and the inner cortex of foliose lobes, they join fungi and extracellular materials to form surface boundaries. Hence lichenized bacteria not only participate in metabolic exchange but also serve architectural roles in lichen construction and maintenance. Keywords: Lichen; Ascomycete; Alga; Bacterial biofilm; Medullary fog; Polyol; Fungal secondary products; Quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy.
33621Miralles I., Trasar-Cepeda C., Soria R., Ortega R. & Lucas-Borja M.E. (2021): Environmental and ecological factors influencing soil functionality of biologically crusted soils by different lichen species in drylands. - Science of the Total Environment, 794: 148491 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148491.
• Rainfall in drylands modifies the functional response of biocrusts and underlying soil. • Biocrusts affect N and C cycling and modulate response to seasonal climatic conditions. • The extent of biocrusts response to rainfall events varied with the dominant lichen. • Biocrust-induced changes in soil physicochemical factors affect soil microbial activity. • Biocrusts showed higher functionality than the underlying soil layers. Biocrusts are an essential soil surface cover at drylands where ecosystems are especially fragile to soil degradation processes due to climatic peculiarities. In the present work, (micro)biological and physicochemical properties indicative of soil functionality were studied in two different biocrust types dominated by Dipolschistes diacapsis and Lepraria isidiata and in underlying soil at two different depths (SL1, soil layer right below the biocrusts, and SL2, soil layer underlying SL1) at the Tabernas desert (southeast Spain). The influence of climatic factors (rainfall and temperature) and general soil properties on the (micro)biological properties were also analyzed in different environmental (climatic) conditions over a period of two years. PERMANOVA analyses showed significant statistical differences (Pseudo-F = 63.9; P (perm) = 0.001) among biocrust and soil layers. Throughout the study period, enzyme activities involved in C, N, and P cycles; microbial biomass-C; basal respiration; and several properties directly related to ecosystem productivity (total organic carbon, total nitrogen, concentration of ammonium and nitrate) were higher in both biocrust types than in the underlying soil layers, showing that biocrusts improved soil functions related to nutrient cycling. These properties progressively diminished in successive soil layers under the biocrusts (biocrusts > SL1 > SL2). Biocrusts showed greater similarity to each other and to SL1 than to SL2 in (micro)biological properties. A distance-based linear model analysis showed that total organic carbon, rainfall, pH, mineralized N-NH4+, and total nitrogen were the most important variables for predicting (micro)biological soil properties in biocrusts. Different biochemical behavior between the biocrusts and successive underlying soil layers has been found in wet periods. After rainfall periods, the biocrusts showed important peaks in basal soil respiration and in enzyme activities involved in C and P cycles. Nevertheless, soil biochemical properties hardly showed any peak in SL1 and did not change in SL2 despite soil moisture being higher in the soil layers below the biocrusts. Correlation analyses corroborated the existence of different relationships between soil moisture and enzymatic activities. In biocrusts, soil moisture showed a greater number of significant positive correlations with enzymes such as β-glucosidase, invertase, and phosphomonoesterase among others, whereas in SL1 it was only correlated with cellulase and in SL2 with dehydrogenase. A change in rainfall regime, as predicted by models based on climate change in arid and semiarid zones, could affect the activity of soil enzymes in the biocrusts and underlying layers, thus aggravating the degradation of these fragile dryland ecosystems. Keywords: Lichen biocrusts; Enzyme activities; Soil respiration; N mineralization; Microbial biomass-C; Climatic factors.
33620Roth R. & Goodenough U. (2021): Lichen 1. Solo fungal and algal partners. - Algal Research, 58: 102334 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2021.102334.
Lichens are slow-growing niche-constructing organisms that form a thallus via scripted symbiotic/mutualistic relationships between fungi, algae, and bacteria, and that are distributed across nearly all terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy (QFDEEM) to probe the ultrastructure of a lichenforming fungus, Cladonia grayi, and its partner alga, Asterochloris glomerata, grown separately (solo) in the laboratory. The solo fungus resembles its lichenized counterpart in: a) general cellular organization; b) the capacity to form lateral branches; c) the production of extracellular materials; and d) the generation of acellular hyphae that we call struts. It differs in carrying a fibrillar coat on its wall exterior and in often adopting two novel plasma-membrane configurations called pleated and pitted. The solo alga also resembles its lichenized counterpart in general cellular organization, but its algaenan-based wall carries a fibrillar coat not evident in the lichen, and its pyrenoid and plastoglobule endowments are less well developed. These findings are followed by four reports on the QFDEEM ultrastructure of four species of lichens, where we describe the differentiations that occur when the fungi and algae are living together in community with bacteria. Keywords: Lichen; Ascomycete; Alga; Hyphal branching; Quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy.
33619Zhang Y., Wu F., Su M., He D., Gu J.-D., Guo Q., Kakakhel M.A., Yang Y., Wang W. & Feng H. (2021): Spatial and temporal distributions of microbial diversity under natural conditions on the sandstone stelae of the Beishiku Temple in China. - International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 163: 105279 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2021.105279.
•Illumina MiSeq was used for analysis of biofilm on the stelae of the Beishiku Temple. •The microbial communities colonizing the stelae including lichen, bacteria, fungi, algae were characterized. •Temporal variation in bacterial community was mainly driven by climate factors (temperature, precipitation and wind speed). •Some fungi were lichenized type and related to lichens. •The pH correlated with increased diversity of bacteria and algae. Climate and environmental conditions are the main driving factors that are responsible for the biological colonization and deterioration of stone heritage materials, especially for open-air sites. It is critical to determine the relationships among climate, microbial communities, and potential biodeterioration to conserve stone relics. In this study, samples were collected from two severely biodeteriorated stelae that are located in the open air at the Beishiku Temple, China. The genes of 16S/p23S rRNA targeting bacteria and algae and of the ITS1 region for fungi were analysed by using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Additionally, lichens were examined and described. The results showed that the bacterial community compositions varied with seasonal variations and that the dominant phyla were Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Most of the fungi were affiliated with Ascomycota, and some of them were lichenized types and were related to the lichens that had already formed on the stelae. Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria were the dominant algal groups that inhabited the stelae surfaces. Xanthoria and Lecanora were the most dominant genera, which belong to foliose lichen and crust-like lichen, respectively. PCoA analysis showed that the bacterial and algal community structures, rather than those of fungi, were closely correlated with climate parameters. Temperature, precipitation, and wind speed were the main factors that were associated with changes in bacterial communities, while pH was closely associated with increased diversity of bacteria and algae. This study presents basic insights into the lithic microbial ecology in open-air stone monuments and may guide management decisions for their protection and preventative conservation. Keywords: Climate parameters; Historical stone; Biodeterioration; Bacteria; Fungi; Algae; Lichens.
33618Zhang T., Wang N. & Yu L. (2021): Host-specificity of moss-associated fungal communities in the Ny-Ålesund region (Svalbard, High Arctic) as revealed by amplicon pyrosequencing. - Fungal Ecology, 53: 101092 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2021.101092.
Fungal communities play a significant role in regulating ecological processes in the Arctic tundra. However, the extent to which the Arctic moss species and host types (moss, lichen and vascular plant) determine the richness, diversity, and composition of fungal communities at a local scale has not been quantitatively explored. Using 454 pyrosequencing in the current study, we characterized the fungal communities associated with six moss species (Andreaea rupestris, Bryum pseudotriquetrum, Hymenoloma crispulum, Polytrichastrum alpinum, Racomitrium lanuginosum, and Sanionia uncinata) and compared them with fungal communities associated with lichens and vascular plants in the Ny-Ålesund region (High Arctic). Host-species preference had greater explanatory power than geographical factors (longitude, latitude, elevation) in shaping moss-associated fungal communities. Fungal communities associated with mosses differed significantly from those associated with vascular plants and lichens, suggesting specificity of the fungal communities among three host types. Pairwise comparison analysis also indicated that the relative abundance of many taxonomic groups (e.g., Chaetothyriales, Leotiales, Catenulifera, Alatospora, and Toxicocladosporium) significantly differed between mosses and the other two host types. These results suggest host factors significantly affect the distribution of the fungal species associated with these moss species in the local-scale Arctic tundra. Keywords: Fungal diversity; Community composition; High-throughput sequencing; Geographical factor; Moss.
33617Tinya F., Kovács B., Bidló A., Dima B., Király I., Kutszegi G., Lakatos F., Mag Z., Márialigeti S., Nascimbene J., Samu F., Siller I., Szél G. & Ódor P. (2021): Environmental drivers of forest biodiversity in temperate mixed forests – A multi-taxon approach. - Science of the Total Environment, 795: 148720 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148720.
• Forest biodiversity conservation needs knowledge about the environmental drivers. • We studied forest stand, microclimate, soil, litter, landscape, and land-use history. • The response of eleven forest-dwelling organism groups was evaluated. • Stand structure and tree species composition were the most important drivers. • Management has the potential to ensure favorable conditions for biodiversity. Harmonization of timber production and forest conservation is a major challenge of modern silviculture. For the establishment of ecologically sustainable forest management, the management-related environmental drivers of multi-taxon biodiversity should be explored. Our study reveals those environmental variables related to tree species diversity and composition, stand structure, litter and soil conditions, microclimate, landscape, and land-use history that determine species richness and composition of 11 forest-dwelling organism groups. Herbs, woody regeneration, ground-floor and epiphytic bryophytes, epiphytic lichens, terricolous saprotrophic, ectomycorrhizal, and wood-inhabiting macrofungi, spiders, carabid beetles, and birds were sampled in West Hungarian mature mixed forests. The correlations among the diversities and compositions of different organism groups were also evaluated. Drivers of organism groups were principally related to stand structure, tree species diversity and composition, and microclimate,while litter, soil, landscape, and land-use historical variableswere less influential. The complex roles of the shrub layer, deadwood, and the size of the trees in determining the diversity and composition of various taxawere revealed. Standswithmore tree species sustained higher stand-level species richness of several taxa. Besides, stands with different dominant tree species harbored various species communities of organism groups. Therefore, landscape-scale diversity of dominant tree species may enhance the diversity of forestdwelling communities at landscape level. The effects of the overstory layer on forest biodiversity manifested in many cases via microclimate conditions. Diversity of organism groups showed weaker relationship with the diversity of other taxa than with environmental variables. According to our results, themost influential drivers of forest biodiversity are under the direct control of the actual silvicultural management. Heterogeneous stand structure and tree species composition promote the different organismgroups in various ways. Therefore, the long-term maintenance of the structural and compositional heterogeneity both at stand and landscape scale is an important aspect of ecologically sustainable forest management. Keywords: Forest organism groups; Litter; Microclimate; Soil; Stand structure; Tree species composition.
33616Yao Z.-T., Jiang S.-H. & Jia Z.-F. (2021): Mazosia weii sp. nov. (Roccellaceae) from China, a new species supported by molecular data. - Bryologist, 124(3): 335–342. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.3.335.
During a study of the genus Mazosia in China, a new species, named here M. weii, was found. Its position was found to be supported by molecular data of the mtSSU and nuLSU markers. The new species is characterized by a pilose thallus with brown verrucae and 3-septate ascospores measuring 22.5–35 × 4–6.25 µm. The morphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics are described in detail and a key to Mazosia with pilose thalli is added. Keywords: Genotype, new species, phenotype, taxonomy.
33615Shcherbakova A., Strömstedt A.A., Göransson U., Gnezdilov O., Turanov A., Boldbaatar D., Kochkin D., Ulrich‑Merzenich G. & Koptina A. (2021): Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Evernia prunastri extracts and their isolates. - World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 37: 129 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-021-03099-y.
Lichens are symbiotic organisms formed by a fungus and one or more photosynthetic partners which are usually alga or cyanobacterium. Their diverse and scarcely studied metabolites facilitate adaptability to extreme living conditions. We investigated Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach., a widely distributed lichen, for its antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. E. prunastri was sequentially extracted by hexane (Hex), dichloromethane (DCM) and acetonitrile (ACN) that were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial (against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans) activities. The Hex extract possessed the highest antioxidant capacity (87 mg ascorbic acid/g extract) corresponding to the highest content of phenols (73 mg gallic acid/g extract). The DCM and Hex extracts were both active against S. aureus (MICs of 4 and 21 µg/ml, respectively) but were less active against Gram-negative bacteria and yeast. The ACN extract exhibited activity on both S. aureus (MIC 14 µg/ml) and C. albicans (MIC 38 µg/ml) and was therefore further fractionated by silica gel column chromatography. The active compound of the most potent fraction was subsequently characterized by 1 H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy and identifed as evernic acid. Structural similarity analyses were performed between compounds from E. prunastri and known antibiotics from diferent classes. The structural similarity was not present. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of E. prunastri extracts originate from multiple chemical compounds; besides usnic acid, most notably evernic acid and derivatives thereof. Evernic acid and its derivatives represent possible candidates for a new class of antibiotics. Keywords: Antimicrobial activity · Anti-oxidative activity · Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. · Evernic acid · Lichen · Usnic acid.
33614Rodrigues A.S., Canêz L.S. & Lorenz A.P. (2021): Canoparmelia amazonica, Myelochroa lindmanii and Parmelinella salacinifera belong to Parmelinella (Parmeliaceae). - Bryologist, 124(3): 352–361. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.3.352.
The lichen family Parmeliaceae is among the best studied groups of lichens. Canoparmelia amazonica, Myelochroa lindmanii, and Parmelinella salacinifera are species of Parmeliaceae that have yet to be studied in detail with molecular methods. This study used analyses of ITS sequences to examine the phylogenetic position of these three species. Canoparmelia amazonica and M. lindmanii were recovered within Parmelinella rather than the genera to which they are currently assigned. While for the P. salacinifera we confirmed its phylogenetic position within the genus. Chemical and morphological descriptions of species are provided, generic placement is discussed, and new combinations are proposed as needed. These results highlight the need for morphological revision of the delimitation of Parmelinella, a small genus of Parmeliaceae that has been considered well-defined morphologically and is phylogenetically closely related to Bulbothrix s.l. Keywords: Lichens, taxonomy, ITS, restinga vegetation, Cerrado vegetation, Brazil.
33613Prieto M., Etayo J. & Olariaga I. (2021): A new lineage of mazaediate fungi in the Eurotiomycetes: Cryptocaliciomycetidae subclass. nov., based on the new species Cryptocalicium blascoi and the revision of the ascoma evolution. - Mycological Progress, 20: 889–904. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-021-01710-y.
The class Eurotiomycetes (Ascomycota, Pezizomycotina) comprises important fungi used for medical, agricultural, industrial and scientific purposes. Eurotiomycetes is a morphologically and ecologically diverse monophyletic group. Within the Eurotiomycetes, different ascoma morphologies are found including cleistothecia and perithecia but also apothecia or stromatic forms. Mazaediate representatives (with a distinct structure in which loose masses of ascospores accumulate to be passively disseminated) have evolved independently several times. Here we describe a new mazaediate species belonging to the Eurotiomycetes. The multigene phylogeny produced (7 gene regions: nuLSU, nuSSU, 5.8S nuITS, mtSSU, RPB1, RPB2 and MCM7) placed the new species in a lineage sister to Eurotiomycetidae. Based on the evolutionary relationships and morphology, a new subclass, a new order, family and genus are described to place the new species: Cryptocalicium blascoi. This calicioid species occurs on the inner side of loose bark strips of Cupressaceae (Cupressus, Juniperus). Morphologically, C. blascoi is characterized by having minute apothecioid stalked ascomata producing mazaedia, clavate bitunicate asci with hemiamyloid reaction, presence of hamathecium and an apothecial external surface with dark violet granules that becomes turquoise green in KOH. The ancestral state reconstruction analyses support a common ancestor with open ascomata for all deep nodes in Eurotiomycetes and the evolution of closed ascomata (cleistothecioid in Eurotiomycetidae and perithecioid in Chaetothyriomycetidae) from apothecioid ancestors. The appropriateness of the description of a new subclass for this fungus is also discussed. Keywords: Ascomycota . Cryptocaliciales ord. nov. . Cryptocaliciaceae fam. nov. . Ascoma evolution . Calicioid . Hemiamyloid asci . Spain.
33612Aptroot A., Souza M.F. & Spielmann A.A. (2021): Two new crustose Cladonia species with strepsilin and other new lichens from the Serra de Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 42(8): 137–148. https://doi.org/10.5252/cryptogamie-mycologie2021v42a8.
Five species of lichens are described as new from the Serra de Maracaju in Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil): Cladonia gumboskii Aptroot, M.F. Souza & Spielmann, sp. nov. (also reported from five other states in Brazil), C. zebrathallina Aptroot & Spielmann, sp. nov., Lecanora fluoroxylina Aptroot & M.F.Souza, sp. nov. (also reported from Mato Grosso and Paraná), L. lichexanthoxylina Aptroot & M.F. Souza, sp. nov., and Trypethelium muriforme Aptroot & M.F.Souza, sp. nov.. A further 123 species are reported new to the area, of which ten are first records for Brazil and a further 41 are first records for the state. Key words: Lecanora, Trypethelium, Cerrado, new species.
33611Jozdani S., Chen D., Chen W., Leblanc S.G., Prévost C., Lovitt J., He L. & Johnson B.A. (2021): Leveraging deep neural networks to map caribou lichen in high-resolution satellite images based on a small-scale, noisy UAV-derived map. - Remote Sensing, 13(14): 2658 [24 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13142658.
Lichen is an important food source for caribou in Canada. Lichen mapping using remote sensing (RS) images could be a challenging task, however, as lichens generally appear in unevenly distributed, small patches, and could resemble surficial features. Moreover, collecting lichen labeled data (reference data) is expensive, which restricts the application of many robust supervised classification models that generally demand a large quantity of labeled data. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential of using a very-high-spatial resolution (1-cm) lichen map of a small sample site (e.g., generated based on a single UAV scene and using field data) to train a subsequent classifier to map caribou lichen over a much larger area (~0.04 km2 vs. ~195 km2) and a lower spatial resolution image (in this case, a 50-cm WorldView-2 image). The limited labeled data from the sample site were also partially noisy due to spatial and temporal mismatching issues. For this, we deployed a recently proposed Teacher-Student semi-supervised learning (SSL) approach (based on U-Net and U-Net++ networks) involving unlabeled data to assist with improving the model performance. Our experiments showed that it was possible to scale-up the UAV-derived lichen map to the WorldView-2 scale with reasonable accuracy (overall accuracy of 85.28% and F1-socre of 84.38%) without collecting any samples directly in the WorldView-2 scene. We also found that our noisy labels were partially beneficial to the SSL robustness because they improved the false positive rate compared to the use of a cleaner training set directly collected within the same area in the WorldView-2 image. As a result, this research opens new insights into how current very high-resolution, small-scale caribou lichen maps can be used for generating more accurate large-scale caribou lichen maps from high-resolution satellite imagery. Keywords: remote sensing; lichen mapping; deep learning; semi-supervised learning; teacherstudent learning; WorldView-2; unmanned aerial vehicle.
33610Muggia L., Quan Y., Gueidan C., Al-Hatmi A.M.S., Grube M. & de Hoog S. (2021): Sequence data from isolated lichen-associated melanized fungi enhance delimitation of two new lineages within Chaetothyriomycetidae. - Mycological Progress, 20: 911–927. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-021-01706-8.
Lichen thalli provide a long-lived and stable habitat for colonization by a wide range of microorganisms. Increased interest in these lichen-associated microbial communities has revealed an impressive diversity of fungi, including several novel lineages which still await formal taxonomic recognition. Among these, members of the Eurotiomycetes and Dothideomycetes usually occur asymptomatically in the lichen thalli, even if they share ancestry with fungi that may be parasitic on their host. Mycelia of the isolates are characterized by melanized cell walls and the fungi display exclusively asexual propagation. Their taxonomic placement requires, therefore, the use of DNA sequence data. Here, we consider recently published sequence data from lichenassociated fungi and characterize and formally describe two new, individually monophyletic lineages at family, genus, and species levels. The Pleostigmataceae fam. nov. and Melanina gen. nov. both comprise rock-inhabiting fungi that associate with epilithic, crust-forming lichens in subalpine habitats. The phylogenetic placement and the monophyly of Pleostigmataceae lack statistical support, but the family was resolved as sister to the order Verrucariales. This family comprises the species Pleostigma alpinum sp. nov., P. frigidum sp. nov., P. jungermannicola, and P. lichenophilum sp. nov. The placement of the genus Melanina is supported as a lineage within the Chaetothyriales. To date, this genus comprises the single species M. gunde-cimermaniae sp. nov. and forms a sister group to a large lineage including Herpotrichiellaceae, Chaetothyriaceae, Cyphellophoraceae, and Trichomeriaceae. The new phylogenetic analysis of the subclass Chaetothyiomycetidae provides new insight into genus and family level delimitation and classification of this ecologically diverse group of fungi. Keywords: Black yeast . Fungal lifestyles . Melanina . Ribosomal RNA . nucLSU . Pleostigma.
33609Tsurykau A.G., Golubov V.V., Persson P.-E. & Thell A. (2021): The red-listed Cetrelia cetrarioides (Parmeliaceae) is confirmed by molecular data in Belarus. - Известия Гомельского государственного университета имени Ф. Скорины, 3: 152–153. .
The new locality of the Red-listed lichen Cetrelia cetrarioides was discovered in Belovezhskaya Puscha National Park. The occurrence of this species was confirmed by the sequence of the ITS region. Keywords: biodiversity, distribution, Red Data Book, lichens, ITS.
33608Fritz Ö. & Larsson K. (1996): Betydelsen av skoglig kontinuitet för rödlistade lavar. En studie av halländsk bokskog [The significance of long forest continuity to red-listed lichens. A study of beech forest in the province of Halland, SW Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 91: 241–262. .
The significance of long forest continuity to the occurrence of red-listed lichens was investigated in Halland, southwestern Sweden. The location of all localities known to harbour at least 5 red-listed species of epiphytic lichens was compared to the distribution of forest in 1650 and 1850 according to historical maps. Long forest continuity (i.e. deciduous forest occurring around 1650, 1850 and in 1995) was detected in 36 out of 38 localities (95 %) with 10 species or more, and in at least 66 out of 83 localities (79 %) with 5–9 species . Due to the used methods, the actual number of sites with long forest continuity was probably underestimated. Out of the 38 top localities, as many as 31 represented former common grazing lands, mostly those of former manors. In another investigation, all localities known to harbour any one of 29 selected species growing on beech Fagus sylvatica (27 red-listed lichens or lichens used as indicators of stands with conservation values, and 2 rare bryophytes) were checked for long forest continuity. Continuity of old deciduous trees was more or less strongly indicated by all species. For species occurring on beech, the percentage of localities with long forest continuity varied between species from 68 % to 100 %, for most species it was higher than 80 %. For species occurring on oak, the percentage was generally lower, from 33 % to 79 %. In a closer investigation of 307 deciduous forest stands (mostly beech) within a 250 km2-area, only 17 % of the stands turned out to have long forest continuity. Same of the investigated species are suggested to be useful as indicators of different leveIs of conservation value of beech forest stands. The results strongly indicate that long forest continuity is important for many red-listed lichen species in nemoral forest. Biological or ecological continuity seems to be an important aspect of continuity of forest species. The history and present distribution of beech forest in Halland area are also discussed.
33607Gaya E., Vasco-Palacios A.M., Vargas-Estupiñán N., Lücking R., Carretero J., Sanjuan T., Moncada B., Allkin B., Bolaños-Rojas A.C., Castellanos-Castro C., Coca L.F., Corrales A., Cossu T., Davis L., dSouza J., Dufat A., Franco-Molano A.E., García F, Gómez-Montoya N., González-Cuellar F.E, Hammond D., Herrera A., Jaramillo-Ciro M.M., Lasso-Benavides C. Mira M. P., Morley J., Motato-Vásquez V., Niño-Fernández Y., Ortiz-Moreno M.L., Peña-Cañón E.R., Ramírez-Castrillón M., Rojas T., Ruff J., Simijaca D., Sipman H.J.M., Soto-Medina E., Torres G., Torres-Andrade P.A., Ulian T., White K. & Diazgranados M. (2021): ColFungi: Colombian resources for Fungi Made Accessible. - Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 34 p. .
popular bilingual booklet (English and Spanish) with numerous high quality photographs; Colombia; biodiversity; databases
33606von Brackel W. (2021): Lichenicolous fungi from Campania (Italy). - Borziana, 2: 31–68. https://doi.org/10.7320/Borz.002.031.
During a two weeks excursion to Campania in 2016, 36 lichenologically interesting sites were visited. The results of these field studies with special emphasis on lichenicolous fungi are presented, completed with data from the literature. The resulting list comprises 56 species based on original data (own recent records) and 29 species known only from literature ; now 85 species of lichenicolous fungi are known from Campania (80 non-lichenized, obligatory lichenicolous fungi). Among these, one species (Microsphaeropsis lichenicola) is new to Europe, one species (Feltgeniomyces luxemburgensis) is new to Italy and 47 species are new to Campania. The new species Endococcus collematis Brackel is described. Provisional descriptions are given for Arthonia sp. (on Pannaria conoplea), Capronia lecanorae ad int. (on Lecanora horiza), Lichenopeltella lecanoricola ad int. (on L. horiza), Polycoccum sp. (on Romjularia lurida) and Stigmidium sp. (on Xanthoparmelia conspersa). In the Table 1, a list of all noted lichens from the 36 visited sites is given. Key words: Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina, lichens, Endococcus, Lichenopeltella, Mediterranean Introduction.
33605Weber L., Printzen C., Bässler C. & Kantelinen A. (2021): Seven Micarea (Pilocarpaceae) species new to Germany and notes on deficiently known species in the Bavarian Forest. - Herzogia, 34: 5–17. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.5.
We report new records of 19, predominantly rare, Micarea species, mostly from dead wood in mixed montane forests characterized mainly by Norway spruce, European beech and silver fir in the Bavarian Forest National Park on the German-Czech border. Their ecology and key morphological features are discussed. Micarea contexta, M. fallax, M. melanobola, M. pseudomicrococca, M. pusilla, M. soralifera and M. tomentosa are reported for the first time from Germany. Micarea anterior, M. byssacea, M. elachista, M. laeta, M. micrococca and M. nowakii, in addition to the aforementioned, are reported as new for the Bavarian Forest National Park. Key words: Bohemian Forest, dead wood, lignicole, microlichens.
33604Konoreva L.A., Chesnokov S.V., Stepanchikova I.S., Spribille T., Björk C. & Williston P. (2021): Nine Micarea species new to Canada including five species new to North America. - Herzogia, 34: 18–37. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.18.
Nine species of the genus Micarea are reported for the first time from Canada including five (M. contexta, M. fallax, M. pseudomicrococca, M. pusilla, M. tomentosa) which are new to North America. Most of them are part of the Micarea prasina complex. Canadian records of further rare or taxonomically challenging species (M. botryoides, M. inopinula, M. prasina s. str.) are revised. The Canadian records are discussed in the context of their wider distribution, and differences to related or morphologically similar species are indicated. Key words: Biogeography, British Columbia, Pacific Northwest, Pilocarpaceae, taxonomy.
33603Malíček J., Bouda F., Konečná E., Sipman H. & Vondrák J. (2021): New country records of lichenized and non-lichenized fungi from Southeastern Europe. - Herzogia, 34: 38–54. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.38.
One hundred and ten lichenized and three non-lichenized fungi are reported from southeastern Europe, mostly from the Balkan Peninsula. Caloplaca phaeothamnos is new to Europe. Caloplaca brachyspora, Chaenotheca cinerea, Gyalecta liguriensis, Peltula placodizans, Pleurosticta koflerae, Polyblastia forana, Protoparmelia oleagina, Protoparmeliopsis achariana, P. vaenskaei and Verrucaria breussii are new to southeastern Europe. New country records are reported for Albania (57 species), Bosnia and Herzegovina (4), Bulgaria (15), Croatia (3), Greece (14), Kosovo (6), Montenegro (1), North Macedonia (5), Romania (1) and Serbia (12). Many of these records are from old-growth and primeval forests. They underline the high potential for nature and biodiversity protection of many localities on the Balkan Peninsula. Key words: Bredhi i Hotovës-Dangëlli, Llogara, Orlovo Brdo, Paklenica, Mt Smolikas, Thethit.
33602Zakeri Z., Yazizi K. & Aptroot A. (2021): Lecidea soredioatrobrunnea sp. nov. from Turkey, the first saxicolous true Lecidea with soredia. - Herzogia, 34: 55–61. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.55.
The new sterile saxicolous species Lecidea soredioatrobrunnea is described. It is characterized by a greenish grey, areolate thallus with distinct soralia. The new species is known from Turkey. Phylogenetic analysis with the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) sequences revealed that it clustered with a high degree of certainty inside Lecidea s. str., but it differs from all other Lecidea species by bearing soredia. Key words: taxonomy, mtSSU, Lecideaceae.
33601Tumur A., Mamut R. & Seaward M.R.D. (2021): An updated checklist of lichens of Xinjiang Province, China. - Herzogia, 34: 62–92. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.62.
The earliest list of 67 species, 19 varieties and 17 forms of lichens for Xinjiang Province in northwestern China by Wei in 1991 was extended by Abbas in 2002 to 278 species, 3 subspecies, 15 varieties and 17 forms, and by Xahidin in 2005 to c. 398 species. The present study of the largest province in China, based on a comprehensive literature survey supported by a study of herbarium material, lists 596 taxa composed of 580 species, 4 subspecies and 12 varieties; of the 160 lichen genera, Cladonia has the highest number of species with 40, followed by Acarospora (30), Aspicilia (24) and Peltigera (24). Key words: Lichenicolous fungi, tundra lichens, Tianshan, arid zone, Northwest China.
33600Xie C.-M., Zhao Z.-T., Cheng P.-F. & Zhang L.-L. (2021): Additional species of Pyrenula (Pyrenulaceae) from China. - Herzogia, 34: 93–100. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.93.
Pyrenula acutispora, P. adacta, P. aggregata, P. cayennensis and P. confoederata are new to China. Pyrenula dermatodes and P. fetivica are new to Heilongjiang Province and P. fetivica and P. mamillana are new to Guangxi Province. Except for the two species reported from Taoshan National Forest Park in the cool-temperate province of Heilongjiang, all records originate from a virgin forest at Mt. Shengtang in the subtropical province of Guangxi. Detailed taxonomic descriptions with illustrations are provided. Key words: taxonomy, tropical lichens, new records.
33599Shivarov V.V., Varga N., Lőkös L., von Brackel W., Ganeva A., Natcheva R. & Farkas E. (2021): Contributions to the Bulgarian lichenicolous mycota – an annotated checklist and new records. - Herzogia, 34: 142–153. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.142.
An annotated checklist of 45 taxa of lichenicolous fungi from Bulgaria is presented. Arthonia parietinaria, Athelia arachnoidea, Cercidospora caudata, C. epipolytropa, Didymocyrtis cladoniicola, Endococcus verrucosus, Illosporiopsis christiansenii, Lichenoconium erodens, L. lecanorae, Pronectria subimperspicua, Pyrenochaeta xanthoriae and Stigmidium tabacinae are reported for the first time from Bulgaria. To assess the expected diversity of lichenicolous fungi in Bulgaria, we applied a Lichenicolous Index (LI) to compare with other regions with better knowledge about lichenicolous mycota. At the current stage of the known number of lichens in Bulgaria we expect between 225 and 315 lichenicolous fungi for the country. Key words: Biodiversity, Bulgaria, distribution, lichenicolous fungi.
33598Zhurbenko M.P. (2021): New species of lichenicolous fungi on Solorina. - Herzogia, 34: 127–137. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.127.
Three species of lichenicolous fungi growing on Solorina are described as new to science: Acaroconium lavrinenkoae, with pale orange, ±superficial pycnidia with a medium brownish orange ostiolar area, and light or greyish orange, comparatively long, mainly oblong conidia, occasionally truncated at one end; Didymellopsis solorinae, with 2(– 4)-spored asci; and Thamnogalla episolorina, with fusiform to subcylindrical, comparatively long ascospores. Additionally, one discocarpous and two pyrenocarpous ascomycetes found on Solorina are informally described. Key words: Arctic, Asia, Europe, Kyrgyz Republic, lichen parasites, taxonomy.
33597Berger F. & von Brackel W. (2021): Lichenohendersonia physciicola sp. nov., a new coelomycete on Physcia. - Herzogia, 34: 138–141. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.138.
The lichenicolous coelomycete Lichenohendersonia physciicola, growing on Physcia is described as new from Austria and Bavaria and compared with the other species of the genus Lichenohendersonia. Key words: Lichenicolous fungi, Ascomycota.
33596Diederich P. (2021): Notes on lichenicolous taxa of the asexual fungal genera Intralichen and Trimmatostroma, with a revised key and descriptions of four new species. - Herzogia, 34: 101–126. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.101.
The genus Intralichen comprises several mainly intrahymenial lichenicolous species of unknown phylogenetic affinities, each reported from a very large host-spectrum, with many reports obviously representing wrong identifications. We suggest restricting the use of each of these species names to collections growing on the same host genus as the type specimen, i.e., all other reports from different hosts are considered uncertain. Intralichen christiansenii is considered as a synonym of I. lichenicola, a species confined to Candelariella species. Intralichen lichenum s. str. is a poorly known and rarely collected species from Arthoniales hosts, while similar populations on Strangospora are treated as I. aff. lichenum. Intralichen baccisporus has not been revised, as sufficient material from the many Teloschistaceae genera was not available. Morphologically similar species growing on the thalli, not in the hymenium, of various lichen hosts are included in the genus Trimmatostroma, although most lichenicolous species do not seem to be related to the generic type. The new species Trimmatostroma acetabuli (on Pleurosticta acetabulum), T. denigrans (on Lecanora horiza), T. rouxii (on Opegrapha durieui and other saxicolous Arthoniales) and T. vandenboomii (on Myriolecis albescens) are described. Fertile material of T. arctoparmeliae has been studied, with the result that this species is combined as Sphaerellothecium arctoparmeliae. A revised key to all known lichenicolous species of Intralichen and Trimmatostroma is given. Key words: Bispora, hyphomycetes, lichenicolous fungi, Sphaerellothecium.
33595Berger F. & Türk R. (2021): Franz Priemetzhofer (1951–2020). - Herzogia, 34: 1–4. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.1.
obituary; biography; bibliography
33594Diederich P. & Schultz M. (2021): The identity of Verrucaster lichenicola Tobler. - Herzogia, 34: 203–207. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.203.
The genus and species Verrucaster lichenicola, described by Tobler in 1913 for waxy pycnidia with hyaline, aseptate conidia on Cladonia bacillaris, was poorly known, as the type was missing and no additional similar specimen available. The recent discovery of the type in HBG allowed us to understand that it represents pycnidia of Cladonia, not of a lichenicolous fungus. The names thus become younger synonyms of Cladonia and C. macilenta. Key words: Cladonia, coelomycetes, lichenicolous fungi, pycnidia.
33593Wagner B., Němcová L. & Wirth V. (2021): Lecanora ochroidea in der Tschechischen Republik aufgefunden. - Herzogia, 34: 216–218. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.34.1.2021.216.
In the course of a lichenological study of the mountain Kamenná hůra near Merboltice, the lichen Lecanora ochroidea was found. This lichen has an otherwise Subatlantic distribution and is new to the Czech Republic. Kamenná hůra is a basalt hill in the České Středohoří Mountains and is protected as a nature reserve. It is known for its abundance of boulders and for ice caves at the northern base of the mountain. The Lecanora ochroidea population occurs on boulders on a south-facing slope. Böhmisches Mittelgebirge, Kamenná hůra.
33592Cameron R.P. (2021): GIS-based modeling to assess ecological niche differentiation in four species of sympatric lichens at risk in Nova Scotia, Canada. - Bryologist, 124(3): 323–334. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.3.323.
Species distribution models (SDMs) rely on the concept of niche theory that suggests that individual species live within definable ranges of environmental conditions. Comparisons of SDMs between species can help further the understanding of competitive exclusion and niche differentiation. SDMs were created for Erioderma pedicellatum, E. mollissimum, Pectenia plumbea and Pannaria lurida, four sympatric species that occur in Nova Scotia, Canada. Logistic regression was used to create SDMs using nine environmental explanatory variables and presence of the modeled species as the response variable. There was significant overlap in environmental space between species, but each species tended to occupy a unique combination of environmental attributes. The Erioderma pedicellatum model from this study suggests this species occurs in cooler wet climate at mid-elevations in older closed canopy coniferous forest. Results from this study indicate Erioderma mollissimum occurs in old to mature deciduous forests at low to mid-elevation in warm, moderately wet climates. Pectenia plumbea tended to be found at low to mid-elevations in areas with moderately cool temperature with mid to high mean annual precipitation. Pannaria lurida tended to occupy mature to old forests occurring in areas with mid-range mean annual precipitation at higher elevations. Since this study examined a relatively small number of environmental variables, further study at different scales and with more extensive datasets would likely reveal further insights into competitive exclusion among these four cyanolichens. Keywords: Species distributions model, sympatric cyanolichens, niche differentiation, Nova Scotia.
33591Mark C.J., Painting C.J., O’Hanlon J.C. & Holwell G.I. (2021): Lichen moths do not beneft from ‘element imitation’ masquerade in the absence of a matching background. - Evolutionary Ecology, 35: 401–412. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10682-021-10110-3.
Predation places signifcant selection pressures on prey species and many have evolved incredible and diverse colour patterns in response. A fascinating example of such adaptive colouration and morphology is masquerade, a camoufage strategy in which organisms resemble innocuous and inedible objects, such as leaves or twigs. Masquerading prey avoid predation by being misclassifed as irrelevant parts of the environment, rather than as food. Here we assess a putative case of masquerade in the North Island lichen moth, Declana atronivea (Geometridae), an endemic New Zealand species with intricate black and white forewings that appear to resemble lichen. Lichen masquerade is a type of ‘element imitation’ in which the object being mimicked forms a common element of the environmental pattern. However, unlike discrete objects, such as leaves and twigs, lichen may be difficult to distinguish as a distinct entity. This raises the question of whether D. atronivea can be said to look like ‘a’ lichen, or whether its body colouration appears as a component of a larger patch of lichen. In this case, does the lichen resemblance function as a form of masquerade, or is it an example of background matching? Using laboratory experiments with domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) as predators, we investigated whether D. atronivea moths avoid predation by being misclassifed as lichen. We exposed naïve and experienced chicks to D. atronivea and compared their responses, predicting that if the moths do beneft from masquerade, chicks with previous experience of lichen would take longer to attack. Our hypothesis was not supported; there was no signifcant diference in predator interaction regardless of prior experience, suggesting that, in the absence of a matching background, D. atronivea do not beneft from masquerading as lichen. Rather, this may be a case of context-dependent misclassifcation, or perhaps the forewing colouration promotes concealment through crypsis. Keywords: Camoufage · Element imitation · Lichen · Moth · Masquerade · Crypsis.
33590Suresh A.B. & Nadumane V.K. (2021): The metabolite 5‑methyl‑1,3‑benzenediol and its derivative methyl‑2,4‑dihydroxy‑6‑methylbenzoate from the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum with potent apoptotic and anti‑angiogenesis effects. - 3 Biotech, 11: 346 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-021-02883-9.
Nature has been a rich resource of novel anticancer agents, one such source being lichens, which represent the symbiosis between algae and fungi with diverse range of secondary metabolites having therapeutic signifcance. With respect to this, the present study evaluates the in vitro apoptogenic profle of secondary metabolites from the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum towards cancer cell lines. Treatment with TLC-purifed fraction 1 from P. tinctorum resulted in signifcant reduction in the cell viabilities of cancer cells with IC50 values ranging between 1.2 and 12.8 μg/ml. The potential anticancer efect of the bioactive fraction was further supported by Trypan blue cell viability, LDH and DNA fragmentation assays. At the cellular level, induction of apoptosis was confrmed through the activation of the caspase cascade and apoptotic cells accumulating in the Sub-G1 phase of cell cycle. Angiogenesis being one of the major characteristics needed for cancer growth, the ability of the lichen fraction to inhibit angiogenesis was checked through in ovo Yolk Sac Membrane (YSM) assay and was found to be signifcant. The study also verifed the non-toxic nature of the bioactive fraction towards normal human peripheral lymphocytes. HPLC analysis and GC–MS characterisation of the bioactive fraction indicated the presence of 5-methyl1,3-benzenediol and its derivative methyl-2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoate. Keywords: Anti-angiogenesis · Apoptosis · Lichens · In ovo · In vitro · High-performance liquid chromatography · Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry.
33589Broome A., Inchboard L.L., Perks M., Clarke T.-K., Park K.J. & Thompson R. (2021): Can epiphytic lichens of remnant Atlantic oakwood trees in a planted ancient woodland site survive early stages of woodland restoration?. - Annals of Forest Science, 78: 58 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13595-021-01069-w.
Key message: Epiphytic lichens of remnant Atlantic oakwood trees, enclosed within a recently planted conifer matrix, show ability to survive early stages of woodland restoration (conifer removal). Context: Atlantic oakwood, ancient semi-natural woodland (ASNW), supports important epiphytic lichens. Fragmented ASNW, historically in-filled with conifers, are now being restored to reflect ASNW tree and ground flora character. Concerns exist that sudden and total removal of the conifer matrix will be detrimental to the epiphyte diversity of remnant trees retained within the former plantation. Aims: Here, we ask whether an unintended consequence of habitat restoration is the loss of epiphyte populations on remnant trees. Methods: Dynamics of ground flora development were studied at one 50-ha site on the west coast of Scotland using indicator species occurrence and species traits. Change in cover of lichen species was determined and lichen vitality was assessed in two Lobaria species using chlorophyll fluorescence as a proxy. Assessments pre-, post- and nine years after conifer removal were made in plantation areas (containing remnant oak trees) and ASNW areas. Results: Re-vegetation of the ground flora was predominantly by ASNW vegetation. Species richness and occurrence of native woodland indicator species increased and the community showed stronger competitor traits. Lichen vitality was initially reduced but recovered. Tests showed change in the abundance of key lichen species and lichen community diversity was non-significant despite the loss of four lichen species on remnant trees. Conclusion: Ground flora dynamics indicate site recovery was underway within eight years of restoration activities and epiphytic lichens although variable in response were in this study largely unaffected, this restoration approach could be appropriate for other Atlantic oakwoods where lichen conservation is an objective. Keywords: ASNW . PAWS . Restoration . Lichen . Conservation . Species traits.
33588Chen X., Bai F., Huang J., Lu Y., Wu Y., Yu J. & Bai S. (2021): The organisms on rock cultural heritages: Growth and weathering. - Geoheritage, 13: 56 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12371-021-00588-2.
Weathering represents severe destruction to outdoor cultural rock heritages. In the process, biological weathering caused by microorganisms is known to be the key process. With abundantly available nutrients and a suitable climate, there is a higher abundance and diversity of microorganisms in moss and lichen biocrusts than on bare rock surfaces. However, few studies have been conducted on weathering in these microhabitats. In this review, we emphasize the role of microorganisms, mosses, and lichens in weathering; expound the various bioweathering phenomena on rock cultural heritages; discuss the major pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and archaea on rock cultural heritages; and compare the diferent bioweathering mechanisms on calcareous and siliceous rock substrates. More deeply, we explain the interaction between mosses and microorganisms and the weathering processes and mechanisms in these microhabitats and analyze why the weathering will be intensifed in moss and lichen habitats. Finally, we provide a reference to establish a practical and efective method to protect rock cultural heritages from microbial destruction. Keywords: Moss · Lichen · Biological weathering · Rock cultural heritage · Corrosion · Crust.
33587An D.-F., Jiang L.-Q., Zhang K., Li G.-D., Wang X.-Y., Jiang M.-G., Lang L., Wang L.-S., Imhof J.F., Jiang C.-L. & Jiang Y. (2021): Glaciibacter favus sp. nov., isolated from a lichen sample. - Archives of Microbiology, 203: 2439–2444. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-021-02247-0.
A novel Actinobacterium strain YIM 131861 T, was isolated from lichen collected from the South Bank Forest of the Baltic Sea, Germany. It was Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, catalase positive and oxidase negative, yellow pigmented. Cells were motile with a polar fagellum, irregular rod shaped and did not display spore formation. The strain grew at 15−30 °C (optimum 25 °C), at pH 6.0−10.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0−1.5% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1%). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain YIM 131861 T belonged to the genus Glaciibacter, and exhibited a high sequence similarity (96.4%) with Glaciibacter superstes NBRC 104264 T. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain YIM 131861 T was 68.2 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA–DNA hybridization (dDDH) values between strain YIM 131861 T and Glaciibacter superstes NBRC 104264 T were 73.2 and 19.9% based on the draft genome sequence. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was B2γ and contained the 2, 4-diaminobutyric acid as the diagnostic amino acid. Whole cell sugars were galactose, rhamnose, ribose and glucose. It contained MK-12 and MK-13 as the predominant menaquinones. The major cellular fatty acids (>10%) were identifed as anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and two unknown glycolipids. Based on the results of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, strain YIM 131861 T should belong to the genus Glaciibacter and represents a novel species of the genus Glaciibacter, for which the name Glaciibacter favus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 131861 T (=CGMCC 1.16588 T=NBRC 113572 T). Keywords: Glaciibacter · Glaciibacter favus sp. nov. · Lichen.
33586Chae H.-J., Kim G.-J., Deshar B., Kim H.-J., Shin M.-J., Kwon H., Youn U.-J., Nam J.-W., Kim S.-H., Choi H. & Suh S.-S. (2021): Anticancer activity of 2-O-caffeoyl alphitolic acid extracted from the lichen, Usnea barbata 2017-KL-10. - Molecules, 26(13): 3937 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133937.
Colorectal cancer is one of the life-threatening ailments causing high mortality and morbidity worldwide. Despite the innovation in medical genetics, the prognosis for metastatic colorectal cancer in patients remains unsatisfactory. Recently, lichens have attracted the attention of researchers in the search for targets to fight against cancer. Lichens are considered mines of thousands of metabolites. Researchers have reported that lichen-derived metabolites demonstrated biological effects, such as anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, analgesic, antipyretic, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic, on various cell lines. However, the exploration of the biological activities of lichens’ metabolites is limited. Thus, the main objective of our study was to evaluate the anticancer effect of secondary metabolites isolated from lichen (Usnea barbata 2017-KL-10) on the human colorectal cancer cell line HCT116. In this study, 2OCAA exhibited concentration-dependent anticancer activities by suppressing antiapoptotic genes, such as MCL-1, and inducing apoptotic genes, such as BAX, TP53, and CDKN1A(p21). Moreover, 2OCAA inhibited the migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these data suggest that 2OCAA is a better therapeutic candidate for colorectal cancer. Keywords: colorectal cancer; 2-O-caffeoyl alphitolic acid; lichen; Usnea barbata; apoptosis; HCT116.
33585Wethalawe A.N., Alwis Y.V., Udukala D.N. & Paranagama P.A. (2021): Antimicrobial compounds isolated from endolichenic fungi: A review. - Molecules, 26(13): 3901 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133901.
A lichen is a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism, which is algae or cyanobacteria. Endolichenic fungi are a group of microfungi that resides asymptomatically within the thalli of lichens. Endolichenic fungi can be recognized as luxuriant metabolic artists that produce propitious bioactive secondary metabolites. More than any other time, there is a worldwide search for new antibiotics due to the alarming increase in microbial resistance against the currently available therapeutics. Even though a few antimicrobial compounds have been isolated from endolichenic fungi, most of them have moderate activities, implying the need for further structural optimizations. Recognizing this timely need and the significance of endolichenic fungi as a promising source of antimicrobial compounds, the activity, sources and the structures of 31 antibacterial compounds, 58 antifungal compounds, two antiviral compounds and one antiplasmodial (antimalarial) compound are summarized in this review. In addition, an overview of the common scaffolds and structural features leading to the corresponding antimicrobial properties is provided as an aid for future studies. The current challenges and major drawbacks of research related to endolichenic fungi and the remedies for them have been suggested. Keywords: endolichenic fungi; antibacterial; antifungal; antiviral; antiplasmodial; secondary metabolites.
33584Chi J., Lee H., Hong S.G. & Kim H.-C. (2021): Spectral characteristics of the Antarctic vegetation: A case study of Barton Peninsula. - Remote Sensing, 13(13): 2470 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13132470.
Spectral information is a proxy for understanding the characteristics of ground targets without a potentially disruptive contact. A spectral library is a collection of this information and serves as reference data in remote sensing analyses. Although widely used, data of this type for most ground objects in polar regions are notably absent. Remote sensing data are widely used in polar research because they can provide helpful information for difficult-to-access or extensive areas. However, a lack of ground truth hinders remote sensing efforts. Accordingly, a spectral library was developed for 16 common vegetation species and decayed moss in the ice-free areas of Antarctica using a field spectrometer. In particular, the relative importance of shortwave infrared wavelengths in identifying Antarctic vegetation using spectral similarity comparisons was demonstrated. Due to the lack of available remote sensing images of the study area, simulated images were generated using the developed spectral library. Then, these images were used to evaluate the potential performance of the classification and spectral unmixing according to spectral resolution. We believe that the developed library will enhance our understanding of Antarctic vegetation and will assist in the analysis of various remote sensing data. Keywords: Antarctic vegetation; Barton Peninsula; field spectroscopy; King George Island; lichen; moss; spectral characteristics; spectral library.
33583Simijaca D., Lücking R. & Moncada B. (2021): Two new species of Astrothelium (Trypetheliaceae) with amyloid ascospores inhabiting the canopy of Quercus humboldtii trees in Colombia. - Phytotaxa, 508(2): 229–234. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.508.2.12 .
Subandine and high Andean forests are often dominated by oak trees and these are recognized as suitable phorophytes for diverse epiphyte communities. Among the latter, lichens in the upper strata appear to be understudied. Here, we report the discovery of two new species of Astrothelium (Trypetheliaceae), a diverse genus of tropical crustose lichens, both with the unusual feature of muriform, amyloid ascospores. Astrothelium mordonialensis is characterized by an olive-green thallus with solitary ascomata producing muriform and amyloid ascospores with tightened center and A. rogitamae by a light brownish to greenish grey thallus with yellow pigmented solitary ascomata, producing muriform and amyloid ascospores. Keywords: Epiphyte lichens, oak forest, pyrenocarpous, taxonomy, Lichens.
33582Brodo I.M., Lee R.E., Freebury C., Wong P.Y., Lewis C.J. & McMullin R.T. (2021): Additions to the lichens, allied fungi, and lichenicolous fungi of the Ottawa region in Ontario and Quebec, with reflections on a changing biota. - Canadian Field-Naturalist, 135(1): 1–27. https://doi.org/10.22621/cfn.v135i1.2557 .
The inventory of lichens, allied fungi, and their parasites in the Ottawa region has grown from 391 in 1988 to 543 today, almost entirely because of the discovery of species overlooked in previous years and the inclusion of fungal parasites. In addition, almost 140 names have changed with reclassifications and re-identifications. These changes are presented here together with a list of synonyms updating the 1988 list. Vouchers are cited for all new records, and notes are presented for many species neither described nor keyed out in easily accessible literature. Reference is made to the new, complete list of lichens and lichenicolous fungi available online. The new checklist includes one species new for North America (Tremella christiansenii); five species and one variety new for Canada (Caloplaca parvula, Caloplaca reptans, Cladonia petrophila, Enchylium tenax var. ceranoides, Leprocaulon adhaerens, and Merismatium peregrinum); four new for Ontario (Caloplaca reptans, Kiliasia tristis, Lempholemma chalazanum, and Rinodina fimbriata); and nine new for Quebec (Arthonia helvola, Arthonia hypobela, Caloplaca parvula, Cladonia petrophila, Lempholemma chalazanum, Leprocaulon adhaerens, Merismatium peregrinum, Rimularia badioatra, and Tremella christiansenii). Although the climate of the region is warming, especially with higher minimum temperatures in winter, the lichen biota has not increased as a result but, in fact, may be threatened by the effects of climate change on the health of the forests and the trees that support lichens. Air quality has improved in recent decades, allowing numerous lichens to again become established in urban areas. Local areas of especially rich lichen diversity can be found on both the Ontario and Quebec sides of the region, and some of these “hot-spots” are mentioned. Other factors influencing the decrease or increase of lichen cover are also discussed. Keywords: lichens, eastern Ontario, western Quebec, Ottawa, climate change.
33581Bell-Doyon P., Selva S.B. & McMullin R.T. (2021): Calicioid fungi and lichens from an unprotected intact forest ecosystem in Québec. - Écoscience, 28(2): 127–136. https://doi.org/10.1080/11956860.2021.1885804.
Calicioid lichens and fungi form a diverse polyphyletic group whose species richness is often associated with old-growth forests and ecological continuity. One of the last intact forest landscapes south of the 50th parallel in Québec includes the Ya’nienhonhndeh territory, which has been the focus of a protected area project directed by the Huron-Wendat First Nation for more than ten years. To contribute to the characterization of its conservation value, we report the calicioids from the area. We identified 34 species in eight genera from 187 samples collected in old-growth stands of balsam fir, black spruce and yellow birch. Our four most remarkable discoveries are Chaenotheca nitidula Tibell (n = 11), Chaenothecopsis australis Tibell (n = 1), and C. tsugae Rikkinen (n = 2), which are reported for the first time from the province, as well as Sclerophora coniophaea (Norman) Mattsson & Middelb. (n = 18), which is rare in North America and was previously reported only once in Québec. As a result of this inventory, the Ya’nienhonhndeh is now the second richest area known for calicioids in Québec, after Parc national de la Gaspésie. We conclude that it is an ancient forest ecosystem whose conservation value is high based on its unique biodiversity, and that it warrants protection. Keywords: Boreal conservation; Calicium; Coniocybaceae; Mycocaliciaceae; Phaeocalicium; Stenocybe.
33580Vust M. (2020): Découvertes lichéno-floristique dans le canton de Vaud. - Meylania, 65: 17–24. http://www.bryolich.ch/pdfs/meylania/Meylania%2065%20p.17-24.pdf.
Several mandates made it possible to review known localities of rare or threatened lichens in the canton of Vaud between 2016 and 2018. These studies have Meylania 18 made it possible not only to confirm several of the species examined, but also to discover other unexpected species. New localities of Chaenotheca chlorella, Inoderma byssaceum, Cetraria sepincola, Coenogonium luteum, Lobaria pulmonaria, Scytinium teretiusculum, Sticta fuliginosa and Thelotrema lepadinum are thus documented.
33579Zimmermann E. (2020): Lichenicole Pilze der Schweiz II: Bemerkenswerte Funde lichenicoler Pilze am Crap Sogn Gion (Flims, Graubünden, Schweiz). - Meylania, 65: 29–36. http://www.bryolich.ch/pdfs/meylania/Meylania%2065%20p.29-36.pdf.
Twenty-three lichenicolous fungi were recorded during the excursions at the annual meeting of the Bryolich (Swiss Association of Bryology and Lichenology) 2019 in alpine habitats at 2300 m a.s.l. near Flims (Graubünden, Switzerland). Among these, 14 species are published for the first time for Switzerland. Caeruleoconidia biazrovii is recorded for the first time in the Alps. A potentially undescribed Pronectria sp. on Cladonia stellaris is outlined.
33578Shishido T.K., Wahlsten M., Laine P., Rikkinen J., Lundell T. & Auvinen P. (2021): Microbial communities of Cladonia lichens and their biosynthetic gene clusters potentially encoding natural products. - Microorganisms, 9(7): 1347 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9071347.
Lichens have been widely used in traditional medicine, especially by indigenous communities worldwide. However, their slow growth and difficulties in the isolation of lichen symbionts and associated microbes have hindered the pharmaceutical utilisation of lichen-produced compounds. Advances in high-throughput sequencing techniques now permit detailed investigations of the complex microbial communities formed by fungi, green algae, cyanobacteria, and other bacteria within the lichen thalli. Here, we used amplicon sequencing, shotgun metagenomics, and in silico metabolomics together with compound extractions to study reindeer lichens collected from Southern Finland. Our aim was to evaluate the potential of Cladonia species as sources of novel natural products. We compared the predicted biosynthetic pathways of lichen compounds from isolated genome-sequenced lichen fungi and our environmental samples. Potential biosynthetic genes could then be further used to produce secondary metabolites in more tractable hosts. Furthermore, we detected multiple compounds by metabolite analyses, which revealed connections between the identified biosynthetic gene clusters and their products. Taken together, our results contribute to metagenomic data studies from complex lichen-symbiotic communities and provide valuable new information for use in further biochemical and pharmacological studies. Keywords: nonribosomal peptides; polyketides; small molecules; shotgun metagenomics; Cladonia; lichen.
33577Isocrono D., Gheza G., Giordani P., Matteucci E., Nascimbene J., Ongaro S., Ravera S. & Vallese C. (2020): Lichenes Italici Exsiccati ex Società Lichenologica Italiana. Fascicle IV (Nos. 37-48). - Notiziario della Società Lichenologica Italiana, 33: 111–114. .
The fourth issue of Lichenes Italici exsiccati ex Società Lichenologica Italiana, the series of exsiccata distributed by the ltalian Lichen Society (Società Lichenologica Italiana, SLI), is presented. The labels of 37-48 numbers are listed. Key words: Lichens, exsiccata.
33576Caporale S., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Fačkovcová Z., Favero-Longo S.E., Giordani P., Gheza G., Isocrono D., Matteucci E., Munzi S., Paoli L., Puntillo D., Ravera S., Vannini A. & Catalano I. (2016): Contributo alle conoscenze lichenologiche della RNR Cascate del Verde e del bosco di Montalto (Borrello, Chieti). - Notiziario della Società Lichenologica Italiana, 29: 87–94. .
33575Barcenas-Peña A., Leavitt S.D., Grewe F. & Lumbsch H.T. (2021): Diversity of Xanthoparmelia (Parmeliaceae) species in Mexican xerophytic scrub vegetation, evidenced by molecular, morphological and chemistry data. - Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid, 78(1): e107 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3989/ajbm.2564.
The genus Xanthoparmelia is the largest genus of lichen- forming fungi with about 800 species worldwide. Xanthoparmelia is also common in the deserts of central Mexico, but only a few molecular studies exist on its species’ diversity in this region. In this study, we sampled 38 Xanthoparmelia species from around the world including species from the xerophytic scrubs of central Mexico to assess the di-versity using an integrative approach. Molecular phylogenetic analyses were performed using a combination of the ITS, mtSSU and nuLSU genetic markers. We evaluated our phylogenetic results in a context of traditional morphological and chemical characters. The combined evidence of molecular, morphological, and chemical data identified a total of 18 Xanthoparmelia species-level lineages occurring in central Mexico. However, numerous traditionally circumscribed species did not form monophyletic groups in the molecular phylogenetic recon-structions. This conflict indicates that taxonomy and species delimi-tation in the genus Xanthoparmelia requires revision and emphasizes the importance of molecular evidence for more robust species delim-itations in this genus. Keywords. Cryptic species, biodiversity, secondary metabolites, lichens, Mexico.
33574Mead O.L. & Gueidan C. (2020): Complete genome sequence of an Australian strain of the lichen-forming Fungus Endocarpon pusillum (Hedwig). - Microbiology Resource Announcements, 9(50): e01079-20 [2 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1128/MRA.01079-20.
The cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungus Endocarpon pusillum (Hedwig) has previously been used as a model for the study of symbiosis and drought resistance. Here, we present the annotated genome of the Australian strain Endocarpon pusillum EPUS1.4. This genome sequence provides additional information on the ability of this species to produce secondary metabolites.
33573Stordeur R. & Kison H.-U. (2016): Flechten (Lichenes) und flechtenbewohnende (lichenicole) Pilze. Bestandsentwicklung. Stand: März 2016. - In: Frank D. & Schnitter P. (eds), Pflanzen und Tiere in Sachsen-Anhalt. Ein Kompendium der Biodiversität, p. 59–101, Landesamt für Umweltschutz Sachsen-Anhalt, Rangsdorf. https://lau.sachsen-anhalt.de/fileadmin/Bibliothek/Politik_und_Verwaltung/MLU/LAU/Naturschutz/Publikationen/Dateien/sonstige_Publikationen/pfl-tiere-st_Flechten.pdf.
33572Purvis O.W., Aminov P.G., Dolgopolova A., Mikhailova I., Udachin V. & Williamson B.J. (2015): Lichens on Betula in the Ural Mountains; relationships with bark acidity and element concentrations as indicators of geology and anthropogenic influences. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 117: 15–28. .
Understanding geological, anthropogenic influences and bark pH on epiphytic lichen species richness is important in conservation, pollution monitoring and for assessing environmental health. Hypogymnia physodes and other lichens were found abundantly colonising birch twigs in June 2011 at Nyazminsky Ridge, 40 km SW (downwind) from Karabash, South Urals of Russia and 6 km north of Zlatoust city. A biogeochemical lichen study was carried out along a SW-NE transect centred in Karabash valley in 2001 and a second transect running WNW – ESE established in September 2011 within intermediate forests between taiga and forest-steppe zone. Hypogymnia is well known to be sensitive to a range of factors, including bark pH, but the extent to which bark acidity and element concentrations influence H. physodes and other lichen species richness on twigs is unknown. As a first step towards understanding its occurrence, the present study aims to investigate the links between Hypogymnia frequency and lichen species richness on Betula twigs and trunks (recorded in 2001) and indicators of geology and anthropogenic impacts. Impacts were assessed from selected element content, notably Sr (an analogue for Ca analysed previously) and S (a potential pollutant) and bark pH. Hypogymnia frequency and twig lichen richness confirm a point source influence The study highlighted the sensitivity of bark pH to assess S deposition from smelter-derived aerosols in response to weather over short (<3 month) time periods. The high Ca content recorded in Hypogymnia at Novoandreevka suggests geology also influences species assemblage composition on Betula here. The outlier appears to represent a lichen ‘oasis’ and provides a refugium enabling future lichen re-colonisation elsewhere under favourable atmospheric conditions.
33571Orange A. (2015): I denounce: binomial nomenclature!. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 117: 45–46. .
We name species so that we can retrieve and communicate information about them. The lure of the binomial is that a group of similar species share part of their name, that of the ‘genus’. Thus Sticta is a recognisable genus of lichens, and Sticta limbata and Sticta sylvatica are different kinds of stictas. This is helpful to memory. The fatal flaw in the system is that the binomial is not only a label for a species, but carries information on perceived (close) relatedness. If opinions on the degree of relatedness change, as they always have, then the label will change, and the primary function of the name is impaired.
33570Jones T. (2015): Lichenised leafhopper. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 117: 40-41. .
On a recent field meeting in Pod’s Wood, Essex, while looking at Fuscidea lightfootii on an oak branch, I noticed a very odd-looking insect. It is the nymph stage of the Leafhopper Ledra aurita, supposedly the only member of the subfamily Ledrinae found in Europe. The texture and coloration of the pronotum afford it a remarkable degree of crypsis against branches covered in algae and lichen, upon which it feeds. It is interesting to hypothesise about the selection pressures that resulted in its exceptional camouflage: Those individuals that most resembled the lichen against which they spend a large amount of their time, feeding, were less likely to be detected and selected as prey. This increased chance of survival, multiplied over evolutionary timescales, has resulted in a curious-looking animal that has, in a fanciful sense, become lichenised, just like the fungus it feeds on. I couldn’t find much in the way of published literature on the species, but an image search reveals a certain degree of intraspecific variation in colour in both the adults and the nymphs. This raises a number of questions: Are there various morphotypes that feed on different lichen? If so, how does their distribution and abundance correlate with that of their food lichen? It has only been recorded in 71 grid squares (10km) on the NBN gateway suggesting that it has been under-recorded; unsurprising given its singular ability to blend in to the background! However, if anyone is likely to encounter this interesting species, it is the lichenologists, who are well-equipped (and perhaps inclined!) to reveal more about the ecology of L. aurita
33569Hitch C. (2015): New, rare and interesting lichens. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 117: 61-72. .
Lecidea huxariensis, Ceratobasidium bulbillifaciens, Catillaria fungoides, Thelidium rehmii
33568Gagnon J. & Richardson D. (2015): Lichen leaf miners. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 117: 42-43. .
In January, 2014, while participating in a research project at La Fortuna Cloud Forest in Panama (alt. 1200 m), Jean Gagnon observed miner insects making burrows in a Sticta sp. (Figure 1). This foliose lichen has both photobionts (green algae & cyanobacteria), but the miner appeared to prefer those parts containing cyanobacteria.Dr Donald Windsor, entomologist at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama City, who has been studying miner insects in vascular plants for over 30 years in Panama, told us that he has never observed this in lichens before
33567Bajpai R. & Upreti D.K. (2015): Lichens on man-made substrates. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 117: 33-37. .
It is well known that the surface of all materials exposed to the environment will, sooner or later, become colonized by different groups of living organisms. The extent of colonization will depend on the environmental conditions and on the characteristics of the substratum. Lichens are well adapted to colonize bare and stable surfaces in many climatic conditions, giving rise to a biological mosaic of colours and textures. In addition to natural substrata, these include a host of human- manipulated or manufactured ones (i.e. artifacts), including fashioned stonework, asphalt, glass, concrete, cement, plaster, ceramic and terracotta tiles, bricks, processed wood products, and various types of metals (Brightman & Seaward 1977). Peculiarities and colonization of lichens Growth on external surfaces, whether natural or man-made, presents challenges especially of water availability. Owing to their poikilohydric nature lichens can survive in various climatic conditions. Many lichens have limited mechanisms to prevent desiccation; they dehydrate and remain dormant when their environment dries out, but can rehydrate when water becomes available again. Lichens usually absorb water directly into the thallus through aerosol, mist and water vapors, due to this nature lichens can live long in dry areas
33566Bailey J. (2015): Luffia ferchaultella - the moth in lichen clothing. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 117: 38-39. .
On 30 May 2015 my brother drew my attention to some tiny cones, about 6mm long, on his garden seat in Hartpury, West Gloucestershire. In warm conditions they were quite active, moving faster than a snail, when you could see their little dark heads and legs, but clamping down when threatened. They were covered in bits of lichen, obtained, no doubt, from his bench which has a beautiful covering including Candelariella vitellina, Flavoparmelia caperata, F . soredians, Hypogymnia tubulosa, Lecanora expallens, L. pulicaris, Lepraria incana, Melanelixia subaurifera, Parmelia sulcata, Punctelia jeckeri and P. subrudecta
33565Aguirre-Hudson B. & Earland-Bennet P. (2015): Current status of the genus Leptorhaphis in the British Isles. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 117: 29-32. .
A detailed description of the genus Leptorhaphis is available in the extended edition of the Lichens of Great Britain and Ireland by Smith et al. (2009), based on the modern circumscription of the genus introduced by Aguirre-Hudson (1991). The genus is only facultatively lichenised, i.e. the thallus consists of fungal hyphae loosely associated to clusters of chlorococcoid - and more rarely - trentepohlioid algae. This can be confirmed in squash mounts and microscope sections of the ascomata. It is distinguished from similar perithecial microfungi with bitunicate asci, by the narrowly fusiform to filiform and arcuate, 1–3 septate, always colourless ascospores. Its current systematic placement in the family Naetrocymbaceae was first suggested by Harris (1995: 59), on the basis that Arthopyrenia, and therefore the Arthopyreniaceae as understood until then, contained two unrelated groups based on the morphology of the hamathecial filaments: i.e. pseudoparaphyses versus paraphysoids. Also, as a result of the proposal to typify Arthopyrenia with A. analepta, which was later rejected in favour of A. cerasi [see Proposal to Conserve and Reject names no. 933 in Taxon 48: 807 (1999)], some species formerly in Arthopyrenia are now referred elsewhere; e.g. the ubiquitous and pioneer species on smooth bark Naetrocymbe punctifomis. Leptorhaphis, as with species of the genus Naetrocymbe possesses pseudoparaphyses, which according to Eriksson (1981) consist of cellular, richly branched filaments, with cells constricted at the septum. The filaments originate from the upper part of the hymenium and grow downwards, attaching themselves to the base of the ascomal cavity, and afterwards often become detached in the upper part. This type of development is difficult to interpret from squash mounts, but the almost moniliform appearance of the interthecial filaments is diagnostic
33564Darmostuk V.V. [Дармостук В.В.] (2020): Darmostuk V.V. Lichenicolous fungi of the steppe zone of Ukraine [Ліхенофільні гриби степової зони України. – Кваліфікаційна наукова праця на правах рукопису]. - Qualifying scientific work as manuscript, . .
Дисертаційна робота присвячена вивченню видового та таксономічного багатства, особливостей вибору лишайника-господаря, відношення у системі «паразит-господар» та поширенню ліхенофільних грибів (включаючи ліхенофільні лишайники) на території степової зони України. Встановлено особливості росту окремих модельних видів ліхенофільних грибів на агаризованих живильних середовищах, проведено критико-таксономічний аналіз представників трьох родів, а також проаналізовано сучасні тенденції охорони ліхенофільних грибів відповідно до біотопічних поглядів на збереження видів. За результатами аналізу літературних джерел, критичної ревізії гербарних колекцій CWU, KHER та KW-L, даних з відкритих ресурсів (GBIF, iNaturalis, UkrBin тощо), а також власних зборів автора, встановлено, що на території степової зони України наразі виявлено 155 видів ліхенофільних грибів та 13 ліхенофільних лишайників, які належать до 75 родів, 41 родини, 24 порядків та 7 класів відділу Ascomycota, а також 8 родів, 6 родин, 5 порядків та 2 класів відділу Basidiomycota. Вперше для регіону дослідження зареєстровано трапляння 92 видів ліхенофільних грибів та 4 види ліхенофільних лишайників, що становить 57,1 % від їх загальної кількості. Описано як нові для науки 5 видів ліхенофільних грибів (Didymocyrtis trassii, Pleospora xanthoriae, Roselliniella lecideae, Trichoconis hafellneri, Zwackhiomyces polischukii). Три види наведено як нові для Європи, 9 видів – нові для Східної Європи, а 41 вид ліхенофільних грибів та 2 види 3 ліхенофільних лишайників (21,3 % від загальної кількості відомих в Україні) наведено як нові для території України. Результати аналізу систематичної структури дали змогу встановити, що на території степової зони України найбільше різноманіття видів демонструє клас Dothideomycetes (80 видів). Найбільшими за кількістю виявлених видів є порядки Arthoniales, Dothideales, Collemopsidiales, Hypocreales, Lichenotheliales, Mycosphaerellales, Pleosporales та Verrucariales. Встановлено, що провідними родами ліхенофільної мікобіоти степової зони України є Stigmidium (10), Zwackhiomyces (8), Lichenostigma (7), Lichenoconium (7), Pronectria (6) та Arthonia (5). Значне видове представлення родів Lichenostigma та Lichenoconium може вказувати на регіональні особливості мікобіоти, що визначаються несприятливими (високі показники сонячної радіації) умовами навколишнього середовища, а також поширенням видів лишайників-господарів на території дослідження. Під час дослідження ліхенофільної мікобіоти степової зони України було встановлено, що загальний рівень спеціалізації становить 79,7 %, адже з 168 виявлених видів ліхенофільних грибів та ліхенофільних лишайників 34 зростають на 2 і більше родах господарів. Отримані відомості відповідають загальним тенденціям світової ліхенофільної мікобіоти. Найчисельнішими за кількістю ліхенофільних грибів виявились роди Xanthoria (18 видів), Lecanora (17), Caloplaca (15), Cladonia (12) та Aspicilia (11), що підтверджує гіпотезу про те, що домінанті роди лишайників-господарів репрезентують високе різноманіття ліхенофільних грибів, цим самим визначаючи взаємозв’язок регіональної ліхено- та мікобіоти. Виявлено, що індекс ліхенофільності дослідженої мікобіоти становить 0,32 (168 видів ліхенофільних грибів до 528 видів лишайників) і може бути оцінений як високий. Цей показник дозволяє стверджувати, що ліхенофільна мікобіота степової зони України є вивченою на достатньому рівні у порівнянні з іншими регіональними ліхенофільними мікобіотами. Прослідковується взаємозв’язок між низькою чисельністю видів лишайників господарів та досить високими показниками 4 різноманіття ліхенофільних грибів. Скоріше за все, цей взаємозв’язок не вказує на строгу математичну залежність між двома показниками, а лише підкреслює особливості ліхенофільної мікобіоти степової зони та аридних регіонів у цілому. За типом взаємозв’язків ліхенофільні гриби є досить гетерогенною групою, представники якої пристосувались до взаємодії як з фікобіонтом (105 видів), так і з мікобіонтом (64 види) лишайників. Підтверджується гіпотеза, що більша частина ліхенофільних грибів представлена видами-коменсалами (90 видів), які трофічно взаємодіють з фікобіонтом, проте не призводять до зниження показників біохімічних процесів або деградації останнього
33563Pentecost A. (2015): Seasonality of ascospore production in two lirellate lichens: Alyxoria (Opegrapha) varia and Phaeographis dendritica. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 117: 7–14. .
Ascospore liberation by Alyxoria (Opegrapha) varia in the field was maximal in March and November and negligible in summer. For Phaeographis dendritica it was maximal in winter but the total discharge was more than an order of magnitude lower than that of Alyxoria at the same locality. Alyxoria spore liberation was negatively correlated with temperature suggesting that prolonged wetting of apothecia in the colder months stimulated dispersal
33562Scholz P. (1991): Zur Flechtenflora der Naturschutzgebiete im Thüringer Südharz . - Landschaftspflege un Naturschutz in Thüringen, 28(4): 98–107. .
Die Erfassung der Kryptogamenrtora von Naturschutzgebieten ist bisher sehr unvollständig erfolgt und steht hinter der Kenntnis der Phanerogamen weit zurück. Dies gilt insbesondere für die Flechtenflora (vgl. HILLE u. SCHOLZ 1,988). Da die Unterschutzstellung von Naturschutzgebieten bisher meist ohne besondere Beachtung der Flechtenvegetation erfolgte, wird diese in der Regel auch in den Schutzzielen und bei den Pflege- und Entwicklungsplänen nicht berücksichtigt. Da nun wiederum die ökologischen Ansprüche von Flechten (gleiches gilt auch meist für Moose) nicht mit den Ansprüchen höherer Pflanzen übereinstimmen, ist es un- bedingt notwendig, das vorhandene Reservatsystem in dieser Hinsicht zu inventarisieren und eventuell weitere NSG oder andere Schutzgebiete zum Schutz der Flechtenflora - bezie- hungsweise der gesamten Kryptogarnenflora - auszuweisen. Das ist ein wichtiger Grund für die Anfertigung dieser Arbeit. Weiterhin solltedamit ein Beitrag zur Flechtenkartierung geleistet werden. Deshalb wird bei den einzelnen NSG auf die Quadranten der Meßtischbllitter (MTB) verwiesen, wobei die übliche Einteilung verwendet wird: 1. Quadrant= NW, 2. Quadrant= NO, 3. Quadrant= SW, 4. Quadrant = SO. Dadurch ist es möglich, jeden in dieser Ai"beit publizierten Fund in die MTB-Quaclranten einzuordnen
33561Díaz-Escandón D., Hawksworth D.L., Powell M., Resl P. & Spribille T. (2021): The British chalk specialist Lecidea lichenicola auct. revealed as a new genus of Lichinomycetes. - Fungal Biology, 125: 495–504. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2021.01.007.
The lichen, to which the name Lecidea lichenicola is found to have been misapplied, was first described from England and is an extreme specialist of chalk pebbles. It has long been known that it is not closely related to Lecidea in the strict sense, but its true evolutionary relationships have been unknown. Here we use metagenome-assembled genome data to place this fungus in a six-locus phylogeny of Ascomycota, and find strong support for its placement in the class Lichinomycetes. Multiple gene trees using existing data from Lichinomycetes support its further placement within the family Lichinaceae. Based on a revision of types and original descriptions, we conclude that the earliest name for this species is Lecidea obsoleta (syn. Thrombium cretaceum). We neotypify that name by a modern collection and accommodate it in the new genus Watsoniomyces. Type and other original material of L. lichenicola (syn. Discocera lichenicola) was re-examined and found not to be on chalk and to represent a different lichen, Trapelia glebulosa. Watsoniomyces is the first described member of Lichinomycetes with an endolithic thallus. Keywords: Ascomycota; Lichinales; Metagenome; Nomenclature; Phylogenetic analysis; Systematics.
33560Georgiev K.B., Beudert B., Bässler C., Feldhaar H., Heibl C., Karasch P., Müller J., Perlík M., Weiss I. & Thorn S. (2021): Forest disturbance and salvage logging have neutral long-term effects on drinking water quality but alter biodiversity. - Forest Ecology and Management, 495: 119354 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2021.119354.
Forests host most terrestrial biodiversity and provide important ecosystem services, including the provision of drinking water. Increasing frequency and intensity of natural disturbances and subsequent salvage logging may impact both biodiversity and drinking-water quality. However, empirical evidence and particularly that generated from long-term studies, is scarce. Using data obtained from the monitoring of streamwater between 1985 and 2018 and mid-term data on biodiversity of twelve species groups, we quantified the combined effects of natural disturbances and salvage logging. We used generalized additive models to test the effects of cumulative disturbed and salvage-logged areas on annual maximum nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. We used generalized mixed-effects models to test the effect of management (disturbed unlogged, disturbed logged and undisturbed, intact forest) on species numbers of studied taxa. We found that forest disturbances led to a temporal increase of nitrate concentration in streamwater, yet remaining far below 50 mg L−1, the limits recommended by the World Health Organization. Salvage logging did not exert any additional impact on nitrate and DOC concentrations, and hence did not affect streamwater quality. Natural disturbances increased the biodiversity in eight out of twelve species groups. Salvage logging additionally increased the biodiversity of five species groups related to open habitats, but decreased the biodiversity of three deadwood-dependent species groups. We conclude that neither natural forest disturbances in watersheds nor associated salvage logging have a harmful effect on the quality of the streamwater, which is used for drinking water. Setting aside naturally disturbed areas would promote the conservation of deadwood-dependent species. Keywords: Post-disturbance management; Windthrow; Ecosystem services; Forested watershed; Nitrate; Dissolved organic carbon.
33559Vosel Y., Belyanin D., Vosel S., Melgunov M., Mezina K. & Shcherbov B. (2021): Distribution of 137Cs in lichens, mosses and pine needles along the transect from the north to the south ofWestern Siberia. - Science of the Total Environment, 789: 147874 [5 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147874.
The 137Cs content in mosses (Hylocomium splendens), lichens (Cladonia stellaris) and the needles of the Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) and the common pine (Pinus sylvestris) along the transect from the north to the south of Western Siberia from N. 67.5° to N. 55° has been investigated. The appearance of 137Cs here is linked to the nuclear weapon tests at Novaya Zemlya. The measurements have shown that at all sampling points south of N. 59.6° there is a very sharp decrease in the 137Cs specific activity in all components of the ecosystem (in mosses and lichens by about 20 times, and in the needles of conifers by 100 times) instead of a smooth decrease. This fact can be explained by the existence of the global atmospheric circulation consisting of three circulation cells in the Northern hemisphere. It is just around N. 60° that the boundary between the Polar cell and the circulation cell of midle latitudes is drawn. At this boundary, the counter surface air flows of these cells (in our case, a contaminated flow from the north and a clean one from the south) collide and generate the upward air flows here that take 137Cs away. In addition, there is water vapor condensation in the upward flows resulting in snowfalls, rains and thunderstorms. And with these precipitation events, large amounts of 137Cs should have fallen out to the north of the Polar cell boundary during the Novaya Zemlya tests. The areas south around of N. 60° have been supposed to remain clean, which is what is being observed. Keywords: 137Cs; Moss; Liches; Coniferous needles; Global atmospheric circulation.
33558Gandhi A.D., Miraclin P.A., Abilash D., Sathiyaraj S., Velmurugan R., Zhang Y., Soontarapa K., Sen P. & Sridharan T.B. (2021): Nanosilver reinforced Parmelia sulcata extract efficiently induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferative signalling in MCF-7 cells. - Environmental Research, 199: 111375 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111375.
The Lichen, Parmelia sulcata synthesizes various secondary metabolites, in which phenolic based compounds received much attention due to their importance in biomedical application. Especially the phenolic compound was effective against the cancer treatment. An effective administration of such plant natural product can represent a significant conventional management of cancer in terms of chemoprevention. The nanomedicines are group of agents that selectively interfere the cancer cells which leads to reduction of side effect thereby reducing the doses. Silver nanoparticles is a promising antitumor agent, however, the conventional production of silver nanoparticles have many drawbacks which led to increase in need of eco-friendly biological production methods. In this study, we made an attempt to synthesise a nano silver (Ps-AgNPs) from phenolic extract of lichen Parmelia sulcata extract. The Ps-AgNps was applied for anticancer activity using MCF-7 cells and the effect was characterised by western blotting method. The FTIR, XRD, UV and TEM results confirms the presence of silver nanoparticles in phenolic extract of lichen Parmelia sulcata. The cytotoxicity assay shows that the Ps-AgNPs is toxic against cancer cells (MCF-7) but not to normal cells (NIH3T3), which confirm the selective induction of cell death (apoptosis) against cancer cells. The Western blot analysis also clearly indicates the down regulation of inflammatory genes (TNF-alpha and IL-6) and cell cycle genes (PCNA and Cyclin-D1) thus promoting intrinsic apoptotic pathway. The results suggest that Ps-AgNPs can effectively kill cancer cells and can be used as an alternative therapeutic agent for cancer treatment. Keywords: Silver nanoparticles; Parmelia sulcata; Phenolic compounds; Anticancer activity; Apoptosis.
33557da Silva A.S., Pimentel C.S.L., dos Santos F.H.G., de Araújo H.D.A., Paiva P.M.G., da Silva N.H., Pereira E.C., Martins M.C.B., Buril M.L.L., Napoleão T.H., Falcão E.P.S. & Navarro D.M.A.F. (2021): Insecticidal activity of the ether extract from the lichen Ramalina complanata and an isolated metabolite (divaricatic acid) against Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). - Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 35: 102049 [6 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcab.2021.102049.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the insecticidal activity of ether extract from the lichen Ramalina complanata, and an isolated metabolite (divaricatic acid), against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. The evaluation of ingestion toxicity was performed using an artificial diet composed of the extract or compound (4 mg/g, 8 mg/g, or 12 mg/g) mixed with wheat flour. After 7 days of incubation, we determined the mortality rates and nutritional parameters. In the fumigation assay, the insects were incubated for 7 days in sealed chambers containing either the extract or divaricatic acid in 0.195–3.125 mg/L of air. The ingestion of the extract led to a maximum mortality rate of 33.33% (12 mg/g) and the extract had a deterrent effect ranging from weak (feeding deterrent index, FDI: 50%) at 4 mg/g to strong (FDI: 71%) at 12 mg/g. The mortality rate of the insects that ingested divaricatic acid reached 52.50% (12 mg/g) and the insects were also unable to convert the food into biomass. A moderate deterrent effect (FDI: 51%) of the divaricatic acid was found at a concentration of 12 mg/g. In the fumigation test, the mortality rates with the extract and divaricatic acid were 43.33-50.00% and 33.33-63.33%, respectively. An LC50 of 1.658 mg/L of air was determined for divaricatic acid. The results highlight the need for further studies on these kinds of compounds for the control of this insect, as well as for the investigation of the mechanisms by which lichen preparations work. Keywords: Bioinsecticide; Maize weevil; Lichen metabolite; Ramalina complanata.
33556Ramtvedt E.N., Bollandsås O.M., Næsset E. & Gobakken T. (2021): Relationships between single-tree mountain birch summertime albedo and vegetation properties. - Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 307: 108470 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2021.108470.
Understanding and quantifying the influence of tree structure and ground vegetation on albedo in the borealalpine treeline is urgently needed to assess and predict the biophysical climatic feedback effect of forest- and treeline expansion. Fine-spatial resolution in-situ radiation measurements sensitive to small-scale variability enable precise albedo estimation for complex heterogeneous landscapes. In this study, horizontally measured single-tree albedo of mountain birch and their spatially consistent tree- and ground vegetation properties were collected in the boreal-alpine treeline over a period of 14 days in summertime. The aim was to identify properties of tree structure and ground vegetation driving single-tree mountain birch albedo. In addition, it was of interest to analyze the relationship between the vegetation properties and a slope-estimated albedo when a simplified correction of slope and aspect of the terrain was applied to the horizontally measured incoming shortwave radiation. Both properties of tree structure and ground vegetation were strongly related to albedo. The results imply that expansion of mountain birch forests at the expense of the prevalence of bright-colored lichens, bare rock, graminoids and mosses will reduce summertime boreal-alpine treeline albedo. Taller trees with wider tree crowns will absorb more solar radiation than smaller trees and hence also reduce albedo. Overall average difference of albedo of sample plots with and without presence of mountain birch was 0.06, corresponding to 27% of the albedo for plots without birch. Horizontally measured albedo was more strongly correlated with the vegetation properties than when corrected for terrain slope and aspect. The findings show that the appropriateness of horizontally measured albedo of single trees and tree clusters in open sloping terrain, depends on the spatial size of the footprint of the downward-looking radiation sensor relative to the size of the tree subject to observation. Keywords: Albedo; Mountain Birch; Vegetation Properties; Fine-scale.
33555Czerepko J., Gawryś R., Mańk K., Janek M., Tabor J. & Skalski Ł. (2021): The influence of the forest management in the Białowieża forest on the species structure of the forest community. - Forest Ecology and Management, 496: 119363 [34 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2021.119363.
Saving Europe's remaining natural forests is one of the main objectives of the political challenges to stop the ongoing decline of biodiversity. Conservationists and foresters need objective data to assess the success or failure of management actions to conserve biodiversity. Comparing the structural characteristics of forest communities that have been subjected to or excluded from forest management, and whose history is well known, makes it possible to assess the effects of anthropogenic pressures on biodiversity. One object that creates such opportunities is the Białowieża Forest (BF). Here, for the first time, a systematic sample of information on forest communities has been objectively collected to assess the impact of different management/protection regimes on the richness and species composition of forest communities. Species of vascular plants, bryophytes, liverworts, and epigeic lichens were recorded in the 1370 sample plots distributed in a grid of 650 × 650 m during years 2016–2018. The average number of plant species recorded in the 400 m2 sample plots was compared according to the following protection categories: Orłówka protection district (Orłówka PD) of the Białowieża National Park (BNP), which has been subject to strict protection since 1921 – 5.1 thousand ha, Hwoźna protection district of the BNP (Hwoźna PD), which has been under partial protection since 1996 – 5.1 thousand ha, nature reserves – 12 thousand ha, and commercial forests – 38.2 thousand ha. In terms of species richness, the commercial forests had on average, 4 fewer species than the Hwoźna PD, but did not differ significantly in this respect from the other protection categories. In the relevant forests in Orłówka PD, there were on average 4 species of bryophytes and lichens more than in the commercial forests, and this difference proved to be statistically significant. Based on rarefaction curves, the more species-rich contexts were commercial forests in all the trophic and humidity categories. From this study, it emerged that the differences in flora between the managed and strictly protected part of the BF are small and limited to some plant groups. However, this principle does not apply to bryophytes and non-native species. Keywords: Phytosociological relevés; Species richness; Synanthropisation of flora; Forest naturalness indices.
33554Streitberger M., Holtmann L., Bültmann H., Schmidt C. & Fartmann T. (2021): Restoration of montane heathlands – Early- and mid-successional stages promote phytodiversity. - Ecological Engineering, 169: 106294 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2021.106294.
Heathlands are highly threatened ecosystems with high conservation value. Montane heathlands have suffered from widespread habitat loss due to land-use abandonment and afforestation. The aim of our study was to analyse the long-term effects of montane heathland restoration, nine to ten years after restoration, on vegetation in the Rothaar Mountains (Central Germany). We compared vegetation composition in four vegetation types: (i) early-successional heathland stages on sod cut sites or ski pistes (hereafter referred to as EARLY), (ii) late-successional (old-growth) heathland stages (LATE), (iii) restored heathlands on former spruce forests where seed transfer by hydroseeding or the application of chopper material (crushed aboveground biomass from donor heathland site including seeds) had been applied (RESTORED) and (iv) windthrows with salvage logging (WIND). In every vegetation type, ten vegetation relevés were carried out and the cover of all vascular plant, bryophyte and terricolous lichen species were analysed. Furthermore, soil samples were taken in every relevé and measured with respect to soil acidity as well as carbon, nitrogen, phosphate and potassium contents. Our study demonstrated that the restoration plots were characterised by chemical soil conditions comparable to those of existing heathland communities. RESTORED was the hotspot of phytodiversity. Species richness of vascular plants, threatened vascular plants and target species peaked on RESTORED, followed by EARLY. Additionally, EARLY was characterised by the highest number of terricolous lichen species and threatened bryophyte species. The applied restoration measures were successful in establishing montane-heathland and acidic-grassland vegetation on former spruce forests. However, two usually dominant species of montane heathlands, Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea, had hardly established. Both species are slow colonisers and require specific microsites characterised by high moisture and organic content of the soil for generative reproduction. Additionally, the study demonstrated that early- to mid-successional stages of montane heathlands play a vital role for the conservation of cryptogams and low-competitive plant species. Keywords: Acidic grassland; Biodiversity conservation; Bryophyte; Lichen; Microsite limitation; Vascular plant.
33553Ikeda M.A., Nakamura H. & Sawada K. (2021): Long-chain alkenes and alkadienes of eight lichen species collected in Japan. - Phytochemistry, 189: 112823 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2021.112823.
The hydrocarbons of eight lichen species isolated in Japan were analyzed, and diverse mono-, di-, and triunsaturated alkenes were detected. The positions of the double bonds of C17 alkadienes (heptadecadiene) and C17–C20 alkenes were determined by mass spectrometry of their dimethyl disulfide adducts. We found that the six lichens containing green algal photobionts were distinguished by the presence of 1,8-heptadecadiene, 6,9-heptadecadiene, and 8- and 7-heptadecenes. On the other hand, 1-octadecene, 4-octadecene, and 5-nonadecene were the major alkene components of the two lichens with cyanobacterial photobionts. These alkadienes and alkenes were present in large quantities in the lichen samples. In particular, 1,8-heptadecadiene accounted for more than 90% of the total alkenes in all four lichens containing it. Our results provide new insights into the origin of C17 alkadienes and C17–C20 alkenes in environmental and geological samples, and these alkenes can potentially be applied as lichen biomarkers. Keywords: Lichens; Lecanoromycetes; Heptadecadienes; Long-chain alkenes; Biomarker.
33552Devi A.P., Duong T.H., Phan H.-V.-T., Nguyen V.-K. & Chavasiri W. (2021): Chemical constituents of the hexane fraction of the lichen Parmotrema dilatatum and their α-glucosidase inhibition activity. - Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 57(3): 528–530. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10600-021-03404-z.
33551Bezkorovaynaya I.N., Tarasov P.A., Gette I.G. & Mogilnikova I.A. (2021): Influence of fire on soil temperatures of pine forests of the middle taiga, central Siberia, Russia. - Journal of Forestry Research, 32: 1139–1145. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-020-01186-8.
Temperatures of sandy podzols of middle taiga pine forests with moss and lichen ground cover were analyzed which had been exposed to ground fires of low to medium intensity. In general, temperatures in lichen and moss plots of the pine forests under study, are close to each similar, but in the first year after a fire a noticeable contrast was observed. The reasons are an increase in the amplitude of daily temperatures on the soil surface and stronger heating of upper mineral layers. Temperatures in the mineral layer with depths up to 30 cm depend on the thickness of the forest floor. Analysis of the results show that the duration of postfire effects in pine forests with sandy podzols is determined by a number of factors: the intensity of the fire, the degree of erosion of the ground cover and litter, and the recovery rate of these components. Keywords: Ground fire · Pine forests · Soil temperature.
33550Macedo D.C.S., Almeida F.J.F., Wanderley M.S.O., Ferraz M.S., Santos N.P.S., López A.M.Q., Santos-Magalhães N.S. & Lira-Nogueira M.C.B. (2021): Usnic acid: from an ancient lichen derivative to promising biological and nanotechnology applications. - Phytochemistry Reviews, 20: 609–630. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11101-020-09717-1.
Among the various compounds of natural origin, usnic acid (UA) is one of the best studied. It has several pharmacological activities, standing out as an antimicrobial, antitumor, antiviral, and antiparasitic agent, and despite these relevant properties, it is a toxic molecule. In this context, research has driven the development of innovative alternatives, such as their encapsulation in controlled release systems, an attractive tool for pharmaceutical nanotechnology. These systems allow the active ingredient to be released at the optimal yield speed and reduce the dosing regimen. Consequently, they are able to increase therapeutic efficacy by minimizing side effects. Given the above, this paper presents a review of the literature on chemical and biological properties, analytical methods, mechanism of action and toxicology of UA, and discusses the use of nanotechnology as a tool to overcome the obstacles of its pharmacological application. Keywords: Usnic acid; Chemical and biological properties; Mechanisms of action; Nanotechnology.
33549Pichler G., Candotto Carniel F., Muggia L., Holzinger A., Tretiach M. & Kranner I. (2021): Enhanced culturing techniques for the mycobiont isolated from the lichen Xanthoria parietina. - Mycological Progress, 20: 797–808. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-021-01707-7.
Lichens and their isolated symbionts are potentially valuable resources for biotechnological approaches. Especially mycobiont cultures that produce secondary lichen products are receiving increasing attention, but lichen mycobionts are notoriously slowgrowing organisms. Sufficient biomass production often represents a limiting factor for scientific and biotechnological investigations, requiring improvement of existing culturing techniques as well as methods for non-invasive assessment of growth. Here, the effects of pH and the supplement of growth media with either D-glucose or three different sugar alcohols that commonly occur in lichens, D-arabitol, D-mannitol and ribitol, on the growth of the axenically cultured mycobiont isolated from the lichen Xanthoria parietina were tested. Either D-glucose or different sugar alcohols were offered to the fungus at different concentrations, and cumulative growth and growth rates were assessed using two-dimensional image analysis over a period of 8 weeks. The mycobiont grew at a pH range from 4.0 to 7.0, whereas no growth was observed at higher pH values. Varying the carbon source in Lilly-Barnett medium (LBM) by replacing 1% D-glucose used in the originally described LBMby either 1%, 2% or 3% of D-mannitol, or 3% of D-glucose increased fungal biomass production by up to 26%, with an exponential growth phase between 2 and 6 weeks after inoculation. In summary, we present protocols for enhanced culture conditions and non-invasive assessment of growth of axenically cultured lichen mycobionts using image analysis, which may be useful for scientific and biotechnological approaches requiring cultured lichen mycobionts. Keywords: Culture . D-arabitol . D-glucose . D-mannitol . Image Analysis . Ribitol.
33548Chetia J., Gogoi N., Gogoi R. & Yasmin F. (2021): Impact of heavy metals on physiological health of lichens growing in differently polluted areas of central Assam, North East India. - Plant Physiology Reports, 26(2): 210–219. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40502-021-00575-3.
Accumulation of heavy metals on naturally grown epiphytic lichens and its impact on their physiological integrity was examined. Lichen species collected from differently polluted areas (oil refinery, roadside) were compared with the species collected from relatively lesser polluted areas. Heavy metal buildup in lichens were found to have significant damaging effect on their physiological health. Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni and Cr concentrations were found to be higher in the lichen species collected from both the polluted areas. Metal accumulation in lichen thallus has positive correlation at p B 0.01 (r = 0.417 to 0.772) with the recorded protein concentrations. Whereas, other studied parameters like chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, membrane stability and pH documented negative correlation with the accumulated heavy metals. However, abundance of species Dirinaria applanata and Dirinaria sp. at polluted areas with better protein content indicates their tolerance towards heavy metal. Chlorophyll degradation and protein contents in the lichens were found to be efficient physiological parameters to correlate with the air quality of a region. Sensitivity to heavy metals may be the cause of sparsity of species Arthonia cinnabarina, Cryptothecia subnidulans and Lecanora sp. in the polluted areas. However, lesser sensitivity to heavy metals favored the growth of species Dirinaria applanata and Dirinaria sp. even in higher polluted areas. Keywords: Lichens; Physiology; Metal accumulation; Air pollution; Bio-indicators.
33547Vannini A., Paoli L., Fedeli R., Kangogo S.K., Guarnieri M., Ancora S., Monaci F. & Loppi S. (2021): Modeling heavy metal release in the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28: 27392–27397. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12620-7.
In this study, the release of Cu2+ and Zn2+ was investigated and modeled in the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri. Samples were incubated with solutions containing these metals at ecologically relevant concentrations (10 and 100 μM) and then transplanted to a remote area and retrieved after 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. The results showed that, after 12 months, all samples faced similar metal reductions of ca. 80–85%, but after this period, all the involved processes seem to be no longer capable of generating further reductions. These results suggest that the lichen E. prunastri can provide information about environmental improvements after exposure to high or very high pollution levels in a relatively short period of time. Keywords: Air pollution . Bioaccumulation . Biomonitoring . Cu . Environmental recovery . Zn.
33546Nordén B. & Andreasen M. (2021): Key to hysterioid fungi on bark and wood in Scandinavia. - Agarica, 42: 103–122. .
The lack of useful determination keys is often a major obstacle for naming species of Ascomycota, especially for the amateur mycologist. One group of fungi in need of a key are species of Dothideomycetes with hysterioid ascomata on bark and wood in Scandinavia, and we present such a key encompassing 31 species in 14 genera. Hysterothecia are commonly found on bark and wood, and most species with hysterothecia are saprophytes. Since several lichenized, doubtfully lichenized, and other species have ascomata resembling hysterothecia we also mention several such cases of possible misidentification. Keywords: Dothideomycetes, neglected taxa, identification key.
33545Joseph R.G. (2021): Lichens on Mars vs the Hematite Hoax. Why Life Flourishes on the Radiated Iron-Rich Red Planet. (Fungus, Melanin, Calcium Oxalate, Photosynthesis). - Journal of Cosmology, 30: 1–97. .
There is life on Mars as documented with 100 comparative photos. This evidence includes pigmented/melanized fungi and lichens, fungi shedding crustose and secreting calcium oxalate, fungi preparing to spore, spores on the surface sprouting embryonic mushrooms, fungus growing out of the ground, lichens with hollow stalks, vast colonies of lichens attached to rocks and oriented skyward similar to photosynthesizing lichens on Earth, and documentation that the claims of spherical hematite is a hoax--a byproduct of religious extremism at NASA--which is why the hematite claims were immediately rejected as inappropriate and implausible by a number of investigators who proposed instead they are tektites and accretionary lapilli produced by meteor impact and volcano. Be they on the surface or attached to Martian rocks they have no resemblance to terrestrial hematite. The “spheres” of Mars are uniform in shape and size (1mm or 3mm to 6 mm) and all were initially described as “yellow” “orange” “purple” and “blue” the pigmented colors of photosynthesizing organisms. Terrestrial hematite “spheres” are colored red to dark red, consist of less than 2% hematite which form a thin layer on the surface and have a wide variety of sizes and shapes and are infiltrated by fungi and lichens. A review of the Opportunity teams’ methodology and instrumentation reveals that data was contaminated and confounded by numerous uncontrolled variables including problems with instrument calibrations and they relied on inference, speculation, data manipulation, and spectra from panoramic images that were selectively eliminated in a failed attempt to make it conform to laboratory samples. The iron-rich radiation-intense Red Planet provides an ideal environment for fungus and lichens to flourish and promotes growth and sporing and production of melanin which protects against while simultaneously utilizing radiation for metabolic energy. Fungi secrete calcium and lichens and fungi produce calcium oxalate that “weathers” and dissolves minerals and metals which are utilized as nutrients and are stored on cellular surfaces. Terrestrial species are iron-rich and precipitate hematite which makes these fungi and lichens ideal bioindicators of metal and minerals; whereas on Mars they are likely supersaturated with these and other minerals and metals as reflected by spectral data. Fungi and lichens secrete calcium oxalate which coats and surrounds mycelium, but upon exposure to dry surface conditions forms waves of calcium “cement” that may cement these organisms to layers of calcium oxalate fossilizing and making them “harder than rock.” Yet others grow out of the ground and are obviously alive. Given evidence documenting biological residue in Martian meteorites, biological activity in soil samples, seasonal increases in methane and oxygen which parallel biological fluctuations on Earth, and pictorial and quantitative morphological evidence of stromatolites fossilized tube worms and metazoans, growth of mushrooms and fungi, and vast colonies of rock-dwelling lichens, it is concluded that the evidence is obvious: There is life on Mars. Key Words: Hematite Hoax, Tektites, Accretionary Lapilli, Calcium Oxalate, Lichens, Martian Mushrooms, Puffballs, Volcanos on Mars, Meteor Impact, Hematite spheres, Whewellite.
33544Vellend M., Béhé M., Carteron A., Crofts A.L., Danneyrolles V., Gamhewa H.T., Ni M., Rinas C.L. & Watts D.A. (2021): Plant responses to climate change and an elevational gradient in Mont Mégantic National Park, Québec, Canada. - Northeastern Naturalist, 28(Special Issue 11): 4–28. .
With steep climatic gradients over short distances, montane ecosystems provide exceptional opportunities to study ecological responses to climate and other environmental changes. Here we present a summary and synthesis of 10 years of research on this theme in a protected area in southern Québec, Canada (Parc National du Mont Mégantic), with ecological conditions closely similar to the northern Appalachians. During the ~150 years since European settlement, anthropogenic disturbance has reduced the abundance of certain taxa (e.g., Picea [spruce]), while favoring other taxa that thrive during succession (e.g., Betula [birch], Acer [maple]). In more recent decades, climate warming (~0.21 °C per decade) appears to have prompted upward elevational range shifts for many plant species, although such responses lag behind changes in climate itself. Experimental studies with seeds and seedlings of Acer saccharum (Sugar Maple) suggest that upward range expansion might be constrained by non-climatic factors such as belowground properties and seed predators, while escape from insect herbivores might actually accelerate range expansion. Similar studies with understory plants have not revealed clear evidence of non-climatic constraints on range limits, although some preliminary data presented here suggest a possible role of a lack of microsites with rich, moist soil at high elevation. Current studies focus on the lower elevational range limits of species restricted to mountaintops, such as certain lichens. Vegetation and flowering phenology are also sensitive to climate, and we have found that earlier springs are associated with decreased potential gene flow across populations at different elevations; ongoing studies will determine how differential sensitivity of herbs vs. trees might influence the duration of a high light period in spring in the understory. Overall, we have found clear signals of plant responses to long-term anthropogenic disturbances and recent climatic warming, but considerable uncertainty remains about how climatic and non-climatic factors will interact to determine the future of this montane ecosystem.
33543Zarabska-Bożejewicz D. & Kujawa K. (2021): The lichen biota of Pinus sylvestris under the impact of some stand-related factors: A case study from the south-eastern part of Żerków-Czeszewo Landscape Park (Wielkopolska-Kujawy Lowland). - Acta Mycologica , 56: 562 [13 p.]. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0792-9854.
A lichenological inventory was conducted in the pine stands in the south-eastern region of Żerków-Czeszewo Landscape Park. The aim of this study was to recognize the lichen species diversity on the bark of Pinus sylvestris by considering tree age and forest habitat type. In total, 26 species of lichenized fungi were found on the bark of P. sylvestris. The biota comprises common and widespread species in Poland. Tree age positively and significantly influenced the species richness on the bark of P. sylvestris. The suitability of the pine tree age for lichens evident as alpha diversity seemed to be independent from the habitat of the trees. The age of phorophytes strongly affected the presence of Hypocenomyce scalaris. Mixed fresh coniferous forests were characterized by higher beta- and gamma diversity compared to fresh coniferous forests. There was no correlation between the number of species per tree (alpha diversity) and diversification of species composition in relation to the distance between pines. The findings indicate that maintenance of a variety of phorophytes and age-diversified tree stands can prevent impoverishment of the lichen biota in the south-eastern part of Żerków-Czeszewo Landscape Park. Keywords: lichenized fungi; species richness; pine; coniferous forest; west-central Poland.
33542Pykälä J., Kantelinen A. & Myllys L. (2021): Corrigendum: Pykälä J, Kantelinen A, Myllys L (2020) Taxonomy of Verrucaria species characterised by large spores, perithecia leaving pits in the rock and a pale thin thallus in Finland. MycoKeys 72: 43–92. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.72.56223. - MycoKeys, 80: 163–164. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.80.67870.
33541Nascimento E.L.L., Maia L.C., Cáceres M.E.S. & Lücking R. (2021): Phylogenetic structure of lichen metacommunities in Amazonian and Northeast Brazil. - Ecological Research, 36(2): 440–463. https://doi.org/10.1111/1440-1703.12206.
Amazon, Atlantic forest, Brejos de Altitude, Caatinga, Carrasco, Cerrad~ao and Restinga are major vegetation units in North and Northeast Brazil. Little is known about lichen metacommunity structure in these habitats. While species richness and composition generally depend on climatic factors, in azonal vegetation edaphic factors may have a filtering effect on tree bark structure and hence the composition of epiphytic lichen communities. We hypothesized that climatic stress and a tree bark filtering effect would result in reduced richness and phylogenetic clustering in Caatinga, Carrasco, Cerrad~ao and Restinga, whereas high richness and phylogenetic overdispersion were predicted for Amazon and Atlantic Forest. To test this, we analyzed 2,090 lichenized species in the study area, with a supertree to assess phylogenetic metacommunity structure. Amazon and Atlantic forest exhibited high richness and phylogenetic diversity, with phylogenetic overdispersion only in the Amazon. The zonal Caatinga with drought stress and the extrazonal Brejos both exhibited phylogenetic clustering. Among the azonal, edaphic vegetation units, Cerrad~ao exhibited phylogenetic overdispersion, whereas Restinga showed phylogenetic clustering. Nearest taxon phylogenetic distance indicated a close relationship between Amazon and Atlantic forest, Atlantic forest and Brejos and Atlantic forest and Caatinga. Carrasco was mostly closely related to Cerrad~ao, and Restinga was distantly related to any other unit. These findings indicate more complex patterns in the phylogenetic structure of lichen metacommunities, partly reflecting those of plant metacommunities, as a result of concurrent macroecological evolutionary histories. Our data supported floristic evidence that Carrasco is part of the Cerrado complex and not related to Caatinga. Keywords: Amazon–Atlantic forest Pleistocene corridors, Caliciales, ecological equivalence, Phylocom, Trypetheliaceae.
33540Markle C.E., Wilkinson S.L. & Waddington J.M. (2020): Initial effects of wildfire on freshwater turtle nesting habitat. - Journal of Wildlife Management, 84(7): 1373–1383. https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.21921.
Natural wildfire regimes are important for ecosystem succession but can have negative ecological effects depending on fire characteristics. A portion of a granite rock barrens landscape that extends along the eastern shoreline of Georgian Bay, Lake Huron to eastern Ontario, Canada, burned in 2018 during a wildfire that affected >11,000 ha. This landscape is a biodiversity hotspot providing habitat for many species at risk where freshwater turtles nest in soil deposits in cracks and crevices in the bedrock dominated by moss (Polytrichum spp.) and lichen (Cladonia spp.) cover. To assess the initial effect of wildfire on freshwater turtle nesting habitat, we measured soil depths and estimated moss, lichen, and vascular plant cover at 2 morphology types (crevice, flat) in burned and unburned areas of the landscape. The probability that burned flat plots supported soil was near zero; the burned flat plots had 98% less soil volume compared to unburned flat plots. Although crevices were more resistant to soil loss, burned crevices still had a 15% lower probability of having soil and 35% less soil volume compared to unburned crevice plots. We estimated nest site availability by calculating the number of locations with shallow (5–10 cm), intermediate (10–20 cm), and deep (>20 cm) soils required for a small (5 cm × 5 cm) or medium (10 cm × 10 cm) nest chamber. Overall, the burned open rock barrens had 71–73% fewer sites with suitable soil depth and volume for a nest chamber of either size. Furthermore, burned plots had almost no lichen and moss cover but were dominated by bare soil, forbs, and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings. Although the loss of tree cover in previously forested areas may increase nest site availability for freshwater turtles in newly open areas, we suggest that organic soil combustion and soil erosion may require restoration activities in the post-fire landscape to support successful nesting of at-risk turtles.
33539Komaty S., Sauvager A., Bazureau J.-P., Tomasi S. & Paquin L. (2021): Efficiency and selectivity of ionic liquids in microwave-assisted extraction of major lichen phenolic compounds: a scalable process with recycling of ionic liquids. - Phytochemical Analysis, 32: 592–600. https://doi.org/10.1002/pca.3008.
Introduction: Pseudevernia furfuracea, a lichen used classically for cosmetic applications, contains interesting metabolites possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory or antioxidant properties. Objectives: Ionic liquid combined to microwave-assisted extraction (IL–MAE) was successfully applied for metabolites extraction from Pseudevernia furfuracea. Materials and methods: Three imidazolium and pyridinium-based ionic liquids (ILs): 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulphate [C1C1Im][MeSO4], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulphate [C2C1Im][EtSO4], and N-ethylpyridinium ethylsulphate [C2Py][EtSO4] were assessed for this process. The efficiency of the extraction method was evaluated using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) coupled to a Camag® spectrophotodensitometer and using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Results: ILs under MAE showed extraction time efficiency (15 min vs. 24 h for conventional heating) and high selectivity in extracting the targeted metabolites: atranorin (AT), methyl-β-orcinol carboxylate (MOC), fumarprotocetraric acid (Fum. Ac.), and physodic acid (Phys. Ac.) despite the increased degradation of AT under MAE. We showed a tunable selectivity of ILs towards extracting metabolites by changing anion or cation due to the modification of the interaction between the IL and the metabolites. While [C2Py][EtSO4] was the most efficient IL and could extract all the targeted metabolites, [C2C1Im][EtSO4] was the most selective. It fully extracted AT and partially Fum. Ac. Moreover, the lichen prepared by mixing procedure provided AT and Fum. Ac. more than the milled one. A 100 times scale-up extraction was successfully performed on mixed samples with full IL recycling after back extraction. Conclusion: IL–MAE is reliable for lichen metabolites extraction. The method is reproducible, scalable, with possible IL recycling, opening the door for potential industrial applications. Keywords: ionic liquid, lichens, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), phenolic compounds, pilot-scale, Pseudevernia furfuracea, recycling of ionic liquids.
33538Wegener U. & Kison H.-U. (2002): Die Vegetation des Brockens im Nationalpark Hochharz (Exkursion G). - Tuexenia, 22: 243–267. https://www.tuexenia.de/publications/tuexenia/Tuexenia_2002_NS_022_0243-0267.pdf.
[in German] Germany; Harz. Vegetation / phytosociology paper with numerous records of lichens
33537Scholz P. (1995): Zur Artabgrenzung und Benennung einiger Erdflechten. - Informationen zur floristischen Kartierung in Thüringen [Jena], 8: 18–20. .
[in German] distribution map of Psora saviczii included
33536Isocrono D., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Di Nuzzo L., Catalano I., Gheza G., Giordani P., Matteucci E., Ongaro S., Potenza G., Puntillo D., Ravera S. & Pittao E. (2018): Lichenes Italici Exsiccati ex Società Lichenologica Italiana. Fascicle II (Nos. 13-24). - Notiziario della Società Lichenologica Italiana, 31: 97–99. .
The second issue of Lichenes Italici exsiccati ex Società Lichenalagica Italiana, the series of exsiccata distributed by the ltalian Lichen Society (Società Lichenologica Italiana, S.L.I.), is presented. The labels of 13-24 numbers are listed. Key words: Lichens, exsiccata.
33535Frolov I., Vondrák J., Košnar J. & Arup U. (2021): Phylogenetic relationships within Pyrenodesmia sensu lato and the role of pigments in its taxonomic interpretation. - Journal of Systematics and Evolution, 59(3): 454–474. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.12717.
Most lichens of the family Teloschistaceae (Ascomycota) produce yellow-orange-red anthraquinone pigments. However, the genus Pyrenodesmia encompasses species in which anthraquinones are absent and replaced by a gray pigment Sedifolia-gray. It was shown recently that these species are related to taxa with both anthraquinones and Sedifolia-gray (Caloplaca xerica group, C. haematites group, and C. cretensis) and to species with a brown pigment instead of both anthraquinones and Sedifolia-gray (C. demissa, C. obscurella, and C. reptans). Nevertheless, relationships between mentioned anthraquinone-containing and anthraquinone-lacking species remained unclear. In total, 8 DNA loci from 41 species were used here to resolve these uncertainties. We concluded that C. demissa, C. obscurella, and C. reptans are rather distant from the core of Pyrenodesmia, and we place them outside of Pyrenodesmia sensu lato. Within Pyrenodesmia sensu lato, three lineages were revealed and recognized on a generic level: the genus Pyrenodesmia sensu stricto (21 species), the genus Kuettlingeria (14 species), which is resurrected here, and the genus Sanguineodiscus (4 species), which is newly described here. The genus Pyrenodesmia includes taxa that never contain anthraquinones, but Sedifolia-gray. It matches with the former C. variabilis group. Taxa of the genera Kuettlingeria and Sanguineodiscus have anthraquinones in their apothecia and Sedifolia-gray in their thalli. The genus Kuettlingeria includes the former C. xerica group plus C. cretensis and C. diphyodes. The genus Sanguineodiscus includes the former C. haematites group and C. bicolor. The identity of Kuettlingeria (Caloplaca) diphyodes was clarified and the name Pyrenodesmia helygeoides was resurrected. Twenty-four new combinations were proposed. Key words: anthraquinones, Caloplaca haematites group, Caloplaca variabilis group, Caloplaca xerica group, Kuettlingeria, Pyrenodesmia sensu stricto, Sanguineodiscus, Sedifolia‐gray, Teloschistaceae.
33534Halıcı M.G., Kahraman M., Kistenich S. & Timdal E. (2021): Toniniopsis bartakii - A new species of lichenised fungus from James Ross Island (Antarctic Peninsula). - Turkish Journal of Botany, 45: 216–223. https://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/botany/issues/bot-21-45-3/bot-45-3-4-2101-24.pdf.
The new lichen species Toniniopsis bartakii is described from James Ross Island, the North-East Antarctic Peninsula region. It is phylogenetically most closely related to T. bagliettoana but differs mainly in forming a more developed, squamulose thallus. It is morphologically more similar to T. coelestina but differs mainly in the pigmentation in the proper exciple. An identification key to the known species of Toniniopsis is also provided. Key words: Antarctica, biodiversity, lichenized fungi, Ramalinaceae, mtSSU, nrITS.
33533Wang Y., Zheng Y., Wang X., Wei X. & Wei J. (2016): Lichen-associated fungal community in Hypogymnia hypotrypa (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) affected by geographic distribution and altitude. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 7: 1231 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01231.
Lichen-associated fungal species have already been investigated in almost all the main growth forms of lichens, however, whether or not they are homogeneous and constant within each lichen species are still inconclusive. Moreover, the related ecological factors to affect and structure the fungal composition have been poorly studied. In order to answer these questions, we took Hypogymnia hypotrypa as a model to study the relationship between the lichen-associated fungal composition and two ecological factors, i.e., site and altitude, using the method of IlluminaMiSeq sequencing. Four different sites and two levels of altitude were included in this study, and the effects of site and altitude on fungal community composition were assessed at three levels, i.e., operational taxonomic unit (OTU), class and phylum. The results showed that a total of 50 OTUs were identified and distributed in 4 phyla, 13 classes, and 20 orders. The lichen-associated fungal composition within H. hypotrypa were significantly affected by both site and altitude at OTU and class levels, while at the phylum level, it was only affected by altitude. While the lichen associated fungal communities were reported to be similar with endophytic fungi of the moss, our results indicated the opposite results in some degree. But whether there exist specific OTUs within this lichen species corresponding to different sites and altitudes is still open. More lichen species and ecological factors would be taken into the integrated analyses to address these knowledge gaps in the near future. Keywords: lichens, endolichenic fungi, lichenicolous fungi, fungal community, 18S rRNA gene, Tibetan Plateau.
33532Kalra R., Conlan X.A., Areche C., Dilawari R. & Goel M. (2021): Metabolite profiling of the Indian food spice lichen, Pseudevernia furfuracea combined with optimised extraction methodology to obtain bioactive phenolic compounds. - Frontiers in Pharmacology, 12: 629695 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.629695.
Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf (Parmeliaceae) is a well-known epiphytic lichen commonly used in Indian spice mixtures and food preparations such as curries. This study is an attempt to find the best extraction methodology with respect to extractive yield, total polyphenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of lichen P. furfuracea. Two phenolic compounds, atraric acid and olivetoric acid were isolated and quantified in their respective extracts with the aid of reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The highest concentration of both the compounds, atraric acid (4.89 mg/g DW) and olivetoric acid (11.46 mg/g DW) were found in 70% methanol extract. A direct correlation was also observed between the concentrations of these compounds with the free radical scavenging potential of the extracts which might contribute towards the antioxidant potential of the extract. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy and HPLC analysis which was used to study the effect of pre-processing on extraction process highlighted the capacity of a mixer grinder technique for improved separation of surface localized metabolites and enrichment of the fraction. An investigation of the chemical profile of the bioactive extract 70% methanol extract using UHPLC-DAD-MS lead to tentative identification of forty nine compounds. This extract was also assessed towards HEK 293 T cell line for cytotoxicity analysis. Concentration range of 0.156 to 100 µg/ml of PF70M extract exhibited no significant cell death as compared to control. Further, the active extract showed protective effect against hydroxyl radical’s destructive effects on DNA when assessed using DNA nicking assay. Based upon this, it can be concluded that optimization of extraction solvent, sample pre-proceesing and extraction techniques can be useful in extraction of specific antioxidant metabolites. Keywords: lichen, antioxidants, atraric acid, olivetoric acid, UHPLC-MS, metabolomics profiling, Pseudevernia furfuracea, spatial localization.
33531Cernava T., Müller H., Aschenbrenner I.A., Grube M. & Berg G. (2015): Analyzing the antagonistic potential of the lichen microbiome against pathogens by bridging metagenomic with culture studies. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 6: 620 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00620.
Naturally occurring antagonists toward pathogens play an important role to avoid pathogen outbreaks in ecosystems, and they can be applied as biocontrol agents for crops. Lichens present long-living symbiotic systems continuously exposed to pathogens. To analyze the antagonistic potential in lichens, we studied the bacterial community active against model bacteria and fungi by an integrative approach combining isolate screening, omics techniques, and high resolution mass spectrometry. The highly diverse microbiome of the lung lichen [Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm.] included an abundant antagonistic community dominated by Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Burkholderia. While antagonists represent 24.5% of the isolates, they were identified with only 7% in the metagenome; which means that they were overrepresented in the culturable fraction. Isolates of the dominant antagonistic genus Stenotrophomonas produced spermidine as main bioactive component. Moreover, spermidine-related genes, especially for the transport, were identified in the metagenome. The majority of hits identified belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, while Stenotrophomonas-specific spermidine synthases were not present in the dataset. Evidence for plant growth promoting effects was found for lichen-associated strains of Stenotrophomonas. Linking of metagenomic and culture data was possible but showed partly contradictory results, which required a comparative assessment. However, we have shown that lichens are important reservoirs for antagonistic bacteria, which open broad possibilities for biotechnological applications. Keywords:lichen,antagonisticbacteria,plantgrowthpromotion, Stenotrophomonas, spermidine.
33530Ivanova A.A., Kulichevskaya I.S., Merkel A.Y., Toshchakov S.V. & Dedysh S.N. (2016): High diversity of Planctomycetes in soils of two lichen-dominated sub-Arctic ecosystems of northwestern Siberia. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 7: 2065 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.02065.
A wide variety of terrestrial ecosystems in tundra have a ground vegetation cover composed of reindeer lichens (genera Cladonia and Cetraria). The microbial communities of two lichen-dominated ecosystems typical of the sub-arctic zone of northwestern Siberia, that is a forested tundra soil and a shallow acidic peatland, were examined in our study. As revealed by molecular analyses, soil and peat layers just beneath the lichen cover were abundantly colonized by bacteria from the phylum Planctomycetes. Highest abundance of planctomycetes detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization was in the range 2.2–2.7 × 107 cells per gram of wet weight. 16S rRNA gene fragments from the Planctomycetes comprised 8–13% of total 16S rRNA gene reads retrieved using Illumina pair-end sequencing from the soil and peat samples. Lichen-associated assemblages of planctomycetes displayed unexpectedly high diversity, with a total of 89,662 reads representing 1723 operational taxonomic units determined at 97% sequence identity. The soil of forested tundra was dominated by uncultivated members of the family Planctomycetaceae (53–71% of total Planctomycetes-like reads), while sequences affiliated with the Phycisphaera-related group WD2101 (recently assigned to the order Tepidisphaerales) were most abundant in peat (28–51% of total reads). Representatives of the Isosphaera–Singulisphaera group (14–28% of total reads) and the lineages defined by the genera Gemmata (1–4%) and Planctopirus–Rubinisphaera (1–3%) were present in both habitats. Two strains of Singulisphaera-like bacteria were isolated from studied soil and peat samples. These planctomycetes displayed good tolerance of low temperatures (4–15°C) and were capable of growth on a number of polysaccharides, including lichenan, a characteristic component of lichen-derived phytomass. Keywords: Planctomycetes, tundra wetland, lichen-dominated forested tundra, high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing, FISH, cultivation studies.
33529Noh H.-J., Lee Y.M., Park C.H., Lee H.K., Cho J.-C. & Hong S.G. (2020): Microbiome in Cladonia squamosa is vertically stratified according to microclimatic conditions. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 11: 268 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00268.
Lichens are miniature ecosystems that contain fungi, microalgae, and bacteria. It is generally accepted that symbiosis between mycobiont and photobiont and microbial contribution to the ecosystem support the wide distribution of lichens in terrestrial ecosystems, including polar areas. The composition of symbiotic components can be affected by subtle microenvironmental differences within a thallus, as well as large-scale climate differences. In this study, we investigated fine-scale profiles of algal, fungal, and bacterial compositions through horizontal and vertical positions of the Antarctic lichen Cladonia squamosa colonies by next-generation sequencing of the nuclear large subunit rRNA gene (nucLSU) of eukaryotes and the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria. Apical parts of thalli were exposed to strong light, low moisture, and high variability of temperature compared with basal parts. Microbial diversity increased from apical parts to basal parts of thalli. Asterochloris erici was the major photobiont in apical positions of thalli, but other microalgal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Trebouxiophyceae and Ulvophyceae were major microalgal components in basal positions. Photochemical responses of algal components from apical and basal parts of thalli were quite different under variable temperature and humidity conditions. Several fungal OTUs that belonged to Arthoniomycetes and Lecanoromycetes, and diverse bacterial OTUs that belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria_Gp1, and candidate division WPS-2 showed a clear distribution pattern according to their vertical positions within thalli. The overall lichen microbiome was significantly differentiated by the vertical position within a thallus. These results imply that different microclimate are formed at different lichen thallus parts, which can affect microbial compositions and physiological responses according to positions within the thalli. Keywords: Antarctica, lichen, bacteria, fungi, microalgae, microbiome.
33528Zhang T., Wang N.-F., Liu H.-Y., Zhang Y.-Q. & Yu L.-Y. (2016): Soil pH is a key determinant of soil fungal community composition in the Ny-Ålesund region, Svalbard (High Arctic). - Frontiers in Microbiology, 7: 227 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00227.
This study assessed the fungal community composition and its relationships with properties of surface soils in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic). A total of thirteen soil samples were collected and soil fungal community was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing with fungi-specific primers targeting the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The following eight soil properties were analyzed: pH, organic carbon (C), organic nitrogen (N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), silicate silicon (SiO42--Si), nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N), phosphate phosphorus (PO43--P), and nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N). A total of 57,952 reads belonging to 541 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found. of these OTUs, 343 belonged to Ascomycota, 100 to Basidiomycota, 31 to Chytridiomycota, 22 to Glomeromycota, 11 to Zygomycota, 10 to Rozellomycota, whereas 24 belonged to unknown fungi. The dominant orders were Helotiales, Verrucariales, Agaricales, Lecanorales, Chaetothyriales, Lecideales, and Capnodiales. The common genera (>eight soil samples) were Tetracladium, Mortierella, Fusarium, Cortinarius, and Atla. Distance-based redundancy analysis (db-rda) and analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) revealed that soil pH (p = 0.001) was the most significant factor in determining the soil fungal community composition. Members of Verrucariales were found to predominate in soils of pH 8–9, whereas Sordariales predominated in soils of pH 7–8 and Coniochaetales predominated in soils of pH 6–7. The results suggest the presence and distribution of diverse soil fungal communities in the High Arctic, which can provide reliable data for studying the ecological responses of soil fungal communities to climate changes in the Arctic. Keywords: soil fungi, fungal community composition, arctic tundra, soil properties, high-throughput sequencing.
33527Zwolicki A., Zmudczyńska-Skarbek K., Matuła J., Wojtuń B. & Stempniewicz L. (2016): Differential responses of Arctic vegetation to nutrient enrichment by plankton and fish-eating colonial seabirds in Spitsbergen. - Frontiers in Plant Science, 7: 1959 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.01959.
The role of seabirds as sea-land biovectors of nutrients is well documented. However, no studies have examined whether and how colonial seabirds that differ in diet may influence terrestrial vegetation. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to describe and compare plant communities located in the vicinity of the two most common types of seabird colonies in Arctic, occupied by piscivorous or planktivorous species. Within 46 plots arranged in four transects in the vicinity of planktivorous (little auk, Alle alle) and piscivorous colonies (mixed colony of Brunnich’s guillemot, Uria lomvia, and black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla) we measured the following: guano deposition, physical and chemical characteristics of soil, total nitrogen and its stable isotope signatures in soil and plants, ground vegetation cover of vascular plants and mosses, and the occurrence of lichens, algae and cyanobacteria. Using LINKTREE analysis, we distinguished five plant communities, which reflected declining influence along a birds fertilization gradient measured as guano deposition. SIMPROOF test revealed that these communities differed significantly in species composition, with the differences related to total soil nitrogen content and d15N, distinctive levels of phosphates, potassium and nitrates, and physical soil properties, i.e., pH, conductivity and moisture. The communities were also clearly distinguished by distance from the bird colony. The two colony types promoted development of specific plant communities: the immediate vicinity of the planktivorous colony characterized by a Deschampsia alpina–Cerastium arcticum community while under the piscivorous colony a Cochlearia groenlandica– Poa alpina community was present. Despite the similar size of the colonies and similar magnitude of guano input, differences between ornithogenic communities were connected mostly to phosphate content in the soil. Our results show that the guano input from seabirds which have different diets can affect High Arctic vegetation in specific and more complex ways than previously realized. Keywords: guano deposition, bird cliff vegetation, plant communities, soil chemistry, little auk, kittiwake, guillemot.
33526Pointing S.B., Büdel B., Convey P., Gillman L.N., Körner C., Leuzinger S. & Vincent W.F. (2015): Biogeography of photoautotrophs in the high polar biome. - Frontiers in Plant Science, 6: 692 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2015.00692.
[A review paper] The global latitudinal gradient in biodiversity weakens in the high polar biome and so an alternative explanation for distribution of Arctic and Antarctic photoautotrophs is required. Here we identify how temporal, microclimate and evolutionary drivers of biogeography are important, rather than the macroclimate features that drive plant diversity patterns elsewhere. High polar ecosystems are biologically unique, with a more central role for bryophytes, lichens and microbial photoautotrophs over that of vascular plants. Constraints on vascular plants arise mainly due to stature and ontogenetic barriers. Conversely non-vascular plant and microbial photoautotroph distribution is correlated with favorable microclimates and the capacity for poikilohydric dormancy. Contemporary distribution also depends on evolutionary history, with adaptive and dispersal traits as well as legacy influencing biogeography. We highlight the relevance of these findings to predicting future impacts on diversity of polar photoautotrophs and to the current status of plants in Arctic and Antarctic conservation policy frameworks. Keywords: antarctic, arctic, bryophytes, cryptogams, cyanobacteria, lichen, plant biogeography.
33525Borruso L., Bani A., Pioli S., Ventura M., Panzacchi P., Antonielli L., Giammarchi F., Polo A., Tonon G. & Brusetti L. (2021): Do aerial nitrogen depositions affect fungal and bacterial communities of oak leaves?. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 12: 633535 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.633535.
The amount of nitrogen (N) deposition onto forests has globally increased and is expected to double by 2050, mostly because of fertilizer production and fossil fuel burning. Several studies have already investigated the effects of N depositions in forest soils, highlighting negative consequences on plant biodiversity and the associated biota. Nevertheless, the impact of N aerial inputs deposited directly on the tree canopy is still unexplored. This study aimed to investigate the influence of increased N deposition on the leaf-associated fungal and bacterial communities in a temperate forest dominated by Sessile oak [Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.]. The study area was located in the Monticolo forest (South Tyrol, Italy), where an ecosystem experiment simulating an increased N deposition has been established. The results highlighted that N deposition affected the fungal beta-diversity and bacterial alpha-diversity without affecting leaf total N and C contents. We found several indicator genera of both fertilized and natural conditions within bacteria and fungi, suggesting a highly specific response to altered N inputs. Moreover, we found an increase of symbiotrophic fungi in N-treated, samples which are commonly represented by lichen-forming mycobionts. Overall, our results indicated that N-deposition, by increasing the level of bioavailable nutrients in leaves, could directly influence the bacterial and fungal community diversity. Keywords: microbial communities, Quercus petraea, temperate forest, Alps, forest ecology.
33524Choe Y.-H., Kim M. & Lee Y.K. (2021): Distinct microbial communities in adjacent rock and soil substrates on a high Arctic polar desert . - Frontiers in Microbiology, 11: 607396 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.607396.
Understanding microbial niche variability in polar regions can provide insights into the adaptive diversification of microbial lineages in extreme environments. Compositions of microbial communities in Arctic soils are well documented but a comprehensive multidomain diversity assessment of rocks remains insufficiently studied. In this study, we obtained two types of rocks (sandstone and limestone) and soils around the rocks in a high Arctic polar desert (Svalbard), and examined the compositions of archaeal, bacterial, fungal, and protistan communities in the rocks and soils. The microbial community structure differed significantly between rocks and soils across all microbial groups at higher taxonomic levels, indicating that Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Latescibacteria, Rokubacteria, Leotiomycetes, Pezizomycetes, Mortierellomycetes, Sarcomonadea, and Spirotrichea were more abundant in soils, whereas Cyanobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, FBP, Lecanoromycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Trebouxiophyceae, and Ulvophyceae were more abundant in rocks. Interestingly, fungal communities differed markedly between two different rock types, which is likely to be ascribed to the predominance of distinct lichen-forming fungal taxa (Verrucariales in limestone, and Lecanorales in sandstone). This suggests that the physical or chemical properties of rocks could be a major determinant in the successful establishment of lichens in lithic environments. Furthermore, the biotic interactions among microorganisms based on co-occurrence network analysis revealed that Polyblastia and Verrucaria in limestone, and Atla, Porpidia, and Candelariella in sandstone play an important role as keystone taxa in the lithic communities. Our study shows that even in niches with the same climate regime and proximity to each other, heterogeneity of edaphic and lithic niches can affect microbial community assembly, which could be helpful in comprehensively understanding the effects of niche on microbial assembly in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems. Keywords: polar desert, lithic niche, edaphic niche, rock microbes, Arctic.
33523Maestre F.T., Escolar C., Bardgett R.D., Dungait J.A.J., Gozalo B. & Ochoa V. (2015): Warming reduces the cover and diversity of biocrust-forming mosses and lichens, and increases the physiological stress of soil microbial communities in a semi-arid Pinus halepensis plantation. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 6: 865 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00865.
Soil communities dominated by lichens and mosses (biocrusts) play key roles in maintaining ecosystem structure and functioning in drylands worldwide. However, few studies have explicitly evaluated how climate change-induced impacts on biocrusts affect associated soil microbial communities. We report results from a field experiment conducted in a semiarid Pinus halepensis plantation, where we setup an experiment with two factors: cover of biocrusts (low [<15%] versus high [>50%]), and warming (control versus a ∼2°C temperature increase). Warming reduced the richness and cover (∼45%) of high biocrust cover areas 53 months after the onset of the experiment. This treatment did not change the ratios between the major microbial groups, as measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Warming increased the physiological stress of the Gram negative bacterial community, as indicated by the cy17:0/16:1ω7 ratio. This response was modulated by the initial biocrust cover, as the increase in this ratio with warming was higher in areas with low cover. Our findings suggest that biocrusts can slow down the negative effects of warming on the physiological status of the Gram negative bacterial community. However, as warming will likely reduce the cover and diversity of biocrusts, these positive effects will be reduced under climate change. Keywords: biocrusts, climate change, lichen, moss, PLFA, drylands, microbial communities.
33522Cernava T., Vasfiu Q., Erlacher A., Aschenbrenner I.A., Francesconi K., Grube M. & Berg G. (2018): Adaptions of lichen microbiota functioning under persistent exposure to arsenic contamination. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 9: 2959 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02959.
Host-associated microbiota play an important role in the health and persistence of more complex organisms. In this study, metagenomic analyses were used to reveal microbial community adaptations in three lichen samples as a response to different arsenic concentrations at the sampling sites. Elevated arsenic concentrations at a former mining site expanded the spectrum and number of relevant functions in the lichen-associated microorganisms. Apparent changes affected the abundance of numerous detoxification-related genes, they were substantially enhanced in arsenicpolluted samples. Complementary quantifications of the arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase (arsM) gene showed that its abundance is not strictly responding to the environmental arsenic concentrations. The analyzed samples contained rather low numbers of the arsM gene with a maximum of 202 gene copies ml
33521Calla-Quispe E., Robles J., Areche C. & Sepulveda B. (2020): Are ionic liquids better extracting agents than toxic volatile organic solvents? A combination of ionic liquids, microwave and LC/MS/MS, applied to the lichen Stereocaulon glareosum. - Frontiers in Chemistry, 8: 450 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2020.00450.
We report a green strategy for the extraction of lichen substances from Stereocaulon glareosum. This sustainable alternative does not use volatile toxic organic solvents, but it is assisted by microwave and is checked by UHPLC/ESI/MS/MS. Ionic liquids may provide a better alternative in the extraction of natural products from lichens. Keywords: lichens, ionic liquids, LC/MS, natural products, Stereocaulon.
33520Erlacher A., Cernava T., Cardinale M., Soh J., Sensen C.W., Grube M. & Berg G. (2015): Rhizobiales as functional and endosymbiontic members in the lichen symbiosis of Lobaria pulmonaria L.. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 6: 53 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00053.
Rhizobiales (Alphaproteobacteria) are well-known beneficial partners in plant-microbe interactions. Less is known about the occurrence and function of Rhizobiales in the lichen symbiosis, although it has previously been shown that Alphaproteobacteria are the dominating group in growing lichen thalli. We have analyzed the taxonomic structure and assigned functions to Rhizobiales within a metagenomic dataset of the lung lichen Lobaria pulmonaria L. One third (32.2%) of the overall bacteria belong to the Rhizobiales, in particular to the families Methylobacteriaceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae, and Rhizobiaceae. About 20% of our metagenomic assignments could not be placed in any of the Rhizobiales lineages, which indicates a yet undescribed bacterial diversity. SEED-based functional analysis focused on Rhizobiales and revealed functions supporting the symbiosis, including auxin and vitamin production, nitrogen fixation and stress protection. We also have used a specifically developed probe to localize Rhizobiales by confocal laser scanning microscopy after fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-CLSM). Bacteria preferentially colonized fungal surfaces, but there is clear evidence that members of the Rhizobiales are able to intrude at varying depths into the interhyphal gelatinous matrix of the upper lichen cortical layer and that at least occasionally some bacteria also are capable to colonize the interior of the fungal hyphae. Interestingly, the gradual development of an endosymbiotic bacterial life was found for lichen- as well as for fungal- and plant-associated bacteria. The new tools to study Rhizobiales, FISH microscopy and comparative metagenomics, suggest a similar beneficial role for lichens than for plants and will help to better understand the Rhizobiales-host interaction and their biotechnological potential. Keywords: Rhizobiales, lichensymbiosis, Lobariapulmonaria, metagenomics, Rhizobiales-specific FISHprobe, endosymbiont.
33519Ingelfinger R., Henke M., Roser L., Ulshöfer T., Calchera A., Singh G., Parnham M.J., Geisslinger G., Fürst R., Schmitt I. & Schiffmann S. (2020): Unraveling the pharmacological potential of lichen extracts in the context of cancer and inflammation with a broad screening approach. - Frontiers in Pharmacology, 11: 1322 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.01322.
Lichen-forming fungi are symbiotic organisms that synthesize unique natural products with potential for new drug leads. Here, we explored the pharmacological activity of six lichen extracts (Evernia prunastri, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Umbilicaria pustulata, Umbilicaria crustulosa, Flavoparmelia caperata, Platismatia glauca) in the context of cancer and inflammation using a comprehensive set of 11 functional and biochemical in vitro screening assays. We assayed intracellular Ca2+ levels and cell migration. For cancer, we measured tumor cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis, as well as the angiogenesis-associated proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs). Targeting inflammation, we assayed leukocyte adhesion onto ECs, EC adhesion molecule expression, as well as nitric oxide production and prostaglandin (PG)E2 synthesis in leukocytes. Remarkably, none of the lichen extracts showed any detrimental influence on the viability of ECs. We showed for the first time that extracts of F. caperata induce Ca2+ signaling. Furthermore, extracts from E. prunastri, P. furfuracea, F. caperata, and P. glauca reduced cell migration. Interestingly, F. caperata extracts strongly decreased tumor cell survival. The proliferation of ECs was significantly reduced by E. prunastri, P. furfuracea, and F. caperata extracts. The extracts did not inhibit the activity of inflammatory processes in ECs. However, the pro-inflammatory activation of leukocytes was inhibited by extracts from E. prunastri, P. furfuracea, F. caperata, and P. glauca. After revealing the potential biological activities of lichen extracts by an array of screening tests, a correlation analysis was performed to evaluate particular roles of abundant lichen secondary metabolites, such as atranorin, physodic acid, and protocetraric acid as well as usnic acid in various combinations. Overall, some of the lichen extracts tested in this study exhibit significant pharmacological activity in the context of inflammation and/or cancer, indicating that the group lichen-forming fungi includes promising members for further testing. Keywords: lichen extracts, screening, cancer, inflammation, cytotoxicity, migration.
33518Newsham K.K., Davey M.L., Hopkins D.W. & Dennis P.G. (2021): Regional diversity of maritime Antarctic soil fungi and predicted responses of guilds and growth forms to climate change. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 11: 615659 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.615659.
We report a metabarcoding study documenting the fungal taxa in 29 barren fellfield soils sampled from along a 1,650 km transect encompassing almost the entire maritime Antarctic (60–72°S) and the environmental factors structuring the richness, relative abundance, and taxonomic composition of three guilds and growth forms. The richness of the lichenised fungal guild, which accounted for 19% of the total fungal community, was positively associated with mean annual surface air temperature (MASAT), with an increase of 1.7 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of lichenised fungi per degree Celsius rise in air temperature. Soil Mn concentration, MASAT, C:N ratio, and pH value determined the taxonomic composition of the lichenised guild, and the relative abundance of the guild was best predicted by soil Mn concentration. There was a 3% decrease in the relative abundance of the saprotrophic fungal guild in the total community for each degree Celsius rise in air temperature, and the OTU richness of the guild, which accounted for 39% of the community, was negatively associated with Mn concentration. The taxonomic composition of the saprotrophic guild varied with MASAT, pH value, and Mn, NH4+-N, and SO42− concentrations. The richness of the yeast community, which comprised 3% of the total fungal community, was positively associated with soil K concentration, with its composition being determined by C:N ratio. In contrast with a similar study in the Arctic, the relative abundance and richness of lichenised fungi declined between 60°S and 69°S, with those of saprotrophic Agaricales also declining sharply in soils beyond 63°S. Basidiomycota, which accounted for 4% of reads, were much less frequent than in vegetated soils at lower latitudes, with the Ascomycota (70% of reads) being the dominant phylum. We conclude that the richness, relative abundance, and taxonomic composition of guilds and growth forms of maritime Antarctic soil fungi are influenced by air temperature and edaphic factors, with implications for the soils of the region as its climate changes during the 21st century. Keywords: Agaricales, ascomycetes, climate warming, phylogenetic marker (ITS2) sequencing, lichenised fungi, maritime Antarctica, saprotrophic fungi, yeasts.
33517Rattan R., Shukla S., Sharma B. & Bhat M. (2021): A mini-review on lichen-based nanoparticles and their applications as antimicrobial agents. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 12: 633090 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.633090.
Biological entities such as green plants, fungi, and lichens are now a days persistently explored for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Lichen-based nanoparticles are also becoming increasingly popular owing to their biocompatibility, eco-friendliness, and cost-effectiveness. The lichen-based metal nanomaterials, particularly synthesized using green chemistry approaches, have turned out to be great substitutes to conventional antimicrobial therapies. Many scientific reports established the significant antimicrobial properties exhibited by the lichen nanoparticles. Therefore, the present mini-review summarizes an overview of lichen-based nanomaterials, their synthesis, their applications, and the molecular mechanism of their potential as broad spectrum antimicrobial agents for biomedical applications.
33516Míguez F., Schiefelbein U., Karsten U., García-Plazaola J.I. & Gustavs L. (2017): Unraveling the photoprotective response of lichenized and free-living green algae (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) to photochilling stress. - Frontiers in Plant Science, 8: 1144 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01144.
Lichens and free-living terrestrial algae are widespread across many habitats and develop successfully in ecosystems where a cold winter limits survival. With the goal of comparing photoprotective responses in free-living and lichenized algae, the physiological responses to chilling and photochilling conditions were studied in three lichens and their isolated algal photobionts together as well as in a fourth free-living algal species. We specifically addressed the following questions: (i) Are there general patterns of acclimation in green algae under chilling and photochilling stresses? (ii) Do free-living algae exhibit a similar pattern of responses as their lichenized counterparts? (iii) Are these responses influenced by the selection pressure of environmental conditions or by the phylogenetic position of each species? To answer these questions, photosynthetic fluorescence measurements as well as pigment and low molecular weight carbohydrate pool analyses were performed under controlled laboratory conditions. In general, photochemical efficiency in all free-living algae decreased with increasing duration of the stress, while the majority of lichens maintained an unchanged photochemical activity. Nevertheless, these patterns cannot be generalized because the alga Trebouxia arboricola and the lichen Ramalina pollinaria (associated with Trebouxia photobionts) both showed a similar decrease in photochemical efficiency. In contrast, in the couple Elliptochloris bilobata-Baeomyces rufus, only the algal partner exhibited a broad physiological performance under stress. This study also highlights the importance of the xanthophyll cycle in response to the studied lichens and algae to photochilling stress, while the accumulation of sugars was not related to cold acclimation, except in the alga E. bilobata. The differences in response patterns detected among species can be mainly explained by their geographic origin, although the phylogenetic position should also be considered, especially in some species. Keywords: carotenoid, high light, lichen, low molecular weight carbohydrates, low temperature, pigments, violaxanthin cycle.
33515de la Torre Noetzel R., Miller A.Z., de la Rosa J.M., Pacelli C., Onofri S., García Sancho L., Cubero B., Lorek A., Wolter D. & de Vera J.P. (2018): Cellular responses of the lichen Circinaria gyrosa in Mars-like conditions. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 9: 308 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00308.
Lichens are extremely resistant organisms that colonize harsh climatic areas, some of them defined as “Mars-analog sites.” There still remain many unsolved questions as to how lichens survive under such extreme conditions. Several studies have been performed to test the resistance of various lichen species under space and in simulated Mars-like conditions. The results led to the proposal that Circinaria gyrosa (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota) is one of themost durable astrobiologicalmodel lichens. However, although C. gyrosa has been exposed to Mars-like environmental conditions while in a latent state, it has not been exposed in its physiologically active mode. We hypothesize that the astrobiological test system “Circinaria gyrosa,” could be able to be physiologically active and to survive under Mars-like conditions in a simulation chamber, based on previous studies performed at dessicated-dormant stage under simulated Mars-like conditions, that showed a complete recover of the PSII activity (Sánchez et al., 2012). Epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that living algal cells were more abundant in samples exposed to niche conditions, which simulated the conditions in micro-fissures and micro-caves close to the surface that have limited scattered or time-dependent light exposure, than in samples exposed to full UV radiation. The medulla was not structurally affected, suggesting that the niche exposure conditions did not disturb the lichen thalli structure and morphology as revealed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). In addition, changes in the lichen thalli chemical composition were determined by analytical pyrolysis. The chromatograms resulting from analytical pyrolysis at 500◦C revealed that lichen samples exposed to niche conditions and full UV radiation consisted primarily of glycosidic compounds, lipids, and sterols, which are typical constituents of the cell walls. However, specific differences could be detected and used as markers of the UV-induced damage to the lichen membranes. Based on its viability responses after rehydration, our study shows that the test lichen survived the 30-day incubation in the Mars chamber particularly under niche conditions. However, the photobiont was not able to photosynthesize under theMars-like conditions, which indicates that the surface of Mars is not a habitable place for C. gyrosa. Keywords: Mars environment, extremotolerance, lichens, Circinaria gyrosa, photosynthetic activity, analytical pyrolysis.
33514Nazem-Bokaee H., Hom E.F.Y., Warden A.C., Mathews S. & Gueidan C. (2021): Towards a systems biology approach to understanding the lichen symbiosis: Opportunities and challenges of implementing network modelling. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 12: 667864 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.667864.
Lichen associations, a classic model for successful and sustainable interactions between micro-organisms, have been studied for many years. However, there are significant gaps in our understanding about how the lichen symbiosis operates at the molecular level. This review addresses opportunities for expanding current knowledge on signalling and metabolic interplays in the lichen symbiosis using the tools and approaches of systems biology, particularly network modelling. The largely unexplored nature of symbiont recognition and metabolic interdependency in lichens could benefit from applying a holistic approach to understand underlying molecular mechanisms and processes. Together with ‘omics’ approaches, the application of signalling and metabolic network modelling could provide predictive means to gain insights into lichen signalling and metabolic pathways. First, we review the major signalling and recognition modalities in the lichen symbioses studied to date, and then describe how modelling signalling networks could enhance our understanding of symbiont recognition, particularly leveraging omics techniques. Next, we highlight the current state of knowledge on lichen metabolism. We also discuss metabolic network modelling as a tool to simulate flux distribution in lichen metabolic pathways and to analyse the codependence between symbionts. This is especially important given the growing number of lichen genomes now available and improved computational tools for reconstructing such models. We highlight the benefits and possible bottlenecks for implementing different types of network models as applied to the study of lichens. Keywords: systems biology, network modelling, signalling, metabolic model, lichen symbiosis.
33513Leavitt S.D., Westberg M., Nelsen M.P., Elix J.A., Timdal E., Sohrabi M., St. Clair L.L., Williams L., Wedin M. & Lumbsch H.T. (2018): Multiple, distinct intercontinental lineages but isolation of Australian populations in a cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungal taxon, Psora decipiens (Psoraceae, Ascomycota). - Frontiers in Microbiology, 9: 283 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00283.
Multiple drivers shape the spatial distribution of species, including dispersal capacity, niche incumbency, climate variability, orographic barriers, and plate tectonics. However, biogeographic patterns of fungi commonly do not fit conventional expectations based on studies of animals and plants. Fungi, in general, are known to occur across exceedingly broad, intercontinental distributions, including some important components of biological soil crust communities (BSCs). However, molecular data often reveal unexpected biogeographic patterns in lichenized fungal species that are assumed to have cosmopolitan distributions. The lichen-forming fungal species Psora decipiens is found on all continents, except Antarctica and occurs in BSCs across diverse habitats, ranging from hot, arid deserts to alpine habitats. In order to better understand factors that shape population structure in cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungal species, we investigated biogeographic patterns in the cosmopolitan taxon P. decipiens, along with the closely related taxa P. crenata and P. saviczii. We generated a multi-locus sequence dataset based on a worldwide sampling of these taxa in order to reconstruct evolutionary relationships and explore phylogeographic patterns. Both P. crenata and P. decipiens were not recovered as monophyletic; and P. saviczii specimens were recovered as a monophyletic clade closely related to a number of lineages comprised of specimens representing P. decipiens. Striking phylogeographic patterns were observed for P. crenata, with populations from distinct geographic regions belonging to wellseparated, monophyletic lineages. South African populations of P. crenata were further divided into well-supported sub-clades. While well-supported phylogenetic substructure was also observed for the nominal taxon P. decipiens, nearly all lineages were comprised of specimens collected from intercontinental populations. However, all Australian specimens representing P. decipiens were recovered within a single well-supported monophyletic clade consisting solely of Australian samples. Our study supports up to 10 candidate species-level lineages in P. decipiens, based on genealogical concordance and coalescent-based species delimitation analyses. Our results support the general pattern of the biogeographic isolation of lichen-forming fungal populations in Australia, even in cases where closely related congeners have documented intercontinental distributions. Our study has important implications for understanding factors influencing diversification and distributions of lichens associated with BSC. Keywords: biogeography, biological soil crusts (BSC), cryptic species, disjunct populations, long-distance dispersal, Psora, semi-arid, South Africa.
33512Klarenberg I.J., Keuschnig C., Warshan D., Jónsdóttir I.S. & Vilhelmsson O. (2020): The total and active bacterial community of the chlorolichen Cetraria islandica and its response to long-term warming in sub-Arctic tundra. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 11: 540404 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.540404.
Lichens are traditionally defined as a symbiosis between a fungus and a green alga and or a cyanobacterium. This idea has been challenged by the discovery of bacterial communities inhabiting the lichen thalli. These bacteria are thought to contribute to the survival of lichens under extreme and changing environmental conditions. How these changing environmental conditions affect the lichen-associated bacterial community composition remains unclear. We describe the total (rDNA-based) and potentially metabolically active (rRNA-based) bacterial community of the lichen Cetaria islandica and its response to long-term warming using a 20-year warming experiment in an Icelandic sub-Arctic tundra. 16S rRNA and rDNA amplicon sequencing showed that the orders Acetobacterales (of the class Alphaproteobacteria) and Acidobacteriales (of the phylum Acidobacteria) dominated the bacterial community. Numerous amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) could only be detected in the potentially active community but not in the total community. Long-term warming led to increases in relative abundance of bacterial taxa on class, order and ASV level. Warming altered the relative abundance of ASVs of the most common bacterial genera, such as Granulicella and Endobacter. The potentially metabolically active bacterial community was also more responsive to warming than the total community. Our results suggest that the bacterial community of the lichen C. islandica is dominated by acidophilic taxa and harbors disproportionally active rare taxa. We also show for the first time that climate warming can lead to shifts in lichen-associated bacterial community composition. Keywords: lichen, lichen microbiome, tundra, climate change, host–microbiome, lichen-associated bacteria, long-term warming.
33511Kaasalainen U., Tuovinen V., Mwachala G., Pellikka P. & Rikkinen J. (2021): Complex interaction networks among cyanolichens of a tropical biodiversity hotspot. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 12: 672333 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.672333.
Interactions within lichen communities include, in addition to close mutualistic associations between the main partners of specific lichen symbioses, also more elusive relationships between members of a wider symbiotic community. Here, we analyze association patterns of cyanolichen symbionts in the tropical montane forests of Taita Hills, southern Kenya, which is part of the Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot. The cyanolichen specimens analyzed represent 74 mycobiont taxa within the order Peltigerales (Ascomycota), associating with 115 different variants of the photobionts genus Nostoc (Cyanobacteria). Our analysis demonstrates wide sharing of photobionts and reveals the presence of several photobiont-mediated lichen guilds. Over half of all mycobionts share photobionts with other fungal species, often from different genera or even families, while some others are strict specialists and exclusively associate with a single photobiont variant. The most extensive symbiont network involves 24 different fungal species from five genera associating with 38 Nostoc photobionts. The Nostoc photobionts belong to two main groups, the Nephroma-type Nostoc and the Collema/Peltigera-type Nostoc, and nearly all mycobionts associate only with variants of one group. Among the mycobionts, species that produce cephalodia and those without symbiotic propagules tend to be most promiscuous in photobiont choice. The extent of photobiont sharing and the structure of interaction networks differ dramatically between the two major photobiont-mediated guilds, being both more prevalent and nested among Nephroma guild fungi and more compartmentalized among Peltigera guild fungi. This presumably reflects differences in the ecological characteristics and/or requirements of the two main groups of photobionts. The same two groups of Nostoc have previously been identified from many lichens in various lichen-rich ecosystems in different parts of the world, indicating that photobiont sharing between fungal species is an integral part of lichen ecology globally. In many cases, symbiotically dispersing lichens can facilitate the dispersal of sexually reproducing species, promoting establishment and adaptation into new and marginal habitats and thus driving evolutionary diversification. Keywords: lichen, symbiosis, mycobiont, photobiont, photobiont-mediated guild, peltigerales, Nostoc.
33510Powell M. (2015): Two overlooked but widespread crusts: Verrucaria obfuscans and V. ochrostoma. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 117: 1–6. .
These two diminutive species have been overlooked by British lichenologists. Verrucaria ochrostoma was described by Borrer in the first half of the nineteenth century. Victorian lichenologists such as Leighton (1879) considered V. ochrostoma to be a rare species of plastered walls. The BLS database indicates only three hectad records during the twentieth century and, as recently as the publication of the 2009 ‘Flora’ (Orange et al. 2009), V. ochrostoma was considered to be a rare species of SE England. V. obfuscans was added to the British list in February 2015 but it is unlikely to be a recent arrival and it is not a recently described species. The nineteenth century type specimen was collected in the Jardin du Luxembourg, Paris
33509Fryday A. (1999): The genus Rimularia in the British Isles. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 84: 18–21. .
The only species included in the Rimularia in The Lichen Flora of Great Britain and Ireland (Purvis et al. 1992) were R. limborina Nyl. and the recently described, R. fuscosora Muhr & Tonsberg. However, two further species - Lecidia gyrizans and Mosigia illita - were mentioned by Purvis et al. (1992) as having recently been transferred to Rimularia (the latter as R. badioatra) while two others, Lecidea furvella and L. insularis, had already been moved to the genus by Hertel & Rambold (1990), although this placement was not universally accepted in the restricted sense of the genus then current. In the subsequent checklist (Purvis et al. 1993) two further species were transferred to Rimularia; Lecidea mullensis - considered by Hertel & Rambold to be a chemical race of R. gyrizans - and Mosigia intercedens - which they considered to be the anamorph of R. badioatra. Field work in Scotland has shown that several species are more frequent than previously reported and added two further species, the bryophilous R. sphacelata and an apparently undescribed species resembling R. gyrizans but with larger ascospores. A revised key to the genus is, therefore, required and this is provided here along with notes on the montane/upland species.
33508Marcano V., Morales Méndez A. & Palacios Prü E. (2021): The genus Ramalina Acharius (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes, Ramalinaceae) in northern South America. - Phytotaxa, 504(1): 1–77. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.504.1.1.
Fifty three taxa of Ramalina Acharius have been found in northern South America (including Colombia and Venezuela), with 8 varieties and 48 species. Seven species and four varieties are described as new to science viz. R. anteojina V. Marcano & A. Morales sp. nov. (Venezuela), R. canaguensis V. Marcano & A. Morales var. colombiana Marcano & Morales var. nov. (Colombia), R. canaguensis Marcano & Morales var. guascasensis Marcano & Morales var. nov. (Colombia), R. canaguensis V. Marcano & A. Morales var. mucumpisensis V. Marcano & A. Morales var. nov. (Colombia and Venezuela), R. reducta Krog & Swinscow var. colombiana V. Marcano & A. Morales var. nov. (Colombia), R. maegdefraui V. Marcano & A. Morales sp. nov. (Venezuela), R. mirandensis V. Marcano & A. Morales sp. nov. (Venezuela), R. subcalcarata V. Marcano & A. Morales sp. nov. (Venezuela), R. tenaensis V, Marcano & Morales sp. nov. (Colombia), R. venezuelensis V. Marcano & A. Morales sp. nov. (Venezuela), and R. victoriana V. Marcano & L. Castillo sp. nov. (Venezuela); 8 taxa are reported for first time from Venezuela: R. anceps Nylander, R. bogotensis Nylander, R. chilensis Bertero, R. holstii Krog & Swinscow, R. rigida Persoon ex Acharius, R. sorediosa (Bouly de Lesdain) Landrón, R. subfraxinea Nylander var. subfraxinea, and R. tenella Müller Argoviensis, whereas 5 taxa are reported for the first time from Colombia: R. africana (Stein) Dodge, R. asahinae W. Culberson & C. Culberson, R. subfraxinea Nylander var. confirmata, R. tenuissima V. Marcano & A. Morales and R. vareschii V. Marcano & A. Morales. A key to the species is presented together with data on morphology, anatomy, chemistry, variation, taxonomy, habitat and distribution. The chemical analyses show that the sekikaic (24 taxa), boninic (16 taxa) and homosekikaic (15 taxa) acids are the most common depsides found. Divaricatic acid is present in 10 of the taxa but is frequently replaced by sekikaic acid and its aggregates. The most common depsidones are salazinic acid (22 taxa), and protocetraric acid (25 taxa). The distribution of the secondary compounds reveals they are able to produce quite different substances which appears be not dependent to the habitat where occur the species, neither to the occurrence of minute morphological or anatomical differences at similar species. Often, several chemical strains (chemosyndromes) can be recognized within a single population of a particular species, but have no correlation with morphology or ecology. Biogeographic data indicate that of the 53 taxa known from northern South America, 28.3% (15) are known only from Venezuela, 7.5% (4) are known only from Colombia and 18.9% (10) are known only from Venezuela and Colombia. Of the 50 taxa known from Venezuela, 70% (37) of the taxa have their main distribution in the Andean region. The high concentration of Ramalina species seen in the Andes indicates that this region constitutes an important centre for speciation and endemism of Ramalina both in northern South America but also throughout the world. Keywords: Ramalina, new species, chemosyndromic variation, endemism, Colombia, Venezuela, Lichens.
33507Thomson J.W. (1973): Notes on American Arctic species of Candelariella. - Revista da Facultade de Ciencias de Lisboa, 2. ser., C, 17: 747–759. .
A key, synonymies, short descriptions, statements of ranges, and clarification of nomenclatorial problems are given for 8 species of the lichen genus Candelariella occurring in the American arctic. The range of Candelariella tercigena is mapped. The lichen Candelariella coralliza and the lichen parasite Lecidea vitellinaria are reported as new to North America
33506Pino-Bodas R. & Burgaz A.R. (2021): Chorological novelties of the genus Cladonia in Toledo province (Spain). - Botanica Complutensis, 45: 1–4. https://dx.doi.org/10.5209/bocm.75353.
Cladonia gracilis subsp. gracilis and Cladonia uncialis subsp. biuncialis are newly recorded to Toledo province. Furthermore, the distribution of C. macilenta and C. diversa is extended in this province. The habitats and distribution of these species in the Iberian Peninsula are discussed. Keywords: Lichens, Iberian Peninsula, Castilla-La Mancha.
33505Gómez-Bolea A., Burgaz A.R., Atienza V., Dumitru C., Chesa M.J. , Chiva S., Force L., Muriel S., Prieto M., Rico V.J., Rodríguez-Arribas C. & Casares M. (2021): Checklist of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Sierra Nevada (Spain). - Botanica Complutensis, 45: e74427 [21 p.]. https://dx.doi.org/10.5209/bocm.74427.
A checklist of lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Sierra Nevada (Granada, southeast Spain) is presented, fruit of the collecting field trip carried out by the Spanish Lichen Society (SEL), complemented with literature references. The authors identified 194 taxa (171 lichens and 23 lichenicolous fungi). As a result of these identifications, 46 lichens and nine lichenicolous fungi are reported for the first time in Sierra Nevada. To date, the catalogue includes 551 taxa (528 lichens and 23 lichenicolous fungi). We confirm both the scarce presence of terricolous lichens in the cryoromediterranean belt and the absence of alpine belt terricolous lichens.Keywords: South Europe; biodiversity; National Park; Biosphere Reserve; High Mountain.
33504Gauslaa Y., Goward T. & Asplund J. (2021): Canopy throughfall links canopy epiphytes to terrestrial vegetation in pristine conifer forests. - Fungal Ecology, 52: 101075 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2021.101075.
To what extent does epiphytic community composition in boreal forests reflect soil nutrient status? To answer this question, we investigated potential links between terrestrial plants and lichen-dominated communities in Picea glauca x engelmannii canopies in south-central British Columbia. We combined original data on vegetational composition in the ground and tree layers with published data on elemental uptake in standardized transplants of the lichen Lobaria pumonaria affixed to the lower branches of studied trees. Procrustean association metrics revealed a significant concordance between community composition among the epiphytic and terrestrial vegetation, which was stronger in Mn-enriched conifer canopy settings, and weaker within the cation-enriched dripzones of adjacent Populus trees. We also found that the NMDS1-gradient for each vegetation layer was strongly correlated with base cations (and inversely with Mn) in canopy throughfall, as well as with soil and bark pH. We conclude that elemental composition in canopy throughfall forms a functional link between terrestrial and epiphytic vegetation. Keywords: Ca ; Dripzone ; Epiphytic lichens ; Forest canopy ; Ground vegetation ; Leaching ; Mn ; Nutrient cycling ; pH ; Throughfall chemistry.
33503Galinato M.G.M., Bungihan M.E., Santiago K.A.A., Sangvichien E. & dela Cruz T.E.E. (2021): Antioxidant activities of fungi inhabiting Ramalina peruviana: insights on the role of endolichenic fungi in the lichen symbiosis. - Current Research in Environmental and Applied Mycology, 11(1): 119–136. Doi 10.5943/cream/11/1/10.
Apart from the fungal component (the mycobiont), other fungi reside inside lichens. Referred to as “lichen-associated fungi” or “endolichenic fungi” (ELF), these microorganisms have a poorly understood role in the lichen symbiosis. In this study, 11 morphoculturally-distinct ELF were isolated from the fruticose lichen Ramalina peruviana and identified as belonging to the genera Colletotrichum (1), Daldinia (3), Hypoxylon (1), Nemania (1), Nigrospora (1), and Xylaria (4). Each ELF was grown in two separate setups – submerged and solid-state fermentation – and were extracted with ethyl acetate for their secondary metabolites. Similarly, metabolites from the lichen host were also extracted. Among the 11 isolates, crude culture extracts of Nemania primolutea grown via the solid-state fermentation setup exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity (RSA = 89.7%), followed by Colletotrichum eschscholtzii grown using similar fermentation type (RSA = 80%). In contrast, extracts of the lichen host exhibited a slightly lower RSA (= 45.89%). Results showed that endolichenic fungi exhibited antioxidant activities greater than the lichen host, and possibly contributes to the protection of the lichen symbiosis through the synthesis of antioxidant compounds. Key words – free radical scavengers – fruticose lichen – lichen-associated fungi – Philippine lichens – secondary metabolites.
33502de Lange P.J., de Lange T.J.P., Hitchon T. & Patterson E. (2021): New Chatham Islands locations for Caloplaca maculata D.J.Galloway (Teloschistaceae). - Trilepidea, 207: 3–6. .
33501Ament-Velásquez S.L., Tuovinen V., Bergström L., Spribille T., Vanderpool D., Nascimbene J., Yamamoto Y., Thor G. & Johannesson H. (2021): The plot thickens: Haploid and triploid-like thalli, hybridization, and biased mating type ratios in Letharia. - Frontiers in Fungal Biology, 2: 656386 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/ffunb.2021.656386.
The study of the reproductive biology of lichen fungal symbionts has been traditionally challenging due to their complex lifestyles. Against the common belief of haploidy, a recent genomic study found a triploid-like signal in Letharia. Here, we infer the genome organization and reproduction in Letharia by analyzing genomic data from a pure culture and from thalli, and performing a PCR survey of the MAT locus in natural populations. We found that the read count variation in the four Letharia specimens, including the pure culture derived from a single sexual spore of L. lupina, is consistent with haploidy. By contrast, the L. lupina read counts from a thallus' metagenome are triploid-like. Characterization of the mating-type locus revealed a conserved heterothallic configuration across the genus, along with auxiliary genes that we identified. We found that the mating-type distributions are balanced in North America for L. vulpina and L. lupina, suggesting widespread sexual reproduction, but highly skewed in Europe for L. vulpina, consistent with predominant asexuality. Taken together, we propose that Letharia fungi are heterothallic and typically haploid, and provide evidence that triploid-like individuals are hybrids between L. lupina and an unknown Letharia lineage, reconciling classic systematic and genetic studies with recent genomic observations. Keywords: lichens, heterothallism, mating type locus, ploidy, hybridization.
33500Łubek A., Kukwa M., Jaroszewicz B. & Czortek P. (2021): Shifts in lichen species and functional diversity in a primeval forest ecosystem as a response to environmental changes. - Forests, 12(6): 686 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12060686.
Research highlights: shifts in the composition and functional diversity of lichen biota reflect changes in the environment caused by climate warming and eutrophication. Background and objectives: studies on lichen functional diversity and refinement in the functional traits of lichen biota under the pressure of changing environmental factors are currently of great scientific interest. The obtained results are interpreted in relation to specific habitat properties and their modifications due to the potential effects of climate change and atmospheric pollution. The aim of the work was to investigate changes in lichen species composition and functional diversity, as well as to identify factors responsible for them at different forest ecosystem scales. Materials and Methods: we identified factors responsible for changes in lichen biota in a unique Białowieża Forest ecosystem by analyzing shifts in species optima and functional diversity at the forest community, tree phorophyte, and substrate levels. We examined individual lichen species’ responses and temporal shifts in the species composition for each historical and resampled dataset using a community-weighted means of functional lichen traits and Wirth ecological indicator values. Results: the most evident change took place at the level of individual species, which shifted their realized optima: 25 species demonstrated a shift to co-occur with lichens of higher nitrogen demands, 15 demonstrated higher light demands, 14 demonstrated higher temperature preferences, and six demonstrated lower moisture preferences. At the level of forest communities, biota shifted towards the higher proportion of nitrogen-demanding and the lower proportion of moisture-demanding species. At the level of phorophyte species, biota changed towards an increased proportion of lichens of higher temperature preferences. For the substrate level, no directional shifts in lichen species composition were found. Conclusions: climate change has influenced lichen biota in Białowieża Forest, but the main driver of lichen species composition was found to be eutrophication. We suppose that other overlapping factors may contribute to biota shifts, e.g., the extinction and expansion of phorophyte tree species. Keywords: Białowieża Forest; functional traits; climate change; eutrophication; old-growth.
33499Eckstein J. (2021): Trizodia acrobia, ein mit Cyanobakterien assoziierter Ascomycet auf Torfmoosen [Trizodia acrobia, an ascomycet associated with cyanobacteria on peat moss]. - Boletus, 42(1): 53–55. .
A record of Trizodia acrobia Laukka from the Thuringian Forest near Schmiedefeld is presented and illustrated by macro- and microphotographs. The ascomycete always grows on peat mosses and also is associated with Cyanobacteria of the genus Nostoc Vaucher ex Bornet & Flahault. This interesting life style is regarded as ancient yet poorly characterized symbiotic interaction and is described as borderline lichen. The species is hitherto known only from Finland and Norway. The collection in Thuringia is the first record for Germany. Keywords: Ascomycetes, Insertae sedis, Nostoc, Sphagnum, borderline lichen, Germany, Thuringia.
33498Frolov I.V., Vondrák J., Konoreva L.A., Chesnokov S.V., Himelbrant D.E., Arup U., Stepanchikova I.S., Prokopiev I.A., Yakovchenko L.S. & Davydov E.A. (2021): Three new species of crustose Teloschistaceae in Siberia and the Far East. - Lichenologist, 53(3): 233–243. .
Three species of the family Teloschistaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) are described as new to science from Southern and Eastern Siberia and the Far East. Corticolous Caloplaca saviczii belongs to the genus Caloplaca s. str.; it has C. cerina-like apothecia and green to grey- green, crateriform soralia with a white rim. Lendemeriella aureopruinosa is a saxicolous taxon with a thin grey thallus and small apothecia 0.3–0.6 mm in diameter, with a dark orange disc usually bearing epipsamma and often with a grey true exciple containing the pigment Cinereorufa-green. Orientophila infirma is a corticolous species with an endophloeodal thallus and small orange apothecia, 0.2–0.3 mm in diameter, usually with an inconspicuous thalline exciple. All new taxa presumably have a boreal north-eastern distribution in Asia. Keywords: Caloplaca s. lat., combined phylogeny, Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, lichen, Primorye, Russia, Sakhalin, Tuva, Yakutia.
33497Sinigla M., Szurdoki E., Lőkös L., Bartha D., Galambos I., Bidló A. & Farkas E. (2021): Distribution and habitat preference of protected reindeer lichen species (Cladonia arbuscula, C. mitis and C. rangiferina) in the Balaton Uplands (Hungary). - Lichenologist, 53(3): 271-282. .
The maintenance of protected lichen species and their biodiversity in general depends on good management practices based on their dis- tribution and habitat preferences. To date, 10 of the 17 protected lichen species of Hungary have been recorded in the Bakony Mts including the Balaton Uplands region. Habitat preferences of three protected Cladonia species (C. arbuscula, C. mitis and C. rangiferina) growing on underlying rocks of red sandstone, basalt, Pannonian sandstone and gravel were investigated by detailed sampling. We recorded aspect, underlying rock type, soil depth, pH and CaCO3 content, habitat type (as defined by the General National Habitat Classification System Á-NÉR), all species of lichen, bryophyte and vascular plants as well as percentage cover of exposed rock, total bryophytes, lichens, vascular plants and canopy, degree of disturbance and animal impacts. Sporadic populations of these species mostly exist at the top of hills and mountains in open acidofrequent oak forests, but they may occur in other habitats, such as closed acidofrequent oak forests, slope steppes on stony soils, siliceous open rocky grasslands, open sand steppes, wet and mesic pioneer scrub and dry Calluna heaths. Cladonia rangifer- ina was found to grow beneath higher canopy cover than either C. arbuscula or C. mitis in the Balaton Uplands. Furthermore, there were significant differences in canopy cover between occupied and unoccupied quadrats in the case of all three species. Cladonia rangiferina is a good indicator species of natural habitats in Hungary due to its restricted distribution and low ecological tolerance. These results may lead to the adoption of effective conservation methods (e.g. game exclusion, artificial dispersal) in the future. box and whisker plots, Cladina, lichen-forming fungi, PCA, protected species
33496Moyo C., Minibayeva F., Liers C. & Beckett R. (2021): Quinone reductase activity is widespread in lichens. - Lichenologist, 53(3): 265-269. .
In our earlier work, we demonstrated that the oxidases tyrosinase (TYR), laccase (LAC), and a heme peroxidase (POX) occur widely in lichens. Here we report on the occurrence of another oxidoreductase enzyme, quinone reductase (QR) (EC 1.6.5.5). While QR has been reported to occur widely in other organisms, there is currently no information on QR activities in lichens. Here we present a survey of QR activity in 14 species of lichens. Results demonstrate that QR activity is readily detectable in all lichen species tested. However, activities vary greatly, with ‘jelly’ lichens in the genera Collema and Leptogium having the highest activities. QR, LAC and POX are all believed to have a role in extracellular hydroxyl radical production. However, in this study no correlation was found between the activities of these enzymes and the rates at which hydroxyl radicals were produced. Possible roles for QR in lichen biology are discussed. detoxification, extracellular redox cycling, hydroxyl radical, survey
33495Mead O.L. & Gueidan C. (2021): Testing carbon and nitrogen sources for the in vitro growth of the model lichenized fungus Endocarpon pusillum Hedw. - Lichenologist, 53(3): 257−264. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0024282921000153.
To improve the efficiency of isolating and culturing lichen mycobionts, we performed a growth assay on an Australian strain of the soil-crust lichenized fungus Endocarpon pusillum Hedw. This assay determined the preferred nitrogen and carbon sources of the fungus by limiting the available nitrogen or carbon sources to single compounds found in soils, plants and lichen thalli. We found that the non-proteinaceous amino acid, GABA, produced the most growth of all nutrients when provided as the sole nitrogen source but was a poor carbon source. Fructose, glucose, cellobiose and sorbitol produced the most growth of all the carbon sources tested. Ammonium, nitrate and polyamines were poor nutrient sources. These findings correspond with reports of primary metabolite pools in other lichen species and may guide future studies involving growth of recalcitrant lichen mycobionts. Keywords: aminobutyric, GABA, growth, medium, nutrition, polyalcohol, polyol, rate.
33494Søchting U., Søgaard M., Sancho L. & Arup U. (2021): The lichen genus Villophora (Teloschistaceae, Ascomycota). - Lichenologist, 53(3): 245-255. .
The Southern Hemisphere lichen genus Villophora in subfamily Teloschistoideae is analyzed based on DNA sequence data. Six species are described, five of which are new to science: V. darwiniana and V. wallaceana grow on lignum and bark in southern Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego; V. onas and V. patagonica are lichenicolous or saxicolous on rocks in southern Patagonia; V. rimicola is saxicolous in Antarctica. Based on a three-gene DNA analysis, Tayloriellina is shown to be closely related to Villophora, and Tayloriellina microphyllina is established as a new combination. A key is provided to all species of the two genera. Raesaeneniana maulensis is combined into Villophora. Antarctica, Caloplaca, Chile, Raesaeneniana, South America, Tayloriellina
33493Randlane T. & Mark K. (2021): Response to Clerc & Naciri Usnea dasopoga (Ach.) Nyl. and U. barbata (L.) F. H. Wigg. (Ascomycetes, Parmeliaceae) are two different species: A plea for reliable identifications in molecular studies. - Lichenologist, 53(3): 231-232. .
During the last thirty years phylogenetic analyses based on molecular characters have developed from simple single-locus studies into complicated surveys containing multi-locus phyloge- nies, species trees and possibilities to evaluate the evolutionary history of characters. This has been an exciting era for systema- tists, including fungal taxonomists. The majority of lichenized taxa have originally been described using morphological charac- ters s. lat. (i.e. traits related to morphology, anatomy and chemis- try), and thus the congruence between traditional species description and species delimitation based on their molecular evolutionary history remains a challenge. The use of morpho- logical characters has not been abandoned, as predicted or advo- cated by some researchers (Lumbsch & Leavitt 2011; Hibbett et al. 2016). However, we now know that the morphology-based approach to species recognition has also been demonstrated in several cases to substantially misrepresent diversity, as it either underestimates the occurrence of cryptic species (Altermann et al. 2014; Boluda et al. 2016) or, on the contrary, overestimates the true diversity due to high levels of intra-specific morpho- logical and chemical variation (Leavitt et al. 2011; Velmala et al. 2014). Therefore, morphological characters continue to be useful for the delimitation of species, but only if their discrimina- tive ability has been verified using phylogenetic analyses.
33492Clerc P. & Naciri Y. (2021): Usnea dasopoga (Ach.) Nyl. and U. barbata (L.) F. H. Wigg. (Ascomycetes, Parmeliaceae) are two different species: A plea for reliable identifications in molecular studies. - Lichenologist, 53(3): 221-230. .
Using molecular data to delimit species or reconstruct their evolutionary history is now widely used across all organisms. However, such analyses can suffer from poor or false specimen identifications leading to incorrect conclusions. Here we show that the use of misidentified specimens in a phylogenetic framework resulted in questionable conclusions in a previously published study (Mark et al. 2016). Using mor- phological, chemical and statistical analyses on the specimens used in that study, we found support for Usnea barbata and U. dasopoga being morphologically and anatomically distinct species with separate clusters in the molecular phylogeny. Furthermore, our revision of specimen identifications refutes the synonymization of U. substerilis with U. lapponica. In conclusion, we discuss the issue of correct iden- tification of voucher specimens in DNA databases and conclude with some general suggestions to avoid false specimen identifications in phylogenetic studies. GenBank, lichens, misidentification, taxonomy, Usnea lapponica, Usnea perplexans, Usnea substerilis
33491Nirhamo A., Pykälä J., Halme P. & Komonen A. (2021): Lichen communities on Populus tremula are affected by the density of Picea abies. - Applied Vegetation Science, 24(2): e12584 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12584.
Questions: Aspen (Populus tremula) is declining in the old-growth forests of boreal Fennoscandia. This threatens the numerous taxa that are dependent on old aspens, including many epiphytic lichens. Potential methods to aid epiphytic lichens on aspen are centered around treatments which affect the density of Norway spruce (Picea abies). In this study, we investigated how epiphytic lichen communities on aspen are affected by the variation of spruce density in the immediate vicinity of the focal aspen. Location: Southern boreal forests in Finland. Methods: We recorded the occurrence of lichens from 120 aspens in 12 semi-natural forest sites. We used spruce basal area as the measure for spruce density. The selected aspens represented a gradient in spruce basal area in the vicinity of the aspen from 0 to 36 m2/ha. We also measured other tree-and stand-level variables that are known to influence lichen occurrence. Results: Lichen communities on aspen were affected by spruce density, stand age and bark pH. Both lichen species richness and the richness of red-listed species were highest at an intermediate spruce density, and both increased with stand age. Lichen species richness was higher when bark pH was lower. Additionally, community composition was influenced the most by spruce density, followed by bark pH. Conclusions: Our study highlights the detrimental effects of high spruce density on lichen diversity on aspens. This is caused by high spruce density resulting in low light availability. Lichen diversity on aspens was highest when spruce density was intermediate. Spruce thinning in aspen-rich old-growth forests can be helpful in ensuring the long-term persistence of old-growth lichens on aspen in protected forests. Keywords: Biodiversity, boreal forests, community ecology, cyanolichens, epiphytic lichens, European aspen, Norway spruce, old-growth forests, protected areas, red-listed species, succession.
33490Sinyutkina A. (2021): Drainage consequences and self-restoration of drained raised bogs in the south-eastern part of Western Siberia: Peat accumulation and vegetation dynamics. - Catena, 205: 105464 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2021.105464.
This study analysed the drainage influence on vegetation and peat deposit and assessed the self-restoration of ecological functions of Western Siberia bogs. As a case study, we selected four raised bogs – two are the eastnorthern spurs of the Great Vasyugan Mire and two are small, raised bogs on the terrace of the Bakchar River and the Ob River. The consequences of drainage and the ability to self-restore are influenced by the moisture conditions before drainage, bog size, distance between ditches and microtopography characteristics. The dominant species under wet conditions, such as Sphagnum magellanicum and Sphagnum balticum, changed with drainage to Sphagnum fuscum, and the peat accumulation rate increased. The sites with more dry conditions and dominated by Sphagnum fuscum were characterised by the intense degradation of Sphagnum, Bryidae and lichen growth and a low peat accumulation rate. Large raised bogs are relatively stable and capable of self-restoration. The drainage effect was more significant within some parts of the small bogs. Drainage consequences were less dramatic for large bogs, even in the marginal parts and near the ditches. A distance between ditches of 40 m and less is critical for self-restoration. Our study demonstrates that modern peat accumulation occurred in most parts of the plots; the mean peat accumulation rate over the last 35 years was 0.43 cm per year. Drainage influence in the south-eastern part of Western Siberia is less significant than in European bogs, not only because of the high stability of raised bogs but also because of the lower drainage intensity as well as the absence of forest planting, fertilisation and peat mining.
33489Krajka‑Kuźniak V., Paluszczak J., Kleszcz R. & Baer‑Dubowska W. (2021): (+)‑Usnic acid modulates the Nrf2‑ARE pathway in FaDu hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells. - Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 476: 2539–2549. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-021-04092-7.
Naturally occurring phytochemicals of different origin and structure, arctigenin, bergenin, usnic acid and xanthohumol, were shown to affect Nrf2 pathway in the context of various diseases, but their effect on this pathway in cancer cells was not extensively investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of these compounds on Nrf2 expression and activation in hypopharyngeal FaDu squamous cell carcinoma cells. FaDu cells were treated with 2 or 10 μM arctigenin, bergenin, (+)- usnic acid or xanthohumol for 24 h. While arctigenin, bergenin, and xanthohumol did not affect either Nrf2 expression or activation, (+)-usnic acid treatment increased its transcript level and increased the nuclear/cytosol Nrf2 protein ratio—the measure of Nrf2 pathway activation. Consequently, (+)-usnic acid enhanced the transcription and translation of Nrf2 target genes: NQO1, SOD, and to a lesser extent, GSTP. The treatment of FaDu cells with (+)-usnic acid decreased both GSK-3β transcript and protein level, indicating its possible involvement in Nrf2 activation. All the tested compounds decreased Bax mRNA but did not change the level of Bax protein. (+)-Usnic acid tended to increase the percentage of early apoptotic cells and LC3 protein, autophagy marker. Significant induction of p53 also was observed after treatment with (+)-usnic acid. In summary, the results of this study indicate that low concentrations of (+)-usnic acid activate Nrf2 transcription factor, most probably as a result of ROS accumulation, but do not lead to FaDu hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells death. Keywords: FaDu cells · Nrf2 · (+)-usnic acid · Arctigenin · Bergenin · Xanthohumol.
33488Dohi T., Ohmura Y., Yoshimura K., Sasaki T., Fujiwara K., Kanaizuka S., Nakama S. & Iijima K. (2021): Radiocaesium accumulation capacity of epiphytic lichens and adjacent barks collected at the perimeter boundary site of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station. - PLoS ONE, 16(5): e0251828 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0251828.
We investigated the radiocaesium content of nine epiphytic foliose lichens species and the adjacent barks of Zelkova serrata (Ulmaceae, "Japanese elm") and Cerasus sp. (Rosaceae, "Cherry tree") at the boundary of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station six years after the accident in 2011. Caesium-137 activities per unit area (the 137 Cs-inventory) were determined to compare radiocaesium retentions of lichens (65 specimens) and barks (44 specimens) under the same growth conditions. The 137 Cs-inventory of lichens collected from Zelkova serrata and Cerasus sp. were respectively 7.9-and 3.8-times greater than the adjacent barks. Furthermore, we examined the radiocaesium distribution within these samples using autoradiography and on the surfaces with an electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). Autoradiographic results showed strong local spotting and heterogeneous distributions of radioactivity in both the lichen and bark samples, although the intensities were lower in the barks. The electron microscopy analysis demonstrated that particulates with similar sizes and compositions were distributed on the surfaces of the samples. We therefore concluded that the lichens and barks could capture fine particles, including radiocaesium particles. In addition, radioactivity was distributed more towards the inwards of the lichen samples than the peripheries. This suggests that lichen can retain 137 Cs that is chemically immobilised in particulates intracellularly, unlike bark.
33487Shen M., Zhang J.Q., Zhao L.L., Groenewald J.Z., Crous P.W. & Zhang Y. (2020): Venturiales. - Studies in Mycology, 96: 185–308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.simyco.2020.03.001.
Members of Venturiales (Dothideomycetes) are widely distributed, and comprise saprobes, as well as plant, human and animal pathogens. In spite of their economic importance, the general lack of cultures and DNA data has resulted in taxa being poorly resolved. In the present study five loci, ITS, LSU rDNA, tef1, tub2 and rpb2 are used for analysing 115 venturialean taxa representing 30 genera in three families in the current classification of Venturiales. Based on the multigene phylogenetic analysis, morphological and ecological characteristics, one new family, Cylindrosympodiaceae, and eight new genera are described, namely Bellamyces, Fagicola, Fraxinicola, Fuscohilum, Neofusicladium, Parafusicladium, Pinaceicola and Sterila. In addition, 12 species are described as new to science, and 41 new combinations are proposed. The taxonomic status of 153 species have been re-evaluated with 20 species excluded from Venturiales. Based on this revision of Venturiales, morphological characteristics such as conidial arrangement (solitary or in chains) or conidiogenesis (blastic-solitary, sympodial or annellidic), proved to be significant at generic level. Venturia as currently defined represents a generic complex. Furthermore, plant pathogens appear more terminal in phylogenetic analyses within Venturiaceae and Sympoventuriaceae, suggesting that the ancestral state of Venturiales is most likely saprobic. New lichenicolous taxa: Bellamyces quercus Crous, Coppins & U. Braun, gen. et spec. nov. (on apothecia of Lecanora chlarotera); Tyrannosorus lichenicola Crous, M. Shen & Y. Zhang spec. nov. (on Letharia sp.); Venturia peltigericola (Crous & Diederich) Crous, M. Shen & Y. Zhang, comb. nov. (bas. Fusicladium peltigericola) (on Peltigera rufescens).
33486Osyczka P. & Kubiak D. (2020): Data on epiphytic lichens and their host-trees in relation to non-forested area and natural deciduous lowland forest. - Data in Brief, 31: 105711 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105711.
The article includes raw and analyzed data directly related to the research paper entitled “Non-forested vs forest environments: the effect of habitat conditions on host tree parameters and the occurrence of associated epiphytic lichens” [1]. These data concern the relationships between the composition of lichen communities and host-tree parameters in non-forested area and a natural lowland deciduous forest in northern Poland. Lichen species confined to non-forested area, associated with forest habitat, and non-specific mutual species occurring in both habitat types are listed together with their host-tree preferences. Data on the phenotypic variability of five common and native to Central Europe tree species in relation to the habitat type are provided. Data that concerns tree parameters are analyzed by the mixed model ANOVA and Principal Component Analysis. Additionally, sample rarefactions and indices of potential lichen species richness for both habitat types are included. Presented data could be used in further studies to compare epiphytic community structure and may be support for campaigns aimed at lichen conservation and at shaping the environment with concern for biodiversity. Keywords: Lichenized fungi; Lichen communities; Habitat factors; Ecology, Tree parameters; Lowland deciduous forest; Tree avenues; Rural landscape.
33485Goel M., Kalra R., Ponnan P., Jayaweera J.A.A.S. & Kumbukgolla W.W. (2021): Inhibition of penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) in methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by combination of oxacillin and a bioactive compound from Ramalinaroesleri [sic!]. - Microbial Pathogenesis, 150: 104676 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104676.
Lichens are known to be useful and important in ethanopharmacology since ages and still possess substantial interest in alternative medical practices around the world. The intent of this investigation was to evaluate and to understand the antibacterial potential of usnic acid which was isolated from Himalyan fruticose lichen Ramalina roesleri. Usnic acid is predicted for its pharmaceutical properties through in -silico studies. Binding efficiency of usnic acid with Penicillin binding protein-PBP2a, a protein which is responsible for conferring resistance in Staphylococcus aureus was accessed using in-silico interaction assays comparing with oxacillin and ceftaroline. Further, the validation of in-silico modelling was checked by determining the antibacterial potential of usnic acid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates. In total, 28 clinical isolates collected from hospitals/medical students were included in the study and the anti-Staphylococcal activity was determined using agar plate dilution method followed by time-kill kinetics and synergistic studies. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) pictures were obtained to show the cell wall disruption of MRSA by usnic acid. Docking results clearly indicated the enhanced binding potential of usnic acid (Glide XP G Score: 10.968; Glide energy −64.869) with PBP2a which is better than the energy range of reference compound, oxacillin (Glide XP G Score: 6.596; Glide energy −53.285) and roughly comparable to the co-crystallized ligand ceftaroline (Glide XP G Score: 12.20; Glide energy −70.322). Cefteroline is known to be more active against MRSA compared to oxacillin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of usnic acid against the clinical isolates of MRSA and reference strain (NCTC-6571) were in the range of 32–128 μg/ml. The high affinity of usnic acid to bind with PBP2a which is demonstrated via in-silico studies is further confirmed by the impressive inhibitory activity of usnic acid on MRSA clinical isolates. Keywords: Lichen; Usnic acid; Antibacterial; MRSA.
33484Neufeld H.S. & Perkins F.S. (2021): Host tree species mediate corticolous lichen responses to elevated CO2 and O3 after 10 years exposure in the Aspen-FACE system. - Science of the Total Environment, 764: 142875 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142875.
Lichens contribute significantly to the biodiversity and functioning of many ecosystems. Although lichens are useful air pollution bioindicators and may respond in significant ways to global change, they are studied infrequently under field conditions in chamberless exposure systems. We surveyed corticolous lichens on paper birch (Betula papyrifera) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) after 10 years exposure (1998–2007) to elevated CO2 (eCO2) and O3 (eO3) in the Aspen-FACE experiment in Rhinelander, WI, USA. This experiment utilized chamberless exposure rings, 30 m in diameter, with both host trees planted together in one quadrant. Four treatments were allocated among 12 rings: ambient, eCO2, eO3, and the combination of eCO2 + eO3, each replicated once in each of three blocks. Over the course of the experiment, ambient CO2 increased from 343 to 386 ppm while eCO2 averaged ~530 ppm CO2. Ambient ozone concentrations averaged ~37 ppb and ~49 ppb for eO3 although exposures decreased with time. Tree growth and leaf area index were negatively affected by eO3 and stimulated by eCO2, resulting in higher photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in eO3 and lower in eCO2. We assessed lichen richness and cover on five host trees per ring on the north-facing side of the trunks, which were higher on birch than on aspen. Neither of the lichen measures on birch responded to the exposure treatments, while on aspen lichen cover was highest in eO3 and lowest in eCO2. On aspen, lichen cover was positively related to PAR and dominated by Caloplaca. No relationship was found for birch, although Lecanora exhibited a negative relationship with PAR. These lichens were insensitive to direct effects of eCO2 and eO3 at the levels applied. Instead, they responded to indirect effects, such as host tree species, and changes in understory PAR, resulting from direct effects of eO3 and eCO2 on the host trees. Keywords: Epiphytic; PAR; Air pollution; Global change; Species richness; Species cover.
33483Moya P., Chiva S., Molins A., Garrido-Benavent I. & Barreno E. (2021): Unravelling the symbiotic microalgal diversity in Buellia zoharyi (lichenized Ascomycota) from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands using DNA metabarcoding. - Diversity, 13(6): 220 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13060220.
Buellia zoharyi is a crustose placodioid lichen, usually occurring on biocrusts of semiarid ecosystems in circum-Mediterranean/Macaronesian areas. In previous work, we found that this lichenized fungus was flexible in its phycobiont choice in the Canary Islands. Here we test whether geography and habitat influence phycobiont diversity in populations of this lichen from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands using Sanger and high throughput sequencing (HTS). Additionally, three thallus section categories (central, middle and periphery) were analyzed to explore diversity of microalgal communities in each part. We found that B. zoharyi populations hosted at least three different Trebouxia spp., and this lichen can associate with distinct phycobiont strains in different habitats and geographic regions. This study also revealed that the Trebouxia composition of this lichen showed significant differences when comparing the Iberian Peninsula with the Balearics thalli. No support for differences in microalgal communities was found among thallus sections; however, several thalli showed different predominant Trebouxia spp. at each section. This result corroborate that thallus parts selected for DNA extraction in metabarcoding analyses are key to not bias the total phycobiont diversity detected. This study highlights that inclusion of HTS analysis is crucial to understand lichen symbiotic microalgal diversity. Keywords: coexistence; high throughput sequencing; Illumina; metabarcoding; symbiosis; Trebouxia.
33482Kakeh J., Gorji M., Mohammadi M.H., Asadi H., Khormali F. & Sohrabi M. (2021): Effect of biocrusts on profile distribution of soil water content and salinity at different stages of evaporation. - Journal of Arid Environments, 191: 104514 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2021.104514.
In this study, the effect of biocrusts on daily variations of evaporation in soils of an arid rangeland was investigated during 142 days. Temporal and spatial variations of soil water and solute content were analyzed in three times of 17, 50 and 103 days, and four depths of 10, 20, 30 cm and 40 cm in six columns (20 cm diameter × 50 cm height) containing biocrusts (43 cm saline soil + 5 cm biocrusts) and four columns filled with bare soil (48 cm saline soil) respectively. Temporal variation of evaporation rate was supposed as a 3-stages process. Results showed that stage 1 and stage 2 are not distinguishable. We further found that, compared to bare soil, the biocrusts retarded water evaporation from soil surface (24 vs. 30 mm and 34 vs. 44 mm after 17 and 50 days respectively), and reduced solute accumulation in top soil, especially in the stage 2 of evaporation process (5 vs. 8 dS/m and 13 vs. 20 dS/m after 17 and 50 days respectively). The effect of biocrusts on the evaporation rate at the stage 3 of evaporation was not significant (9 vs. 9 mm after 103 days). Reduction of evaporation by biocrusts resulted in less soil salinity within entire soil profile. The effects of biocrusts on evaporation reduction are attributed to i) the biocrusts create mats on the soil surface, and swelling of mats blocks the soil pores in wet condition, and ii) the large pores of biocrusts disrupt the hydraulic connectivity between topsoil and subsoil, which minimizes the capillary rise. Since major part of water is evaporated during stage 2, and is controlled by water flow within the soil and at the surface, so conservation of the BSCs would be important for preserving hydrological functions advantage such as reducing evaporation and enhancing water retention in the salt affected and dry soils. Keywords: Biological soil crusts; Dry land; Soil salinization; Soil solute dynamics; Water preservation.
33481Battista S., Köber M., Vargas-Nadal G., Veciana J., Giansanti L. & Ventosa N. (2021): Homogeneous and stable (+)-usnic acid loaded liposomes prepared by compressed CO2. - Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 624: 126749 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2021.126749.
The administration of hydrophobic actives and drugs for medical or cosmetical purposes generally requires a formulation that ensures adequate water solubility, which can be achieved through the encapsulation in liposomes. For the vehiculation of (+)-usnic acid (UA), a hydrophobic compound with antioxidant activity, we have prepared liposomes in a one-step process using compressed CO2. The investigated formulations are mainly composed of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and cholesterol, but contain also a small molar fraction (10%) of a synthetic surfactant derived from L-prolinol. In previous investigations liposomes containing L-prolinol derivatives showed a higher efficacy as DNA or drug delivery systems with respect to liposomes of mere phospholipids. As a consequence, they were added to liposomes to make them more suitable UA delivery systems. By testing different surfactant chain lengths and headgroups, we studied how the chemical nature of the surfactant affects the physicochemical vesicle properties and their interaction with UA. Most formulations, especially those containing surfactants with longer alkyl chains (C14 and C16), show a good potentiality as UA delivery systems because they exhibit a higher stability, vesicle-to-vesicle homogeneity and bilayer compaction with respect to analog liposomes prepared by the conventional thin film hydration previously investigated. Our results confirm the advantages of DELOS-SUSP also in the case of mixed liposomes containing phospholipids and synthetic ionic surfactants. Moreover, this study demonstrates that liposomes composed of the same lipids can feature different properties if prepared according to different methodologies. In addition, this investigation points out that also the properties that a solute included in the bilayer show can be affected by the technique used for liposomes preparation. Keywords: Depressurization of an expanded liquid organic solution-suspension (DELOS-SUSP); Liposomes; L-prolinol derivatives; (+)-usnic acid; Structure-properties relation.
33480Xu S.-Y., Huang H., Song W. & Liu X.-Y. (2021): Lichen nitrogen concentrations and isotopes for indicating nitrogen deposition levels and source changes. - Science of the Total Environment, 787: 147616 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147616.
Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) emissions triggered acid deposition and affected the environmental quality and ecosystem functions. Lichen N and S concentrations have been found increasing with N and S deposition at relatively low levels, respectively. However, it remains unclear whether lichen N and S concentrations can respond to corresponding deposition fluxes under high pollution environments and how to use lichen N isotopes (δ15N) to evaluate source contributions of N deposition quantitatively. Along an urban-to-rural transect surrounding a polluted area in northern China, we investigated lichen N and S to examine their sensitivity and applicability in estimating N and S deposition. Moreover, we established a new method to reconstruct site-based δ15N values of ammonium N (NHx) and oxidized N (NOy) deposition using lichen δ15N and then to differentiate relatively contributions of major N emission sources. Lichen N (1.0–3.9%, 2.5 ± 0.6%) and S (0.09–0.33%, 0.21 ± 0.06%) decreased linearly with distances from the polluted center area. Wet inorganic N and sulfate deposition (29.0 ± 6.1 kg-N/ha/yr and 25.8 ± 7.9 kg-S/ha/yr, respectively) estimated by integrating relationships from previous literature data were comparable with levels based on direct deposition observations in the study area. Lichen δ15N varied between −12.1 to −4.1‰ and averaged −7.1 ± 2.0‰ among our study sites, and reconstructed δ15N values of NHx and NOy deposition averaged −12.8 ± 1.0‰ and −3.2 ± 0.5‰, respectively. Source contribution analyses revealed significant contributions of volatilization ammonia (66 ± 3%) from wastes and fertilizers to NHx deposition and non-fossil fuel N oxides (62 ± 7%) from biomass burnings and microbial N cycles to NOy deposition. These results indicate that lichen N and S are sensitive to deposition fluxes under high pollution and applicable to estimating deposition levels. This work improves the methodology of atmospheric deposition biomonitoring based on lichen element and isotope records. Keywords: N deposition; Lichen N; Lichen δ15N; S deposition; Atmospheric pollution.
33479Goodenough U. (2021): Introduction to the lichen ultrastructure series. - Algal Research, 56: 102026 [3 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2020.102026.
33478Roth R., Wagner R. & Goodenough U. (2021): Lichen 3. Outer layers. - Algal Research, 56: 102332 [20 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2021.102332.
A lichen is a slow-growing niche-constructing organism that forms a thallus via scripted symbiotic/mutualist relationships between fungi, algae, and bacteria. Here we use quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy (QFDEEM), in conjunction with light microscopy, to document the structural manifestations of hyphal differentiation during the formation of three lichen tissues that localize between the algal layer and the surface of the thallus: the outer cortex of foliose lobes; the outer layer of fruticose stems; and the enwrapping layer of asexual propagules called soredia that protrude from squamulose podetia and foliose lobes. Our observations document features of outer-layer architecture and the role played by extracellular matrices (ECM). They also lead us to propose the medullary stem-cell hypothesis for lichen organization wherein totipotent medullary hyphae produce lateral branches that undergo specific differentiation pathways in specific domains of the thallus. Keywords: Lichen; Ascomycete; Alga; Hyphal branching; Fungal extracellular matrix (ECM); Medullary stem-cell; Quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy.
33477Dron J., Ratier A., Austruy A., Revenko G., Chaspoul F. & Wafo E. (2021): Effects of meteorological conditions and topography on the bioaccumulation of PAHs and metal elements by native lichen (Xanthoria parietina). - Journal of Environmental Sciences, 109: 193–205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2021.03.045.
The bioaccumulation of PAHs and metal elements in the indigenous lichens Xanthoria parietina was monitored during two years at a quarterly frequency, in 3 sites of contrasted anthropic influence. The impact of the meteorological factors (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, wind speed) was first estimated through principal component analysis, and then by stepwise multilinear regressions to include wind directions. The pollutants levels reflected the proximity of atmospheric emissions, in particular from a large industrial harbor. High humidity and mild temperatures, and in a lower extent low wind speed and rainfall, also favored higher concentration levels. The contributions of these meteorological aspects became minor when including wind direction, especially when approaching major emission sources. The bioaccumulation integration time towards meteorological variations was on a seasonal basis (1–2 months) but the wind direction and thus local emissions also relied on a longer time scale (12 months). This showed that the contribution of meteorological conditions may be prevalent in remote places, while secondary in polluted areas, and should be definitely taken into account regarding long-term lichen biomonitoring and inter-annual comparisons. In the same time, a quadruple sampling in each site revealed a high homogeneity among supporting tree species and topography. The resulting uncertainty, including sampling, preparation and analysis was below 30% when comfortable analytical conditions were achieved. Finally, the occurrence of unexpected events such as a major forest fire, permitted to evaluate that this type of short, although intense, events did not have a strong influence on PAH and metals bioaccumulation by lichen. Keywords: Indigenous lichen; Biomonitoring; Climate; Seasonal impacts; Sampling uncertainties; Integration time.
33476Petersson L., Nilsson S., Holmström A., Lindbladh M. & Felton A. (2021): Forest floor bryophyte and lichen diversity in Scots pine and Norway spruce production forests. - Forest Ecology and Management, 493: 119210 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2021.119210.
Bryophytes and lichens are two main components of the forest floor vegetation. They provide essential ecosystem services, including nutrient recycling and water regulation. Here, we contrast the species richness, cover and community composition of forest floor bryophytes and lichens in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) dominated production forests. The study sites were located in the hemiboreal zone of southern Sweden, and represented early-, mid- and late rotation stands. Our aim was to examine the potential consequences for forest floor biodiversity from the decreasing use of Scots pine production forests in this region. Whereas Scots pine and Norway spruce stands did not differ in bryophyte cover, we found a higher cover of lichens in Scots pine stands, and highest in the intermediate aged stands. Also the species richness of lichens was higher in the Scots pine stands, while bryophyte species richness was higher in the Norway spruce stands. Differences in canopy cover and associated light transmittance to the forest floor appears to be important drivers for distinctive different forest floor communities in the Scots pine and Norway spruce stands, as revealed by NonMetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS). Mean Ellenberg indicator values for bryophytes and lichens showed that species associated with Scots pine stands were characterized by their tolerance of brighter conditions, higher insolation, and better adaptation to a continental climate. Norway spruce stands instead had a comparably larger proportion of species tolerating lower light, but also indicators of higher available nutrient levels, humidity, and pH. The outcome of the Ellenberg indicator species analysis, as well as the larger cover of lichens,and adaptations to drought found among some mosses, revealed that forest floor communities are shaped by different environmental factors in Scots pine and Norway spruce production stands. These environmental differences, and the quantified shifts in forest floor communities identified in this study, indicate the large shifts in understory bryophyte and lichen species composition and abundance that is likely to occur if Scots pine stands are converted to Norway spruce. Keywords: Understory vegetation ; Biodiversity; Moss ; Liverwort ; Pinus sylvestris ; Picea abies ; Managed coniferous; plantations ; Ellenberg indicator values.
33475Kim W.-Y., Jeong M.-H., Yun S.-H. & Hur J.-S. (2021): Transcriptome analysis identifies a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of biruloquinone, a rare phenanthraquinone, in a lichen-forming fungus Cladonia macilenta. - Journal of Fungi, 7(5): 398 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7050398.
Lichens are prolific producers of natural products of polyketide origin. We previously described a culture of lichen-forming fungus (LFF) Cladonia macilenta that produces biruloquinone, a purple pigment that is a phenanthraquinone rarely found in nature. However, there was no genetic information on the biosynthesis of biruloquinone. To identify a biosynthetic gene cluster for biruloquinone, we mined polyketide synthase (PKS) genes from the genome sequence of a LFF isolated from thalli of C. macilenta. The 38 PKS in C. macilenta are highly diverse, many of which form phylogenetic clades with PKS previously characterized in non-lichenized fungi. We compared transcriptional profiles of the 38 PKS genes in two chemotypic variants, one producing biruloquinone and the other producing no appreciable metabolite in vitro. We identified a PKS gene (hereafter PKS21) that was highly upregulated in the LFF that produces biruloquinone. The boundaries of a putative biruloquinone gene cluster were demarcated by co-expression patterns of six clustered genes, including the PKS21. Biruloquinone gene clusters exhibited a high degree of synteny between related species. In this study we identified a novel PKS family responsible for the biosynthesis of biruloquinone through whole-transcriptome analysis. Keywords: biruloquinone; Cladonia; polyketide; PKS; secondary metabolite.
33474Olech M. & Singh S.M. (2010): Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Schirmacher Oasis, Antarctica. - New Delhi: National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research: Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India, 140 pp. .
The monograph presents first-hand information, giving a Seneral account of Schirmacher Oasis, Systematics and ecological account of species and their distribution. The identffication keys providedfor dffirent Senera and species will be useful for segregation of dffirent conplex taxa of lichens. The detailed distribution aciount provided for each species will be an important data for carrying out future monitoring studies in the area. The close-up photographs of lichens will be helpful for the beginners to identify certain complex lichen Senera and species of Antarctica
33473Davydov E.A., Yakovchenko L. & Printzen C. (2021): Validation of the combination Lecanora brandegeei (≡ Lecidea brandegeei). - Opuscula Philolichenum, 20: 71–72. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=20.
In a recent paper on the Lecanora pringlei group a new combination was proposed for the taxon long recognized as either Lecidea brandegeei or Lecanora pringlei subsp. brandegeei. Unfortunately, the new combination Lecanora brandegeei was invalidly published as it lacked a registration number. The combination is validly published here. Keywords. – Lichens, nomenclature, North America, taxonomy, T.S. Brandegee.
33472Nguyen T.T., Nguyen Quoc Chau T., Mai Van H., Phan Quoc T., Do Phuoc Q., Nguyen T.D., Nguyen P.D., Nguyen Thi Thu T., Le T.D., Dai Thi Xuan T., Kaeko K. & Kenji K. (2021): A new hopane derivative from the lichen Dirinaria applanata. - Natural Product Research, 35(7): 1167–1171. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2019.1644511.
Chemical investigation of the lichen Dirinaria applanata led to isolate nine compounds including a new hopane derivative, 1β-acetoxy-21α-hopane-3β,22-diol (1) together with six phenolic compounds naming divaricatinic acid (2), methyl divaricatinate (3), methyl-β-orcinolcarboxylate (4), methyl haematommate (5), divarinol (6), ramalinic acid A (7), and two xanthones namely lichenxanthone (8), 4,5-dichlorolichenxanthone (9). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data in combination with published literature. Except compound 2, all compounds were isolated from this species for the first time. Keywords: Dirinaria applanata; lichen;1β-acetoxy-21α-hopane-3β,22-diol.
33471Retallack G.J. (2021): Zebra rock and other Ediacaran paleosols from Western Australia. - Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 68(4): 532–556. https://doi.org/10.1080/08120099.2020.1820574.
Zebra rock is an ornamental stone from the early Ediacaran, Ranford Formation, around and in Lake Argyle, south of Kununurra, Western Australia. It has been regarded as a marine clay, liquid crystal, groundwater alteration, unconformity paleosol or product of acid sulfate weathering. This study supports the latter hypothesis and finds modern analogues for its distinctive red banding in mottling of gleyed soils. Other acid sulfate paleosols of desert playas (Gypsids) are also are found in the Ranford Formation, as well as calcareous desert paleosols (Calcids). The megafossil Palaeopaschnicnus also found in associated grey shales may have been a chambered protozoan, but Yangtziramulus in calcic paleosols is most like a microbial earth lichen. Soil climofunctions are evidence of an arid, cool temperate climate during the early Ediacaran.
33470Gül Ü.D., İrdem E., Yavuz Ş.A. & İlhan S. (2021): Determination of dye biosorption capacity of lichens and reusability of wastes as antimicrobial agents. - Journal of the Textile Institute, 112(6): 1014–1022. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405000.2020.1797263.
Determination of dye biosorption capacity by lichen biosorbent and reusability of the waste lichen biosorbent as an antimicrobial agent are the aims of this study. The study has three stages: 1. to carry out dye biosorption assays, 2. to scan antimicrobial activity of waste lichen biosorbent after dye loaded, 3. to examine the antimicrobial function of a fabric which absorbed waste lichen extract. The optimal conditions for the best dye biosorption were determined. After the biosorption experiments, the waste lichen biomass was harvested from the working solution and the extraction of dye-loaded waste biomass was done using methanol and ethanol. The extracts obtained from both dye-loaded and un-loaded biosorbents were scanned for antimicrobial activity potential by the disk diffusion method. The results of this study showed that the waste lichen biosorbent of biosorption processes can be reused as antimicrobial agents. Keywords: Antimicrobials; biotechnology; environmental; pollutants; wastewater treatment.
33469Karim S.H., Salih S.A. & Al-Zubaidy A.A. (2021): A checklist of lichens from Iraq, with four new records of lichens from Iraq. - Lindbergia, 44: linbg-01140 [6 p.]. doi: 10.25227/linbg.01140.
The lichen species of Iraq are poorly known and no accurate checklist has been produced so far. Here we carried out an extensive review of existing literature and carried out additional field work to expand the knowledge of lichens in Iraq. We present the first checklist of lichens in Iraq which comprises a total of 236 species. The field survey identified four lichen species as new to Iraq. Although this checklist is not a full checklist of the lichens of Iraq it represents the most complete list to date. It is likely that increased sampling will lead to further new records of lichen species in Iraq. Keywords: checklist, Halabja province, Iraq, lichens, new records,