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35484Tomovic G., Sabovljevic M.S., Assyov B., Kutnar L., Boycheva P., Ivanov D., Papp B., Pantovic J., Sabovljevic A. D., Sabanovic E., Jovanovic F., Sovran S., Knezevic A., Aleksic G.R., Niketic M., Shivarov V.V., Yaneva G., Stefanut S., Birsan C. C., Szelg Z., Djordjevic V., Kabas E., Dudas M. & Kolarcik V. (2023): New records and noteworthy data of plants, algae and fungi in SE Europe and adjacent regions, 12. - Botanica Serbica, (1):173-182.
This paper presents new records and noteworthy data on the following taxa in SE Eu-rope and adjacent regions: red algae Hildenbrandia rivularis, saprotrophic fungus Cryp-tomarasmius corbariensis, lichenised fungi Lecanora stenotropa, Micarea misella and Sticta sylvatica, liverworts Fossombronia caespitiformis and Peltolepis quadrata, mosses Dicranoweisia cirrata and Fissidens exilis, horsetail Equisetum x moorei, gymnosperm Juniperus virginiana, monocots Galanthus reginae-olgae subsp. vernalis and Spiranthes spiralis and dicots Linaria pelisseriana, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Pilosella rhodopea and Taraxacum erythrospermum are given within SE Europe and adjacent regions. new report, Cryptomarasmius corbariensis, Dicranoweisia cirrata, Equisetum x moorei, Fissidens exilis, Fossombronia caespitiformis, Galanthus reginae-olgae subsp, vernalis, Hildenbrandia rivularis, Juniperus virginiana, Lecanora stenotropa, Linaria pelisseriana, Micarea misella, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Peltolepis quadrata, Pilosella rhodopea, Spiranthes spiralis, Sticta sylvatica, Taraxacum erythrospermum, SE Europe, RED LIST, FLORISTIC RECORDS, BALKANS, ERYTHROSPERMA, RHODOPHYTA, BRYOPHYTES, ASTERACEAE, FLORA
35483Simijaca D., Perez-Perez R.E., Escoto-Moreno J. & Ocampo G. (2023): Multiple new records of lichenized fungi for Aguascalientes, with the assessment of the conservation status of two endemic species of Mexico. - Botanical Sciences, (2):544-559.
Background: Lichen diversity in the Mexican state of Aguascalientes has historically been neglected. Lichen species in all vegetation types, except for the arid zones, remain underexplored.Hypotheses: Lichenized fungi richness reported for Aguascalientes will increase due to exploration and collecting activities in vegetation types other than xerophilous scrubs. This will allow finding species of interest for conservation purposes, including Mexican endemics and/or threatened taxa.Data description: Lichenized fungi, vegetation types, substrates. Study site and dates: Mexican state of Aguascalientes, 2018 to 2021. Methods: Revision and taxonomic identification of lichenized fungi specimens deposited at the HUAA herbarium. Once the endemic species were detected, the Extent of Occurrence (EOO) and the Area of Occupancy (AOO) were calculated to assess their conservation status according to the IUCN Red List.Results: 162 new records were found for Aguascalientes. Chrysothrix insulizans R.C. Harris & Ladd, Hertelidea botryosa (Fr.) Kantvilas & Printzen, and Sarcogyne novomexicana H. Mag., were new records for the country. The epiphytic substrate and the foliose growth form were dominant. Parmotrema acutatum had an EOO = 192,141 km2, while Phaeophyscia sonorae had a EOO = 18,285 km2.Conclusions: The number of lichenized fungi species recorded for Aguascalientes increased to 218. We suggest publication of Parmotrema acutatum Kurok. as Least Concern (LC) and Phaeophyscia sonorae Essl. as Vulnerable (VU) in the IUCN Red List. conservation, endemic species, lichens, oak forest, subtropical shrubland
35482Shivarov V.V. (2023): First Record of the Genus Strangospora (Strangosporaceae, Ascomycota) from Bulgaria. - Comptes Rendus de l Academie Bulgare des Sciences, (3):424-428.
The first Bulgarian record of the lichenized fungus Strangospora mori -formis is reported. Description, comments, and illustrations based on Bulgarian specimen are provided. Lecanora pulicaris, L. subintricata, and Mycocalicium subtile were found growing together with S. moriformis and are reported for the first time from the Balkan Range. Bulgaria, coniferous wood, lignicolous lichens, old forests, FUNGI
35481Rojas-Gatjens D., Avey-Arroyo J., Chaverri P., Rojas-Jimenez K. & Chavarria M. (2023): Differences in fungal communities in the fur of two- and three-toed sloths revealed by ITS metabarcoding. - Microbiology-SGM, 169(2): 001309.
Sloths have dense fur on which insects, algae, bacteria and fungi coexist. Previous studies using cultivation-dependent methods and 18S rRNA sequencing revealed that the fungal communities in their furs comprise members of the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. In this note, we increase the resolution and knowledge of the mycobiome inhabiting the fur of the two- (Choloe-pus hoffmanni) and three -toed (Bradypus variegatus) sloths. Targeted amplicon metagenomic analysis of ITS2 nrDNA sequences obtained from 10 individuals of each species inhabiting the same site revealed significant differences in the structure of their fungal communities and also in the alpha-diversity estimators. The results suggest a specialization by host species and that the host effect is stronger than that of sex, age and animal weight. Capnodiales were the dominant order in sloths' fur and Cla-dosporium and Neodevriesia were the most abundant genera in Bradypus and Choloepus, respectively. The fungal communities suggest that the green algae that inhabit the fur of sloths possibly live lichenized with Ascomycota fungal species. The data shown in this note offer a more detailed view of the fungal content in the fur of these extraordinary animals and could help explain other mutualistic relationships in this complex ecosystem. Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Capnodiales, Cladosporium, Neodevriesia, sloths, DIVERSITY
35480Verboom L. & Sparrius L. (2018): Phaeocalicium populneum (populierenspijkertje) weer in Nederland gevonden [Phaeocalicium populneum rediscovered in the Netherlands]. - Buxbaumiella, 113: 13–15. .
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] Phaeocalicium populneum was rediscovered in the Netherlands, 150 years after the last record in the mid-19th century. A photo was posted in the Facebook group Lichens & Bryophytes, which resulted in a prompt identification.
35479van der Kolk H.-J., Geraets L., Bingley M. & van Lanen W. (2018): Gewoon boomzonnetje (Athallia pyracea) en de Vlierschotelkorst-associatie (Lecanoretum sambuci) op bakenbomen langs de Maas [Athallia pyracea and the association Lecanoretum sambuci on poplar trees along the Meuse]. - Buxbaumiella, 112: 20–27. .
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] In the first half of the previous century poplars were planted on the borders of the Meuse to mark the fairway for inland vessels during high water levels. On fallen branches of one of those poplars Athallia pyracea was found, a species considered rare in the Netherlands and only known from a few locations in the ultimate south. After it was found on many trees in the surroundings a more structured approach was chosen to investigate the occurrence of A. pyracea and accompanying species. 51 branches were collected from various locations along the river on a stretch of around 50 km. Those branches were inspected microscopically and in association with Athallia pyracea the species Athallia cerinella, Athallia cerinelloides, Lecanora sambuci and Lecanora hagenii were found. It seems that the association Lecanoretum sambuci recently settled on poplar in the Netherlands, as predicted by van Dort et al. (2017). We encourage everyone to give a close look for these species on poplar branches in their surroundings.
35478van der Kolk H.-J. (2018): De rijke korstmosflora van Vliegbasis Deelen [Lichens of the military air base Deelen]. - Buxbaumiella, 112: 4–6. .
[in Dutch with English summary: ] The results of a one-day excursion to the military air base of Deelen are described. In total, 127 lichens and lichenicolous fungi were recorded. Eight recorded lichen species are on the Dutch Red List for endangered species. Cladonia cariosa, a rare species in the Netherlands, was first found in 2000 and is still present on the air base.
35477van der Bremer A. & Spier l. (2018): Een nieuw korstmosbiotoop in Nederland? [A new lichen habitat in the Netherlands?]. - Buxbaumiella, 112: 1–3. .
[in Dutch with English summary: ] Recently a project was started in the village of Leusden, involving the replacement of all streetlamps by new ones. It appeared that over the years the lamp shades of the old ones have become gardens of lichens, and that several species had managed to reach high coverage values (Candelaria concolor 5-25%, Punctelia borreri up to 80%). This is the more astonishing when one considers the fact that until 1990 P. borreri was unknown in the Netherlands and C. concolor was hardly known.
35476van Dort K. & Aptroot A. (2018): Microcalicium ahlneri Tibell (ruig pruikspijkertje) nieuw voor Nederland [Microcalicium ahlneri Tibell, new to the Netherlands]. - Buxbaumiella, 111: 29–33. .
[in Dutch with English summary: ] Monitoring of lichens on veteran trees in the Wolfheze area (Gelderland province) led to the discovery of Microcalicium ahlneri, an ancient woodland indicator never recorded before in the Netherlands. Habitat, ecology and characteristics of the three European Microcalicium-species are briefly discussed. Microcalicium ahlneri forms mono-specific stands on large decorticated trunks of Quercus robur. The discovery of this minute coniocarp is surprising. According to international literature, the species is restricted to ancient woodland. In the Netherlands, however, its only known site is a clump of veteran oaks on the banks of an artificial stream, surrounded by a rather young mixed stand of Betula pendula, Pinus sylvestris and Sorbus aucuparia.
35475van der Pluijm A., van Dort K. & Boesveld A. (2018): Leermossen (Peltigera-spp.) op wilgen in het zoetwatergetijdengebied [Peltigera-species colonize willow trees in the Dutch freshwater tidal area]. - Buxbaumiella, 111: 5–16. .
[in Dutch with English summary: ] In the Netherlands species of Peltigera (dog lichens) are usually found in terrestrial and/or rupestrial habitats. Recently three Peltigeraspecies showed up as epiphytes on willow trees in tidal forests in Dutch freshwater tidal areas of the National Park the Biesbosch and of Klein Profijt near Rhoon. Peltigera didactyla was found in 2012 at two stations in the Biesbosch. The thalli established themselves on dead horizontal willow stems above water, above the daily high tide level. Apart from ubiquitous species like Brachythecium rutabulum, Kindbergia praelonga and Hypnum cupressiforme and the terrestrial Lunularia cruciata, the accompanying species were mostly hygrophytic, including Riccia fluitans, Drepanocladus aduncus and Lophocolea bidentata, indicating periodical flooding of the site. Peltigera neckeri was recorded for the first time in 2015 in Klein Profijt. Here, a very large thallus was found 1,4 m high on a slanting willow stem. In 2017 a fairly large population was also found in the Biesbosch in the ‘Ottergriend’. The Ottergriend is a low lying tidal forest, and is of bryological importance for the occurrence of the rare Timmia megapolitana. Peltigera neckeri was found here in mats of pleurocarpous mosses on willow stems well above the high tide water level. Surprisingly, this dog lichen was also found higher on younger parts of willow branches, up to 2.8 meters high, in company of, and overgrowing pioneer species like Orthotrichum affine, Cryphaea heteromalla, Metzgeria fruticulosa, Frullania dilatata and Parmotrema perlatum. Also in 2017 Peltigera praetextata appeared for the first time in the Ottergriend. Its thalli were found on three willow stems, growing well above the high tide water level. Two populations were observed in the vicinity of P. neckeri, overgrowing mats of common pleurocarps like Kindbergia praelonga and Hypnum cupressiforme. Unlike P. neckeri, thalli of P. praetextata were not observed on younger willow stems. Peltigera neckeri lacks means of vegetative propagation like soredia or isidia. Dispersion is dependent on spores formed by the mycobiont. Nonetheless a local population was established in the Ottergriend, a site devoid of cyanolichens up till now. We speculate that the theory of cyanolichen guilds could explain this phenomenon. After establishment, Peltigera praetextata may have acted as a ‘core’-species, spreading its symbiotic isidia onto trees in the vicinity. Under suboptimal conditions isidia will disintegrate and release their cyanobionts. Via its spores the mycobiont of a ‘fringe’-species like P. neckeri could have contacted the now free-living algae to form its own new symbiotic thallus. Of course, other explanations are possible, e.g. dispersal of P. neckeri by invertebrates or establishment of the mycobiont of P. neckeri on free living epiphytic Nostoc-algae.
35474Manassov N., Samy M.N., Datkhayev U., Avula B., Adams S.J., Katragunta K., Raman V., Khan I.A. & Ross S.A. (2023): Ultrastructural, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, chemical study and LC-DAD-QToF chemical characterization of Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach. . - Molecules, 28(11): 4493 [19 p.].
The lichen Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach. has been used in traditional and modern medicines for its many biological properties such as immunological, immunomodulating, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities. This species is gaining popularity in the market, with interest from many industries for selling as medicines, dietary supplements, and daily herbal drinks. This study profiled the morpho-anatomical features by light, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy; conducted an elemental analysis using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy; and phytochemical analysis was performed using high-resolution mass spectrometry combined with a liquid chromatography system (LC-DAD-QToF) of C. islandica. In total, 37 compounds were identified and characterized based on comparisons with the literature data, retention times, and their mass fragmentation mechanism/s. The identified compounds were classified under five different classes, i.e., depsidones, depsides, dibenzofurans, aliphatic acids, and others that contain simple organic acids in majority. Two major compounds (fumaroprotocetraric acid and cetraric acid) were identified in the aqueous ethanolic and ethanolic extracts of C. islandica lichen. This detailed morpho-anatomical, EDS spectroscopy, and the developed LC-DAD-QToF approach for C. islandica will be important for correct species identification and can serve as a useful tool for taxonomical validation and chemical characterization. Additionally, chemical study of the extract of C. islandica led to isolation and structural elucidation of nine compounds, namely cetraric acid (1), 9′-(O-methyl)protocetraric acid (2), usnic acid (3), ergosterol peroxide (4), oleic acid (5), palmitic acid (6), stearic acid (7), sucrose (8), and arabinitol (9). Keywords: Cetraria islandica; Iceland moss; LC-QToF-MS analysis; fragmentation study; secondary metabolites identification; anatomy; elemental analysis; fluorescence; microscopy; SEM.
35473Dart J., Knudsen K., Hodková E. & Maliček J. (2023): Acarospora brattiae: Current assessment of a rare western North American taxon. - Bulletin of the California Lichen Society, 29(2): 30–34. .
New records of Acarospora brattiae with updated species description, substrate preference, distribution, GenBank numbers and chemistry.
35472van den Boom P., Etayo J. & López de Silanes M.E. (2023): Notes on lichenicolous Micarea species in Spain and Macaronesia, with the descriptions of two new species. - Nova Acta Científica Compostelana, 30: 1–7.
Six species of Micarea, growing lichenicolous are treated. They are mainly collected in Macaronesia or Spain. Two species, Micarea amplissima and M. parasitica are described as new to science. Notes on the occurring of lichenicolous Micarea: M. kemmleri, M. peliocarpa, M. synotheoides and M. usneae are provided. Keywords: new species; Micarea amplissima; M. parasitica; southern Europe; taxonomy.
35471Silva P.G., Roquero E., Pérez-López R., Bardají T., Santos Delgado G. & Elez J. (2023): Lichenometric analysis applied to bedrock fault scarps: the sencelles fault and the 1851 CE Mallorca earthquake (Balearic Islands, Spain). - Applied Sciences, 13(11): 6739 [27 p.].
The Sencelles Fault constitutes the main extensional structure of Mallorca Island (Spain), holds a NE-SE orientation, and has been identified as the possible seismic source of the 1851 CE Palma earthquake (VII EMS.) The SE termination of the fault (Sta. Eugenia Segment) features a linear bedrock fault scarp of a maximum of 3.15 m height. The last 840 m of this rocky scarp display a significant horizontal banding, with up to five differentially weathered ribbons colonized by lichens. The lichenometric analysis is based on the measurement of 155 specimens of Aspicilia calcarea (Ac) and Aspicilia radiosa (Ar) in tombstones and funerary monuments (with inscribed dates) from the nearby cemeteries of Sta. María del Camí, Sta. Eugenia and Sencelles, to obtain the local lichen growth rates (LGR), with the two last graveyards being directly located in the fault zone. Lichens were measured on variously oriented (N, S, NE, SW, etc…) horizontal and vertical surfaces, generating differentially oriented lichen populations (DOLPs) to be compared with the Ac and Ar specimens colonizing the studied fault scarp (38 measured individual specimens). After successive trial and error regression tests, vertical DOLPs resulted in the best appropriate groups for the analysis, with LGR of 0.23–0.31 mm/yr. Horizontal ones reached widths of up to 20 cm, with LGR up to 0.84 mm/yr, which were clearly oversized. The application of the selected LGR points to a human-induced origin for the thin basal lichen ribbon of the scarp (10–13 cm), which should have developed during the middle 20th century (c. 1950–1966) because of documented ground leveling works. However, the second ribbon of the scarp (23–47 cm) shows exposure dates of 1852 ± 40 (Ar) and 1841 ± 59 (Ac), overlapping the date of the 1851 CE earthquake. The study is complemented with data from a fault trench excavated in the year 2002 at the toe of the scarp. The combined data of lichenometry, fault trenching, and the length of the analyzed fault scarp (c. 840 m) indicate that the studied segment of the fault cannot be considered a co-seismic surface faulting related to the 1851 CE event as a whole, but a relevant secondary earthquake effect on a pre-existing fault scarp (e.g., sympathetic ground ruptures). Keywords: sencelles fault; lichenometry; lichen growth rates; bedrock fault scarp; 1851 CE Palma earthquake; Mallorca Island; Spain.
35470Stapper N. (2023): Exkursion: Düsseldorf, Moose und Flechten zwischen Pflastersteinen, auf Bäumen, Mauern und dem Erdboden im Hofgarten. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 14: 129–132. .
[in German] Report on Excursion in Düsseldorf (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany)
35469Timdal E. & Gjerlaug H.C. (2023): DNA barcodes reveal unrecognized species diversity in Peltigera sect. Peltigera in Norway, including the new species P. jonii . - Graphis Scripta, 35(4): 30–65. .
Phylogenetic analyses of 140 ITS sequences from Norwegian material of Peltigera sect. Peltigera obtained mainly by the Norwegian DNA barcode project OLICH indicate the presence of 26 putative species. Among those, we accept 18 taxonomic species, including the new species Peltigera jonii Timdal & Gjerlaug (also reported from a soil sample from Alaska), four species new to Fennoscandia (P. “fuscoponojensis”, P. islandica, P. “neorufescens” 3, and P. “neorufescens” 5), and an unnamed species closely resembling P. lepidophora. Peltigera monticola is here included in a highly variable P. ponojensis. We also report new localities for the rarely identified species P. “neocanina” and P. wulingensis.
35468Bellia G. & Pieroni A. (2015): Isolated, but transnational: the glocal nature of Waldensian ethnobotany, Western Alps, NW Italy. - J Ethnobiol Ethnomed, 11: 37.
Background: An ethnobotanical field study on the traditional uses of wild plants for food as well as medicinal and veterinary plants was conducted in four Waldensian valleys (Chisone, Germanasca, Angrogna, and Pellice) in the Western Alps, Piedmont, NW Italy. Waldensians represent a religious Protestant Christian minority that originated in France and spread around 1,170 AD to the Italian side of Western Alps, where, although persecuted for centuries, approximately 20,000 believers still survive today, increasingly mixing with their Catholic neighbours. Methods: Interviews with a total of 47 elderly informants, belonging to both Waldensian and Catholic religious groups, were undertaken in ten Western Alpine villages, using standard ethnobotanical methods. Results: The uses of 85 wild and semi-domesticated food folk taxa, 96 medicinal folk taxa, and 45 veterinary folk taxa were recorded. Comparison of the collected data within the two religious communities shows that Waldensians had, or have retained, a more extensive ethnobotanical knowledge, and that approximately only half of the wild food and medicinal plants are known and used by both communities. Moreover, this convergence is greater for the wild food plant domain. Comparison of the collected data with ethnobotanical surveys conducted at the end of the 19th Century and the 1980s in one of studied valleys (Germanasca) shows that the majority of the plants recorded in the present study are used in the same or similar ways as they were decades ago. Idiosyncratic plant uses among Waldensians included both archaic uses, such as the fern Botrychium lunaria for skin problems, as well as uses that may be the result of local adaptions of Central and Northern European customs, including Veronica allionii and V. officinalis as recreational teas and Cetraria islandica in infusions to treat coughs. Conclusions: The great resilience of plant knowledge among Waldensians may be the result of the long isolation and history of marginalisation that this group has faced during the last few centuries, although their ethnobotany present trans-national elements. Cross-cultural and ethno-historical approaches in ethnobotany may offer crucial data for understanding the trajectory of change of plant knowledge across time and space. Keywords: Ethnobotany, Wild food plants, Medicinal plants, Alps, Italy
35467Suh S.-S., Kim T.K., Kim J.E., Hong J.-M., Nguyen T.T., Han S.J., Youn U.J., Yim J.H. & Kim I.-C. (2017): Anticancer Activity of Ramalin, a Secondary Metabolite from the Antarctic Lichen Ramalina terebrata, against Colorectal Cancer Cells. - Molecules, 22: 1361.
Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and occurs through the highly complex coordination of multiple cellular pathways, resulting in carcinogenesis. Recent studies have increasingly revealed that constituents of lichen extracts exhibit potent pharmaceutical activities, including anticancer activity against various cancer cells, making them promising candidates for new anticancer therapeutic drugs. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the anticancer capacities of ramalin, a secondary metabolite from the Antarctic lichen Ramalina terebrata, in the human colorectal cancer cell line HCT116. In this study, ramalin displayed concentration-dependent anticancer activity against HCT116 cells, significantly suppressing proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, ramalin induced cell cycle arrest in the gap 2/mitosis (G2/M) phase through the modulation of hallmark genes involved in the G2/M phase transition, such as tumour protein p53 (TP53), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A), cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and cyclin B1 (CCNB1). At both the transcriptional and translational level, ramalin caused a gradual increase in the expression of TP53 and its downstream gene CDKN1A, while decreasing the expression of CDK1 and CCNB1 in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, ramalin significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these data suggest that ramalin may be a therapeutic candidate for the targeted therapy of colorectal cancer. colorectal cancer, ramalin, Antarctic lichen, cell cycle arrest, HCT116
35466Palacios-Moreno J., Rubio C., Quilhot W., Cavieres M.F., de la Pena E., Quinones N.V., Diaz H., Carrion F., Henriquez-Roldan C.F. & Weinstein-Oppenheimer C.R. (2019): Epanorin, a lichen secondary metabolite, inhibits proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. - Biol Res, 52: 55.
BACKGROUND: Epanorin (EP) is a secondary metabolite of the Acarospora lichenic species. EP has been found in lichenic extracts with antimicrobial activity, and UV-absorption properties have been described for closely related molecules; however, its antiproliferative activity in cancer cells has not yet been explored. It has been hypothesized that EP inhibits cancer cell growth. MCF-7 breast cancer cells, normal fibroblasts, and the non-transformed HEK-293 cell line were exposed to increasing concentrations of EP, and proliferation was assessed by the sulforhodamine-B assay. RESULTS: MCF-7 cells exposed to EP were examined for cell cycle progression using flow cytometry, and DNA fragmentation was examined using the TUNEL assay. In addition, EP's mutagenic activity was assessed using the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay. The data showed that EP inhibits proliferation of MCF-7 cells, and it induces cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 through a DNA fragmentation-independent mechanism. Furthermore, EP's lack of overt cytotoxicity in the normal cell line HEK-293 and human fibroblasts in cell culture is supported by the absence of mutagenic activity of EP. CONCLUSION: EP emerges as a suitable molecule for further studies as a potential antineoplastic agent. Antineoplastic Agents/isolation & purification/*therapeutic use, Apoptosis/*drug effects, Breast Neoplasms/*drug therapy, Cell Proliferation/*drug effects, DNA Fragmentation, Female, Flow Cytometry, Humans, Lichens/*chemistry, MCF-7 Cells, Apoptosis, Cancer, Cell cycle, Cytotoxicity, Epanorin, Mutagenesis
35465Nunes P.S., Rabelo A.S., Souza J.C., Santana B.V., da Silva T.M., Serafini M.R., Dos Passos Menezes P., Dos Santos Lima B., Cardoso J.C., Alves J.C., Frank L.A., Guterres S.S., Pohlmann A.R., Pinheiro M.S., de Albuquerque R.L.J. & Araujo A.A. (2016): Gelatin-based membrane containing usnic acid-loaded liposome improves dermal burn healing in a porcine model. - Int J Pharm, 513(1-2): 473-482.
There are a range of products available which claim to accelerate the healing of burns; these include topical agents, interactive dressings and biomembranes. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a gelatin-based membrane containing usnic acid/liposomes on the healing of burns in comparison to silver sulfadiazine ointment and duoDerme((R)) dressing, as well as examining its quantification by high performance liquid chromatography. The quantification of the usnic acid/liposomes was examined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) by performing separate in vitro studies of the efficiency of the biomembranes in terms of encapsulation, drug release and transdermal absorption. Then, second-degree 5cm(2) burn wounds were created on the dorsum of nine male pigs, assigned into three groups (n=3): SDZ - animals treated with silver sulfadiazine ointment; GDU - animals treated with duoDerme((R)); UAL - animals treated with a gelatin-based membrane containing usnic acid/liposomes. These groups were treated for 8, 18 and 30days. In the average rate of contraction, there was no difference among the groups (p>0.05). The results of the quantification showed that biomembranes containing usnic acid/liposomes were controlled released systems capable of transdermal absorption by skin layers. A macroscopic assay did not observe any clinical signs of secondary infections. Microscopy after 8days showed hydropic degeneration of the epithelium, with intense neutrophilic infiltration in all three groups. At 18days, although epidermal neo-formation was only partial in all three groups, it was most incipient in the SDZ group. Granulation tissue was more exuberant and cellularized in the UAL and GDU groups. At 30days, observed restricted granulation tissue in the region below the epithelium in the GDU and UAL groups was observed. In the analysis of collagen though picrosirius, the UAL group showed greater collagen density. Therefore, the UAL group displayed development and maturation of granulation tissue and scar repair that was comparable to that produced by duoDerme(((R)),) and better than that produced by treatment with sulfadiazine silver ointment In addition, the UAL group showed increased collagen deposition compared to the other two groups. Animals, Anti-Infective Agents, Local/*administration & dosage/therapeutic use, *Bandages, Benzofurans/*administration & dosage/therapeutic use, Burns/*drug therapy, Collagen/metabolism, *Drug Delivery Systems, Gelatin/chemistry, Liposomes, Male, Silver Sulfadiazine/administration & dosage/therapeutic use, Skin/metabolism, Skin Absorption, Swine, Wound Healing/drug effects, Burn, Gelatin membrane, Porcine, Usnic acid
35464Mohammadi M., Bagheri L., Badreldin A., Fatehi P., Pakzad L., Suntres Z. & van Wijnen A.J. (2022): Biological Effects of Gyrophoric Acid and Other Lichen Derived Metabolites, on Cell Proliferation, Apoptosis and Cell Signaling pathways. - Chem Biol Interact, 351: 109768.
Secondary metabolites from fungi, algae and lichens have remarkable biological activities as antibiotics, fungicides, antiviral drugs, and cancer therapeutics. This review focuses on the lichen-derived metabolite gyrophoric acid and other select secondary metabolites (e.g., usnic acid, salazinic acid, physodic acid, vulpinic acid ceratinalone, flavicansone, ramalin, physciosporin, tumidulin, atranorin, parmosidone) that modulate a number of cellular pathways relevant to several biomedical diseases and disorders, including cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We discuss the chemical structure and biochemical activities of gyrophoric acid and other compounds relative to the molecular mechanisms and cellular processes that these metabolites target in a distinct human and rodent cell types. The therapeutic promise of gyrophoric acid and similar lichen derived metabolites is associated with the chemical versatility of these compounds as polyaromatic depsides with functional carboxyl and hydroxyl side-groups that may permit selective interactions with distinct enzymatic active sites. Gyrophoric acid has been examined in a series of studies as an effective anticancer drug because it impinges on topoisomerase 1 activity, as well as causes cell cycle arrest, comprises cell survival, and promotes apoptosis. Because gyrophoric acid has cytostatic properties, its biological roles and possible medicinal utility may extend beyond effects on cancer cells and be relevant to any process that is controlled by cell growth and differentiation. Antineoplastic Agents/*pharmacology, Apoptosis/*drug effects, Benzoates/*pharmacology, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Proliferation/*drug effects, Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology, Humans, Lichens/*chemistry, Signal Transduction/*drug effects, Anticancer, Apoptosis, Cancer cytostatic, Cardiovascular diseases, Cytotoxic, Depside, Diabetes, Gyrophoric acid, Lichens, Mechanism of action, Proliferation, Secondary metabolite, Topoisomerase
35463Katiyar D., Bansal P., Kumar A. & Prakash S. (2022): Ramalin: A Multi-Mechanistic Lichen Metabolite of Pharmacological Importance. - Current Bioactive Compounds, 19: e240322202584.
Ramalin (γ-glutamyl-N'-(2-hydroxyphenyl) hydrazide), a nitrogen- containing lichen secondary metabolite, was isolated from Ramalina terebrata, an Antarctic lichen. Since then, it has attracted several researchers, thus leading to various research investigations exploring the pharmacological potential of Ramalin. The current review shall be beneficial for future researchers interested in working on Ramalin because it summarizes all the relevant publications starting from its first-time isolation to the articles of 2021. Lichen, Ramalina terebrata, ramalin, antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory
35462Galanty A., Koczurkiewicz P., Wnuk D., Paw M., Karnas E., Podolak I., Wegrzyn M., Borusiewicz M., Madeja Z., Czyz J. & Michalik M. (2017): Usnic acid and atranorin exert selective cytostatic and anti-invasive effects on human prostate and melanoma cancer cells. - Toxicol In Vitro, 40: 161-169.
OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Lichens are an interesting source of potential anti-tumor compounds, among which usnic acid and atranorin seem to be the most promising, but their impact on invasive potential of tumor cells has not yet been comprehensively addressed. The aim of the study was focused on the impact of the two lichen metabolites, on the viability (by Trypan blue test and fluoresceine diacetate and ethidium bromide assay), proliferation (cell counting in a Burker's chamber), apoptosis (flow cytometry analysis and Western blot) and motile activity (cell movement recording and image analysis) and actin cytoskeleton organization (immunofluorescent staining) of melanoma HTB-140, prostate cancers DU-145 and PC-3, normal human skin fibroblasts and prostate epithelial PNT2 cells, with special emphasis to their selectivity and versatility. RESULTS: Both compounds exerted strong inhibitory effects on cancer cell proliferation, migration and actin cytoskeleton organization, while their effect on apoptosis process was less relevant. The impact of usnic acid on the examined cancer cells was found more efficient in comparison to atranorin. Also, selective effect of both agents on tumor cells was observed. SIGNIFICANCE: The ability of usnic acid and atranorin to inhibit cancer cells motility may have future implications for development of new therapeutic strategies targeted at the interference with the metastatic cascade. Actins/metabolism, Antineoplastic Agents/*pharmacology, Apoptosis/drug effects, Benzofurans/*pharmacology, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Movement/drug effects, Cell Proliferation/drug effects, Cell Survival/drug effects, Cells, Cultured, Cytostatic Agents/*pharmacology, Fibroblasts/drug effects, Humans, Hydroxybenzoates/*pharmacology, Male, Melanoma, Prostatic Neoplasms, Actin cytoskeleton, Apoptosis, Atranorin, Cytotoxic, Metastasis, Usnic acid
35461Vänskä H. (1985): Squamarina poeltii, a new lichen species from Novaya Zemlya. - Annales Botanici Fennici, 22: 31–35. .
Squamarina (sect. Petroplaca) poeltii Vänskä, sp. nova (lichen-forming fungi, Lecanorales) is described from Novaya Zemlya, U.S.S.R. Usnic acid and traces of unidentified fatty acids are reported as its chemical constituents. Key words: Squamarina, Petroplaca, Lecanorales, lichen, taxonomy, usnic acid, U.S.S.R.
35460Hou P., Nowak V.V., Taylor C.J., Calcott M.J., Knight A. & Owen J.G. (2023): A Genomic Survey of the Natural Product Biosynthetic Potential of Actinomycetes Isolated from New Zealand Lichens. - mSystems, 8(2): e0103022.
Actinomycetes are prolific producers of industrially valuable and medically important compounds. Historically, the most efficient method of obtaining compounds has been bioactivity-guided isolation and characterization of drug-like molecules from culturable soil actinomycetes. Unfortunately, this pipeline has been met with an increasing number of rediscoveries, to the point where it is no longer considered an attractive approach for drug discovery. To address this challenge and to continue finding new compounds, researchers have increasingly focused on alternative environmental niches and screening methods. Here, we report the genetic investigation of actinomycetes from an underexplored source, New Zealand lichens. In this work, we obtain draft genome sequences for 322 lichen-associated actinomycetes. We then explore this genetic resource with an emphasis on biosynthetic potential. By enumerating biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) in our data sets and comparing these to various reference collections, we demonstrate that actinomycetes sourced from New Zealand lichens have the genetic capacity to produce large numbers of natural products, many of which are expected to be broadly different from those identified in previous efforts predominantly based on soil samples. Our data shed light on the actinomycete assemblage in New Zealand lichens and demonstrate that lichen-sourced actinobacteria could serve as reservoirs for discovering new secondary metabolites. IMPORTANCE Lichens are home to complex and distinctive microbial cohorts that have not been extensively explored for the ability to produce novel secondary metabolites. Here, we isolate and obtain genome sequence data for 322 actinomycetes from New Zealand lichens. In doing so, we delineate at least 85 potentially undescribed species, and show that lichen associated actinomycetes have the potential to yield many new secondary metabolites, and as such, might serve as a productive starting point for drug discovery efforts. *Actinobacteria/genetics, Actinomyces/metabolism, *Lichens/genetics, *Biological Products/metabolism, New Zealand, Genomics/methods, biosynthetic gene cluster, genome mining, natural product, nonribosomal peptide, polyketide
35459Zhong Q., Ai M., Worthy F.R., Yin A., Jiang Y., Wang L. & Wang X. (2023): Rediscovery of five Rinodina species originally described from southwest China and one new species. - Diversity, 15(6): 705 [22 p.] .
Rinodina is a lichenized fungal genus belonging to the Physciaceae, with c. 300 species worldwide. Nearly a century ago, Zahlbruckner described five species of the genus Rinodina from Southwest China. The type collections were the only records for these species. In the present study, new records for four of these species: Rinodina cornutula, R. globulans, R. handelii, and R. setschwana, and a recently described species, R. pluriloculata, are documented based on specimens collected from the holotype localities. Furthermore, one new species was discovered: Rinodina hengduanensis, characterized by areolate to subsquamulose thallus, jigsaw-like areoles, lecanorine apothecium, and Dirinaria-type ascospores. Rinodina setschwana is transferred to the genus Buellia based on its morphology, chemistry, and phylogeny and proposed as Buellia setschwana. We provide detailed morphological descriptions, pictures, and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Keywords: lichenized Ascomycetes; new species; Physciaceae; taxonomy.
35458Pankratov T.A., Samylina O.S., Tikhonova E.N., Ianutsevich E.A., Avtukh A.N. & Lee Y.M. (2023): A novel bacteriobiont of the Arctic lichen Flavocetraria nivalis, Lichenifustis flavocetrariae gen. nov, sp. nov. demonstrating hydrolytic properties and containing a full set of the Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle genes. - Archives of Microbiology , 205: 232 [13 p.].
A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, chemoorganotrophic, bacteriochlorophyll a-containing, slow-growing bacterium was isolated from the lichen Flavocetraria nivalis and designated strain BP6-180914 T. Cells of this strain were large nonmotile rods, which reproduced by binary fission. Cells grew under oxic conditions and were able to utilize sugars and several polysaccharides, including starch and pectin. Strain BP6-180914 T was psychrotolerant and moderately acidophilic growing at 4–35 °C (optimum 20–28 °C) and between pH 4.0 and 7.5 (optimum 4.5–5.5). The major fatty acids were C18:1ω7c, C19:0 cyclo, C16:0 and C18:0. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylcholines, unidentified aminolipids, and a number of glycolipids, the major one being an unidentified glycolipid. The quinone was Q-10. The DNA G + C content was 63.65%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain BP6-180914 T was a member of the order Hyphomicrobiales and belonged to the family Lichenihabitantaceae defined by the lichen-dwelling facultative aerobic chemo-organotroph Lichenihabitans psoromatis (92.7% sequence similarity). The results of phylogenomic and genomic relatedness analyses showed that strain BP6-180914 T could clearly be distinguished from other species in the order Hyphomicrobiales with average nucleotide identity values of 
35457Suija A. & van den Boom P.P.G. (2023): Phylogenetic relationships, taxonomic novelties, and combinations within Stictidaceae (Ostropales, Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota): focus on Absconditella. - Mycological Progress , 22: 46 [12 p.].
In this paper, we present new insights into the relationships of the lichen-forming genus Absconditella. The study is based on a phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data of three gene loci—two nuclear (the nuclear large subunit and internal transcribed spacer of rDNA) loci, and one mitochondrial (mitochondrial small subunit) locus, and an examination of species morphology. We show that Absconditella do not form a monophyletic lineage within Stictidaceae. One of the lineages, sister to Xyloschistes, Ingvariella and Cryptodiscus contains a recently described Absconditella rubra, and a species superfcially similar to A. lignicola except it is smaller in all morphometric characteristics. Therefore, we introduce a new genus Absconditonia accommodating these two species. We confrm that the monotypic genus Geisleria belongs to Absconditella, and hence we combine Geisleria with the latter. Incorporation of public environmental ITS sequences into the analysis showed that both these genera—Absconditella and Absconditonia—may be more widespread than known only by specimen samples. Keywords: New species · Taxonomy · Overlooked taxa · Environmental sequences · Phylogeny.
35456Fayyaz I., Knudsen K., Zulfqar R., Afshan N.S., Iftikhar F., Niazi A.R., & Khalid A.N. (2023): Taxonomic and phylogenetic study of genus Sarcogyne (Acarosporales, Acarosporaceae) reveals two new species from Pakistan. - Mycological Progress , 22: 45 [9 p.].
Two new species, Sarcogyne crispula and S. pakistanensis are described and illustrated from Pakistan. Sarcogyne crispula is similar to S. praetermissa. Both have lecideine apothecia with smooth melanized margins which curl inward above the apothecial disc and grow on calcareous rock, but they difer especially in S. crispula having larger apothecia (2–3 mm wide vs. usually less than 1 mm) with thinner margins (50–70 vs. 70–120 μm) as well as difering in nrITS and mtSSU regions. Sarcogyne pakistanensis is similar to S. similis. Both grow on siliceous rocks and produce psoromic acid. Sarcogyne pakistanensis difers from S. similis especially in having a lower hymenium (55–85 vs. 100–125 µm), a thinner margin [ca. 100 vs. (100–)150–200 μm], a hypothecium with dark black area, as well as difering in their nrITS regions. Keywords: Asian lichens · Calciphytes · Dark hypothecium · Keys · Himalayas · Phylogeny.
35455Fang J., Mamut R., Wang L. & Anwar G. (2023): De novo mitochondrial genome sequencing of Cladonia subulata and phylogenetic analysis with other dissimilar species. - PLoS ONE, 18(5): e0285818 [19 p.].
In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Cladonia subulata (L.) FH Wigg was sequenced and assembled and then compared with those of other Cladonia species. The mitogenome of Cladonia subulata, the type species of Cladonia, consisted of a circular DNA molecule of 58,895 bp 44 genes (15 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 27 tRNA genes). The base composition had shown an obvious AT preference, and all 27 tRNA genes formed a typical clover structure. Comparison with other 7 Cladonia species indicated that the duplication/loss of tRNAs had occurred during evolution, and introns appeared to explain the variation in cox1 genes in Cladonia, the mitochondrial genome tends to be generally conservative and local dynamic changes. Repeat sequences were mainly located in gene intervals, which were mainly distributed among intergenic spacers and may cause rearrangement of the mitogenome. The phylogenetic results showed that Cladonia subulata and C. polycarpoides were assigned to the Cladonia Subclade. The results add to the available mitochondrial genome sequence information of Cladonia subulata, provide basic data for the systematic development, resource protection, and genetic diversity research in Cladonia subulata, and also provide theoretical support for further genomic research of lichens.
35454Kasanke S.A., Walker D.A., Chapin III F.S. & Mann D.H. (2023): Plant succession on glacial moraines in the Arctic Brooks Range along a >125,000-year glacial chronosequence/toposequence. - Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 55(1): 2178151 [22 p.].
Widespread glacial retreat is now occurring in many arctic mountain ranges, yet little is known about primary succession following deglaciation in these settings. Newly created habitats could provide refugia for flora and fauna whose ranges are threatened elsewhere by rapid warming. To assess vegetation responses to glacial retreat in an arctic–alpine setting, we first describe plant community development on two recently deglaciated moraines in the Brooks Range. We then compare these recent communities with communities developed along a moraine chronosequence that spans >125,000 years and ranges in altitude between 800 and 1,700 m.a.s.l. Results show that (1) within twenty-two to thirty-six years following deglaciation, primary succession begins with the assembly of small communities of eight to thirteen vascular and nonvascular plant species; (2) species turnover is low, with many pioneer taxa, particularly lichens, persisting at the oldest sites and across all altitudes; and (3) overall, succession is directional and slow, with species richness increasing for up to 25,000 years, and percentage vegetation cover reaching >100 percent on the oldest glacial deposits. This is the first vegetation study on primary succession in the high central Brooks Range, and it supplies a previously missing alpine element within a vegetation transect across northern Alaska’s bioclimatic gradient. Keywords: Lichenometry; primary succession; deglaciation; Arctic; alpine.
35453Wang Z., Wu B., Ma Z., Zhang M., Zeng H. & Yang L. (2023): Spectral determinants of biological soil crusts in the Gurbantungut Desert. - International Journal of Remote Sensing, 44(7): 2273–2293.
As thick crustal layers form on dryland surfaces, they affect the spectral information that is originally dominated by sand or rock. The spectral characteristics of organic matter replace the mineral elements as prominent features. In this case, the growth patterns and spectral characteristics of biological soil crusts (BSCs) can be observed. Satellite spectral data have been used for BSC spatial information extraction. However, the dynamic changes in BSCs can affect the spectra. Two aspects are involved here: moisture change and BSC growth. When these changes are superimposed with BSC succession, they lead to an increase in spectral complexity. This study explored three BSC types, including algal crust, lichen and moss, and discussed their spectra. By selecting BSC samples at different succession states and by combining coverage and simulated precipitation, the response of the spectra to BSC coverage and the spectral characteristics of BSCs under dry and wet conditions were measured and analysed. In addition, the spectral index variations caused by coverage and moisture of three types of BSCs were discussed, where the spectral indices include the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), brightness index (BI), crust index (CI), and biological soil crust index (BSCI). The results showed that the succession, moisture and growth of BSCs were the main factors affecting their spectra. BSC types can be distinguished in a particular climatic context to determine the degree of BSC succession. Precipitation in the monitoring areas needs to be considered to avoid the effects of dry and wet BSC variations on remote sensing monitoring. The coverage of different types of BSCs in mixed pixels can be determined by multiple indices. The results of this study will provide a basis for monitoring BSCs using satellite spectral information to guide regional ecological management. Keywords: Biological soil crusts; spectral information; growth; succession; moisture; spectral indices.
35452Hoffman J.R., Karol K.G., Ohmura Y., Pogoda C.S., Keepers K.G., McMullin R.T. & Lendemer J.C. (2023): Mitochondrial genomes in the iconic reindeer lichens: Architecture, variation, and synteny across multiple evolutionary scales. - Mycologia, 115(2): 187–205.
Variation in mitochondrial genome composition across intraspecific, interspecific, and higher taxonomic scales has been little studied in lichen obligate symbioses. Cladonia is one of the most diverse and ecologically important lichen genera, with over 500 species representing an array of unique morphologies and chemical profiles. Here, we assess mitochondrial genome diversity and variation in this flagship genus, with focused sampling of two clades of the “true” reindeer lichens, Cladonia subgenus Cladina, and additional genomes from nine outgroup taxa. We describe composition and architecture at the gene and the genome scale, examining patterns in organellar genome size in larger taxonomic groups in Ascomycota. Mitochondrial genomes of Cladonia, Pilophorus, and Stereocaulon were consistently larger than those of Lepraria and contained more introns, suggesting a selective pressure in asexual morphology in Lepraria driving it toward genomic simplification. Collectively, lichen mitochondrial genomes were larger than most other fungal life strategies, reaffirming the notion that coevolutionary streamlining does not correlate to genome size reductions. Genomes from Cladonia ravenelii and Stereocaulon pileatum exhibited ATP9 duplication, bearing paralogs that may still be functional. Homing endonuclease genes (HEGs), though scarce in Lepraria, were diverse and abundant in Cladonia, exhibiting variable evolutionary histories that were sometimes independent of the mitochondrial evolutionary history. Intraspecific HEG diversity was also high, with C. rangiferina especially bearing a range of HEGs with one unique to the species. This study reveals a rich history of events that have transformed mitochondrial genomes of Cladonia and related genera, allowing future study alongside a wealth of assembled genomes. Keywords: Ascomycetes; Cladoniaceae; fungi; North America; organelle; transposable elements.
35451Rom J., Haas F., Heckmann T., Dremel F., Fleischer F., Altmann M., Stark M. & Becht M. (2023): Establishing a record of extreme debris flow events in a high Alpine catchment since the end of the Little Ice Age using lichenometric dating. - Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography, 105(1): 47–63.
Establishing a record of large debris flow events in high Alpine areas prior to the availability of high resolution remote sensing data can be very challenging. In this study, we investigate the debris flow activity in two tributary valleys of the Horlachtal catchment in Tyrol, Austria between the end of the Little Ice Age at about 1850 and the first available area wide aerial images from 1947. To accomplish this, we calculated a local lichenometric calibration curve using the long axis diameters of the five largest Rhizocarpon lichen thalli at 51 different reference locations. Because of the interval-censored dating of most of the reference sites, we established a bootstrapping approach within the calibration curve calculation process. With the help of the lichenometric calibration data, we were able to date 47 old debris flow deposits in the study area. The results indicate no increasing or decreasing trends in frequencies of extreme debris flow events. In addition, the results point to a very local character of debris flow triggering precipitation events, as we can detect major differences in neighbouring valleys. Lichenometric derived datings also provide temporal informations about the end of debris flow activity at some sites in the study area and thus can contribute to a better understanding of debris flow systems. Keywords: Debris flows; lichenometry; central Alps; Horlachtal; extreme events.
35450Mohamed E., Loudiki M. & El Gharmali A. (2023): Bioaccumulation and sources identification of atmospheric metal trace elements using lichens along a rural–urban pollution gradient in the Safi-Essaouira coastal area. - Chemistry and Ecology, 39(2): 107–122.
Atmospheric contamination by metallic trace elements emitted by various human activities constitutes an important threat to human and environmental health. This study aims to determine metal accumulation and the sources of air metallic pollution in the Safi urban-industrial area using lichens as biomonitors. Ten trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn) concentrations and 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb isotopic ratios were analyzed by ICP-MS in four lichen species: Xanthoria Parietina, Ramalina Lacera, Xanthoria Calcicola and Ramalina Pollinaria. The results showed significant differences among study sites for most elements with higher concentrations in the industrial, urban and peri-urban sites compared to the reference site chosen as a natural rural area far from any human activities. Significant differences were found between saxicolous and corticolous species especially for Cd, Cu and Zn. The values of Zn/Cu, Zn/Pb and Pb isotope ratios measured in lichens revealed that vehicular traffic and industrial emissions are the main sources of atmospheric Pb contamination. Other anthropic activities (waste incineration, artisanal pottery…) might be the source of other trace metal elements accumulated by lichens. Airborne contaminants in Safi appear to be exported from their sources by air mass movements driven by the regional wind profile. Keywords: Metal trace elements; lichens; air pollution sources; Pb isotope ratio; biomonitoring.
35449Szczepańska K., Kukwa M., Guzow-Krzemińska B. & Urbaniak J. (2023): New and rare lichens of the family Megasporaceae discovered in Poland. - Phytotaxa, 598(2): 133–144.
Based on a revision of historic herbarium material and recently collected specimens, six lichenized fungi of the family Megasporaceae have been identified. Four of them, Aspicilia verrucigera, Oxneriaria supertegens, Sagedia mastrucata and S. zonata are reported for the first time from Poland. Also, we present new localities for two species, Aspicilia goettweigensis and A. polychroma, that have been rarely reported in the country. The characteristics of all these species, as well as their ecology and geographical distribution, are presented and briefly discussed. In addition, nucITS rDNA and mtSSU rDNA were sequenced for some specimens to confirm their identifications. Keywords: barcoding, lichenized fungi, taxonomy.
35448Ślusarczyk J., Adamska E. & Czerwik-Marcinkowska J. (2021): Fungi and Algae as Sources of Medicinal and Other Biologically Active Compounds: A Review. - Nutrients, 13(9): 3178.
Many species of fungi including lichenized fungi (lichens) and algae have the ability to biosynthesize biologically active compounds. They produce, among others, polysaccharides with anticancer and immunostimulatory properties: (1) Background: This paper presents the characteristics of the most important bioactive compounds produced by fungi and algae; (2) Methods: Based on the example of the selected species of mushrooms, lichens and algae, the therapeutic properties of the secondary metabolites that they produce and the possibilities of their use are presented; (3) Results: The importance of fungi, especially large-fruited mushrooms, lichens and algae, in nature and human life is discussed, in particular, with regard to their use in the pharmaceutical industry and their nutritional value; (4) Conclusions: The natural organisms, such as fungi, lichenized fungi and algae, could be used as supplementary medicine, in the form of pharmaceutical preparations and food sources. Further advanced studies are required on the pharmacological properties and bioactive compounds of these organisms. Agaricales, Antioxidants/administration & dosage, Carotenoids/administration & dosage, *Chlorophyta, Diet/methods, Flavonoids/administration & dosage, *Fungi, Humans, Lichens, *Nutritive Value, Phytochemicals/*administration & dosage, Polyphenols/administration & dosage, Polysaccharides/administration & dosage, algae, biologically active compounds, functional food, fungi, mushrooms, pharmaceuticals sources
35447Şen H., Aksoy A., Çobanoğlu G. & Selvi S. (2014): Natural dyeing works on some lichens species distributed in Ayvacık (Çanakkale) and İvrindi (Balıkesir/Turkey). - Biological Diversity and Conservation, 7: 184-189. .
35446Sekerli M., Kilic N. & Cansaran-Duman D. (2017): The Molecular Mechanisms of the effect of anticancer activity on lichen metabolites. - Turk Hijyen ve Deneysel Biyoloji Dergisi, 74: 95-102.
35445Şahin N., Emsen B., Aslan A. & Sadi G. (2021): Antioxidant potential of Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf and its secondary metabolites on hepatocellular carcinoma cells: regulation of antioxidant enzymes. - Anatolian Journal of Botany, 5(2): 127-133.
35444Polosukhina D.A., Masyagina O.V. & Prokushkin A.S. (2020): Carbon photoassimilation by dominant species of mosses and lichens in pine forests of Central Siberia. - IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 611(1): 012031.
The stocks of phyto(bio)mass of a ground vegetation cover consisting of dwarf shrubs, lichens, and feathermosses are estimated in pine forests of Central Siberia (ZOTTO). CO2 photoassimilation dynamics is analyzed for the dominant species of the moss-lichen layer throughout the growing season. In parallel, we assess the impact of abiotic environmental factors on the photoassimilation intensity.
35443Ozturk S. & Guvenc S. (2010): Comparison of the epiphytic lichen communities growing on various tree species on Mt. Uludağ (Bursa, Turkey). - Turkish Journal of Botany, 34(2010): 449-456.
35442Notov A.A. (2012): Concerning the problem of integrated biogeographical analysis of different components of biotas. - Wulfenia, 17(2010): 1–23. .
35441Mitrovic T., Stamenkovic S., Cvetkovic V., Radulovic N., Mladenovic M., Stankovic M., Topuzovic M., Radojevic I., Stefanovic O., Vasic S. & Comic L. (2014): Platismatia glaucia and Pseudevernia furfuracea lichens as sources of antioxidant, antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents. - Excli j, 13: 938-53. .
The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antibiofilm potentials of acetone, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of lichen species Platismatia glauca and Pseudevernia furfuracea were evaluated. The phytochemical analysis by GC, GC/MS and NMR revealed caperatic acid, atraric acid, atranorin and chloroatranorin as the predominant compounds in Platismatia glauca. Atraric acid, olivetoric acid, atranorin and chloroatranorin were the major constituents in Pseudevernia furfuracea. The strong antioxidant capacities of the Platismatia glauca and Pseudevernia furfuracea extracts were assessed by their total phenolic and flavonoid contents and DPPH scavenging activities. The methanol extracts of both species exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities with the highest IC50 value for Pseudevernia furfuracea (95.33 µg/mL). The lichen extracts demonstrated important antibacterial activities against 11 bacterial strains with detectable MIC values from 0.08 mg/mL to 2.5 mg/mL for Platismatia glauca and from 0.005 mg/mL to 2.5 mg/mL for Pseudevernia furfuracea. While the antibacterial activities of Pseudevernia furfuracea were solvent-independent, the acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of Platismatia glauca showed higher antibacterial activities compared to its methanol extract. The methanol extracts of both species demonstrated significant antifungal activities against 9 fungal strains with detectable MIC values from 0.04 mg/mL to 2.5 mg/mL. The best antifungal activities were determined against Candida species in Pseudevernia furfuracea extracts with remarkable MIC values which were lower than the MIC values of the positive contol fluconazole. The acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of Platismatia glauca showed better antibiofilm activities on Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis with BIC value at 0.63 mg/mL then its methanol extract. On the other hand, the methanol extract of Pseudevernia furfuracea was more potent with BIC value at 1.25 mg/mL on Staphylococcus aureus and 0.63 mg/mL on Proteus mirabilis compared to other types of extracts. Our study indicates a possible use of lichens Platismatia glauca and Pseudevernia furfuracea as natural antioxidants and preservatives in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Platismatia glauca, Pseudevernia furfuracea, antibiofilm activity, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, chemical profile
35440Cuculovic A., Veselinović D. & Miljanić S. (2009): 137Cs desorption from lichen using acid solutions. - Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 83: 1547-1549.
Desoprtion of 137Cs from samples of Cetraria islandica lichen using HCl (A) and HNO3 (B) acid solutions with pH values from 2.00 to 3.75 was investigated. After five consecutive desorptions lasting 24 h it was shown that between 52.2% (solution B pH 3.28) and 72.2% (solution A pH 2.00) of 137Cs was desorbed from the lichen and the initial desorptions were the most successful. Lichen desorbed with the stated solutions did not undergo structural changes. The amount of absorbed water from solutions A and B, used for desorption from lichen, in relation to the starting volume (expressed in %) showed that solution concentration did not take place. Lichen act as neutralizing agents because the pH of the lichen thallus is higher than the pH value of the solution used.
35439Cuculovic A., Veselinović D. & Miljanic S. (2006): Extraction of 137Cs from Cetraria islandica lichen with water. - Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, 71(5): 565–571.
35438Andreev A., Lubinski D., Bobrov A., Ingólfsson Ó., Tarasov P. & Möller P. (2008): Early Holocene environments on October Revolution Island, Severnaya Zemlya, Arctic Russia. - Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 267: 21-30.
Pollen, palynomorphs, and rhizopods were studied from several < 1 m thick, peaty and silty sediment sections on southwestern October Revolution Island, Severnaya Zemlya. Six AMS radiocarbon ages from the sections show that peat accumulation started at ca. 11,500 and stopped after 9500 cal. yr BP, consistent with several previously reported 14C ages. Open steppe-like vegetation existed on the island during the late Glacial, shortly before the Pleistocene/Holocene transition. Environmental conditions on the island were most favourable for local biota during the early Holocene, ca. 11,500-9500 cal. yr BP, when tundra-like sedge-grass communities dominated the vegetation. Low shrub tundra associations with dwarf birch and willow grew in more wind-sheltered localities. The temperatures during the growing season were at least 4 °C higher than today. The Vavilov Ice Cap was at or behind its present margins. Environmental conditions in the region changed significantly ca. 9400 cal. yr BP as a result of colder and drier conditions, when vegetation became similar to the modern, sparse lichen-moss-grass cover.
35437Fernandez-Marin B., Lopez-Pozo M., Perera-Castro A.V., Arzac M., Saenz-Ceniceros A., Colesie C., de los Rios A., Sancho L.G., Pintado A., Laza J.M., Perez-Ortega S. & Garcia-Plazaola J.I. (2019): Symbiosis at its limits: ecophysiological consequences of lichenization in the genus Prasiola in Antarctica. - Annals of Botany, 124(7): 1211-1226.
Background and Aims Lichens represent a symbiotic relationship between at least one fungal and one photosynthetic partner. The association between the lichen-forming fungus Mastodia tessellata (Verrucariaceae) and different species of Prasiola (Trebouxiophyceae) has an amphipolar distribution and represents a unique case study for the understanding of lichen symbiosis because of the macroalgal nature of the photobiont, the flexibility of the symbiotic interaction and the co-existence of free-living and lichenized forms in the same microenvironment. In this context, we aimed to (1) characterize the photosynthetic performance of co-occurring populations of free-living and lichenized Prasiola and (2) assess the effect of the symbiosis on water relations in Prasiola, including its tolerance of desiccation and its survival and performance under sub-zero temperatures._x000D_Methods Photochemical responses to irradiance, desiccation and freezing temperature and pressure-volume curves of co-existing free-living and lichenized Prasiola thalli were measured in situ in Livingston Island (Maritime Antarctica). Analyses of photosynthetic pigment, glass transition and ice nucleation temperatures, surface hydrophobicity extent and molecular analyses were conducted in the laboratory._x000D_Key Results Free-living and lichenized forms of Prasiola were identified as two different species: P. crispa and Prasiola sp., respectively. While lichenization appears to have no effect on the photochemical performance of the alga or its tolerance of desiccation (in the short term), the symbiotic lifestyle involves (1) changes in water relations, (2) a considerable decrease in the net carbon balance and (3) enhanced freezing tolerance._x000D_Conclusions Our results support improved tolerance of sub-zero temperature as the main benefit of lichenization for the photobiont, but highlight that lichenization represents a delicate equilibrium between a mutualistic and a less reciprocal relationship. In a warmer climate scenario, the spread of the free-living Prasiola to the detriment of the lichen form would be likely, with unknown consequences for Maritime Antarctic ecosystems. abiotic stress, alga, desiccation tolerance, freezing tolerance, glassy state, lichen, mastodia tessellata, photobiont, photoprotection, photosynthesis, polar, turgidosculum, mastodia-tessellata ascomycota, turgidosculum-complicatulum, desiccation-tolerance, energy-dissipation, green-alga, photosynthetic processes, pigment composition, reaction centers, lichen, light
35436Berdugo M., Mendoza-Aguilar D.O., Rey A., Ochoa V., Gozalo B., Garcia-Huss L. & Maestre F.T. (2021): Litter Decomposition Rates of Biocrust-Forming Lichens Are Similar to Those of Vascular Plants and Are Affected by Warming. - Ecosystems, 24(6): 1531-1544.
Despite the high relevance of communities dominated by lichens, mosses and cyanobacteria living on the soil surface (biocrusts) for ecosystem functioning in drylands, no study to date has investigated the decomposition of biocrust-forming lichen litter in situ. Thus, we do not know whether the drivers of its decomposition are similar to those for plant litter (for example, importance of abiotic degradation through UV radiation), the magnitude of lichen decomposition rates and whether they will be affected by ongoing climate change. Here we report the results from a litter decomposition experiment carried out with two biocrust-forming lichens (Diploschistes diacapsis and Cladonia convoluta) that differ in litter chemical quality (C:N ratio) in central Spain. We evaluated how lichen decomposition was affected by warming, rainfall exclusion and their combination. We also manipulated the incidence of UV radiation using mesh material that blocked 10% or 90% of incoming UV radiation. Our results indicate that lichens decompose as fast as some plants typical of the study area (k similar to 0.3 y(-1)). We observed differences among the species studied in line with what is expected according to their chemical composition. Warming increased decomposition rates of both lichen species by 28% and mediated the effects of photodegradation. Although UV exposure accelerated the decomposition of D. diacapsis, it slowed that of C. convoluta. Our results indicate that biocrust-forming lichens can decompose in the field at a rate similar to that of vascular plants and that this process will be affected by warming. The findings presented emphasize the need of considering biocrusts and the decomposition of their tissues when honing ecosystem models aiming to forecast carbon cycling responses to climate change in drylands. lichen litter decomposition, drylands, biological soil crust, climate change experiment, photodegradation, global warming, biological soil crust, climate-change, ultraviolet-radiation, temporal dynamics, carbon, photodegradation, respiration, chemistry, nitrogen, forest
35435Weeraphan T., Somphong A., Poengsungnoen V., Buaruang K., Harunari E., Igarashi Y., Tanasupawat S. & Phongsopitanun W. (2023): Bacterial microbiome in tropical lichens and the effect of the isolation method on culturable lichen-derived actinobacteria. - Sci Rep, 13(1):5483.
Ten samples of tropical lichens collected from Doi Inthanon, Thailand, were explored for the diversity of their bacterial microbiomes through 16S rRNA-based metagenomics analysis. The five predominant lichen-associated bacteria belonged to the phyla Proteobacteria (31.84%), Planctomycetota (17.08%), Actinobacteriota (15.37%), Verrucomicrobiota (12.17%), and Acidobacteriota (7.87%). The diversity analysis metric showed that Heterodermia contained the highest bacterial species richness. Within the lichens, Ramalina conduplicans and Cladonia rappii showed a distinct bacterial community from the other lichen species. The community of lichen-associated actinobacteria was investigated as a potential source of synthesized biologically active compounds. From the total Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) found across the ten different lichen samples, 13.21% were identified as actinobacteria, including the rare actinobacterial genera that are not commonly found, such as Pseudonocardia, Kineosporia, Dactylosporangium, Amycolatopsis, Actinoplanes, and Streptosporangium. Evaluation of the pretreatment method (heat, air-drying, phenol, and flooding) and isolation media used for the culture-dependent actinobacterial isolation revealed that the different pretreatments combined with different isolation media were effective in obtaining several species of actinobacteria. However, metagenomics analyses revealed that there were still several strains, including rare actinobacterial species, that were not isolated. This research strongly suggests that lichens appear to be a promising source for obtaining actinobacteria. *Actinobacteria, *Lichens/microbiology, RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics, Bacteria/genetics, *Microbiota/genetics, *Actinomycetales, Phylogeny, Biodiversity
35434Swamy C.T. & Gayathri D. (2021): High throughput sequencing study of foliose lichen-associated bacterial communities from India. - Molecular Biology Reports, 48(3):2389-2397.
Lichens comprise highly diverse and complex microbial communities, the majority consisting of mycobiont, photobiont, Basidiomycetes yeast and bacteriobiont (internal bacterial communities). In this study, bacterial diversity of foliose lichen was reported. Next generation sequence (NGS) such as Illumina Sequencing (150*2) of 16S rRNA (V3 and V6 region) was used to delineate the bacterial communities associated with five foliose lichen samples. Bacterial sequences obtained from lichen samples suggested that, they harboured bacterial community with variable relative abundances. Among all bacterial communities, Alphaproteobacteria were dominant in all the tested lichen samples. The principal coordinate analysis, Venn and bar chart showed significant microbial changes between the different useful bacterial lineages across the lichens. The relative abundance of dominant and rare bacterial species found were varied, diverse, distinct and unique in each lichen. The Proteobacteria 48.19%, Actinobacteria 25.70%, Bacteroidetes 8.53%, Acidobacteria 9.36% and Chloroflexi 0.83% were predominant in all tested lichens. The present empirical study enhances the confirmed knowledge of bacterial diversity inevitably associated with lichens and is the first report on lichenized bacterial diversity and perhaps their potential possible role in lichen symbiosis in addition to phycobiont and mycobiont. alpha diversity, beta diversity, microbial diversity, principal coordinate analysis (pcoa), rarefaction curves, microbial communities, diversity, acidobacteria
35433Phinney N.H., Solhaug K.A. & Gauslaa Y. (2019): Photobiont-dependent humidity threshold for chlorolichen photosystem II activation. - Planta, 250(6):2023-2031.
Photobiont type influences the relative humidity threshold at which photosystem II activates in green algal lichens. Water vapor uptake alone can activate photosynthesis in lichens with green algal photobionts. However, the minimum relative humidity needed for activation is insufficiently known. The objective of this study was to quantify the humidity threshold for photosystem II (PSII) activation in a range of chlorolichen species associated with photobionts from Trebouxiaceae, Coccomyxaceae and Trentepohliaceae. These lichens exhibit distribution, habitat and substrate patterns that are likely coupled to their efficiency in utilizing water vapor at lower levels of relative humidity (RH) for photosynthesis. Using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging during water uptake from humid air of 25 species of chlorolichens representing the above photobiont groups, we monitored PSII activation within controlled chambers with constant RH at five levels ranging from 75.6 to 95.4%. The results demonstrate clear photobiont-specific activation patterns: the trentepohlioid lichens activated PSII at significantly lower RH (75.6%) than trebouxioid (81.7%) and coccomyxoid (92.0%) lichens. These responses are consistent with a preference for warm and sheltered habitats for trentepohlioid lichens, with cool and moist habitats for the coccomyxoid lichens, and with a more widespread occurrence of the trebouxioid lichens. Within each photobiont group, lichen species exposed to marine aerosols in their source habitats seemed to be activated at lower RH than lichens sampled from inland sites. High osmolyte concentration may therefore play a role in lowering a photobiont's activation threshold. We conclude that photobiont type influences water vapor-driven photosynthetic activation of lichens, thereby shaping the ecological niches in which they occur. Chlorophyll/metabolism, Humidity, Lichens/*metabolism, Optical Imaging, Photosystem II Protein Complex/*metabolism, Symbiosis, Chlorophyll fluorescence, Ecophysiology, Green algae, Osmolytes
35432Osyczka P. & Mysliwa-Kurdziel B. (2023): The pattern of photosynthetic response and adaptation to changing light conditions in lichens is linked to their ecological range. - Photosynth Res, 2023: 1-15.
Epiphytic lichens constitute an important component of biodiversity in both deforested and forest ecosystems. Widespread occurrence is the domain of generalist lichens or those that prefer open areas. While, many stenoecious lichens find shelter only in a shaded interior of forests. Light is one of the factors known to be responsible for lichen distribution. Nevertheless, the effect of light intensity on photosynthesis of lichen photobionts remain largely unknown. We investigated photosynthesis in lichens with different ecological properties in relation to light as the only parameter modified during the experiments. The aim was to find links between this parameter and habitat requirements of a given lichen. We applied the methods based on a saturating light pulse and modulated light to perform comprehensive analyses of fast and slow chlorophyll fluorescence transient (OJIP and PSMT) combined with quenching analysis. We also examined the rate of CO(2) assimilation. Common or generalist lichens, i.e. Hypogymnia physodes, Flavoparmelia caperata and Parmelia sulcata, are able to adapt to a wide range of light intensity. Moreover, the latter species, which prefers open areas, dissipates the excess energy most efficiently. Conversely, Cetrelia cetrarioides considered an old-growth forest indicator, demonstrates definitely lower range of energy dissipation than other species, although it assimilates CO(2) efficiently both at low and high light. We conclude that functional plasticity of the thylakoid membranes of photobionts largely determines the dispersal abilities of lichens and light intensity is one of the most important factors determining the specificity of a species to a given habitat. Chlorophyll fluorescence, Fluorescence transient, Lichen ecophysiology, Non-photochemical quenching, Photobiont, Tolerance range
35431Lawal O., Ogugbue C.J. & Imam T.S. (2023): Mining association rules between lichens and air quality to support urban air quality monitoring in Nigeria. - Heliyon, 9(1):e13073.
Urban environments represent the most intense human-environment interaction. This interaction can result in negative outcomes like air pollution and its health implications. There is a significant data deficit in air quality monitoring across many developing nations, which prevents effective policies and measures from being taken to promote the accomplishment of sustainable development. Around the world, lichens have been used to track environmental changes due to their sensitivity to changes and concentration of atmospheric pollutants. This study investigated the relationships between lichen and air quality across some Nigerian cities. Lichen surveys were conducted in four cities. At various periods during the day, NO(2), SO(2), PM(2.5), and PM(10) levels were measured. Association rule mining was carried out to investigate the relationship between lichen found and air quality categories. Results showed that the most prevalent lichen Genera are Pyxine in Abuja and Kano, Diorygma in Lagos, and Dirinaria in Port Harcourt. Out of the 40 rules found from the rule mining, 17 are important (lift values >/= 1.1), capturing six of the fourteen lichen genera identified in the field. The findings indicated that there are important relationships between lichens and air quality indices, suggesting that some lichen species in Nigeria may serve as indicators of long-term air quality. To develop a network of urban environmental quality bioindicators across Nigerian cities, surveying and transplanting are advised. The use of lichen for air quality monitoring can provide information for sustainable management of air quality and environmental quality in Nigeria. Air pollution, Air quality, Association rule, Lichens, Urban environment, Urban environmental quality
35430Jegede O.O., Standen K.M., Siciliano S., Lamb E.G. & Stewart K.J. (2023): Rocks, lichens, and woody litter influenced the soil invertebrate density in upland tundra heath. - PLoS ONE, 18(5):e0282068.
Soil invertebrates are an integral part of Arctic ecosystems through their roles in the breakdown of litter, soil formation, and nutrient cycling. However, studies examining soil invertebrates in the Arctic are limited and our understanding of the abiotic and biotic drivers of these invertebrate communities remains understudied. We examined differences in soil invertebrate taxa (mites, collembolans, enchytraeids) among several undisturbed upland tundra heath sites in Nunavut Canada and identified the drivers (vegetation and substrate cover, soil nutrients and pH) of the soil invertebrate community across these sites. Soil invertebrate densities were similar to that of other Arctic studies. While invertebrate communities were relatively consistent between our sites, cover of rocks, woody litter, and the lichen Alectoria nigricans had significant, positive influences on the density of all invertebrates studied. Mites and collembolans were more closely associated with cover of lichens, whereas enchytraeids were more closely associated with woody litter and rocks. Our results suggest that anthropogenic (e.g., resource exploration and extraction) and/or natural (e.g., climate change) disturbances that result in changes to the vegetation community and woody litter inputs will likely impact soil invertebrates and the ecosystem services they provide. Animals, *Ecosystem, *Lichens, Soil, Invertebrates, Tundra
35429Fan D., Liu L., Cao S., Liao R., Liu C. & Zhou Q. (2023): Transcriptional analysis of the dimorphic fungus Umbilicaria muehlenbergii reveals the molecular mechanism of phenotypic transition. - World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 39: 170 [14 p.].
The lichen-forming fungus Umbilicaria muehlenbergii undergoes a phenotypic transition from a yeast-like to a pseudohyphal form. However, it remains unknown if a common mechanism is involved in the phenotypic switch of U. muehlenbergii at the transcriptional level. Further, investigation of the phenotype switch molecular mechanism in U. muehlenbergii has been hindered by incomplete genomic sequencing data. Here, the phenotypic characteristics of U. muehlenbergii were investigated after cultivation on several carbon sources, revealing that oligotrophic conditions due to nutrient stress (reduced strength PDA (potato dextrose agar) media) exacerbated the pseudohyphal growth of U. muehlenbergii. Further, the addition of sorbitol, ribitol, and mannitol exacerbated the pseudohyphal growth of U. muehlenbergii regardless of PDA medium strength. Transcriptome analysis of U. muehlenbergii grown in normal and nutrient-stress conditions revealed the presence of several biological pathways with altered expression levels during nutrient stress and related to carbohydrate, protein, DNA/RNA and lipid metabolism. Further, the results demonstrated that altered biological pathways can cooperate during pseudohyphal growth, including pathways involved in the production of protectants, acquisition of other carbon sources, or adjustment of energy metabolism. Synergistic changes in the functioning of these pathways likely help U. muehlenbergii cope with dynamic stimuli. These results provide insights into the transcriptional response of U. muehlenbergii during pseudohyphal growth under oligotrophic conditions. Specifically, the transcriptomic analysis indicated that pseudohyphal growth is an adaptive mechanism of U. muehlenbergii that facilitates its use of alternative carbon sources to maintain survival. Keywords: Filamentous growth · Next-generation sequencing · Pseudohyphea · Transcriptome.
35428Habib K., Chiva S., Firdous Q., Nadeem S., Niazi A.R., Barreno E. & Khalid A.N. (2023): A new species of Clavascidium (Verrucariales, Lichenized Ascomycota) from Pakistan and Spain, with remarks on the photosymbiont . - Plant Systematics and Evolution, 309: 17 [9 p.].
Based on molecular and morphological evidence, a new species within Verrucariaceae, Clavascidium hispaniam-pakistanica is described from Pakistan and Spain. The taxon is characterized by thicker and slightly larger squamules with a mixed-type medulla. Additionally, it has marginal pycnidia with bacilliform conidia. We have also detected the microalga Myrmecia israelensis as the main photosymbiont in the lichens analyzed, reinforcing the often-established specificity between the lichen genus Clavascidium and the microalgae of the genus Myrmecia. Detailed comparative analyses and a microalgal discussion are provided. Keywords: Lichenized fungi · Myrmecia israelensis · New species · Taxonomy.
35427Gunawardana D., Wanigatunge R.P., Wewalwela J.J., Vithanage M.M. & Wijeyaratne C. (2023): Sulfur is in the air: cyanolichen marriages and pollution. - Acta Biotheoretica, 71: 14 [20 p.].
Cyanolichens are symbiotic organisms involving cyanobacteria and fungi (bipartite) or with the addition of an algal partner (tripartite). Cyanolichens are known for their heightened susceptibility to environmental pollution. We focus here on the impacts on cyanolichens due to rising air pollution; we are especially interested in the role of sulfur dioxide on cyanolichen biology. Cyanolichens due to air pollution including sulfur dioxide exposure, show symptomatic changes including degradation of chlorophyll, lipid membrane peroxidation, decrease in ATP production, changes in respiration rate, and alteration of endogenous auxins and ethylene production, although symptoms are known to vary with species and genotype. Sulfur dioxide has been shown to be damaging to photosynthesis but is relatively benign on nitrogen fxation which proposes as a hypothesis that the algal partner may be more in harm’s way than the cyanobiont. In fact, the Nostoc cyanobiont of sulfur dioxide-susceptible Lobaria pulmonaria carries a magnified set of sulfur (alkane sulfonate) metabolism genes capable of alkane sulfonate transport and assimilation, which were only unraveled by genome sequencing, a technology unavailable in the 1950–2000 epoch, where most physiology- based studies were performed. There is worldwide a growing corpus of evidence that sulfur has an important role to play in biological symbioses including rhizobia-legumes, mycorrhizae-roots and cyanobacteria-host plants. Furthermore, the fungal and algal partners of L. pulmonaria appear not to have the sulfonate transporter genes again providing the roles of ambient-sulfur (alkanesulfonate metabolism etc.) mediated functions primarily to the cyanobacterial partner. In conclusion, we have addressed here the role of the atmospheric pollutant sulfur dioxide to tripartite cyanolichen viability and suggest that the weaker link is likely to be the photosynthetic algal (chlorophyte) partner and not the nitrogen-fixing cyanobiont. Keywords: Alkane sulfonate · Cyanobionts · Cyanolichens · Fungi · Lobaria pulmonaria · Sulfur dioxide.
35426Si H., Su Y., Wang Y., Bose T. & Chang R. (2023): The effects of co‑culture on the expression of selected PKS genes in the lichenized fungus Xanthoparmelia taractica. - Mycological Progress, 22: 41 [14 p.].
Lichens produce diverse secondary metabolites. A diversity of these compounds is synthesized by fungal polyketide synthases (PKSs). In this study, we catalogued the PKS genes from Xanthoparmelia taractica, a lichen with global distribution. To accomplish this, we isolated the symbionts to sequence the whole genome of the mycobiont and established an in vitro co-culture system for this lichen. We also added an endolichenic fungus, Coniochaeta fibrosae, to this co-culture to evaluate its effect on lichen symbiosis. The genome of the mycobiont X. taractica was around 43.1 Mb with 10,730 ORFs. Twenty-eight PKS genes were identified in the genome. These included 27 Type I and one Type III gene. Except for three PKS genes, XTPKS12, XTPKS18, and XTPKS22, the function of the majority of PKS genes remained unknown. We selected these genes for the expression analyses using a co-culture system. The co-culture system that included the mycobiont and the photobiont showed an early stage of lichenization because the fungi produced a hyphal network connecting and penetrating the algal cells. Also, XTPKS12 was down-regulated and XTPKS18 and XTPKS22 were modestly up-regulated. As predicted, C. fibrosae did not participate in the symbiosis. This study reconfirms that Type I is the most dominant PKS gene in lichenized fungi and the function of these genes might be influenced by symbiosis. Keywords: Coniochaeta fibrosae · Expression analysis · Functional annotation · Genome sequencing · Scanning electron microscopy.
35425Counoy H., Turcati L., Lorrillière R., Bénateau S., Maalouf J.-P., Agnello G., Turpin S., Agnan Y. (2023): Performance evaluation and applicability of Lichens GO, a citizen science-based protocol for urban air quality monitoring. - Ecological Indicators, 150: 110269 [11 p.].
The Lichens GO program is a French citizen science initiative based on the European guidelines that aims to evaluate the lichen diversity for urban air quality monitoring. In this study, we assessed the performance and applicability of the current Lichens GO protocol to then propose adaptations to make it more reliable and feasible for citizen science. To achieve this goal, we considered four aspects of the citizen science program: potential protocol simplifications, sampling site availability, observer bias, and volunteer feedbacks. Simulated simplification scenarios from a reference data set highlighted the large influence of reducing the number of sampled trees on taxonomic and functional structure metrics compared to reducing the number of sampled tree exposure sides and considered lichen species list. When considering the Lichens GO protocol (i.e., three trees, four exposure sides, Lichens GO species list) compared to the reference data set (i.e., five trees, four exposure sides, exhaustive species list), we evaluated an underestimation of lichen species richness (− 25%), acidophilous species proportion (− 94%), and functional diversity (− 21%). In parallel, the maximum distance between sampled trees did not influence the taxonomic and functional structure metrics when considering a homogeneous sampling area (i.e., similar light or shade conditions). Finally, we compared Lichens GO relev´es from 25 volunteers in the same site to highlight the major identification difficulties that could compromise the ecological interpretation. To improve the quality of data collected by citizens without increasing the sampling effort, we suggest to: (1) increase the maximum distance between trees from 10 to 50 m to extend the sampling site availability; (2) adapt the Lichens GO identification key to limit species confusion; and (3) assign an ecological trait to some lichen species groupings to improve the ecological interpretation. The proposed adaptations were tested and showed an improvement in the acidophilous species proportion (from − 94 to − 13%) and functional diversity (from − 21 to − 4%). Keywords: Lichen; Biomonitoring; Citizen science; Urban; Air quality; Protocol.
35424Palmroos I., Norros V., Keski-Saari S., Mäyrä J., Tanhuanpää T., Kivinen S., Pykälä J., Kullberg P., Kumpula T. & Vihervaara P. (2023): Remote sensing in mapping biodiversity – A case study of epiphytic lichen communities. - Forest Ecology and Management, 538: 120993 [10 p.].
In boreal forests, European aspen (Populus tremula L.) is a keystone species that hosts a variety of accompanying species including epiphytic lichens. Forest management actions have led to a decrease in aspen abundance and subsequent loss of suitable habitats of epiphytic lichens. In this study, we evaluate the environmental responses of epiphytic lichen species richness and community composition on aspen, focusing on the potential of remote sensing by combined hyperspectral imaging and airborne laser scanning to identify suitable habitats for epiphytic lichens. We measured different substrate and habitat parameters in the field (e.g., aspen diameter and bark pH) and by remote sensing (e.g., mean canopy height and tree species composition of the surrounding forest) in the study area in Southern Finland that includes protected and non-protected forest. We used linear regression and the Hierarchical Model of Species Communities (HMSC) to compare how the different parameters explain and predict lichen species richness and community composition, respectively. We show that coarse predictions of epiphytic lichen community composition can be made using parameters extracted from remote sensing data. Estimated mean canopy height, tree density, dominant tree species and tree species diversity of the stand predicted the species community on aspens slightly better than field parameters. Remote sensing variables calculated over a larger area (30 m radius) always outperformed the same variables calculated over a smaller area (10 m radius) in predicting community composition, highlighting the cost-efficiency of remote sensing compared to covering a similar area with on-ground measurements. These results are encouraging for the prospects of using remote sensing data to direct field inventories and to map potential high-biodiversity habitats. Aspen bark pH was the only parameter affecting species richness regardless of whether the forest was protected or not, whereas, interestingly, the effects of tree diameter, height and furrow depth were only significant in protected areas. Our results also underline the importance of protected areas, since they hosted a higher tree-specific number of epiphytic lichen species, and red listed species, than non-protected areas. Keywords: Epiphytic lichen ; Hierarchical model of species communities ; Remote sensing ; Light detection and ranging ; Hyperspectral imaging.
35423Mętrak M., Wilk M., Jasser I., Khomutovska N., Korabiewski B., Niyatbekov T., Płociniczak T., Wrzosek M. & Suska-Malawska M. (2023): Morphology and distribution of biological soil crusts and their potential role in soil-forming processes under dry high-altitude periglacial conditions (Eastern Pamir, Tajikistan). - Geoderma Regional, 33: e00636 [18 p.].
Under demanding climatic conditions that limit the development of vascular vegetation, biological soil crusts (BSCs) drive the processes of soil formation and nutrient sequestration. Though BSCs were studied in glacier forelands worldwide, the high-altitude areas with a combination of glaciation/deglaciation and arid or hyperarid climate remain almost unstudied in this respect. Therefore, we provided the first data on BSCs from a glacier foreland in the E Pamir. These characteristics can be crucial for assessing BSC’s role in soil-forming processes in dry, high-altitude periglacial environments. During our research, we assessed (1) BSCs’ morphology and distribution; (2) microbial biomass and nutrient retention patterns in morphologically differentiated BSC types, (3) C, N and P accumulation in BSCs biomass in comparison to sub-crust soils; (4) sub-crust soils enrichment in C, N and P in comparison to bare soils and soils under vascular plants; (5) potential origin and transformation degree of organic matter accumulated by BSCs. Our study showed that the distribution and development of BSCs were noticeably restricted, probably due to low temperatures, aridity and intense periglacial processes, resulting in continuous soil surface remodeling. Thus, poorly developed BSCs were the dominating biologically active soil cover type and, thus, most likely the main biological soil-forming factor in the foreland. BSCs accumulated C, N and P in their biomass and enriched their sub-crust soils in these nutrients. The average enrichment observed for soils under advanced crusts was similar to those obtained for soils under vascular plants. In all types of the studied samples, including bare soils, n-alkanes of vascular plant origin dominated, indicating mixing and uniform distribution of organic matter. Over the course of aridification projected for the Pamir Mountains, the BSCs could potentially become the most important player in the accumulation of soil nutrients in this area. However, due to the dominance of the simplest BSC type, soil formation in the Uisu Glacier foreland will be relatively slow. Keywords: Biological soil crusts; Cold drylands; Soil organic carbon; Soil nitrogen; Central Asia.
35422Rajendran K., Karuppiah P., Ponnusamy P., Shaik M.R., Khan M., Oh T.H. & Shaik B. (2023): Anti-inflammatory activity of mycobiont extract of Parmotrema austrosinense (Zahlbr.) Hale in a zebrafish model. - Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 11(5): 1081 [13 p.].
Thousands of different kinds of lichen metabolites are being examined for their biological activities, including anticancer properties. In this context, the present study aims to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of the acetone extract of Parmotrema austrosinense mycobiont. A lipid peroxidation assay was performed with the acetone extracts of P. austrosinense mycobiont, which was further used to evaluate its anti-inflammatory efficacy using a zebrafish model. Furthermore, the histopathological study was also carried out with muscle tissues and amplification of its inflammation marker. The results revealed that the lichen compound (i.e., lecanoric acid) in the acetone extract of P. austrosinense possesses anti-inflammatory activity. Histopathology studies confirmed the decreased numbers of neutrophil cells in the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced zebrafishes, as confirmed by changes in the fishes’ weight before and after the sample treatment, prompted by TNBS inflammation. The present results also demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in the lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels in the muscle tissues of zebrafishes. Gene amplification studies suggested that the lichen compound might perform dose-dependent downregulation of the inflammatory gene marker of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α gene; this further confirms that the extract should possess anti-inflammatory activity. As per the literature, this study is one of the most complete, comprehensive in vivo anti-inflammatory analyses in which inflammation was induced in zebrafish by using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Particularly, this study successfully identified a bioactive compound isolated from the lichen P. austrosinense, and which exhibited decent anti-inflammatory activity. Keywords: lichen; anti-inflammatory activity; lipid peroxidation assay; zebrafish.
35421Liu L., Zuo Q., Xue J., Ren Z. & Zhang L. (2023): Three new species of Herpothallon (Lichenized Ascomycota) from Southern China. - Phytotaxa, 59(4): 287–296.
This paper describes three species of Herpothallon new to science from southern China: H. glaucescens, H. lilacinum and H. tomentosum. The three species all possess a non-pigmented thallus, hypothallus and prothallus. Herpothallon glaucescens has a white, whitish grey to greyish green thallus and swollen, subglobose to ± vermiform pseudisidia, rounded at the top. Herpothallon lilacinum has subglobose or irregularly cushion-shaped, fluffy-felty pseudisidia, white at the base, lilac to lilac grey at their tips. Herpothallon tomentosum has globular pseudisidia, felty with many projecting hyphae, sometimes containing a central pycnidium. Detailed descriptions for all three new species are provided with an updated key to the genus Herpothallon in China. Additionally, a phylogenetic tree based on Bayesian and ML analyses of mtSSU data shows the position of the new species in Herpothallon. Keywords: Arthoniaceae, byssoid thalli, sterile lichens, taxonomy, mtSSU.
35420Llewellyn T., Mian S., Hill R., Leitch I.J. & Gaya E. (2023): First whole-genome sequence and flow cytometry genome size data for the lichen-forming fungus Ramalina farinacea (Ascomycota). - Genome Biology and Evolution, 15(5): evad074 [7 p.].
Lichen-forming fungi are a diverse and ecologically important group of obligate mutualistic symbionts. Due to difficulties with maintaining them in culture and their extremely slow growth, lichenologists are increasingly opting for metagenomic sequencing followed by symbiont genome separation using bioinformatic pipelines. However, without knowing the true genome size of the lichen-forming fungus, we cannot quantify the completeness of the genome assembly and the efficacy of the bioinformatic filtering. To address this issue, we report here the first whole-genome assembly for the lichen-forming fungus Ramalina farinacea (L.) Ach. sequenced with Oxford Nanopore long-read technology alongside direct measurements of its genome size using flow cytometry. The assembly showed high contiguity (N50 = 1.55 Mb) and gene set completeness (BUSCO = 95.8%). The highly robust genome size of 33.61 Mb/1C (coefficients of variation = 2.98) that was obtained showed our assembly covered 97% of the entire genome. Our results demonstrate that accurate genome size measurements can be obtained directly from lichen thalli and used to provide a benchmark for assessing true cytometric completeness of metagenome-derived assemblies. Keywords: genome size, lichen, long-read sequencing, metagenomics, Ramalinaceae, symbiosis.
35419Darmostuk V.V., Khodosovtsev A.Ye., Gromakova A.B., Sira O.Ye. & Bezsmertna O.O. (2023): Notes to lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi in Ukraine III. - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 19(1): 58–75. doi: 10.32999/ksu1990-553X/2023-19-1-2.
In this contribution, new data concerning lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi in Ukraine are presented. It includes new record, exclusions, and confirmations to the Ukrainian administrative regions of 64 species of lichen-forming and 20 species of lichenicolous fungi in the 57 genera of Acarospora, Agonimia, Arthonia, Bacidia, Botryolepraria, Caloplaca, Candelaria, Ceratobasidium, Circinaria, Clauzadea, Coenogonium, Endococcus, Epithamnolia, Erythricium, Flavoplaca, Illosporiopsis, Intralichen, Ionaspis, Laetisaria, Lathagrium, Lecania, Lendemeriella, Lichenochora, Lichenodiplis, Llimoniella, Parmeliopsis, Peltigera, Petractis, Phaeophyscia, Physcia, Placynthium, Platismatia, Polyblastia, Polychidium, Polyozosia, Porina, Protoparmeliopsis, Pyrenidium, Pyrenochaeta, Pyrenodesmia, Punctelia, Rinodina, Rhizocarpon, Roselliniella, Rusavskia, Scytinium, Spirographa, Stigmidium, Taeniolella, Telogalla, Toninia, Tremella, Trichoconis, Xanthocarpia, Xanthoriicola, Verrucaria. Among them 29 species are the first time reported to the Chernivtsi region, 12 species new to the Sumy region, 10 species new to the Ternopil region, 7 species new to the Ivano-Frankivsk region, 5 species new to the Kyiv and Zhytomyr regions, 4 species new to the Lviv, Cherkasy, Kharkiv, Kherson, Odesa and Volyn regions, 3 species new to the Donetsk region, two species new to the Zakarpattia region, one species new to the Dnipropetrovk, Khmelnytskyi, Kirovograd, Poltava regions as well as one species new to Autonomous Republic of Crimea. The paper includes recent records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from National Nature Parks of Ukraine: Carpathian, Holosiivsky, Kamianska Sich, Skolivsli Beskydy, Tsumanska Pushcha, Verkhovynsky as well as Carpathian Biosphere Reserve and Cheremosky Regional Landscape Park. Kezwords: biodiversity, new records, Polychidium, Telogalla, Trichoconis.
35418Navarro-Rosinés P. & Romero C. (2019): Sclerococcum stigma (Dactylosporaceae) una nueva combinación para Dactylospora stigma, un hongo liquenícola olvidado que crece sobre Porpidia macrocarpa. - Revista Catalana de Micologia, 40: 35–42. .
Sclerococcum stigma (Dactylosporaceae) a new combination for Dactylospora stigma, a forgotten lichenicolous fungus that grows on Porpidia macrocarpa. A new combination, Sclerococcum stigma (Rehm) Nav.-Ros. & Romero, is proposed to include Dactylospora stigma (Rehm) Rehm ex Arnold, a lichenicolous fungus that grows on Porpidia macrocarpa in different localities in the Alps (Swabia and Austrian Tyrol) and the Pyrenees (Catalonia). A detailed description of the species is included, and it is compared with the related species of the genus. Key words: lichenicolous fungi, Sclerococcum stigma comb. nov., Dactylospora, Dactylosporaceae, Sclerococcales, Pyrenees, Alps, Spain, Austria.
35417Holt E.A., Jonas I. & Stechelin M. (2023): Inequity in authorship of North American lichens. - Bryologist, 126(2): 205–216.
Women have long been underrepresented in the sciences, and their contributions are often overlooked. Previous work has demonstrated a significant productivity gap between men and women when investigating vascular plant authorities and the naming of plant taxa. No study has directly investigated gender inequity, as depicted through authority identity, in the field of lichenology. Our research goal was to describe patterns in gender identity and country of origin for authors of North American lichens. We compiled and analyzed information from the North American Lichen Checklist (including U.S.A. and Canada but not Mexico), independent research, and a gender API to identify the full name, suspected gender, birth year, and country of origin of 889 authors (i.e., people listed as authorities of North American lichen taxa). Of the total 4,895 unique lichen taxa in North America, only 3.2% species were named by a woman. Even standardized by co-authors, men authors contributed significantly more than women authors in this field. We also noted that most authors originated from Europe or the United States. This work suggests that the field of lichenology could provide more support systems for American or Canadian women to contribute naming of new taxa or combinations. While our work focused only on authoring new species as a contribution, we recognize that women may be contributing in other notable ways to lichenology in North America. Keywords: Authority, women, gender, country.
35416Holko L., Lichner Ľ., Kollár J., Šurda P., Danko M., Zvala A. & Kidron G.J. (2023): Runoff response of a hydrophobic soil under high intensity rains. - Hydrological Processes, 37: e14899 [15 p.].
Water repellent soils represent some of the most responsive natural surfaces from the point of view of overland flow generation. Measurement of the runoff response of such soils can therefore provide characteristics that can help constrain hydrological models or improve the conceptual models of hillslope runoff generation. We have analysed the overland flow characteristics of water repellent sandy soils at three sites with different dominant vegetation (hereafter denoted as the lichen, moss and herb sites) and following vegetation removal (scalping) during extreme rainfall events created by a rainfall simulator (three consecutive sprinklings at 2.1 mm min−1 for 15 min each with a 5 min hiatus between the sprinklings). Despite the extreme water repellency (WR) and rainfall intensity, on average just up to a half of the rainfall left the plots as an overland flow. Whilst the overland flow mostly generated quickly (on average within 50–120 s), the vegetation substantially delayed its appearance (by approximately 100% compared to scalped plots). The median values of the runoff coefficients were 6% and 49% on the soil with and without vegetation, respectively. Good relationships between the overland flow characteristics and soil moisture were found only for the scalped plots. Although the time to runoff and runoff coefficients after each of the three consecutive sprinklings were not substantially different, the differences between the soil with and without vegetation remained substantial. The results indicated: (a) high variability within each of the sites, including the lichen site that appeared homogenous; (b) all vegetated plots retained a higher amount of water than the scalped plots; (c) although all sites exhibited high WR, the combined influence of preferential flow, higher hydraulic conductivity and specific vegetation (soapwort, black locust) mitigated its effects at the herb site; (d) the relatively lower overland flow at that site may point to subsurface flow.
35415Wang Q., Li J., Yang J., Zou Y. & Zhao X. (2022): Diversity of endophytic bacterial and fungal microbiota associated with the medicinal lichen Usnea longissima at high altitudes. - Front. Microbiol., 13: 958917.
Endophytic microbial communities of lichen are emerging as novel microbial resources and for exploration of potential biotechnological applications. Here, we focused on a medicinal lichen Usnea longissima, and investigated its bacterial and fungal endophytes. Using PacBio 16S rRNA and ITS amplicon sequencing, we explored the diversity and composition of endophytic bacteria and fungi in U. longissima collected from Tibet at five altitudes ranging from 2,989 to 4,048 m. A total of 6 phyla, 12 classes, 44 genera, and 13 species of the bacterial community have been identified in U. longissima. Most members belong to Alphaproteobacteria (42.59%), Betaproteobacteria (33.84%), Clostridia (13.59%), Acidobacteria (7%), and Bacilli (1.69%). As for the fungal community, excluding the obligate fungus sequences, we identified 2 phyla, 15 classes, 65 genera, and 19 species. Lichen-related fungi of U. longissima mainly came from Ascomycota (95%), Basidiomycota (2.69%), and unidentified phyla (2.5%). The presence of the sequences that have not been characterized before suggests the novelty of the microbiota. Of particular interest is the detection of sequences related to lactic acid bacteria and budding yeast. In addition, the possible existence of harmful bacteria was also discussed. To our best knowledge, this is the first relatively detailed study on the endophytic microbiota associated with U. longissima. The results here provide the basis for further exploration of the microbial diversity in lichen and promote biotechnological applications of lichen-associated microbial strains. PacBio amplicon sequencing, Usnea longissima, endophytic microorganism, high altitudes, lichen microbiota
35414Tatipamula V. & Annam S. (2022): Antimycobacterial activity of acetone extract and isolated metabolites from folklore medicinal lichen Usnea laevis Nyl. against drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strains. - J. Ethnopharmacol., 282: 114641.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tuberculosis (Tb) is one of the most infectious diseases caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.t) with almost 2 million deaths yearly. Although many Tb control programs have been organised, there is an elevated number of Tb cases due to the appearance of extremely drug-resistant and multidrug-resistant (MDR) Tb strains. In the cultures of Venezuelan Andes, fruticose lichen Usnea laevis Nyl. (Usneaceae) with folklore name 'Barba de Piedra, Tusinya' is used as a natural remedy for Tb. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was performed to provide a scientific rationale for the folklore usage of U. laevis in treating Tb by validating its antimycobacterial activity against two drug-sensitive and four MDR-Tb strains. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mycobacterial inhibitory activities of acetone extract (Ul), fractions (F1-10), and isolated metabolites (1-4) of U. laevis were evaluated against M.t H37Ra using 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide reduction menadione assay (XRMA). Furthermore, Ul and 1-4 were subjected to antimycobacterial activity against M.t H37Ra, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and four MDR-Tb (MDR-A8, MDR-V791, MDR-R and MDR-40) strains using resazurin microtitre plate assay (REMA) and cytotoxicity against THP-1 macrophages using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and their selectivity index values were also calculated. RESULTS: Initially, Ul has shown prominent inhibitory activity (IC(50) value: 5.44 +/- 0.36 mug/ml) and four of its fractions (F1, F2, F5 and F7) also exhibited the best inhibitory activity (IC(50) values ranged from 7.46 +/- 0.19 to 71.38 +/- 2.57 mug/ml) against M.t H37Ra using XRMA. Purification of these bioactive fractions identified four metabolites, namely usnic acid (1), atranorin (2), salazinic acid (3), and lobaric acid (4). From the MIC values of REMA, it was identified that Ul, 1 and 4 were more effective in inhibiting the growth of all four MDR-Tb strains, compared to first-line drug rifampicin. Interestingly, Ul has shown better antimycobacterial activity than 1-4 and rifampicin against MDR-Tb strains may be due to the synergistic effect of its metabolites. Also, the IC(50) values of Ul and 1-4 on THP-1 macrophages were found to be far higher than MIC values against tested Tb strains, indicating that THP-1 macrophages were not harmfully affected at concentrations that were effective against Tb strains. Further, the calculated selectivity index values revealed the more active and non-toxicity of Ul, 1 and 4 against MDR-Tb strains than rifampicin. CONCLUSIONS: The current study lends the first evidence for the presence of antimycobacterial metabolites in U. laevis. The results exposed the Andean folklore use of U. laevis for treating Tb, and the key biomarker metabolites were found to be 1 and 4. Hence, it can be concluded that U. laevis can be used as a potential source for the novel drug development for MDR-Tb. Antitubercular Agents/chemistry/*pharmacology, Cell Survival/drug effects, *Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial, Humans, Medicine, Traditional, Mycobacterium tuberculosis/*drug effects, Plant Extracts/chemistry/*pharmacology, Rifampin/pharmacology, THP-1 Cells, Usnea/*chemistry, Antimycobacterial activity, Cytotoxicity, Multidrug-resistant strains, Selectivity index, Tuberculosis, Usnea laevis
35413Wang T., Shen C., Guo F., Zhao Y., Wang J., Sun K., Wang B., Chen Y. & Chen Y. (2021): Characterization of a polysaccharide from the medicinal lichen, Usnea longissima, and its immunostimulating effect in vivo. - Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 181: 672-682.
A polysaccharide, CSL-0.1, was isolated from the medicinal lichen, Usnea longissima. CSL-0.1 was a neutral rhamnose-containing glucogalactomannan with a molecular weight of 7.86 x 10(4) Da. The polysaccharide had a core mannan structure with (1 --> 6)-alpha-d-Manp units as the main chain and was substituted at the O-2 positions with side chains containing (1 --> 2)-alpha-d-Manp residue, [3)-alpha-Glcp(1 --> 4)-alpha-Glcp(1-->] and 6-O-substituted beta-d-Galf units. 2-O- and 2,3-di-O-substituted Rhap units. The effects of CSL-0.1 on intestinal immunity and antioxidant activity were evaluated. CSL-0.1 increased the spleen and thymus indices in a dose-dependent manner and conferred immunomodulation on reversing the Th1/Th2-related cytokine imbalance in cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced immunosuppressed mice. CSL-0.1 could also enhance the levels of secretory immunoglobulin A in CP-injected mice. Additionally, the antioxidant levels in the liver and intestine of the mice were increased 20%-50% after intragastric injection by CSL-0.1. Animals, Antioxidants/pharmacology, Carbon-13 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Cytokines/metabolism, Female, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Hydrolysis, *Immunization, Intestines/drug effects, Lichens/*chemistry, Liver/drug effects/metabolism, Methylation, Mice, Inbred ICR, Monosaccharides/analysis, Parmeliaceae/*chemistry, Polysaccharides/isolation & purification/*pharmacology, Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Spectrophotometry, Infrared, Spleen/drug effects, Thymus Gland/drug effects, Antioxidant, Immune system balance, Immunomodulation, Lichen, Polysaccharides, Usnea longissima
35412Crichton A. (1789): Some Observations on the Medicinal Effects of the Lichen Islandicus and Arnica Montana. - Lond. Med. J., 10(3): 229-242. .
35411Kelsey K.C., Pedersen S.H., Leffler A.J., Sexton J.O. & Welker J.M. (2023): Snow and vegetation seasonality influence seasonal trends of leaf nitrogen and biomass in Arctic tundra. - Ecosphere, 14: e4515 [15 p.].
Climate change, including both increasing temperatures and changing snow regimes, is progressing rapidly in the Arctic, leading to changes in plant phenology and in the seasonal patterns of plant properties, such as tissue nitrogen (N) content and community aboveground biomass. However, significant knowledge gaps remain over how these seasonal patterns vary among Arctic plant functional groups (i.e., shrubs, grasses, and forbs) and across large geographical areas. We used three years of in situ field vegetation sampling from an 80,000-km2 area in Arctic Alaska, remotely sensed vegetation data (daily normalized difference vegetation index [NDVI]), and modeled output of snow-free date to determine and model the seasonal trends and primary controls on leaf percent nitrogen and biomass (in grams per square meter) among Arctic vegetation functional groups. We determined relative vegetation phenology stage at a 500-m spatial scale resolution, defined as the number of days between the date of the seasonal maximum NDVI and the vegetation field sampling date, and relative snow phenology stage (90-m spatial scale) was determined as the number of days between the date of snow-free ground and the sampling date. Models including relative phenology stage were particularly important for explaining seasonal variability of %N in shrubs, graminoids, and forbs. Similarly, vegetation and snow phenology stages were also important for modeling seasonal biomass of shrubs and graminoids; however, for all functional groups, the models explained only a small amount of seasonal variability in biomass. Relative phenology stage was a stronger predictor of %N and biomass than geographic position, indicating that localized controls on phenology, acting at spatial scales of 500 m and smaller, are critical to understanding %N and biomass. [p. 5; Results: "Dwarf shrub, forb, and lichen biomass remained constant throughout the growing season, whereas bryophyte biomass increased consistently throughout the growing season (Figure 3)." p. 6: "Forb biomass increased with greater NDVI, and lichen biomass increased with greater distance from the coast."]
35410Nagar S., Pigott M., Kukula-Koch W. & Sheridan H. (2023): Unravelling novel phytochemicals and anticholinesterase activity in Irish Cladonia portentosa. . - Molecules, 28(10): 4145 [22 p.].
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors remain the mainstay of symptomatic treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. The natural world is rich in acetylcholinesterase inhibitory molecules, and research efforts to identify novel leads is ongoing. Cladonia portentosa, commonly known as reindeer lichen, is an abundant lichen species found in Irish Boglands. The methanol extract of Irish C. portentosa was identified as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitory lead using qualitative TLC-bioautography in a screening program. To identify the active components, the extract was deconvoluted using a successive extraction process with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol to isolate the active fraction. The hexane extract demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity and was selected for further phytochemical investigations. Olivetolic acid, 4-O-methylolivetolcarboxylic acid, perlatolic acid and usnic acid were isolated and characterized using ESI-MS and two-dimensional NMR techniques. LC-MS analysis also determined the presence of the additional usnic acid derivatives, placodiolic and pseudoplacodiolic acids. Assays of the isolated components confirmed that the observed anticholinesterase activity of C. portentosa can be attributed to usnic acid (25% inhibition at 125 µM) and perlatolic acid (20% inhibition at 250 µM), which were both reported inhibitors. This is the first report of isolation of olivetolic and 4-O-methylolivetolcarboxylic acids and the identification of placodiolic and pseudoplacodiolic acids from C. portentosa. Keywords: usnic acid; olivetolic acid; 4-O-methylolivetolcarboxylic acid; perlatolic acid; LC-MS; fragmentation mechanism; placodiolic acid; pseudoplacodiolic acid.
35409Rinas C., McMullin R., Rousseu F. & Vellend M. (2023): Diversity and assembly of lichens and bryophytes on tree trunks along a temperate to boreal elevation gradient. - Oecologia, 2023: 1-13.
Based on hypotheses related to environmental filtering vs. stochastic community assembly, we tested taxon-specific predictions regarding the relationships of alpha diversity, beta diversity and species composition of epiphytic macrolichens and bryophytes with elevation and the lateral gradient on trees (the different sides of the tree bole related to aspect and trunk inclination) at Parc national du Mont-Megantic in Southeastern Quebec, Canada. For lichens on firs, increasing elevation was associated with increasing alpha diversity, and a marked shift in community composition, at the scale of whole trees. In contrast, for bryophytes on maples, tree inclination and the lateral gradient had the strongest effects: more inclined trees had greater whole-tree alpha diversity and stronger within-tree contrasts in composition between the upper and lower bole surfaces. For lichens on maples, whole-tree alpha diversity showed a weak, negative relationship with inclination, and beta diversity increased slightly with elevation. Our results are consistent with theories predicting greater alpha diversity in more favorable environments (for lichens: high elevation with high relative air humidity and lower temperatures; for bryophytes: upper surfaces of tree boles with liquid water available), but support was weak for the prediction of greater beta diversity in more favorable environments. Overall, the important predictors of epiphytic cryptogam diversity vary more among the species of tree host (maple vs. fir) than focal taxa (lichens vs. bryophytes), with patterns likely related to different effects of water, temperature, and competition between lichens and bryophytes. lichen ecology, bryophyte ecology, alpha diversity, beta diversity, elevation gradients, species richness patterns, epiphytic lichen, desiccation-tolerance, community assemblage, altitudinal gradient, national-park, water, forest, biodiversity, photosynthesis
35408Ren M., Jiang S., Wang Y., Pan X., Pan F. & Wei X. (2023): Discovery and excavation of lichen bioactive natural products. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 14: 1177123. 1177123_x000D_10.3389/fmicb.2023.1177123.
Lichen natural products are a tremendous source of new bioactive chemical entities for drug discovery. The ability to survive in harsh conditions can be directly correlated with the production of some unique lichen metabolites. Despite the potential applications, these unique metabolites have been underutilized by pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries due to their slow growth, low biomass availability, and technical challenges involved in their artificial cultivation. At the same time, DNA sequence data have revealed that the number of encoded biosynthetic gene clusters in a lichen is much higher than in natural products, and the majority of them are silent or poorly expressed. To meet these challenges, the one strain many compounds (OSMAC) strategy, as a comprehensive and powerful tool, has been developed to stimulate the activation of silent or cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters and exploit interesting lichen compounds for industrial applications. Furthermore, the development of molecular network techniques, modern bioinformatics, and genetic tools is opening up a new opportunity for the mining, modification, and production of lichen metabolites, rather than merely using traditional separation and purification techniques to obtain small amounts of chemical compounds. Heterologous expressed lichen-derived biosynthetic gene clusters in a cultivatable host offer a promising means for a sustainable supply of specialized metabolites. In this review, we summarized the known lichen bioactive metabolites and highlighted the application of OSMAC, molecular network, and genome mining-based strategies in lichen-forming fungi for the discovery of new cryptic lichen compounds. lichen, natural products, bioactivity, pks, osmac strategy, genome mining, biosynthetic gene clusters, polyketide synthase gene, secondary metabolites, usnic acid, norstictic acid, heterologous expression, protolichesterinic acid, antimicrobial activity, cultured mycobionts, protocetraric acid
35407Pradhan S., Dash S., Parida S., Sahoo B. & Rath B. (2023): Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and GC/MS-based phytochemical analysis of two traditional Lichen species Trypethellium virens and Phaeographis dendritica. - Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, 25(1): 41 [18 p.]. 41_x000D_10.1186/s43141-023-00490-0.
Lichens are complex plants living in symbiotic relationship between fungi and algae. They are used for human and animal nutrition and are used in folk medicine in many countries over a considerable period of time. In the present study, various solvent extracts of Trypethelium virens and Phaeographis dendritica were tested for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The phytochemical analysis by GC/MS revealed phenolics (1.273%), terpene (0.963%), hydrocarbons (2.081%), benzofurans (2.081%), quinone (1.273%), alkanes (0.963%), and aliphatic aldehydes (0.963%) as the predominant compounds in Trypethellium virens SPTV02, whereas secondary alcohol (1.184%), alkaloids (1.184%), and fatty acids (4.466) were the major constituents in Phaeographis dendritica. The antioxidant property of methanolic extract of T. virens and P. dendritica revealed the presence of total phenolic and terpenoids. The methanolic extracts of both the lichens exhibited encouraging DPPH antiradical activity, with the IC50 of 62.4 +/- 0.76 mu g/ml for T. virens and 68.48 +/- 0.45 mu g/ml for P. dendritica. Similarly, ferric reducing power assay result exhibited higher reducing activity. Further, the lichen extracts (methanolic) indicated promising antimicrobial activities against pathogens showing MIC from 62.5 to 500 mu g/ml. The study results concludes that both the lichens could be used as new natural source of antioxidants and antimicrobial agents which can be exploited for pharmaceutical applications. Keywords: 28 s rRNA, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, GC–MS, Lichens, PCR, Phylogeny.
35406Boonpeng C., Sangiamdee D., Noikrad S. & Boonpragob K. (2023): Lichen biomonitoring of seasonal outdoor air quality at schools in an industrial city in Thailand. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 30: 59909–59924.
Poor air quality in school environments causes adverse health effects in children and decreases their academic performance. The main objective of this study was to use lichens as a biomonitoring tool for assessing outdoor air quality at schools in the industrial area of Laem Chabang municipality in Thailand. Thalli of the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum were transplanted from an unpolluted area to nine schools in the industrial area and to a control site. The lichens were exposed for four periods in the dry, hot, early rainy, and late rainy seasons, for 90 days each. The concentrations of 14 elements, including As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V, and Zn, were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and 8 physiological parameters were measured. The concentrations of all 14 investigated elements were clearly higher at the schools than at the control site. The contamination factors (CFs) suggested that 9 out of the 14 elements, including As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, and Ti, heavily contaminated the school environments, especially Pb, the concentration of which was 3 to 11 times higher than at the control site. The most polluted time was the hot season as evidenced by the investigated elements, and the least polluted time was the late rainy season. The pollution load indices (PLIs) demonstrated that schools in the inner and middle zones clearly had higher pollution loads than the schools in the outer zone during the rainy seasons, while the hot and dry seasons showed similar pollution levels in all zones. The vitality indices (VIs) showed that the lower lichen vitalities at most schools were observed during the dry season and at the schools in the inner and middle zones. Accordingly, the air performance indices (APIs) revealed that poorer air quality at most schools was found during the dry season and at the schools in the inner and middle zones. This study clearly showed that the transplanted lichen P. tinctorum was an effective bioindicator of air quality in school environments. The results illustrated that all studied schools were contaminated by air pollutants; therefore, improving air quality at the schools is crucial and should be an urgent issue for maintaining good health and may benefit children's academic achievements and careers in the long run. air performance index, air pollution, bioindicator, laem chabang, lichen transplant, parmotrema tinctorum, physiological parameter, trace element, chlorophyll fluorescence, pseudevernia-furfuracea, parmotrema-tinctorum, heavy-metals, pollution, indoor, accumulation, urban, bioaccumulation, morphology
35405Tanaka M., Baek S., Tochigi K., Naganuma T., Inagaki A., Dewi B. & Koike S. (2023): Conditions affecting ant nesting in stumps in a temperate coniferous planted forest. - Forest Ecology and Management, 537: E1yx8. 120976_x000D_10.1016/j.foreco.2023.120976.
Dead trees are an important component of forest ecosystems as they play various roles in these ecosystems and their biodiversity. The use of dead trees as a habitat and foraging resource by various organisms affects the decomposition of the trees. Ants use dead trees as nests and slow their decomposition by weakening the function of decomposers, such as fungi and termites, through interspecific interactions. However, our understanding of the characteristics of dead trees in which ants nest and the environmental conditions under which they exist is limited. In planted forests, stumps left after harvesting account for the largest biomass of deadwood. In the present study, the characteristics of such stumps, their location, and the relationship between these factors were determined in relation to ant nesting in a warm temperate conifer planted forest (a university forest with clear past history located in central Japan). In total, 85 stands consisting of Cryptomeria japonica or Chamaecyparis obtusa were surveyed, and various environmental conditions as well as the presence or absence of ant nests in stumps logged by forestry operations were recorded. In total, 1551 stumps were surveyed, of which 113 stumps contained ant nests with 16 different ant species. Modeling and Akaike information criterion evaluation results revealed that both large and small ant species tended to nest in old stumps located in areas with an open canopy, large species tended to nest in stumps with moss or lichen cover, and small species tended to nest in stumps with bark cover. Older stumps are typically softer owing to more decomposition, and solar heat can facilitate tem-perature control inside the nest, which may explain why ants tended to nest under the observed conditions. Based on these findings, long-term continuous thinning rather than clearcutting, which results in excessively large canopy openings and uniformly sized stumps, is the preferred management practice for promoting ant nesting in stumps in planted forests. ant nest, conifer plantation, dead tree, formicidae, thinning, coarse woody debris, black bears, dead wood, soil, hymenoptera, succession, ecology, boreal, size
35404Marty C., Fradette O., Duchesne L., Faubert P., Ouimet R. & Villeneuve C. (2023): Natural regeneration potential and dynamics in boreal lichen woodlands of eastern Canada following soil scarification. - Frontiers in Forests and Global Change, 6: E0yw5. 1146758_x000D_10.3389/ffgc.2023.1146758.
Boreal lichen woodlands (LWs) are stable low tree-density zones of the Canadian boreal forest whose afforestation has been proposed as a way to create new C sinks and thus mitigate climate change. Planting operations in these remote areas are however costly and time-consuming, and may not be necessary when soil scarification is followed by dense natural regeneration. In the present study, we assessed the natural regeneration potential and dynamics in six boreal LWs of Quebec, Canada, 11 years after soil scarification. The number, size (height and stem diameter) and age of seedlings were measured in 2-4 sampling plots per site (18 plots in total). Our data show that scarification operations produced on average 1,400 m(2) ha(-1) of exposed mineral soil (scarification intensity of 14%) with, however, a large within-site variability. The natural regeneration was mainly composed of black spruce seedlings (> 95%), averaged similar to 12,000 seedlings ha(-1) across the six sites and significantly varied among sites, mostly due to the variation in scarification intensity. Seedling density averaged similar to 9 seedlings m(-2) of exposed mineral soil and increased with seed tree mean diameter at breast height (DBH) (R-2 = 0.51; P < 0.05) but not with the density of seed trees, revealing the importance of old and large seed trees in natural regeneration success. Together, scarification intensity and the DBH of remaining seed trees explained similar to 60% of the variation in natural regeneration density across the 18 sampled plots. The rate of establishment of seedlings was generally high - with on average 60% of the carrying capacity of the substrate being reached within three years following scarification - and increased with seed tree mean DBH (R-2 = 0.77; P < 0.05). However, the growth rate of seedlings was very low. Eleven years after scarification, 60% of the seedlings were < 15 cm and the height of 10-yr-old seedlings averaged 27.5 cm. Thus, even though seedling establishment was successful, the biomass accumulated by the natural regeneration was negligible in the span of a decade. Therefore, the implementation of afforestation following scarification appears to be necessary to create significant C sinks in the midterm. boreal forest, black spruce, soil mechanical preparation, scarification intensity, natural sowing, seed bed, seedling establishment, natural regeneration, black-spruce, white spruce, current knowledge, forest zone, jack pine, clear-cut, growth, afforestation, availability, fire
35403Killari K., Polimati H., Prasanth D., Singh G., Panda S., Vedula G. & Tatipamula V. (2023): Salazinic acid attenuates male sexual dysfunction and testicular oxidative damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats. - Rsc Advances, 13(19): 12991-13005.
Male sexual dysfunctions such as infertility and impotence are recognized as the consequences of diabetes. Salazinic acid (Sa) is a depsidone found in lichen genera of Lobaria, Parmelia, and Usnea, which has prominent free radical and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory actions. The present study establishes the beneficial role of salazinic acid (Sa) to combat the deleterious effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the male reproductive system of rats. In a dose-dependent manner, Sa significantly restored the reproductive organs weight, sperm characteristics, and testicular histoarchitecture in diabetic rats. Further, a significant recovery of insulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels in serum was recorded in Sa-treated diabetic rats. The malondialdehyde levels were significantly lowered, and the activities of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, markedly elevated in the blood serum, as well as testicular tissue after Sa-supplementation. Sa also suppressed the protein expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in serum. The high dose of Sa showed significant improvement in glycemia and testicular protection, similar to sildenafil citrate. Moreover, the docking results showed that both Sa and sildenafil have a high affinity toward the target protein, PDE5 with binding affinity values found to be -9.5 and -9.2 kcal mol(-1), respectively. Molecularly, both Sa and sildenafil share similar hydrogen bonding patterns with PDE5. Hence, our study clearly showed the protective role of Sa against diabetic-induced spermatogenic dysfunction in rats, possibly by competing with cGMP to bind to the catalytic domain of PDE5 and thereby controlling the oxidative impairment of testes. erectile dysfunction, phosphodiesterase-5, glycation, extracts
35402Zulfiqar R., Razzaq F., Habib K. & Khalid A.N. (2023): Pachypeltis phoenicopta, an Interesting Lichenicolous Lichen and Flavoplaca flavocitrina (Lichenized Ascomycetes: Teloschistaceae) from Pakistan. - Biology Bulletin, 2023: 1-6.
Flavoplaca flavocitrina and Pachypeltis phoenicopta are reported as new to Pakistan. The genus Pachypeltis is the first report for Pakistan. The descriptions for both species based on the taxonomic examinations of the Pakistan's specimens are provided along with ITS-based phylogenetic analysis and notes on ecology and distribution. distribution, Kohistan, morphology, phylogeny, taxonomy, Caloplaca-citrina Group, region, fungi
35401Frolov I.V. & Prokopiev I.A. (2023): The poorly known in Russia sporodochial lichen genus Sporodophoron (Arthoniaceae) with one species new to the country and continental Eurasia. - Turczaninowia, 26(1): 136-144.
The genus Sporodophoron (Arthoniaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) is characterized by whitish, convex, and usually discrete or rarely becoming confluent sporodochia and conidia formed in zigzag-shaped and occasionally branched chains. It consists of four species, and only S. primorskiense was known in Russia, in a single locality in the Primorye Territory. Here we report the second locality of S. primorskiense and two localities of new to Russia S. gossypi-num, all from the deciduous and mixed forests of the very south of the Primorye Territory. Morphology and chemistry of our specimens are briefly discussed in comparison with the literature data. Using HPLC-UV-MS, in S. gossypinum we detected several minor and trace compounds previously unknown to the species, namely confluentic acid, 4-O- methylolivetolcarboxylic acid, hyperlatolic acid, and perlatolic acid. Using mass-spectrometry, we found that "lepraric high unknown" substance has the same molecular formula and fragmentation pattern as lepraric acid. The find of S. gossypinum is also confirmed by the mrSSU sequence. conidia, HPLC, hyphomycetes, MrSSU, new records, north East Asia, primorye, russian far east, sporodochia, amplification, Blarneya, primers, records, DNA
35400Beckett R.P., Roach T., Minibayeva F. & Werth S. (2023): Alternative electron transport pathways contribute to tolerance to high light stress in lichenized algae. - Physiologia Plantarum, 175: e13904.
The photosynthetic apparatus of lichen photobionts has been well-characterized by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis (e.g., by pulse amplitude modulation [PAM]), which provides a proxy of the activity of photosystem II (PSII) and its antenna. However, such kinetics are unable to directly characterize photosystem I (PSI) activity and the associated alternative electron pathways that may be involved in photoprotection. Instead, PSI can be probed in vivo by near-infrared absorption, measured at the same time as standard chlorophyll fluorescence (e.g., using the WALZ Dual PAM). Here, we used the Dual PAM to investigate cyclic electron flow and photoprotection in a range of mostly temperate lichens sampled from shaded to more open microhabitats. Sun species displayed lower acceptor side limitation of PSI (Y[NA]) early in illumination when compared to shade species, indicative of higher flavodiiron-mediated pseudocyclic electron flow. In response to high irradiance, some lichens accumulate melanin, and Y[NA] was lower and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH-2)-type cyclic flow was higher in melanised than pale forms. Furthermore, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was higher and faster relaxing in shade than sun species, while all lichens displayed high rates of photosynthetic cyclic electron flow. In conclusion, our data suggest that (1) low acceptor side limitation of PSI is important for sun-exposed lichens; (2) NPQ helps shade species tolerate brief exposure to high irradiance; and (3) cyclic electron flow is a prominent feature of lichens regardless of habitat, although NDH-2-type flow is associated with high light acclimation. Flavodiiron Proteins, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Photosystem-II, Flow, Photoinhibition, Photoprotection, Organisms, PSI
35399Coca L.F., Gómez Gómez S., Guzmán Guillermo J., Trujillo Trujillo E., Clavijo L., Zuluaga A., Dal Forno M. & Lumbsch H.T. (2023): Sulzbacheromyces leucodontium (Basidiomycota, Lepidostromataceae), a new species of basidiolichen widely distributed in the Neotropics. - Phytotaxa, 597(2): 153–164.
As a result of botanical and lichenological expeditions in the Colombian Andean-Amazonian Piedmont, in the Brazilian Amazon, and in Veracruz, Mexico, a new species of Sulzbacheromyces was discovered and is here described based on morphological, anatomical, and molecular characters. S. leucodontium differs from other neotropical species in the genus by having white basidiomata and colonial algae in the thallus and represents the species with the widest distribution of the genus in the Americas, from Mexico to Brazil. In addition, the most complete phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus to date is presented as well as a key to the known species of Sulzbacheromyces in the Neotropics. Key words: ITS barcoding, Lepidostromatales, maximum likelihood, phylogeny, soil inhabiting.
35398Martellos S., Conti M. & Nimis P.L. (2023): Aggregation of Italian lichen data in ITALIC 7.0. - Journal of Fungi, 9(5): 556 [12 p.].
The creation of a coordinated publishing and aggregation system of biodiversity data is a challenging task, which calls for the adoption of open data standards. ITALIC, the information system on Italian lichens, originated from the conversion of the first Italian checklist into a database. While the first version was “frozen”, the present version is continuously updated and provides access to several other data sources and services, such as ecological indicator values, ecological notes and information, traits, images, digital identification keys, etc. The identification keys especially are an ongoing work that will lead to a complete national flora by 2026. Last year, new services were added, one for aligning lists of names with the national checklist, the other for aggregating occurrence data deriving from the digitization of 13 Italian herbaria, forming a total of ca. 88,000 records, which are distributed under a CC BY license and can be exported as CSV files in the Darwin Core format. An aggregator for lichen data will encourage the national community of lichenologists to produce and aggregate further data sets, and it will stimulate data reuse according to the paradigms of open science. Keywords: FAIR; open data; identification key; taxon match; Darwin Core.
35397La Torre R.D., Ramos D., Mejía M.D., Neyra E., Loarte E. & Orjeda G. (2023): Survey of lichenized fungi DNA barcodes on King George Island (Antarctica): an aid to species discovery. - Journal of Fungi, 9(5): 552 [19 p.].
DNA barcoding is a powerful method for the identification of lichenized fungi groups for which the diversity is already well-represented in nucleotide databases, and an accurate, robust taxonomy has been established. However, the effectiveness of DNA barcoding for identification is expected to be limited for understudied taxa or regions. One such region is Antarctica, where, despite the importance of lichens and lichenized fungi identification, their genetic diversity is far from characterized. The aim of this exploratory study was to survey the lichenized fungi diversity of King George Island using a fungal barcode marker as an initial identification tool. Samples were collected unrestricted to specific taxa in coastal areas near Admiralty Bay. Most samples were identified using the barcode marker and verified up to the species or genus level with a high degree of similarity. A posterior morphological evaluation focused on samples with novel barcodes allowed for the identification of unknown Austrolecia, Buellia, and Lecidea s.l. species. These results contribute to better represent the lichenized fungi diversity in understudied regions such as Antarctica by increasing the richness of the nucleotide databases. Furthermore, the approach used in this study is valuable for exploratory surveys in understudied regions to guide taxonomic efforts towards species recognition and discovery. Keywords: Lichen-forming fungi; Admiralty Bay; DNA barcoding; diversity; Austrolecia; Buellia; Lecidea.
35396Vasileva T.I. & Legostaeva Y.B. (2023): Calcium oxalates in soils within disturbed landscapes and rock on the territory of Yakutia (Russia), formation conditions in a sharply continental cryoarid climate. - Minerals, 13(5): 659 [16 p.].
The formation of oxalates in soils and rocks under conditions of cryoarid climate, permafrost and taiga vegetation was studied. Whewellite and weddellite were found in four areas associated with the mining industry: on the kimberlite deposit of the Daldyn territory, in the lower reaches of the Markha River of the Central Yakut Plain, and on the coastal outcrop of the Allah-Yun Sellah-Khotun ore cluster. Whewellite was found in the upper organic horizon of Skeletic Cryosol (Thixotropic) (sample 151) and as a film on the surface of plant remains of Humic Fluvisols (sample 1663). Weddellite was found as an extensive encrustation on the surface of the soil and vegetation cover of Stagnic Cryosols Reductaquic (sample 984) and on a siltstone outcrop (sample KM-6-21). Calcium oxalates were identified by X-ray phase analysis, photographs of the samples were taken on a polarizing microscope, and the crystal morphology was studied on a scanning electron microscope. To determine the chemical composition of soils and rocks, the classical wet-chemical method was used; the physical properties of the studied samples were studied using a pH meter, the photoelectric colorimetric method, and a synchrotron thermal analysis device. The source of calcium for the formation of salts is the parent layers of the studied soils, represented by carbonate and carbonate clastic rocks, which cause neutral and slightly alkaline environments. High humidity, which is provided by the seasonal thawing of the permafrost, has a key role in the formation of the studied oxalates in Yakutia with a sharply continental cryoarid climate. Based on the studies, it was found that the first two samples are the products of lichen activity, and the third and fourth are at the stage of initial soil formation by micromycetes. In addition, the formation of these oxalates, in our opinion, is the result of the protective function of vegetation, in the first two cases, with a sharp increase in the load on lichens under technogenic impact, and in the second and third cases, when favorable conditions arise for initial soil formation, but under conditions of toxic content of heavy metals and arsenic. Keywords: biomineralization; weddellite; whewellite; Cryosol; Fluvisol; siltstone; lichens; micromycetes.
35395Yu X., Sui Y., Xi Y., Zhang Y., Luo G., Long Y. & Yang W. (2023): Semisynthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking studies of barbatic acid derivatives as novel diuretic candidates. - Molecules, 28(10): 4010 [20 p.]. ttps://
Barbatic acid, a compound isolated from lichen, has demonstrated a variety of biological activities. In this study, a series of esters based on barbatic acid (6a–q′) were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their diuretic and litholytic activity at a concentration of 100 μmol/L in vitro. All target compounds were characterized using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and HRMS, and the spatial structure of compound 6w was confirmed using X-ray crystallography. The biological results showed that some derivatives, including 6c, 6b′, and 6f′, exhibited potent diuretic activity, and 6j and 6m displayed promising litholytic activity. Molecular docking studies further suggested that 6b′ had an optimal binding affinity to WNK1 kinases related to diuresis, while 6j could bind to the bicarbonate transporter CaSR through a variety of forces. These findings indicate that some barbatic acid derivatives could be further developed into novel diuretic agents. Keywords: barbatic acid; structural modification; diuretic activity; litholytic activity; molecular docking.
35394Ahmad N., Ritz M., Calchera A., Otte J., Schmitt I., Brueck T. & Mehlmer N. (2023): Biosynthetic potential of Hypogymnia holobionts: insights into secondary metabolite pathways. - Journal of Fungi, 9(5): 546 [16 p.].
Lichens are symbiotic associations consisting of a photobiont (algae or cyanobacteria) and a mycobiont (fungus). They are known to produce a variety of unique secondary metabolites. To access this biosynthetic potential for biotechnological applications, deeper insights into the biosynthetic pathways and corresponding gene clusters are necessary. Here we provide a comprehensive view of the biosynthetic gene clusters of all organisms comprising a lichen thallus: fungi, green algae, and bacteria. We present two high-quality PacBio metagenomes, in which we identified a total of 460 biosynthetic gene clusters. Lichen mycobionts yielded 73–114 clusters, other lichen associated ascomycetes 8–40, green algae of the genus Trebouxia 14–19, and lichen-associated bacteria 101–105 clusters. The mycobionts contained mainly T1PKSs, followed by NRPSs, and terpenes; Trebouxia reads harbored mainly clusters linked to terpenes, followed by NRPSs and T3PKSs. Other lichen-associated ascomycetes and bacteria contained a mix of diverse biosynthetic gene clusters. In this study, we identified for the first time the biosynthetic gene clusters of entire lichen holobionts. The yet untapped biosynthetic potential of two species of the genus Hypogymnia is made accessible for further research. Keywords: Hypogymnia physodes; Hypogymnia tubulosa; long read sequencing; polyketide synthesis; biosynthetic gene cluster; lichen; reference genome.
35393Wyczanska M., Wacker K., Dyer P.S. & Werth S. (2023): Local-scale panmixia in the lichenized fungus Xanthoria parietina contrasts with substantial genetic structure in its Trebouxia photobionts. - The Lichenologist, 55(2): 69-79.
Microsatellite markers can provide valuable information about gene flow and population history. We developed and tested new microsatellites for the nitrophilic lichenized fungus Xanthoria parietina and studied its genetic diversity and structure within the urban area of Munich, Bavaria. We compared its local genetic pattern with that of its photobiont partner Trebouxia decolorans, for which existing microsatellites were applied. For comparison, a reference site with clean air was included in the sampling. We found support for three genetic clusters in the fungus X. parietina, which occurred intermingled in collecting sites. There was a high degree of admixture within fungal populations and individuals, and analysis of molecular variance revealed a lack of population structure in the mycobiont. The Trebouxia photobiont, in contrast, exhibited structured populations which grouped into two to five genetic clusters, and individuals showed less admixture than in the mycobiont. This indicates that the two lichen partners differ in their ability to move around in the landscape. The microsatellite markers we report are polymorphic and are suitable for population genetic studies. gene flow, genetic diversity, genetic marker, Lecanoromycetes, lichens, microsatellite markers, population differentiation, population genetics, simple sequence repeats (SSR), Teloschistales
35392Tindall-Jones B., Cunliffe M. & Chrismas N. (2023): Lichen zonation on UK rocky seashores: a trait-based approach to delineating marine and maritime lichens. - The Lichenologist, 55(2): 91-99.
35391Gauslaa Y. & Goward T. (2023): Sunscreening pigments shape the horizontal distribution of pendent hair lichens in the lower canopy of unmanaged coniferous forests. - The Lichenologist, 55(2): 81-89.
Hair lichens are distinctive for their capillary growth and typically arboreal occurrence, especially in temperate and boreal forests. They consist of two morphogroups based on cortical pigments: a brown-black group with fungal melanin and a pale yellow-green group with usnic acid. Here we test the hypothesis that these morphogroups are ecologically distinct and thus appropriately regarded as functional groups. We examine their respective horizontal occurrence in the lower canopy of 60-year-old conifer forests on a 250 m tall volcanic cone in south-central British Columbia. Trees on open south-facing slopes and near the summit were found to support mainly melanic hair lichens (Bryoria and Nodobryoria), whereas more densely spaced trees on north-facing slopes and at the base had higher cover values of usnic lichens (especially Alectoria sarmentosa and Ramalina thrausta). The cover of melanic hair lichens was strongly correlated with canopy openness but not for their usnic counterparts. We suggest that investment in light-absorbing melanic pigments is an extreme form of specialization for high light, favouring persistence in dry, sun-exposed canopies of otherwise cool forests. By contrast, the cortex of pendent usnic hair lichens appears to facilitate optimum light transmission to underlying photobionts in shaded sites, though at the cost of sensitivity to light in open habitats, especially in rather dry regions. Alectoria, boreal forest, Bryoria, canopy architecture, cortical pigments, photoprotection
35390Aptroot A. (2023): Coniocarps. Rain Shadow Specialists [Coniocarpen. Regenschaduw Specialisten] By Klaas van Dort and Bart Horvers. 2021. Published by KNNV-Afdeling Tilburg, Tilburg. Pp 192, numerous photographs. 175 × 235 × 17 mm, 605 g. ISBN 978-90-826157-4-6. Hardback. [In English and Dutch] Available from (price: €25 + postage). - The Lichenologist, 55(2): 101-101.
35389Ansil P., Rajeshkumar K., Sharma B., Lücking R. & Hawksworth D.L (2023): Phylogenetic placement and reappraisal of Diorygma karnatakense including the new synonym, Diorygma dandeliense, from Maharashtra, India. - The Lichenologist, 55(2): 59-67.
This study re-examined the status of species of Diorygma Eshw. known from the Western Ghats using an integrative taxonomy approach that includes morphological and chemical data, as well as multigene phylogenetic analyses. Prior to this work, the two species D. karnatakense and D. dandeliense were distinguished primarily on lirellae morphology (branching pattern) and the number of ascospores per ascus. Our study of the morphology, chemistry and molecular phylogeny (mtSSU, LSU and RPB2) of freshly collected samples and re-examination of type material suggests that both names should be synonymized. Consequently, D. karnatakense is accepted as the correct name, with D. dandeliense as a newly proposed synonym. Phylogenetically, D. karnatakense is allied to D. antillarum and D. hieroglyphicum. Graphidaceae, lichen, LSU, mtSSU, phylogeny, RPB2
35388Afshan N., Fayyaz I., Iftikhar F., Jabeen M. & Khalid A. (2023): A new species and a new record of the genus Squamulea (Teloschistaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) from Pakistan. - The Lichenologist, 55(2): 51-58.
A novel species in the genus Squamulea, S. chikarensis, is described from Himalayan moist temperate forest in Pakistan. The morphology, chemistry and ITS sequences support its distinction from other species of this genus. The taxon is characterized by a pale green to yellow thallus, large apothecia up to 0.8–1.8 mm wide, pale yellow to yellow-orange apothecial discs, a hymenium 70–110 μm high, large ascospores (12–20 × 5–11 μm) and a narrow ascospore septum (1.5–3 μm). In addition, S. flakusii is reported as new to Pakistan and Eurasia. Caloplacoideae, Himalayas, Huriella, lichen diversity, Xanthorioideae
35387Khalid A.N. & Zulfiqar R. (2023): A new species of the genus Verrucaria (lichenized Ascomycetes: Verrucariaceae) from Kohistan district, Pakistan. - Plant Systematics and Evolution, 309: 18 [6 p.].
Verrucaria pakistanica is described as a novel species from District Kohistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. It is characterised by thick, deeply areolate thallus, large superfcial perithecia, a thick involucrellum (80–105 µm), i.e., conical, not reaching the substratum and larger ascospores (20–29×7–10 µm) than the similar V. muralis. Phylogeny of ITS and nuLSU region confrms its position within the genus Verrucaria and morphological comparison makes it distinct from other related species of the genus. Keywords: ITS · LSU · Phylogeny · Taxonomy.
35386Melekhina E.N. (2023): Lichen-associated oribatid mites in the taiga zone of northeast European Russia: taxonomical composition and geographical distribution of species. - Diversity, 15(5): 599 [20 p.].
We examined 35 species of ground and epiphytic lichens, including fruticose, foliose, and crustose lichen, as habitats of oribatid mites. Observations were carried out in the taiga forests of northeast European Russia, and 87 oribatid species from 38 families were found. The Crotoniidae, Carabodidae, Oppiidae, and Suctobelbidae are the most numerous families in ground lichens and the Oribatulidae are in the epiphytes. The families Micreremidae and Licneremaeidae were only noted in epiphytes. A complex of species characteristic of epiphytic lichens as habitats of oribatid mites have been identified, these are Carabodes labyrinthicus, Oribatula (Z.) propinqua, Phauloppia nemoralis, Micreremus brevipes, Licneremaeus licnophorus, Furcoppia (Mexicoppia) dentata, Cymbaeremaeus cymba. Only in epiphytes, rarely, the species were also Jacotella frondeus, Ameronothrus oblongus, Mycobates (Calyptozetes) tridactylus, and Liebstadia humerata. Characteristic for ground lichens are species Trhypochthonius cladonicolus, Carabodes marginatus, Carabodes subarcticus. Often found in both ground and epiphytic lichens are species Eueremaeus oblongus s. str., E. oblongus silvestris, Ceratoppia quadridentata, Adoristes ovatus poppei, Graptoppia (Apograptoppia) foveolata, Suctobelbella acidens duplex, Tectocepheus velatus, Trichoribates berlesei, Chamobates pusillus, Diapterobates oblongus, Oribatula tibialis, Oribatula (Z.) exilis, Scheloribates laevigatus, Neoribates aurantiacus, Pergalumna nervosa. In epiphytic lichens, we observed species that are rare in the North (Oribatula (Z.) frisiae, O. (Z.) propinqua, P. nemoralis, L. licnophorus, F. (M.) dentata, et al.), with some noted in the taiga zone for the first time (J. frondeus). Keywords: Oribatida; taxonomic diversity; distribution; checklist; fruticose lichen; foliose lichen; crustose lichen; ground lichens; epiphytic lichens.
35385Alananbeh K.M., Othman Y.A., Tahat M.M., Al-Dakil H., Yahya A.A., Ayasrah B., Al-Share T., Alkhatatbeh S., Al-Zoubi R., Alnaanah M., Malkawy S. & Alananbeh M.B. (2023): Forest health assessment in four Jordanian reserves located in semi-arid environments. - Forests, 14(5): 918 [20 p.].
Healthy forests are essential to human life because they provide food, energy, and other benefits including carbon sequestration. The objective of this study was to assess the forests health status in Mediterranean ecosystems, specifically, arid to semi-arid. Four forest reserves directed by Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature, Jordan were evaluated. Plant health indicators [(gas exchange (photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration), chlorophyll, middy stem water potential (Ψsmd), relative water content], regeneration, lichens, plant disease, as well as soil variables (respiration CO2-C, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, microorganisms’ abundance) were measured. The Ψsmd values in those semi-arid/arid ecosystems were within the normal ranges (−0.3 to −1.3 MPa) in spring but was under extreme water stress (−1.6 to −5.3 MPa) in summer in three reserves. Similarly, gas exchange variables reduced by 25%–90% in summer (compared to spring) across the studied forests. Although the regeneration (seedling per 1000 m2) was higher than 100 in two forest (Ajloun and Dibbeen), the number of seedlings in hiking sites was extremely low in both forests. Soil health indicators reveled that soil respiration CO2-C were higher than 25 mg kg−1 in two forests [Ajloun, Dibbeen, (except hiking zone)]. The mean soil saprophytes (number g−1) ranged from 86 to 377 across the forests reserves. In addition, the mean arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (spores 100g−1 soil) was between 350 and 877. Soil EC was consistently optimal (less than 0.5 dS m−1) and pH was slightly basic (7.5–8.3) across the reserves. The results revealed that the fluctuation of rainfall and anthropogenic pressures (grazing, hiking) led to partial forest degradation. When forests (Dana Biosphere Reserve) received 81 mm annual precipitation, Ψsmd values in Juniperus phoenicea at summer ranged from −4.4 to −5.3 MPa, regeneration and lichens were less than 20 per 1000 m2, and several trees were dead after infected with soil and air borne pathogens including wilt diseases and die back. Intensive hiking activities (Dibbeen forests, tourism area) and heavy grazing (Yarmouk frosts) reduced regeneration, lichens and soil respiration. Interestingly, the native species had better water relations (RWC, Ψsmd) and gas exchange performance than the introduced species. Overall, it is better to grow native species, and exclude anthropogenic pressure on the territory of introduced species. The conservation programs must persist to sustain several native historical forest trees including Juniperus phoenicea (>600 year old), Quercus ithaburensis (>500 year old), and Pinus halepensis (>100 year old) at Mediterranean semi-arid forests. Keywords: soil health; forest tree diseases; climate change; physiological status; semi-arid ecosystems.
35384Pykälä J. (2023): Additions to the lichen flora of Finland. X. - Graphis Scripta, 35(3): 14–29.
Fifteen lichen species are reported as being new to Finland, including four species new to Fennoscandia (Fe): Athallia alnetorum (Fe), Atla praetermissa, Polyblastia baltica, P. integrascens, P. nordinii, P. pulchra, Protoblastenia calvella, Rinodina malangica, R. sheardii, Scutula effusa, Verrucaria consociata, V. devensis (Fe), V. hunsrueckensis (Fe), V. lapidicola (Fe) and V. sublobulata. Occurrence of Polyblastia bryophila in Finland is confirmed. ITS sequences are presented for the species
35383Beck A., Casanova-Katny A. & Gerasimova J. (2023): Metabarcoding of Antarctic lichens from areas with different deglaciation times reveals a high diversity of lichen-associated communities. - Genes, 14(5): 1019 [21 p.].
Lichens have developed numerous adaptations to optimise their survival under harsh abiotic stress, colonise different substrates, and reach substantial population sizes and high coverage in ice-free Antarctic areas, benefiting from a symbiotic lifestyle. As lichen thalli represent consortia with an unknown number of participants, it is important to know about the accessory organisms and their relationships with various environmental conditions. To this end, we analysed lichen-associated communities from Himantormia lugubris, Placopsis antarctica, P. contortuplicata, and Ramalina terebrata, collected from soils with differing deglaciation times, using a metabarcoding approach. In general, many more Ascomycete taxa are associated with the investigated lichens compared to Basidiomycota. Given our sampling, a consistently higher number of lichen-associated eukaryotes are estimated to be present in areas with deglaciation times of longer than 5000 years compared to more recently deglaciated areas. Thus far, members of Dothideomycetes, Leotiomycetes, and Arthoniomycetes have been restricted to the Placopsis specimens from areas with deglaciation times longer than 5000 years. Striking differences between the associated organisms of R. terebrata and H. lugubris have also been discovered. Thus, a species-specific basidiomycete, Tremella, was revealed for R. terebrata, as was a member of Capnodiales for H. lugubris. Our study provides further understanding of the complex terricolous lichen-associated mycobiome using the metabarcoding approach. It also illustrates the necessity to extend our knowledge of complex lichen symbiosis and further improve the coverage of microbial eukaryotes in DNA barcode libraries, including more extended sampling. Keywords: Himantormia; Placopsis; Ramalina; lichen-associated eukaryotes; deglaciation time.
35382Porada P., Bader M.Y., Berdugo M.B., Colesie C., Ellis C.J., Giordani P., Herzschuh U., Ma Z., Launiainen L., Nascimbene J., Petersen I., Quílez J.R., Rodríguez-Caballero E., Rousk K., Sancho L.G., Scheidegger C., Seitz S., Van Stan II J.T., Veste M., Weber B. & Weston D.J. (2023): A research agenda for nonvascular photoautotrophs under climate change. - New Phytologist, 237: 1495–1504.
Non‐vascular photoautotrophs (NVP), including bryophytes, lichens, terrestrial algae, and cyanobacteria, are increasingly recognized as being essential to ecosystem functioning in many regions of the world. Current research suggests that climate change may pose a substantial threat to NVP, but it is highly uncertain to what extent this will affect the associated ecosystem functions and services. Here, we propose a research agenda to address this urgent question, focusing on physiological and ecological processes that link NVP to ecosystem functions while also taking into account the substantial taxonomic diversity across multiple ecosystem types. Accordingly, we developed a new categorization scheme, based on microclimatic gradients, which simplifies the high physiological and morphological diversity of NVP and worldwide distribution with respect to several broad habitat types. We found that habitat‐specific ecosystem functions of NVP will likely be substantially affected by climate change, and more quantitative process understanding is required on (1) potential for acclimation (2) response to elevated CO2 (3) role of the microbiome and (4) feedback to (micro)climate. We suggest an integrative approach of innovative, multi‐method laboratory and field experiments and eco‐physiological modelling, for which sustained scientific collaboration on NVP research will be essential.
35381Морозова Л.М. [Morozova L.M.] (2003): Современная растительность Полярного Урала севернее реки Байдарата [Contemporary vegetation of the Polar Ural North of the river Baydarata]. - Научный вестник Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа [Nauchnyy vestnik Yamalo-Nenetskogo avtonomogo okruga / Scientific Bulletin of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District], 3(2): 61–73. .
[in Russian]
35380Эктова С.Н. [Ektova S.N.] (2003): Изменение лишайникового покрова Заполярного Урала под воздействием выпаса оленей [Changes of lichen cover of the Polar Urals under reindeer grazing]. - Научный вестник Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа [Nauchnyy vestnik Yamalo-Nenetskogo avtonomogo okruga / Scientific Bulletin of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District], 3(2): 88–94. .
[in Russian]
35379Соковнина (Абдульманова) С.Ю. &. Эктова С.Н. [Sokovnina (Abdulmanova) S.U. &. Ektova S.N] (2020): Прирост кормовых видов лишайников рода Cladonia (Cladoniaceae) на пастбищах домашнего северного оленя [Growth rate of forage Cladonia lichens (Cladoniaceae) on summer and winter pasture of Domestic Reindeer]. - Растительные ресурсы [Rastitelnye Resursy], 56(3): 221–240. DOI: 10.31857/S0033994620030085.
[in Russian with English summary:] Overgrazing caused by reindeer husbandry has been a serious problem for the regions of the boreal and tundra zones for many years [3]. Terricolous fruticose lichens are the most sensitive component of Northern ecosystems [2, 8–10]. Currently, valuable forage lichens in the tundra zone of the Yamal Peninsula maintaining high occurrence, have a low abundance. The greatest impact of reindeer grazing and trampling is typical for summer pastures and driving paths. The study is aimed to estimation of the growth rate of Cladonia lichen thalli on summer pastures of the Yamal and Gydan peninsulas with different levels of vegetation cover degradation. The main objects of the study were valuable forage species of shrubby fruticose lichens – Cladonia arbuscula (Wallr.) Flot, C. rangiferina (L.) F. H. Wigg, C. stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar & V“zda, C. stygia (Fr.) Ruoss. In this research 2 gradients were considered: zonal and plant communities. Shrub tundra subzone: shrub tundra, exposed tundra communities, hummock bogs. Typical tundra subzone: shrub tundra, exposed tundra communities and hummock bogs. Arctic tundra subzone: dwarf shrub-lichen tundra, spotted grass-moss-lichen tundra and hummock bogs. The growth rate was calculated as a ratio of lichen podetia height to the number of branches [17], which characterizes lichen growth potential in the study area. And the growth rate of the living part of lichen podetia [18] was estimated, to assess the potential of lichen productivity. This method is recognized in the international scientific community [19, 20]) and confirmed by modern methods [21]. For analysis, we used one-factor or two-factor analysis of variance, methods of multivariate analysis, using forward sorting, and univariate regression. In the study area, the growth rate of shrubby fruticose lichens varied from 1.2 to 6.3 mm/ year. There is no significant decrease in lichen growth rate from south to north. The lowest growth rate of shrubby fruticose lichens was observed in the communities of the southern (shrub) tundra. That is in opposition to the expected maximum. The height of podetia in the southern (shrub) tundra is 21% lower than in the arctic. Arctic tundra communities exist under less impact. The height of the living part of podetia in the zonal gradient does not change. However, the highest values were found in the southern (shrub) tundra, which indicates a higher growth potential of lichens. The relative age of the podetia and its living part vary insignificantly in the “south – north” gradient. In the southern (shrub) tundra in shrub plant communities, model lichen species grow significantly faster. The density of shrubs is the single significant biotic factor that positively affects the growth rate of lichens. In the plant community series of the northern (typical) tundra differences in the growth rate were not revealed. The maximum growth rate was observed in communities of hummock bogs and decreased in shrub tundra by 13% and in exposed tundra by another 6%. The single significant biotic factor for the lichen growth rate is the thickness of the moss-lichen layer. With an increase in pasture impacts, the contribution of lichen mat height to the growth rate variation increases from 6 to 28%. In the arctic tundra subzone the growth rate of lichens in the hummock bogs is significantly higher than in other types of plant communities. The lichen mat height and percentage cover of mosses are significant biotic factors. The variation in the height and age parameters of the lichen podetia in the plant communities gradient is similar to lichen growth rate changes. Among the model species, the minimum growth rate and growth rate of the living part of podetia were revealed for C. stellaris, the species most sensitive to trampling. However, the maximum values of the height and age of the living part of the podetia prove that this species has the greatest potential for growth and production. The most resistant to pasture impact is C. stygia, a species characterized by the maximum growth rates of the podetia and its living part, and maximum height of the podetia. Keywords: Yamal peninsula, Gydan peninsula, West Siberia, tundra zone, shrubby fruticose lichens, genus Cladonia, growth rate, geographical gradient, ecological gradient, grazing influence.
35378Davydov E.A., Kosachev P., Golyakov P., Zalutsky T., Svirin E., Kudrov O., Pavlova P., Storozhenko Yu., Yakovchenko L. & Yakovlev R. (2023): New and noteworthy records of Plants, Lichens and Lepidoptera in Altai Territory and Republic of Altai (Southern Siberia). - Acta Biologica Sibirica, 9: 243–264.
New localities for six species of plants (Achillea schmakovii, Botrychium lunaria, Cystopteris altajensis, Euphrasia altaica, Agrostis tuvinica and Calamagrostis × thyrsoidea), five species of lichens (Bacidina phacodes, Leptogium burnetiae, Melanelixia albertana, Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla, Tetramelas chloroleucus) and nine species of Lepidoptera (Parnassius apollo, Lampides boeticus, Limenitis sydyi, Maniola jurtina, Erebia kindermanni, Eudia pavonia, Proserpinus proserpina, Macroglossum stellatarum, Catocala elocata) are reported for Altai Territory and Republic of Altai. Lichens Bacidina phacodes, Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla, Tetramelas chloroleucus and Lepidoptera Lampides boeticus, Maniola jurtina, Proserpinus proserpina and Catocala elocata are reported as new for Altai Territory, Macroglossum stellatarum and Limenitis sydyi are new for the Republic of Altai. Localities and ecological preferences are indicated for each species. Keywords: Altai Mountains, biodiversity, fauna, flora, lichenized fungus, Red Data Book, Salair National Park, Tigirek Natural Reserve.
35377Rodriguez J., Estrabou C., Fenoglio R., Robbiati F., Salas M. & Quiroga G. (2009): Post-fire recovery of the epiphytic-lichen community in Cordoba province, Argentina. - Acta Botanica Brasilica, 23(3): 854-859.
(Post-fire recovery of the epiphytic-lichen community in Cordoba province, Argentina). Lichens are recognized bioindicators of environmental quality. Studies of lichen communities in relation to forest fires have shown the response to fire over micro-environmental variables that shape the community in the absence of this disturbance. The aim of this contribution is to recognize the effect of fire on the lichen community of Sierra Chaco in Cordoba province. Two areas were selected, one without past fire and the other with fire in 1996. Coverage and presence of lichen species on trees and shrubs were recorded in the two areas using systematic, standardized sampling. Diversity and coverage of lichens is similar between the two areas but composition varies. The lichen species in the burned area are heliophilous and adapted to stress conditions. Fire as a frequent disturbance promote, the growth of few species with high coverage that are resistant to the conditions imposed by disturbance. High intensity and high frequency fires limit development opportunities for the lichen community thus diminishing overall diversity and quality of forest systems in which they live. Key words: disturbance. fire, forest, lichen community. disturbance, fire, forest, lichen community, CORTICOLOUS LICHENS, FORESTS, INDICATORS
35376Tufan-Cetin O. & Sumbul H. (2008): Lichens of Duzlercami Region (Antalya) damaged in the 21 July 1997 fire. - Ekoloji, 17(67): 31-36. .
This paper includes the lichen flora of Duzlecami Region dameged in the 21 July 1997 fire. From 13 familia 18 genus, 36 species and 2 varieties (total 38 taxa) were determined from lichen samples gathered in the area research done between the dates March 2002 and September 2003. Antalya, biodiversity, fire Region of Duzlercami, lichen, ACID
35375Roturier S., Ollier S., Nutti L., Bergsten U. & Winsa H. (2017): Restoration of reindeer lichen pastures after forest fire in northern Sweden: Seven years of results. - Ecological Engineering, 108: 143-151.
Fire suppression since the 19th century has modified the functioning of boreal forest ecosystems in northern Sweden. In the long run, it induces changes in understory vegetation that result, especially on mesic sites, in feather mosses and Ericaceous dwarf shrubs outcompeting ground lichens, thus decreasing winter pastures for reindeer husbandry. In 2008, a field experiment was established in which, two years after a large forest fire, reindeer lichen (Cladonia spp.) was transplanted across various plots. The general objective was to accelerate the recovery of lichen-rich reindeer pastures, and test the ability of lichen thalli to establish on burnt surfaces following different post-fire treatments (tree harvest and standing trees retained), in different transplantation seasons (summer and winter) and at different doses (0.45 L m(-2) and 2.25 L m(-2)). The abundance and level of occupancy of viable and established lichen fragments was determined in 0.25 m(2) quadrats in 2010, 2013 and 2015. There was a continuous increase in lichen establishment over time, and seven years after transplantation, established lichen occupied, on average, 55% and 83% of the 0.25 m(2) quadrats treated with the lower and higher doses, respectively. Nine years after fire, no lichen had colonized the control, i.e. the burnt surface outside the experimental area. At the site with standing trees retained, lichen had already formed a well-established mat with a significantly higher lichen occupancy and abundance than in the open, clear-cut sites, where lichen agglomerated in proto-mats. Lichen transplanted in late-summer exhibited higher abundance and occupancy than that transplanted in late-winter. On average, the difference in lichen occupancy and abundance between different doses after seven years was of lower magnitude than between the doses of lichen transplanted initially. The experiment reveals useful results for the restoration of reindeer pastures and for specifying fire management regimes adapted to both forestry and reindeer husbandry. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V. Artificial dispersal, Caribou, Cladonia, Prescribed burning, Restoration ecology, Transplantation, TERRESTRIAL LICHENS, BOREAL, DECLINE, BRYOPHYTES, MANAGEMENT, POSTFIRE, RECOVERY, IMPACT
35374Gur F. & Yaprak G. (2011): Biomonitoring of metals in the vicinity of Soma coal-fired power plant in western Anatolia, Turkey using the epiphytic lichen, Xanthoria parietina. - Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A-Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering, 46(13): 1503-1511.
In this study, epiphytic lichen Xanthoria parietina was applied as the biomonitor of air pollution to determine the environmental influence in the vicinity of Soma coal-fired power plant. Thalli of lichen Xanthoria parietina growing on olive, oak and poplar trees were collected with their substrate in 2004-2006. They were taken from 44 different stations located in 3x3 km grids within an area of 30 km in diameter around the Soma power plant near the town of Soma. Lichen samples were analyzed by using the ICP-MS for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Th, U, V and Zn elements and their concentrations were mapped. The sample analyses results were evaluated by using the statistical software (SPSS 11). Average element contents of samples were, in descending order, Fe > Zn > V > Pb > Cr > Cu > Ni > As > Co > U > Th > Se > Cd > Hg. Results obtained in the current study were generally found to be higher than the data reported in literature although some lower values exist for Cd, Co, Hg, Ni, Pb elements. The most polluted areas were found to be those in the vicinity of the coal-fired power plant, particularly along the direction of predominant wind and in the corridor which runs from west to southeast direction due to topographic conditions. We believe that this research which is conducted around a coal-fired power plant will shed light on future research on pollution. Biomonitoring, lichen, pollution, coal-fired power plant, Turkey, HEAVY-METALS, PARMELIA-SULCATA, AIR-POLLUTION, STATION
35373Edgerly J. & Rooks E. (2004): Lichens, sun, and fire: A search for an embiid-environment connection in Australia (Order Embiidina : Australembiidae and Notoligotomidae). - Environmental Entomology, 33(4): 907-920.
This investigation is the first to quantify the degree of habitat specialization for any species within the little-known order Embiidina. The lichen and plant communities found in the habitats of two sympatric species, one living on lichens encrusted on granite and another feeding in leaf litter, wet e characterized using a process of ordination and cluster analysis. Differences among 40 samples and their relationships to environmental factors were probed statistically using Spearman's coefficient of rank correlations generated by comparing rank similarity matrices of the census sites. The lichen eat er, Notoligotoma hardyi (Friederichs), was more abundant in areas with strong southern exposures and was associated with higher lichen abundance. They preferentially grazed on particular lichens, the first indication that an embiid shows specialization in feeding. The detritivore, Australembia incompta Ross, was closely associated with particular plant communities, especially those less susceptible to fire. Their colonies were more common in rockier, coastal areas and less abundant in grasslands and habitats dominated by Eucalyptus. Insight into ecological variation within the order can guide further exploration of other traits (such as silk structure and function and primitive social behavior) in this rarely studied group of insects. webspinners, insect ecology, ordination, detritivore, FOOD PREFERENCES, COMMUNITIES, INTENSITY, FOREST, DESIGN
35372Klein D. (1982): Fire, Lichens, and Caribou. - Journal of Range Management, 35(3): 390-395.
35371Splawinski T., Gauthier S., Fenton N., Houle D. & Bergeron Y. (2018): The colonization of young fire initiated stands by the crustose lichen Trapeliopsis granulosa and its potential effect on conifer establishment and stand succession. - Silva Fennica, 52(1): 1-18.
The resilience of closed-crown coniferous stands within the boreal forest of North America is highly dependent on successful re-establishment of tree species following fire. A shift from closed-crown forest to open lichen woodland is possible following poor natural regeneration during the initial establishment phase, followed by the development of extensive lichen cover, which may hinder ongoing recruitment. We examined the development of the crustose lichen Trapeliopsis granulosa (Hoffm.) 18 to 21 years following fire within six sites in the boreal forest of northwestern Quebec, and explored its potential to affect ongoing recruitment during early successional stages of stand development. Germination and survivorship trials were conducted within the laboratory to determine the establishment rate of Pinus banksiana Lamb. (jack pine) on T. granulosa, mineral soil, and burnt duff under two separate watering frequencies (observed and drought). Survival and establishment rates of jack pine were highest on burnt duff, and poor on both T. granulosa and mineral soil. Under the drought treatment, no seedlings survived on any substrates. In the field, T. granulosa cover had a positive relationship with mineral soil cover, and negative relationships with duff cover, ericaceous shrub cover, organic layer depth, other lichen cover, and Sphagnum moss cover. No discernable relationship was found between T. granulosa and tree density, rock cover, dead wood cover or other moss cover. The development of extensive T. granulosa cover in fire-initiated stands can impede ongoing recruitment of conifer species due to its poor seedbed quality, thereby maintaining open forests. forest ecology, lichen woodland, Pinus banksiana, Trapeliopsis granulosa, establishment, stand succession, SOUTHERN BOREAL FOREST, PICEA-MARIANA, BLACK SPRUCE, PINUS-BANKSIANA, JACK PINE, CLIMATE-CHANGE, POPULUS-TREMULOIDES, DOMINATED SYSTEMS, POSTFIRE SALVAGE, SEED MASS
35370Hornberg G., Josefsson T., DeLuca T., Higuera P., Liedgren L., Ostlund L. & Bergman I. (2018): Anthropogenic use of fire led to degraded scots pine-lichen forest in northern Sweden. - Anthropocene, 24: 14-29.
Northern pine-lichen forests are generally regarded as natural ecosystems that, in the past, were repeatedly affected by wild fires. This paper presents and tests a new hypothesis that reindeer herders used recurrent fires to promote and sustain reindeer lichen-dominated ground vegetation, in order to maintain good winter-grazing grounds in Scots pine forests. We investigated vegetation and fire history in three pine-lichen forests along the Lulealven River in northernmost Sweden. Methods included analyses of pollen, spores, charcoal and soil nutrient capital, coupled with investigation of written historical sources and previous studies. Results suggest that recurrent, intermediate-interval fires started sometime between the 2nd and 8th centuries CE, i.e. at the same time that reindeer became semidomesticated in this region. Such fires continued until the 18th century, when introduction of active fire suppression reduced the occurrence of fire in the landscape. Repeated burning over this long period eventually depleted the soil-nutrient capital, especially nitrogen and phosphorous, thereby severely reducing productivity. In the early 20th century, foresters described such forests as degraded. Results of this study add a new dimension to understanding the genesis and history of many pine-lichen forests. They challenge the notion that reindeer herders have been reluctant, in the past, to use fire. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether a similar history can be ascribed to pine-lichen forests in other parts of northern Fennoscandia. (C) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. Fire history, Northern Sweden, Long-term land-use, Reindeer herding, Pine-lichen forest, LAND-USE, BOREAL FOREST, REINDEER HUSBANDRY, NITROGEN-FIXATION, CLADINA FORESTS, HISTORY, CHARCOAL, RECORD, AGE, RECONSTRUCTION
35369Sert E., Ugur A., Ozden B., Sac M. & Camgoz B. (2011): Biomonitoring of Po-210 and Pb-210 using lichens and mosses around coal-fired power plants in Western Turkey. - Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 102(6): 535-542.
Mosses and lichens are useful biological indicators of environmental contamination for a variety of metals and radionuclides of both natural and artificial origin. These plants lack a well-developed root system and rely largely on atmospheric deposition for nourishment. Therefore in the study, different lichens (Cladonia convoluta, Cladonia foliacea) and mosses (Homalothecium sericeum, Hypnum lacunosum, Hypn urn cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa, Didyinodon acutus, Syntrichia ruralis, Syntrichia intermedia, Pterogonium graciale, Isothecium alopecuroides, Pleurochatae squarrosa) were collected around the Yatagan (Mugla), Soma (Manisa), Seyitomer - Tuncbilek (Kutahya) coal-fired power plants and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for Po-210 and Pb-210 deposition. While the activity concentrations of Po-210 and Pb-210 in lichens are in the ranges of 151 +/- 7-593 +/- 21 and 97 +/- 5-364 +/- 13 Bq kg(-1), for mosses the ranges for Po-210 and Pb-210 are 124 +/- 5-1125 +/- 38 and 113 +/- 4-490 +/- 17 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In the study, the moss samples were observed to accumulate more Po-210 and Pb-210 compared to lichens. While the most suitable biomonitor was a moss species (H. lacunosum) for Yatagan (Mugla), it was another moss species (S. intermedia) for Soma (Manisa) and Seyitomer - Tuncbilek (Kutahya) sites. Po-210 concentrations were found higher than Pb-210 concentrations at the all sampling stations. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Lichen, Moss, Biomonitors, Atmospheric deposition, TRACE-ELEMENT DEPOSITION, TEMPORAL VARIATIONS, SAMPLES, CONTAMINATION, POLLUTION, METALS, INDICATORS, SOIL
35368Rączkowska Z. (2023): The Carpathians. – In: Oliva, M., Nývlt, D. & Fernández-Fernández, J. M. (eds.), Periglacial landscapes of Europe. - Cham: Springer, pp. 253–279.
The Carpathian arc runs for a distance of 1500 km between latitudes 50°N and 44°N and longitudes 17° E and 27° E across the territory of seven countries (UNEP 2007). The area is divided into the Western Carpathians, Eastern Carpathians, Southern Carpathians and Western Romanian Carpathians (Fig. 1; Kondracki 1989). The highest elevations occur in the Tatras (Gerlachovský štít 2655 m a.s.l.) and the Fa ̆ga ̆ras ̧ (Moldoveanu 2544 m a.s.l.). The Carpathians are a segment of the Alpine system, with a heterogeneous lithology and folded and faulted structures, separated by Neogene and Quaternary sediment-filled intra-montane depressions. Flysch sedimentary rocks (turbidites) form the external zone present in the Western and Eastern Carpathians. The more complex, internal zone consists of crystalline, calcareous, conglomerate and volcanic rocks, which build ranges or isolated blocks along the whole Carpathian arc (Kondracki 1989; Haas 2012)
35367Migoń P. & Waroszewski J. (2023): The Central European Variscan Ranges. – In: Oliva, M., Nývlt, D. & Fernández-Fernández, J. M. (eds.), Periglacial landscapes of Europe. - Cham: Springer., pp. 225–251.
The area named as the Central European Variscan ranges refers to the latitudinal belt of medium–high mountain terrains and intervening uplands that stretches between the River Rhine in the west and the Carpathians in the east (Fig. 1). Geologically, they are predominantly built of Proterozoic and Early Palaeozoic rocks of different origin and belonging to different terranes, which were later altered to form large metamor- phic complexes, amalgamated, and intruded by magmatic bodies of various size, mainly granites. As the final structural shape of the basement was acquired during the Variscan orogeny in the Devonian and the Carboniferous, the name “Variscan ranges” applies. However, the Variscan mountainous topography was subsequently eroded and the basement was partly, or completely, buried under younger sediments of Permian and Mesozoic ages. The contemporary gross topography originated in the Cenozoic through an interplay of differential uplift that occurred as a crustal response to the orogenic processes in the Alps and the Carpathians, and rock-controlled erosion (Ziegler and Dèzes, 2007). In this way, Variscan basement complexes were brought to the present-day altitudes and subject to the activity of periglacial processes, partic- ularly intense during cold stages of the Pleistocene, but still ongoing in the most elevated parts of the Variscan belt
35366Firdous Q., de Souza M.F., Aptroot A. & Khalid A.N. (2023): Some Physciaceae lichens from Pakistan. - Lindbergia, 46: linbg.01171 [8 p.].
This study aims to update the number of Phyciaceae lichens from Pakistan. Several new records have been added to the lichen flora of Pakistan, collected from different biomes. However, the lichen specimens for this study were collected from the country’s cold temperate and humid subtropical climate eco-zones. A taxonomic treatment, including a description based on the newly collected material, is provided along with molecular phylogenetic analysis. Physcia biziana, Physciella nepalensis and Physconia perisidiosa are three new records for the country. Physcia aipolia and Physconia muscigena are being reported for the first time from new localities, and Physconia enteroxantha is only being collected for the second time from the country. Keywords: new record, Pakistan, phylogeny, Physcia, Physciaceae, Physciella, Physconia.
35365Rikkinen J. (1995): What's behind the pretty colours? A study on the photobiology of lichens. - Bryobrothera, 4: 1–239. .
Lichens exhibit a broad spectrum of biological phenomena that are either directly or indirectly influenced by light. The aim of this study is to analyze and explain patterns in the photobiology of lichens, with special emphasis on lichen pigments and their photobiological functions. Here the primary purpose is to rationalize the role of light in explaining ecological and coevolutionary phenomena in lichen symbioses. This objective is pursued by investigating regularities in the light responses of lichens and lichen bionts over a wide range of spatial, temporal and organizational scales. The study is mainly based on library sources. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of the subject matter, the results are presented in six chapters, grouped in two entities, both investigating the photobilogy of lichens from a slightly different perspective. The three first chapters concentrate on factors which can be described as forming the photobiological framework of lichens, while the latter three chapters give detailed examples of how these factors are expressed in the distribution and ecology of lichens. As far as possible the chapters are intended to also act independently. Numerous topics concerning various aspects of the role of light in the evolution, distribution, morphology, anatomy, chemical composition, ecology and physiology of lichens and lichen bionts are discussed, and special attention is directed to non-nutritive interactions related to light availability as a central selective advantage of being lichenized. The study underlines the great diversity of ways in which lichen bionts and lichen symbioses have adapted to different light regimes. Even in the case of seemingly uniform groups of lichens, such as the lichenized Caliciales of boreal forests, the influence of light as an ecological factor becomes evident on a range of spatial and temporal scales, these ranging from interbiont relations to the correlations between lichen distributions and forest dynamics or global climate. It seems that from the photobiological perspective the ecological and coevolutionary essence of lichen symbioses may never quite bend to taxonomically oriented definitions, and lichens should rather be seen as symbiotic processes. It also appears that the photobiological coadaptation of lichens may form a fruitful base for studying, not only individual lichens, but also lichen assemblages as symbiotic processes. This approach could help to elucidate ecological parameters that have remained hidden in previous studies greatly emphasizing the role of vegetational analysis in the study of lichen vegetation. Key words: Lichen, symbiosis, mutualism, symbiotic processes, coevolution, terrestrialization, non-nutritive interactions, lichen communities, Caliciales, Parmeliopsis, Xanthoria, Chlorophyta, Trebouxia, Trentepohlia, cyanobacteria, Nostoc, photobiont, photobiology, photosynthesis, light-harvesting, UV-B, ozone depletion, photoinhibition, photodamage, photoprotection, pigments, carotenoids, phycobilins, photoreceptors, lichen compounds, melanins, winter ecology, cold resistance, psychrophily, chionophily, cheimophotophytic lichens, open shade, pored epicortex, oilbodies, oil-hyphae.
35364Boudreau S. & Payette S. (2004): Growth performance of Cladina stellaris following caribou disturbance in subarctic Quebec. - Ecoscience, 11(3): 347-355.
Cladina stellaris is a dominant lichen species of old-growth lichen-spruce woodlands in subarctic Quebec, where the continuous lichen carpet persists for several decades in the absence of disturbance. The lichen carpet is, however, vulnerable to caribou (Rangifer tarandus) disturbance under dry site conditions. Through grazing and trampling, large herds of migratory caribou reduce C. stellaris abundance and modify ground vegetation composition. Here, we have evaluated the age and growth performance of C. stellaris in relation to the recent activity of the George River Caribou Herd (GRCH). We measured the age, length, and growth rate of C. stellaris podetia in and near caribou trails in 15 lichen-spruce woodlands across the summer habitat. The age of lichens, used to evaluate the initial period of lichen recruitment following the decline of the GRCH, indicated that lichen recovery began in the early 1990s in heavily disturbed sites, whereas comparisons between the age structure of border and trail lichens also suggested that the southern part of the calving ground was still heavily used in the early 1990s. Length and growth rate of C. stellaris thallus were closely associated with severity of caribou disturbance, as inferred from the residual ground cover of terrestrial lichens. Growth performance of C. stellaris during the initial stage of lichen recovery varied according to the spatial use of the summer habitat by caribou, with better performance at the edge of the summer and winter habitats and reduced performance in the extensively used calving ground. The analysis of growth performance of C. stellaris provides new insights on lichen-spruce stand recovery associated with caribou disturbance. caribou disturbance Cladina stellaris ecological succession lichen growth lichen-spruce woodland northern Qudbec subarctic LICHEN-DOMINATED SYSTEMS NORTHWEST-TERRITORIES RECOVERY SEQUENCE NORTHERN QUEBEC REINDEER WOODLAND COMMUNITIES VEGETATION TUNDRA CANADA
35363Moore T.R. (1984): Litter Decomposition in a Subarctic Spruce-Lichen Woodland, Eastern Canada. - Ecology, 65(1): 299-308.
Abstract. The litter bag technique was used to examine the decomposition of six litter types (representing Picea mariana, Cladina stellaris, Betula glandulosa, and Ledum groenlandicum) and standard cellulose. The decomposition was measured over a 2-yr period, with tissue samples placed on a recently burnt site and on top of and beneath a lichen mat in a mature spruce-lichen woodland in northern Quebec. Mass losses after 2 yr were between 10and 60%, with the largest losses occurring in B. glandulosa and L. groenlandicum leaves and the smallest in C. stellaris; 60-90% of the Ist-yr mass loss occurs during the winter (September to June). The exponential decay constant k ranged from -0.05 to -0.53. There were few statistically significant differences in decomposition rate among the three sites. Of the chemical constituents analyzed, original concentrations of Ca, carbohydrate, P, K, and N were closely correlated either with the decomposition parameter k or with mass remaining after I or 2 yr. Ca, Mg, and K are rapidly lost from the decomposing tissues, except for C. stellaris. All the tissues, except B. glandulosa, showed an accumulation of N, associated with high C:N ratios. The results emphasize the importance of N to this ecosystem, in that it tends to remain immobilized in the litter, at least over the first 2 yr. Betula glandulosa; Cladina stellaris; decomposition; Ledum groenlandicum; litter; litter bags; nutrients; Picea mariana; subarctic; woodlands
35362Koch N.M., Sacco A.G. & Muller S.C. (2015): Combined fire and grazing of surrounding grassland does not prevent saxicolous lichens growth. - Plant Ecology and Evolution, 148(3): 311-317.
Background and aims - The use of fire as a managing tool influences and maintains many types of vegetation and may determine landscape physiognomy and species composition. Fire has a strong effect on lichens but studies about their recolonization or resistance are rare. Considering this, the objectives of this study are to investigate how fire impacts the structure of saxicolous lichen communities on rocks in grassland, considering richness, cover and lichen taxa composition and to verify if there are changes on functional diversity and redundancy among sites with different fire events. Methods - The study was undertaken in an area composed of mosaics of native Araucaria forests and grasslands, in southern Brazil, where two sites were sampled. One of them experienced a recent intense fire episode, after being fifteen years without fire or grazing influence, and the other was regularly subjected to grazing and annual fire episodes. Key results - The sites differed in lichen cover, lichen taxa richness and composition. Regarding the environmental and structural variables of the surrounding vegetation, significant influence on saxicolous lichen communities was also observed, with taller vegetation and greater vegetation cover on the rocky outcrops from the site with only one and intense recent fire event. Functional diversity and functional redundancy was also significantly different between both sites. Conclusion - Based on these results it is possible to affirm that managing southern Brazilian natural grasslands with annual fire and grazing, unless it is not too intense, does not prevent the development of saxicolous lichen communities. The effect of fire on abandoned grasslands, with a high quantity of organic matter and taller vegetation, is importantly negative to saxicolous lichen community. Lichens take more time to grow and occupy the rock than the surrounding vegetation recovers, which can cause microclimate changes. The recolonization of these rocky outcrops can therefore take a long time and the new lichen community will probably never be the same as the former one. Community ecology fire recovery lichenized fungi Brazilian grasslands SOUTHERN BRAZIL EPIPHYTIC LICHENS COMMUNITIES FOREST DIVERSITY TRAITS ABUNDANCE HISTORY PRAIRIE HETEROGENEITY
35361Ndhlovu N.T., Minibayeva F., Smith F.R. & Beckett R.P. (2023): Lichen substances are more important for photoprotection in sun than shade collections of lichens from the same species. - Bryologist, 126(2): 180–190.
Photosynthetic organisms possess a great diversity of mechanisms to protect themselves from the potentially stressful effects of high PAR (photosynthetically active radiation). A distinctive response to longer term exposure to high levels of PAR in lichens is the synthesis of a variety of substances in the upper cortex that can protect photobionts from photoinhibition. In the present study, lichen substances were removed harmlessly from lichens using the ‘‘acetone rinsing’’ method. This enabled us to compare the importance of the substances in photoprotection in sun and shade collections of four species of Afromontane lichens. While all species normally grow in more exposed microhabitats, it is easy to make collections of more shaded thalli. Using chlorophyll fluorescence, we show that collections of lichens from sunny microhabitats have higher tolerance to photoinhibition than those from shaded locations. Furthermore, removal of lichen substances increases sensitivity to photoinhibition, suggesting that even although colorless, they have a role in protecting against high PAR. Sensitivity was increased much more in sun than shade collections, implying that substances play a greater role in photoprotection in lichens from sunny microhabitats. Nevertheless, following the removal of lichen substances, most sun collections still possess higher tolerance to photoinhibition than shade collections. Therefore, the additional tolerance of sun collections appears derive from a combination of both lichen substances and other, probably more biochemical tolerance mechanisms. Keywords: Lichen physiology, Afromontane, chlorophyll fluorescence, acetone rinsing.
35360Iqbal M. & Khalid A. (2022): Acarospora sultanii sp. nov. (Acarosporaceae, Lichen Forming Ascomycota) from Darel Valley, Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan. - Biology Bulletin, 49(SUPPL 3): S40-S44.
A new species in the genus Acarospora (Acarosporaceae, lichenized ascomycetes), from Darel Valley, Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan, is described and illustrated here under the name Acarospora sultanii. It is characterized by brown to blackish white thallus, thicker epihymenium 40-60 mu m, taller hymenium 120-160 mu m, and larger ascospores 15-25 x 5-9 mu m. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS-nrDNA sequencing placed our species relative to A. nodulosa. Descriptions and images of the new species are provided, as well as a key for Pakistani species of Acarospora. phylogenetic analyses, taxonomy, lichen diversity, internal transcribed spacer
35359Iqbal M., Abbas M. & Khalid A. (2022): A New Species of Lichen Genus Acarospora (Acarosporaceae, Lichen Forming Ascomycota) from Darel Valley, Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan. - Biology Bulletin, 49(SUPPL 3): S45-S50.
A new species in the genus Acarospora (Acarosporaceae, lichenized ascomycetes), from Darel Valley, Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan, is described and illustrated here under the name Acarospora pakistanica. It is characterized by thicker epihymenium 30-60 mu m, taller hymenium 100-150 mu m, and larger ascospores 5-7 x 1-3 mu m. A detailed description of this taxon is provided. evolutionary relationships, taxonomy, novel species, geographic distribution
35358Fayyaz I., Iqbal M., Afshan N., Niazi A. & Khalid A. (2023): Taxonomic and phylogenetic study of the genus Diploschistes (Ostropales, Thelotremataceae) reveals one new species from Pakistan. - Acta Botanica Brasilica, 37: e20220125.
Diploschistes pakistanicus sp. nov. is described from the Himalayan moist temperate forest, Pakistan. ITS sequences confirm its position within the genus Diploschistes and, together with its morphology and chemistry, suggest that it is separate from other species of this genus. The taxon is characterized by grey to greyish white pruinose thallus, perithecioid-type ascomata, small apothecia 0.1-0.4 mm wide, hypothecium 20-25 mu m thick, ascus of 85-110 x 9-17 mu m in size, 3-5 transverse and 2-4 longitudinal septa in large ascospores 42-55 x 18-30; also differing from related species in ITS region. Darel, Garhi Dupatta, lichenized fungi, western South Asia
35357Fayyaz I., Afshan N., Iftikhar F., Niazi A. & Khalid A. (2022): Diploschistes viridis sp. nov. (Lichenized Ascomycota, Thelotremataceae) from Pakistan. - Biology Bulletin, 49(SUPPL 3): S77-S82.
Diploschistes viridis sp. nov. is described from the Himalayan moist temperate forest, Pakistan. ITS sequences confirm its position within the genus Diploschistes and, together with its morphology and chemistry, suggest that it is distinct from other species of this genus. The taxon is characterized by the light green to greenish gray epruinose thallus, small apothecia 0.2-0.5 mm wide, small areoles 0.4-0.7 mm, hymenium 140-165 mu m high, 3-4 transverse and 1-3 longitudinal septa in large ascospores 28-40 x 18-26 mu m; it also differs from related species in the ITS region. arid and semiarid regions, crustose species, lichen diversity, temperate latitudes, GENUS DIPLOSCHISTES
35356Din A., Niazi A., Khalid A. & Habib K. (2022): Sarcogyne balochistanensis sp. nov. (Acarosporales, Acarosporaceae) from Pakistan. - Biology Bulletin, 49(SUPPL 3): S60-S65.
In the present study, Sarcogynebalochistanensis sp. nov. is described and illustrated. The taxon is characterized by pale-white farinose thallus, polysporine type apothecia with quite taller hymenium, light brown sub-hymenium, large-wider asci and comparatively elongate and wider ascospores, these characters distinguish it from other species of the genus with a carbonized epihymenium. The ITS and LSU based phylogenetic analyses also support the identity of this species as new to science. A complete taxonomic treatment including description based on two collected material is provided along with molecular phylogenic analyses. Balochistan, lichenized fungi, taxanomy, FUNGI, ASCOMYCOTA, EVOLUTION
35355Acharius E. (1817): Afhandling om de cryptogamiske vexter, som komma under namn af Calicioidea, Tredje Stycket. - Kongliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar (Acta Reg. Acad. Scient. Holm.) [ser. 3], 5: 220–244, tab. VII[!]. .
Limboria, Cyphelium, Calicium, Coniocybe, figures
35354Vlasov D.Y., Zelenskaya M.S., Sazanova K.V., Schigorets S.B., Izatulina A.R., Rodina O.A., Stepanchikova I.S., Vlasov A.D., Polyanskaya E.I., Davydov D.A., Miklashevich E.A., Pavlova O.A. & Frank-Kamenetskaya O.V. (2023): Diversity and significance of lithobiotic communities at the Tomskaya Pisanitsa rock art site. - Contemporary Problems of Ecology, 16: 173–188.
[Original Russian text published in Sibirskii Ekologicheskii Zhurnal, 2023, No. 2, pp. 205–224.] The processes of biodeterioration of the unique Tomskaya Pisanitsa monument of rock art in Western Siberia have been studied by a complex of biological and mineralogical methods. The species composition of the lithobiotic community (bacteria, fungi, and lichens) is identified using a complex of cultural, morphological, and molecular genetic methods. It is shown that the destruction of the monument is a result of interrelated physical, chemical, and biological processes, accompanied by a change in the properties of the rock and its biological colonization. The structure of microbial communities depends on the local environment and successional processes. The development of biofilms with the dominance of cyanobacteria is observed on the rock zones of increased moisture and the formation of carbonate crusts. The problems of adaptation of the lithobiotic microorganisms to existence at the Tomskaya Pisanitsa rock art monument, as well as their role in the processes of oxalate and carbonate biomineralization, are discussed. The results point to the danger of deterioration of Tomskaya Pisanitsa monument and indicate the need to find new effective ways to protect it, taking into account the accumulated scientific data. Keywords: petroglyphs, rock, biofouling, lithobitiс community, biodeterioration, biomineralization.
35353Ravera S., Puglisi M., Vizzini A., Totti C., Azzella M.M., Bacilliere G., Bolpagni R., Breuss O., Cogoni A., De Giuseppe A.B., Fačkovcová Z., Faltner F., Gheza G., Giordani P., Isocrono D., Mair P., Malíček J., Marino P., Mayrhofer H., Nascimbene J., Ongaro S., Paoli L., Passalacqua N.G., Poponessi S., Puntillo D., Raimondo F.M., Sicoli G. & Tratter W. (2023): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophtes [sic!], fungi and lichens: 15. - Italian Botanist, 15: 35–47.
In this contribution, new data concerning algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the algal genus Nitella, for the bryophyte genera Anthoceros, Dicranodontium, Fontinalis, and Riccia, the fungal genera Inocybe and Xerophorus, and the lichen genera Bagliettoa, Biatora, Calicium, Cladonia, Coniocarpon, Lecanora, Opegrapha, Placynthium, Rhizocarpon, Scytinium, Solenopsora, Stereocaulon, and Verrucaria. Keywords: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Biodiversity, Bryidae, Charophyceae.
35352Brime S.F. (2012): Els líquens saxícoles i terrícoles del Parc Natural de Cap de Creus, amb un estudi filogenètic aplicat a la sistemàtica dels gèneres Diploschistes i Ingvariella. - Programa de Doctorat de Biologia Vegetal corresponent al bienni 2005-2007 del Departament de Biologia Vegetal de la Facultat de Biologia de la Universitat de Barcelona, 389 p. .
35351Llimona P.X. & Egea J.M. (1984): La Vegetación liquénica saxícola de los volcanes del Mar Menor (Murcia, SE de España) [The lichenic saxicolous vegetation of the volcanic islands and hills of Mar Menor (Murcia,SE Spain)]. - Butll. Inst. Cat. Hist. Nat., 51(Sec. Bot., 5): 77-99. .
Floristic, phytosociologic and ecologic description of lichens living on acid lava, in some volcanic outcrops in or around the Mar Menor, in the thermomediterraneen semiarid stage are given. The area has fairly thermic winters, mainly because of the moderating effect of neighbouring sea.
35350 Khodosovtsev A. & Kuzemko A. (2023): First records of Anema nodulosum, A. tumidulum, and Pyrenocarpon thelostomum (Lichinales, Lichinaceae) in Ukraine and a contribution to Collematetea cristati communities. - Український ботанічний журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 80(1): 98–107.
Three new for Ukraine species, Anema tumidulum, A. nodulosum, and Pyrenocarpon thelostomum (Lichinales, Lichinaceae), are reported. They were found in the Dnister Canyon, on the S and W exposed cliff surfaces where water tracks formed 'a black zone' of the Collematetea cristati class. Other species forming these communities are Anema decipiens, Psorotichia schaereri, Peccania coralloides, Thallinocarpon nigritellum, Thyrea confusa, and Verrucaria nigrescens s. l. The analyzed dataset included three relevés from the Dnister cliff, as well as 14 relevés from literature sources: seven relevés of Peccanio coralloidis-Thyreetum pulvinatae recorded from Poland, and seven relevés of Thyrea nigritella-Anema moedlingense comm. from the Czech Republic. These data were analyzed in JUICE software. All analyzed relevés were separated in two clusters. Three relevés from Dnister Canyon fell into the same cluster with Thyrea nigritella – Anema moelingensis comm. provided by Wirth in 1972. We consider these communities as a new association Thallinocarpo nigritelli-Anemum tumidulae. Diagnostic species of the association are Thallinocarpon nigritellum, Anema tumidulum, Staurothele frustulenta, and Anema nodulosum. The lectotype of Peccanio coralloidis-Thyreetum pulvinatae has been proposed, with diagnostic species Enchylium polycarpon, Leproplaca cirrochroa, Placidium rufescens, Placynthium nigrum, Toninia candida, and Synalissa symphorea. These associations belong to the Peccanion coralloidis alliance and differ by their ecological preferences. The association Peccanio coralloidis-Thyreetum pulvinatae represents the nomenclatural type of the alliance and includes communities on the vertical exposed limestone surfaces in water tracks. The Thallinocarpo nigritelli-Anemum tumidulae association occupies similar habitats but in the xeric geollitoral zone along river banks. The alliance Peccanion coralloidis and order Collematetalia cristati are reported from Ukraine for the first time. Keywords: cliff, Dnister Canyon, lichen communities, limestone, Peccanion coralloidis, syntaxonomy, water tracks.
35349Antonioni A., Govoni V., Brancaleoni L., Donà A., Granieri E., Bergamini M., Gerdol R. & Pugliatti M. (2023): Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and air pollutants in the province of Ferrara, northern Italy: An ecological study. - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(8): 5591 [13 p.].
The etiopathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is still largely unknown, but likely depends on gene–environment interactions. Among the putative sources of environmental exposure are air pollutants and especially heavy metals. We aimed to investigate the relationship between ALS density and the concentration of air pollution heavy metals in Ferrara, northern Italy. An ecological study was designed to correlate the map of ALS distribution and that of air pollutants. All ALS cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2017 (Ferrara University Hospital administrative data) were plotted by residency in 100 sub-areas, and grouped in 4 sectors: urban, rural, northwestern and along the motorway. The concentrations of silver, aluminium, cadmium, chrome, copper, iron, manganese, lead, and selenium in moss and lichens were measured and monitored in 2006 and 2011. Based on 62 ALS patients, a strong and direct correlation of ALS density was observed only with copper concentrations in all sectors and in both sexes (Pearson coefficient (ρ) = 0.758; p = 0.000002). The correlation was higher in the urban sector (ρ = 0.767; p = 0.000128), in women for the overall population (ρ = 0.782, p = 0.000028) and in the urban (ρ = 0.872, p = 0.000047) population, and for the older cohort of diagnosed patients (2000–2009) the assessment correlated with the first assessment of air pollutants in 2006 (ρ = 0.724, p = 0.008). Our data is, in part, consistent with a hypothesis linking copper pollution to ALS. Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); pathophysiology; environmental factors; air pollutants; heavy metals; copper; neurodegeneration.
35348Скирина И.Ф. , Скирин Ф.В. & Родникова И.М. [Skirina I.F., Skirin F.V. & Rodnikova I.M.] (2023): Нуждающиеся в охране виды лишайников Приморского края Дальнего Востока России (к обновлению региональной Красной книги) [Lichen species in need of protection in Primorsky Krai of the Russian Far East (for the regional Red Data Book update)]. - Биота и среда природных территорий [Biodiversity and environment of protected areas], 11(1): 61–72.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The list of lichen species in need of protection was revised for the new edition of the Red Data Book of Primorsky Krai. Changes in lichen taxonomy and additions to information on species ecology and distribution were taken into account. The updated list includes 56 lichen species. We justify the need to introduce 6 lichen species into the regional Red Data Book and exclude 16 lichen species. The following species are recommended to be included in the new regional Red Data Book: Scytinium lichenoides, Alectoria sarmentosa, Hypogymnia fujisanensis, Pyxine sibirica, Phaeophyscia pyrrhophora, Umbilicaria deusta. We propose to exclude the following lichens from the regional Red Data Book: Lichenomphalia hudsoniana, Vulpicida viridis, Parmotrema cetratum, Platismatia erosa, Platismatia glauca, Platismatia norvegica, Anzia colpodes, Hypogymnia metaphysodes, Hypogymnia submundata, Lobaria crassior, Lobaria isidiosa, Nephromopsis laureri, Nephromopsis pseudocomplicata, Nephromopsis pallesens, Cetrelia davidiana, Cetrelia nuda. Key words: lichens, lichenobiota, Primorsky Krai, rare and endangered species, regional Red Data Book.
35347Paździora W., Podolak I., Grudzińska M., Paśko P., Grabowska K. & Galanty A. (2023): Critical assessment of the anti-inflammatory potential of usnic acid and its derivatives—A review. - Life, 13(4): 1046 [14 p.].
Inflammation is a response of the organism to an external factor that disrupts its natural homeostasis, and it helps to eliminate the cause of tissue injury. However, sometimes the body’s response is highly inadequate and the inflammation may become chronic. Thus, the search for novel anti-inflammatory agents is still needed. One of the groups of natural compounds that attract interest in this context is lichen metabolites, with usnic acid (UA) as the most promising candidate. The compound reveals a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties, among which anti-inflammatory properties have been studied both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this review was to gather and critically evaluate the results of the so-far published data on the anti-inflammatory properties of UA. Despite some limitations and shortcomings of the studies included in this review, it can be concluded that UA has interesting anti-inflammatory potential. Further research should be directed at the (i) elucidation of the molecular mechanism of UA; (ii) verification of its safety; (iii) comparison of the efficacy and toxicity of UA enantiomers; (iv) design of UA derivatives with improved physicochemical properties and pharmacological activity; and (v) use of certain forms or delivery carriers of UA, especially in its topical application. Keywords: usnic acid; anti-inflammatory; enantioselective.
35346Halici M., Kahraman Yiğit M., Bölükbaşı E. & Güllü M. (2023): New record and new species of lichenized fungal genus Candelariella Müll. Arg. in Antarctica. - Polish Polar Research, 44(1): 69-83.
Previously, only three Candelariella species were known from Antarctica: C. aurella, C. flava and C. vitellina. After morphologically and phylogenetically examining our collections on soil from James Ross Island, located in the north-east Antarctic Peninsula region, and Horseshoe Island, a small rocky island in Bourgeois Fjord, Marguerite Bay in the south-west Antarctic Peninsula, we describe the lichen species Candelariella ruzgarii as new to science. Sequences of the nrITS, mtSSU and RPB1 gene regions of the new species were amplified and revealed that the phylogenetic position of the new species is in the C. aurella group, which is characterised by 8-spored asci and ± granular thalli. Candelariella ruzgarii is phylogenetically most closely related to C. aurella s. lat. but differs mainly in ecology as the new species grows on soil or on terricolous lichens, whereas the latter species grows on calcareous rocks, rarely on wood. Morphologically, C. ruzgarii is very similar to C. aggregata, a Northern Hemisphere species that grows on mosses and plant debris. Apart from the different phylogenetical position, C. ruzgarii has a thicker and sometimes slightly crenulated thalline margin and somewhat shorter ascospores than C. aggregata. We also report C. plumbea for the first time from Antarctica, a species with a thick and grey thallus that was previously known from Europe and Asia. Antarctic, Antarctic Peninsula, biodiversity, lichenized fungi, Candelariales, mtSSU, nrITS, RPB1
35345Fickert T. (2020): Common Patterns and Diverging Trajectories in Primary Succession of Plants in Eastern Alpine Glacier Forelands. - Diversity, 12(5): 191.
This paper deals with the vegetation development in four glacier forelands, aligned along a distance of 250 km from West to East in the siliceous Eastern Central Alps. The study employs a chronosequence approach, which assumes a temporal sequence in vegetation development by spatially different sites regarding time since deglaciation. The chronosequences cover the area between Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum glacier extent around 1850, and the current glacier terminus. Despite some shortcomings, chronosequences allow the identification of general patterns of primary succession of plants as a function of site age and local environmental conditions, e.g., changes in species richness, ground cover, plant functional traits, and community structure. While there is no shortage of chronosequence studies in glacier forelands of the Alps, a straightforward comparison aimed at the deduction of general successional trajectories is tricky, due to different procedures of vegetation sampling and data analyses. The comparative examination by a standardized sampling and analyzing protocol of four glacier forelands in the Eastern Central Alps presented here proves the existence of several common patterns in primary succession, but also diverging successional trajectories from West to East. While the pioneer stage in all glacier forelands is similar both floristically and structurally, from the early successional stage onwards, differences increase, leading to different phases in the late successional stage, which is shrub dominated throughout in the westernmost study site, herb–grass–dwarfshrub dominated throughout in the easternmost study site, and divided into an earlier herb–grass–dwarfshrub phase and a later shrub phase in the two study sites in between. chronosequence, Eastern Central Alps, glacier forelands, Little Ice Age, primary succession
35344Guttová A. (2022): Overený výskyt diskovky zakrivenej (Arctoparmelia incurva, Parmeliaceae) v prírodnej rezervácii Kamenné more (Štiavnické vrchy) [Verified occurrence of Arctoparmelia incurva (Parmeliaceae) in Nature Reserve Kamenné more (Štiavnické vrchy Mts)]. - Bulletin Slovenskej botanickej spoločnosti, 144: 161–165. .
The blockfield within the Nature Reserve Kamenné more above the village of Vyhne (Štiavnické vrchy Mts) extends on the slopes of Kamenná Mt (elevation 502 m) in an altitude gradient from 360–500 m. It represents an island with the occurrence of boreal species in the middle of an area with a strong representation of thermophilic species. In 1987, Ivan Pišút recorded several noteworthy lichens, including boreal elements Arctoparmelia incurva and Melanelia stygia. This contribution provides current information on the occurrence of Arctoparmelia incurva in the Nature Reserve Kamenné more. Key words: boreal element, lichens, the Western Carpathians.
35343Hurtado P., Aragón G., Martínez I., Mayrhofer H. & Prieto M. (2023): The epiphytic lichens on Fagus sylvatica in beech forests of Europe: towards an open and dynamic checklist. - Mediterranean Botany, 44: e84299 [18 p.].
Beech forests are considered one of the most emblematic ecosystems in the temperate deciduous broadleaf forest biome and host a wide variety of specialised cryptogamic organisms such as epiphytic lichens. This checklist is the first compilation focused on the epiphytic lichen diversity occurring on Fagus sylvatica L. trees along Europe. The checklist is based on a literature search encompassing 137 studies. We report 683 lichen species differently distributed across 26 European countries. The reported richness of the lichen species ranged from one in Kosovo and Netherlands to 331 species in Ukraine. All information provided in this manuscript is available online ( to facilitate the accessibility and updating of the data. Thus, we aim that this checklist becomes an open and dynamic database that continuously expands not only based on new lichenological studies, but also with the information retrieved by lichenologist in the past, data published in a diverse suite of languages and herbarium records. Keywords: biodiversity, lichenised fungi, literature review, online application, richness, taxonomy.
35342López de Silanes M.E., Paz-Bermúdez G., Carballal R. & Marques J. (2012): The genus Leptogium (Collemataceae, Ascomycotina) in mainland Portugal. - Sydowia, 64(1): 67–102. .
A revision of the genus Leptogium occurring in mainland Portugal is presented based on collections of 24 out of the 25 species previously reported for the Portuguese territory. Inclusion of L. resupinans is based exclusively on recent literature reporting this species from southern Portugal. Anatomical, ecological and geographical data on these species is provided, as well as an identification key. Leptogium plicatile is here recorded for the first time in Portugal. Leptogium aragonii, L. cochleatum, L. coralloideum, L. cyanescens, L. furfuraceum , L . pulvinatum and L. schraderi constitute new records for some Portuguese provinces. The presence of the following species previously reported from Portugal is considered doubtful: L. azureum, L. caesium, L. chloromelum, L. hildenbrandii, L. intermedium and L. microphylloides. Keywords: lichenized fungi , taxonomy, key, Iberian Península, Europe.
35341Chahloul N., Khadhri A., Vannini A., Mendili M., Rayes A. & Loppi S. (2023): Selecting the species to be used in lichen transplant surveys of air pollution in Tunisia. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 195: 570 [8 p.].
This study was undertaken with the aim of selecting one or more lichen species that are the most suitable for transplant-based surveys of air pollution in Tunisia, in areas where the local native lichen vegetation is scanty or missing at all. To this purpose, four epiphytic (tree inhabiting) lichen species (Evernia prunastri, Flavoparmelia caperata, Parmotrema perlatum, Ramalina farinacea) were collected from the Babouch forests, a remote and unpolluted area of NW Tunisia, and analyzed for their content of potentially toxic elements (PTEs), namely Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn, by ICP-MS. Moreover, also the physiological status of the lichen samples was evaluated by measuring their chlorophyll content, photosynthetic efficiency, and spectral reflectance. The results indicated a remarkable contribution of airborne soil and dust particles to the total PTE content, especially for the foliose species F. caperata and P. perlatum. The fruticose lichens E. prunastri and R. farinacea had a lower and similar content of PTEs, and hence were regarded as more suitable to be used in transplant studies, since are able to detect even minimal accumulation amounts. All lichen species were healthy, as emerged from the analysis of physiological parameters. Keywords: Air pollution · Bioaccumulation · Biomonitoring · Chlorophyll · PTEs · Evernia prunastri.
35340Yang Q., Song Z., Li X., Hou Y., Xu T. & Wu S. (2023): Lichen-derived Actinomycetota: Novel taxa and bioactive metabolites. - International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 24(8): 7341 [22 p.].
Actinomycetes are essential sources of numerous bioactive secondary metabolites with diverse chemical and bioactive properties. Lichen ecosystems have piqued the interest of the research community due to their distinct characteristics. Lichen is a symbiont of fungi and algae or cyanobacteria. This review focuses on the novel taxa and diverse bioactive secondary metabolites identified between 1995 and 2022 from cultivable actinomycetota associated with lichens. A total of 25 novel actinomycetota species were reported following studies of lichens. The chemical structures and biological activities of 114 compounds derived from the lichen-associated actinomycetota are also summarized. These secondary metabolites were classified into aromatic amides and amines, diketopiperazines, furanones, indole, isoflavonoids, linear esters and macrolides, peptides, phenolic derivatives, pyridine derivatives, pyrrole derivatives, quinones, and sterols. Their biological activities included anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, cytotoxic, and enzyme-inhibitory actions. In addition, the biosynthetic pathways of several potent bioactive compounds are summarized. Thus, lichen actinomycetes demonstrate exceptional abilities in the discovery of new drug candidates. Keywords: actinomycetes; antimicrobial; bioactive secondary metabolites; biosynthetic pathways; diversity; lichen.
35339Winkler S. (2004): Lichenometric dating of the 'Little Ice Age' maximum in Mt Cook National Park, Southern Alps, New Zealand. - Holocene, (6):911-920.
Lichenometric dating studies using the yellow-green Rhizocarpon subgenus at the Eugenie, Hooker, Mueller and Tasman Glaciers in Mt Cook National Park, Southern Alps, New Zealand, reveal a 'Little Ice Age' maximum during the mid-eighteenth century (around AD 1725-1740). Lichenometric dating curves, constructed for Mueller Glacier in a preliminary study, were modified using local control points at the other glaciers. Modi. cation was necessary because of variations in local ecological conditions. The 'Little Ice Age' chronology is similar for three out of the four glaciers studied. All except Tasman Glacier underwent a major glacier front oscillation directly following the 'Little Ice Age' maximum. After a slow but constant retreat during the second half of the eighteenth and the first half of the nineteenth centuries, the glaciers experienced major readvances during the second half of the nineteenth century (around AD 1860 and 1890/95), and during the early decades of the twentieth century. Tasman Glacier, as the exception, returned to its 'Little Ice Age' maximum frontal position during the late nineteenth century, overtopping pre-existing 'Little Ice Age' moraines, and therefore preventing detailed dating of these moraines. Differences in dating from previous lichenometric studies may be due to the different methods used. 'Little Ice Age', relative-age dating, lichenometry, Rhizocarpon, glacier variations, Holocene, Mt Cook National Park, New Zealand, NORTH-ATLANTIC OSCILLATION, ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION, MORAINE SEQUENCES, SCHMIDT HAMMER, TASMAN GLACIER, CLIMATE-CHANGE, NORWAY, FLUCTUATIONS
35338McKinzey K., Orwin J. & Bradwell T. (2004): Re-dating the moraines at Skalafellsjokull and Heinabergsjokull using different lichenometric methods: Implications for the timing of the Icelandic Little Ice Age maximum. - Geografiska Annaler Series A-Physical Geography, (4):319-335.
Little Ice Age (LIA) moraines along the margins of Skalafellsjokull and Heinabergsjokull, two neighbouring outlet glaciers flowing from the Vatnajokull ice-cap, have been re-dated to test the reliability of different lichenometric approaches. During 2003, 12 000 lichens were measured on 40 moraine fragments at Skalafellsjokull and Heinabergsjokull to provide surface age proxies. The results are revealing. Depending on the chosen method of analysis, Skalafellsjokull either reached its LIA maximum in the early 19th century (population gradient) or the late 19th century (average of five largest lichens), whereas the LIA maximum of Heinabergsjokull occurred by the mid-19th century (population gradient) or late-19th century (average of 5 largest lichens). Discrepancies (c. 80 years for Skalafellsjokull and c. 40 years for Heinabergsjokull) suggest that the previously cited AD 1887 LIA maxima for both glaciers should be reassessed. Dates predicted by the lichen population gradient method appear to be the most appropriate, as mounting evidence from other geochronological reconstructions and sea-ice records throughout Iceland tends to support an earlier LIA glacier maximum (late 18th to mid-19th century) and probably reflects changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation. These revised chronologies shed further light on the precise timing of the Icelandic LIA glacier maximum, whilst improving our understanding of glacier-climate interactions in the North Atlantic. Iceland, Little Ice Age, glacier fluctuations, lichenometry, geomorphology, SOUTHEAST ICELAND, FLUCTUATIONS, CLIMATE, DATE
35337Nguyen N.-H., Nguyen P.-T., Otake H., Nagata A., Hirano N., Imanishi-Shimizu Y. & Shimizu K. (2023): Biodiversity of basidiomycetous yeasts associated with Cladonia rei lichen in Japan, with a description of Microsporomyces cladoniophilus sp. nov.. - Journal of Fungi, 9(4): 473 [16 p.] .
For more than a century, lichens have been used as an example of dual-partner symbiosis. Recently, this has been challenged by the discovery of various basidiomycetous yeasts that coexist in multiple lichen species, among which Cladonia lichens from Europe and the United States were discovered to be highly specifically associated with the basidiomycetous yeast of the family Microsporomycetaceae. To verify this highly specific relationship, we investigated the diversity of basidiomycetous yeasts associated with Cladonia rei, a widely distributed lichen in Japan, by applying two approaches: yeast isolation from the lichen thalli and meta-barcoding analysis. We obtained 42 cultures of Cystobasidiomycetous yeast which were grouped into six lineages within the family Microsporomycetaceae. Unexpectedly, although the cystobasidiomycetes-specific primer was used, not only the cystobasidiomycetous yeasts but species from other classes were also detected via the meta-barcoding dataset; in particular, pucciniomycetous yeasts were found at a high frequency in some samples. Further, Halobasidium xiangyangense, which was detected in every sample with high abundance, is highly likely a generalist epiphytic fungus that has the ability to associate with C. rei. In the pucciniomycetous group, most of the detected species belong to the scale insect-associated yeast Septobasidium genus. In conclusion, even though Microsporomyces species are not the only yeast group associated with Cladonia lichen, our study demonstrated that the thalli of Cladonia rei lichen could be a suitable habit for them. Keywords: basidiomycetes; Cystobasidiomycetes; meta-barcoding; Microsporomycetaceae; phylogeny; yeast cultures.
35336García R. (2023): La funga liquenizada de la Reserva “Eco Área de Avellaneda” y su relación con otras áreas protegidas del Río de la Plata. - Historia Natural (tercera serie), 12(3): 169–180. .
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] On the southern bank of the Río de la Plata there is a forest ecosystem that has suffered the ravages of urbanization, which is known as jungle or gallery forest. Within this ecosystem there is a recently formed natural reserve: the Municipal Reserve “Eco Area of Avellaneda”, which is surrounded by one of the most populated areas in the country. Epiphytic lichen species were surveyed. A total of 43 species were found. Comparisons were made by means of β diversity indices, with the other nearby reserves. Finding that the Eco Area presents the least richness of the three, finding mostly heliophilous species. Regarding the diversity analysis, it is observed that the ecoarea is similar to the Punta Lara Nature Reserve, although the turnover analysis shows that the least change of species occurs between Punta Lara and Martín García Island, which may be explained by the time of protection presented by these reserves. The protection of this type of urban reserves is essential to help the conservation of lichens in the province of Buenos Aires, since this environment is seriously affected. Key words. Lichens; Buenos Aires; gallery forest; β diversity.
35335Vandinther N. & Aherne J. (2023): Biodiversity-based empirical critical loads of nitrogen deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. - Nitrogen, 4(2): 169–193.
Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) emissions can have considerable effects on terrestrial ecosystems, with chronic N deposition leading to changes in plant species composition. The Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) represents a large point source of N emissions, which has prompted concern for surrounding habitats. The objective of this study was to determine the relative importance of N deposition as a driver of plant species community composition against bioclimatic and soil chemical variables. Further, we sought to identify community thresholds in plant species composition across a N deposition gradient. This assessment was performed for 46 Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.)-dominant forest sites surrounding the AOSR spanning Alberta and Saskatchewan. In total, 35 environmental variables were evaluated using redundancy analysis (RDA), followed by gradient forest analysis applied to plant species abundance data. Soil chemical variables accounted for just over 26% of the total explainable variation in the dataset, followed by bioclimatic variables (19%) and deposition variables (5%), but joint effects between variables also explained a significant portion of the total variation (p
35334Moreau M., Mercier D., Laffly D. & Roussel E. (2008): Impacts of recent paraglacial dynamics on plant colonization: A case study on Midtre Lovenbreen foreland, Spitsbergen (79 degrees N). - Geomorphology, 95(1-2): 48-60.
Climatic changes since the end of the Little Ice Age have considerably disturbed environmental balances of plant colonization in high latitudes. Within one century on Spitsbergen, valley glaciers have retreated up to I kin from their original terminus as of 1918, affecting several hundred hectares of two types of landscape processes: plant colonization and paraglacial morphogenesis. Since these processes are limited to the chronological position of the old ice front, it is possible to know the rate of plant colonization by both qualitative and quantitative means, as well as speculate on the processes involved, such as the effects of runoff. The present study is limited to the Midtre Lovenbreen forefield (latitude 79 degrees N, longitude 12 degrees E), where geomorphologic and floristic samples were collected in 2003. On stable deposits in this area, the settlement and the evolution of floristic groups have been documented. During this time of period of colonization, the plain areas are reworked by runoff at a kilometric scale and are characterized similar to their surrounding biogeographic landscapes. Thus, a relationship can be observed between the paraglacial process occurring in the proglacial forelands and surrounding stable surfaces in till deposits. These features that occur as spatial discontinuities across the landscape are perceptible through either plant colonization or disturbance to vegetation caused by hydrological processes. Ultimately, however, runoff dynamics maintain pioneer vegetation groups which are superimposed on plant colonization that are driven by temporal periods of deglaciation. Differences in the rates and the nature of plant colonization are biomarkers of paraglacial dynamics. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Little Ice Age, paraglacial landscape, plant colonization, glacier forefield, climate change, MASS-BALANCE, MIDRE-LOVENBREEN, ALLUVIAL FANS, GLACIER, VEGETATION, SUCCESSION, SVALBARD, PRECIPITATION, SEDIMENTATION, TEMPERATURE
35333Bednaříková M., Gauslaa Y. & Solhaug K.A. (2023): Non-invasive monitoring of photosynthetic activity and water content in forest lichens by spectral reflectance data and RGB colors from photographs. - Fungal Ecology, 62: 101224 [8 p.].
There is a need for non-invasive monitoring of temporal and spatial variation in hydration and photosynthetic activity of red-listed poikilohydric autotrophs. Here, we simultaneously recorded kinetics in RGB-colors (photos), reflectance spectra, water content, maximal (FV/FM), and effective quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII) during desiccation in foliose lichens differing in cortical characteristics and photobionts. The spectral absorbance peaks of chlorophyll a, phycocyanin, and phycoerythrin were clearly displayed at high hydration levels. Brightness and total RGB colors of the lichens strongly increased during desiccation. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) efficiently estimated hydration level and ΦPSII – a proxy for lichen photosynthesis – in all species, including threatened old forest lichens. Color and reflectance indices based on green wavelengths gave good estimates of water content in cephalo- and chlorolichens, but not in cyanolichens with a wider range of photosynthetic pigments. Due to species-specific characteristics, species-wise calibration is essential for non-invasive assessments of lichen functioning. Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence; Desiccation; Lobaria; NDVI; Peltigera; RGB-colors; Reflectance spectra; Quantum yield; Umbilicaria.
35332Demková L., Baranová B., Oboňa J., Árvay J. & Lošák T. (2017): Assessment of air pollution by toxic elements on petrol stations using moss and lichen bag technique. - Plant, Soil and Environment, 63: 355–361. doi: 10.17221/297/2017-PSE.
Three moss (Pleurosium spp., Polytrichum spp., Rhytidiadelphus spp.) and two lichen taxa (Hypogymnia physodes L., Pseudevernia furfuracea L.), were exposed for four weeks in six petrol stations, two consecutive years (2015– 2016), in urban area of the Prešov city (Slovakia), to assess accumulation of selected airborne elements Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Significantly highest (P significantly lower content of heavy metals compared to mosses and lichens. Major content of heavy metals trapped in the air around petrol stations, did not originate from the petrol combustion, but predominantly from the car body, which is mechanically disrupted during fuelling. Keywords: road dust; roadside environment; emission; bio-monitoring; pollutant; coniferous tree.
35331Oboňa J., Demková L., Bobuľská L., Lošák T. & Manko P. (2022): Search of pattern in presence of epiphytic lichens growing in an urban environment – case study in Prešov city (Slovakia). - Biodiversity and Environment, 14: 4–9. .
Lichens are sensitive organisms, widely applied in air quality assessments and monitoring programs around the world. Traffic emissions or articulate matter influence the pattern in presence of lichens on roadside trees. The research of epiphytic lichens in Prešov city (Slovakia) was conducted in 17 near-road localities (three trees per locality). The traffic density, selected tree parameters, lichen density, and presence in research squares (15 x 15 cm) on 4 sides of the tree (side in the direction of traffic, in the opposite direction of traffic, the side facing towards the road and the side facing away from the road) were analysed. Three lichen species were most often determined on the trees: Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr., Phaeophyscia orbicularis (Necker) Moberg, and Physcia adscendens (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier. The most common lichen was the Ph. orbicularis accounted for up to 86% of all records. The highest presence was confirmed in localities with the highest traffic density. Based on the results it is obvious that atmospheric pollution alters lichen communities and therefore can be effectively used as biological indicator of air quality. Keywords: urban area, Phaeophyscia, Physcia, Xanthoria, traffic density.
35330Filimonov A., Luzina O., Gatilov Y. & Salakhutdinov N. (2023): Regioselectivity amination of usnic acid by ammonia in water. - Molbank, 2023(2): M1618 [6 p.].
Usnic acid is a well-known secondary lichen metabolite exhibiting a broad spectrum of biological activity. Previously it was shown that the reaction of usnic acid with various amines resulted in enamine-bond formation instead of the C(11)=O carbonyl group. Enamines obtained have a pronounced biological activity. In this work, we have shown that the reaction of usnic acid with ammonia can be regioselective if the solvent is replaced by water. The regioselectivity of that reaction depends on temperature and ammonia quantity. The C-1 enamine as only product formation has been obtained by the usnic acid reaction with an excess of ammonia (20 eq.) in water with cooling (+9 °C). Keywords: usnic acid; amination; usnic acid enamine.
35329Sellers H.L., Vargas Zesati S.A., Elmendorf S.C., Locher A., Oberbauer S.F., Tweedie C.E., Witharana C. & Hollister R.D. (2023): Can plot-level photographs accurately estimate tundra vegetation cover in northern Alaska?. - Remote Sensing, 15(8): 1972 [24 p.] .
Plot-level photography is an attractive time-saving alternative to field measurements for vegetation monitoring. However, widespread adoption of this technique relies on efficient workflows for post-processing images and the accuracy of the resulting products. Here, we estimated relative vegetation cover using both traditional field sampling methods (point frame) and semi-automated classification of photographs (plot-level photography) across thirty 1 m2 plots near Utqiaġvik, Alaska, from 2012 to 2021. Geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) was applied to generate objects based on the three spectral bands (red, green, and blue) of the images. Five machine learning algorithms were then applied to classify the objects into vegetation groups, and random forest performed best (60.5% overall accuracy). Objects were reliably classified into the following classes: bryophytes, forbs, graminoids, litter, shadows, and standing dead. Deciduous shrubs and lichens were not reliably classified. Multinomial regression models were used to gauge if the cover estimates from plot-level photography could accurately predict the cover estimates from the point frame across space or time. Plot-level photography yielded useful estimates of vegetation cover for graminoids. However, the predictive performance varied both by vegetation class and whether it was being used to predict cover in new locations or change over time in previously sampled plots. These results suggest that plot-level photography may maximize the efficient use of time, funding, and available technology to monitor vegetation cover in the Arctic, but the accuracy of current semi-automated image analysis is not sufficient to detect small changes in cover. Keywords: Arctic observing network; Arctic tundra; digital photography; geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA); point frame; tundra plant communities; vegetation cover; vegetation change.
35328de Lange P.J., Blanchon D.J., Marshall A.J. & Schmid L.M.H. (2023): Lepra erythrella (Pertusariaceae) – a new addition to the lichenized mycobiota of the Aotearoa / New Zealand archipelago. - Український ботанічний журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 80(1): 94–97.
An investigation of the fl ora, mycobiota and lichenized mycobiota associated with the endemic Aotearoa / New Zealand plant genus Lophomyrtus (Myrtaceae) revealed a specimen of Lepra erythrella (Pertusariaceae). Lepra erythrella, though briefl y mentioned in a paper documenting the results of that Lophomyrtus study, has not yet been formally admitted into the lichenized mycobiota of Aotearoa / New Zealand. Th erefore, to complete that process in this paper, we provide a description based on the collection made from Lophomyrtus and a further one located in the Allan Herbarium (CHR). Th e addition of Lepra erythrella to the lichenized biota of Aotearoa / New Zealand highlights not only the lack of collecting of this genus in that archipelago but the need to critically examine that nation’s herbarium collections. We recommend that further research on this genus is carried out in our region. Keywords: Aotearoa / New Zealand, Lepra erythrella, lichenized mycobiota, new addition.
35327Xue X.-D., Jiang S.-H. & Ren Q. (2023): Fouragea gyrophorica sp. nov. from China, with morphological and phylogenetic evidence. - Bryologist, 126(2): 167–173.
A new species Fouragea gyrophorica is described from China. It is most similar to F. vegae, but differs by its sparsely to densely branched apothecia, and it often has an obvious prothallus, and the presence of gyrophoric acid detected by TLC. This is the first report that Fouragea contains lichen substances. An analysis of its relationships based on molecular phylogeny is given. A world key to the species of Fouragea is also presented. Key words: Lichenized fungi, taxonomy, Opegraphaceae, foliicolous.
35326Díaz-Escandón D., Tagirdzhanova G., Vanderpool D., Allen C.C.G., Aptroot A., Češka O., Hawksworth D.L., Huereca A., Knudsen K., Kocourková J., Lücking R., Resl P. & Spribille T. (2022): Genome-level analyses resolve an ancient lineage of symbiotic ascomycetes. - Current Biology, 32: 5209–5218.
Ascomycota account for about two-thirds of named fungal species. Over 98% of known Ascomycota belong to the Pezizomycotina, including many economically important species as well as diverse pathogens, decomposers, and mutualistic symbionts. Our understanding of Pezizomycotina evolution has until now been based on sampling traditionally well-defined taxonomic classes. However, considerable diversity exists in undersampled and uncultured, putatively early-diverging lineages, and the effect of these on evolutionary models has seldom been tested. We obtained genomes from 30 putative early-diverging lineages not included in recent phylogenomic analyses and analyzed these together with 451 genomes covering all available ascomycete genera. We show that 22 of these lineages, collectively representing over 600 species, trace back to a single origin that diverged from the common ancestor of Eurotiomycetes and Lecanoromycetes over 300 million years BP. The new clade, which we recognize as a more broadly defined Lichinomycetes, includes lichen and insect symbionts, endophytes, and putative mycorrhizae and encompasses a range of morphologies so disparate that they have recently been placed in six different taxonomic classes. To test for shared hidden features within this group, we analyzed genome content and compared gene repertoires to related groups in Ascomycota. Regardless of their lifestyle, Lichinomycetes have smaller genomes than most filamentous Ascomycota, with reduced arsenals of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes and secondary metabolite gene clusters. Our expanded genome sample resolves the relationships of numerous ‘‘orphan’’ ascomycetes and establishes the independent evolutionary origins of multiple mutualistic lifestyles within a single, morphologically hyperdiverse clade of fungi.
35325Fałtynowicz W. & Jaśkiewicz M. (2023): Nowe stanowiska Evernia divaricata (L.) Ach. w zachodniej Polsce [New localities of Evernia divaricata (L.) Ach. in western Poland]. - Steciana, 27(1): 3–5. DOI: 10.12657/steciana.027.001.
[in Polish with English abstract: ] A new locality of a rare fruticose lichen species Evernia divaricata in the western part of Poland was found in the vicinity of two cities: Gubin and Twardogóra. Single specimens of this epiphytic lichen, grew on larch and birch. The thalli were healthy and well developed. Evernia divaricata is under strict legal protection and considered an endangered species in Poland (the CR category in the „Red List of Polish Lichens”). In the last dozen or so years, over a dozen new localities of E. divaricata have been found in the country, which usually grew in the company of other lichens very sensitive to air pollution, e.g. from the genus Usnea. These taxa are a testimony to the increasing process of recolonization. Key words: distribution of lichens, rare and endangered lichens, epiphytes, recolonization, Góry Izerskie Mts, Sudety Mts.
35324Fadnes P. (2022): Sjeldne og rødlistede skorpelav i kystregnskogen i Sunnhordland [Rare and redlisted lichens in the coastal rainforest in South-Western Norway]. - Blyttia, 80: 260–271. .
[in Norwegian with English abstract: ] This article describes 12 species of rare and redlisted crustose lichens which are more or less common in the coastal pine forests in the south-western part of Norway, normally referred to as boreonemoral rainforests due to their occurrence in the boreonemoral climatic zone. Many locations are relatively rich in deciduous trees where these specified lichens are growing on branches and stems of these. The lichens in question are referred to as diagnostic species and are used to identify habitats of temperate rainforest. Temperate rainforest is recognized as one of the most important habitats in in the context of conservation of European beiotopes, and the western coast of Norway together with the western coast of Scotland and Ireland are the most important areas for these lichens in Europe. Many of the locations where they are growing, are situated near to already existing infrastructure, which very easily can be expanded. The most common lichens described here are Pyrenula occidentalis, Arhonia ilicina and Graphis elegans, and the most infrequent ones are Thelothrema macrosporum and Bactrospora homalotropa. The preferences for trees as a substrate for the different lichen species are shown based on around 1250 observations, and some species of lichens seem to be more discriminating to substrate than others.
35323Merges D., Dal Grande F., Valim H., Singh G. & Schmitt I. (2023): Gene abundance linked to climate zone: Parallel evolution of gene content along elevation gradients in lichenized fungi. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 14: 1097787 [8 p.].
Introduction: Intraspecific genomic variability affects a species’ adaptive potential toward climatic conditions. Variation in gene content across populations and environments may point at genomic adaptations to specific environments. The lichen symbiosis, a stable association of fungal and photobiont partners, offers an excellent system to study environmentally driven gene content variation. Many of these species have remarkable environmental tolerances, and often form populations across different climate zones. Here, we combine comparative and population genomics to assess the presence and absence of genes in high and low elevation genomes of two lichenized fungi of the genus Umbilicaria. Methods: The two species have non-overlapping ranges, but occupy similar climatic niches in North America (U. phaea) and Europe (U. pustulata): high elevation populations are located in the cold temperate zone and low elevation populations in the Mediterranean zone. We assessed gene content variation along replicated elevation gradients in each of the two species, based on a total of 2050 individuals across 26 populations. Specifically, we assessed shared orthologs across species within the same climate zone, and tracked, which genes increase or decrease in abundance within populations along elevation. Results: In total, we found 16 orthogroups with shared orthologous genes in genomes at low elevation and 13 at high elevation. Coverage analysis revealed one ortholog that is exclusive to genomes at low elevation. Conserved domain search revealed domains common to the protein kinase superfamily. We traced the discovered ortholog in populations along five replicated elevation gradients on both continents and found that the number of this protein kinase gene linearly declined in abundance with increasing elevation, and was absent in the highest populations. Discussion: We consider the parallel loss of an ortholog in two species and in two geographic settings a rare find, and a step forward in understanding the genomic underpinnings of climatic tolerances in lichenized fungi. In addition, the tracking of gene content variation provides a widely applicable framework for retrieving biogeographical determinants of gene presence/absence patterns. Our work provides insights into gene content variation of lichenized fungi in relation to climatic gradients, suggesting a new research direction with implications for understanding evolutionary trajectories of complex symbioses in relation to climatic change.
35322Fałtynowicz W. & Wierzchołek E. (2023): Pierwsze stanowisko Stereocaulon pileatum Ach. (Stereocaulaceae, Ascomycotina Licheniasti) na niżu polskim [The first locality of Stereocaulon pileatum Ach. (Stereocaulaceae, Ascomycotina Licheniasti) in the Polish lowland]. - Steciana, 27(1): 7–9. doi:10.12657/steciana.027.002.
A new locality of rare lichen species, Stereocaulon pileatum, in the Wielkopolska region was found in 2017 in the vicinity of Wieruszów city. The lichen grew massively on small melaphyre stones on the railway embankment over a lenght of almost 2 kilometers. The optimal habitat conditions are confirmed not only by the mass occurrence, but also by the good health of the thallus and the presence of numerous fruiting bodies. It is a species known in Poland from only 15 sites in the mountains. It is under strict legal protection and having the EN category in the “Red List of Polish Lichens”. Key words: distribution of lichens, rare and endangered species, Wielkopolska region, Poland.
35321Яцына A.П., Чесноков С.В., Конорева Л.А. & Голубков В.В. [Yatsyna A.P., Chesnokov S.V., Konoreva L.A. & Golubkov V.V.] (2023): Ревизия лишайников рода Micarea (Pilocarpaceae) в Беларуси, c ключом для определения видов [A revision of the lichen genus Micarea (Pilocarpaceae) in Belarus, with a key to the species]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 57(1): 107–122.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] As a result of the revision of the herbarium material stored at the V. F. Kuprevich Institute of Experimental Botany of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (MSK), 17 lichen species from the genus Micarea have been identified for Belarus, of which six are reported for the first time for the republic: M. byssacea, M. microareolata, M. nowakii, M. pusilla, M. pseudomicrococca, and M. soralifera. In addition, four other species are known for Belarus according to the literature. In general, the paper provides a list of 21 Micarea species. The distinguishing characters, differences from similar species, distribution in Belarus, as well as phytocoenotic and substrate confinement are discussed for each of them. A key for identification of Micarea species in Belarus is given. Key words: biodiversity, distribution, ecology, secondary metabolites, taxonomy.
35320Chesnokov S.V., Pan’kova V.V. & Konoreva L.A. (2023): Fissurina inabensis (Graphidaceae, Ascomycota), a new record to Russia from Shikotan Island. - Turczaninowia, 26(1): 116–123.
During the study of the lichen biota of Shikotan Island, Fissurinainabensis (Vain.) M. Nakan. et Kashiw. was identified on the basis of morphological and anatomical data. It is the first record to Russia both at a species and at genus level. The phylogenetic analysis based on the ITS sequences of the studied specimens supported the close re-lationship with F. insidiosa C. Knight et Mitt. belonging to the subfamily Fissurinoideae. A detailed description of the morphology, anatomy and secondary metabolites of the studied specimens is given. This species was previously known from Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand, and the area is extended to Shikotan Island where are the northernmost localities of the species. Detection of stictic acid might be variable depending on researchers because of the small amount of the substance. It was well detected using HPLC in this study. Differences in the number and size of ascospores in specimens from Shikotan Island and those from Japan described in the literature are discussed. Keywords: distribution, lichen, phylogeny, Russian Far East, Sakhalin Region, stictic acid.
35319Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2023): Cryptodiscus muriformis (Stictidaceae) и Gyalecta incarnata (Gyalectaceae) – новые виды для лихенофлоры России [Cryptodiscus muriformis (Stictidaceae) and Gyalecta incarnata (Gyalectaceae) – new species for the lichen flora of Russia]. - Turczaninowia, 26(1): 112–115.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Cryptodiscus muriformis and Gyalecta incarnata are reported for the first time for Russia from the Nizhny Novgorod Region and the Murmansk Region, respectively. The locality of G. incarnata in the Khibiny is the first one beyond the Arctic Circle and the northernmost and easternmost in the world. The locality of C. muriformis in the Kerzhensky Nature Reserve is 1600 km away from the nearest known one in Sweden. A full description of C. muriformis in Russian is given. Distinguishing features from related species and the distribution of species in the world are provided. Keywords: distribution, floristic finding, Kerzhensky Nature Reserve, lichen, Murmansk Region, Nizhny Novgorod Region.
35318Lishtva A.V. (2023): Nephromopsis ornata (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) — a new species to Siberia. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 57(1): 75–82.
The discovery of a new for Siberia suboceanic nemoral lichen Nephromopsis ornata is reported. All collected specimens fully correspond to the morphological description of the species and differ from other representatives of the genus in the light-yellow color of the medulla. The new locality is more than 1500 km away from the previously known ones. The habitat conditions and associated species are described. Within the surveyed area, there are also other East Asian lichens with disjunctive ranges — Dolichousnea diffracta and Parmelia shinanoana. At present, this is the extreme northwestern locality of Nephromopsis ornata. Key words: biodiversity, biogeography, lichens, new records, Russia.
35317Sharma S., Joseph S. & Nayaka S. (2022): New records and hosts of lichenicolous fungi from India. - Mycotaxon, 137(3): 603–614.
Eight lichenicolous fungi are reported as new records from India: Cladophialophora aff. megalosporae, Nesolechia falcispora, Phacopsis oxyspora var. defecta, Punctelia oxyspora, Sclerococcum phaeophysciae, Scutula epiblastematica, Spirographa lichenicola, and Zwackhiomyces kantvilasii. Also reported are new hosts for Cladophialophora aff. megalosporae, Nesolechia falcispora, Sclerococcum phaeophysciae, Scutula epiblastematica, and Zwackhiomyces kantvilasii. Key words—biodiversity, Lecanorales, parmelioid lichens, taxonomy.
35316Darmostuk V.V., Khodosovtsev A.Ye. & Kostikov I.Yu. (2022): First lichenicolous records of Chaetopyrena penicillata. - Mycotaxon, 137(3): 591–602.
Chaetopyrena penicillata is reported for the first time as a lichenicolous fungus. A culture and a sequence were obtained from material growing on Xanthoria parietina. Features of the culture on PDA and MEA, the ecology and geography, and the phylogenetic position within Didymellaceae based on an ITS sequence are given. A key to the lichenicolous coelomycetes with setose pycnidia is also provided. Key words—coelomycete, Pleosporales, setose fungi, Southern Ukraine.
35315Pennycook S.R. (2022): Gender of fungal generic names ending in –trema. - Mycotaxon, 137(3): 545–554.
Fungal generic names ending in –trema are reviewed. Most are derived from the latinised Greek neuter noun meaning "perforation; aperture; opening; orifice." However, some are Latin feminine, with –trema referring to a relationship or similarity to Tremella. Key words—etymology, epithet gender, lichens, nomenclature, Tremellales.
35314Zhao Y.-F. & Jia Z.-F. (2022): Astrothelium subsiamense sp. nov. from Fujian, China. - Mycotaxon, 137(3): 477–484.
A new species, Astrothelium subsiamense from China, is described based on morphological, chemical, and molecular analyses. The new lichen is most similar to A. siamense but differs in its 3-septate and smaller ascospores. Its relationship with other Astrothelium spp. is presented, based on molecular phylogeny, and a key to the Astrothelium species recorded in China is also provided. Key words—lichenized fungi, taxonomy, South China, Trypetheliaceae, Trypetheliales.
35313Qiu L.-L. & Lü L. (2022): Lecanora moniliformis sp. nov. from China. - Mycotaxon, 137(3): 465–469.
A new multispored Lecanora species from China is proposed as L. moniliformis, which is similar to L. japonica but differs by its crenate apothecial margin and the presence of psoromic acid. A detailed taxonomic description, ecological and chemical characters, and illustrations are provided for the new taxon, and a key to the multispored species of Lecanora is presented. Keywords: 16-spored; east Asia; Lecanoraceae; lichenized fungi; taxonomy.
35312Kotkova V.M., Czernyadjeva I.V., Davydov E.A., Doroshina G.Ya., Efimov D.Yu., Efimova L.A., Frolov I.V., Gabiger Ya.I., Glushсhenko M.Yu., Gorbunova I.A., Himelbrant D.E., Ignatenko M.E., Kalinina L.B., Kurbatova L.E., Kushnevskaya H.V., Lashchinsky N.N., Lotiev K.Yu., Moroz E.L., Notov A.A., Novozhilov Yu.K., Otmakhov Yu.S., Plikina N.V., Popova N.N., Potemkin A.D., Putilina V.A., Ryzhkova P.Yu., Sambyla Ch.N., Smirnova E.V., Stepanchikova I.S., Storozhenko Yu.V., Troeva E.I., Tsurykau A.G., Vishnyakov V.S., Vlasenko A.V., Vlasenko V.A., Volkova E.A., Volosnova L.F., Yakovchenko L.S., Yatsenko-Stepanova T.N., Zhuykov K.A. & Zueva A.S. (2023): New cryptogamic records. 11. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 57(1): 155–204.
First records of algae for the Orenburg Region and Urals of Russia, for the Republic of Belarus and Georgia, fungi for St. Petersburg, Kemerovo and Novosibirsk regions, republics of Altai and Tuva, Altai, Krasnoyarsk and Trans-Baikal territories, myxomycetes for the Omsk and Tomsk regions, republics of Tuva and Sakha (Yakutia) of Russia and Republic of Belarus, lichens, licheni­colous and allied fungi for the Omsk, Ryazan, Sakhalin and Tver regions, Altai, Khabarovsk and Primorye territories, mosses for St. Petersburg, the Leningrad, Saratov and Tula regions, Stavropol Territory, and New Siberian Islands Archipelago, liverwort for St. Petersburg and Krasnoyarsk Territory are presented. The data on their localities, habitats, distribution are provided. The specimens are kept in the herbaria of the Altai State University (ALTB), the Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBIW), the Komarov Botanical Institute RAS (LE), the Mire Research Group of the Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters of the Russian Academy of Sciences (MIRE), the V. F. Kuprevich Institute of Experimental Botany of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (MSK), the Central Siberian botanical garden SB RAS (NSK), the «Galichya Gora» Nature Reserve (VU), the Georgian National Herbarium at the Institute of Botany of the Ilia State University (TBI), and algological collection in the laboratory of the Algology Group of the Institute for Cellular and Intracellular Symbiosis of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Barcodes ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 fungal nrDNA region of some specimens have been deposited in the GenBank NCBI Key words: Arcyria congesta, Arcyria denudata, Arcyria incarnata, Arcyria minuta, Arrhenia gerardiana, Arthonia biatoricola, Arthonia helvola, Asterophoma mazaediicola, Auricularia americana, Bacidina inundata, Bacidina mendax, Bacidina modesta, Bilimbia lobulata, Blennothallia crispa, Calvatia turneri, Ceriporia bresadolae, Ceriporia torpida, Cerioporus squamosus, Chaenothecopsis pusiola, Cheiromycina petri, Chlorophyceae, Clitocybe amarescens, Cnestrum alpestre, Comatricha cancellata, Comatricha elegans, Comatricha ellae, Comatricha laxa, Comatricha tenerrima, Coniophora arida, Coppinsiella ulcerosa, Cortinarius croceus, Crepidotus cesatii, Crepidotus tobolensis, Cribraria auran­tiaca, Cuphophyllus pratensis, Dentipellis fragilis, Dichotomosiphonaceae, Dichotomosiphon tuberosus, Di­dymium crustaceum, Didymium nullifilum, Echinostelium apitectum, Echinostelium fragile, Echinostelium minutum, Enchylium tenax, Enerthenema papillatum, Fuligo leviderma, Fuligo septica, Fuscidea arboricola, Geastrum fimbriatum, Grimmia muehlenbeckii, Grimmia orbicularis, Gymnopilus luteofolius, Haptophyta, Hemitrichia minor, Hemitrichia pardina, Hemitrichia serpula, Heterocephalacria physciacearum, Heteroradulum kmetii, Hydnomerulius pinastri, Hygrocybe ceracea, Hymenomonas roseola, Hyphoderma setigerum, Kuettlingeria atroflava, Lacrymaria glareosa, Lactarius scoticus, Lamproderma scintillans, Lecanora aitema, Lecanora argentea, Lecanora cenisia, Licea biforis, Lecidella carpathica, Lycogala epidendrum, Lycogala flavofuscum, Marasmius limosus, Melanoleuca polioleuca, Metatrichia vesparia, Metuloidea fragrans, Micarea byssacea, Mycena galericulata, Mycena meliigena, Myrionora albidula, Myurella sibirica, Neofavolus suavissimus, Oligonema favogineum, Oligonema persimile, Ossicaulis lachnopus, Oxyporus philadelphi, Pachyphiale fagicola, Paradiacheopsis fimbriata, Parasola plicatilis, Perichaena quadrata, Perichaena vermicularis, Phaeomarasmius erinaceus, Phaeophyscia pusilloides, Phlebia subochracea, Pholiota polychroa, Physarum auriscalpium, Physarum bivalve, Phy­sarum flavicomum, Physarum viride, Pluteus leoninus, Pluteus leucoborealis, Pluteus rangifer, Pluteus romellii, Pluteus salicinus, Pluteus velutinus, Pluteus umbrosoides, Porostereum spadiceum, Porpidia contraponenda, Radulodon erikssonii, Ramonia himelbrantii, Reticularia splendens, Rhizocarpon rori­dulum, Rhynchostegium rotundifolium, Riccia fluitans, Riccia rhenana, Ricciocarpos natans, Rufoplaca subpallida, Russula medullata, Sarcodontia spumea, Scapania apiculata, Scapania curta, Schisti­dium crassipilum, Sphagnum pulchrum, Staurothele rupifraga, Stemonitis axifera, Stemonitis fusca, Stemonitis splendens, Stemonitopsis typhina, Tricholomopsis flammula, Vaucheria bursata, Vaucheria canalicularis, Vaucheria cruciata, Vaucheria prona, Vaucheria pseudaversa, Vaucheria undulata, Verrucaria muralis, Xanthophyta, Xerocomellus porosporus, agaricoid basidiomycetes, aphyllophoroid fungi, coccoliths, flora, green algae, hepatics, lichenicolous fungi, lichens, mosses, myxomycetes, yellow-green algae, Altai Territory, Bolshekhekhtsirsky Nature Reserve, Brest Region, East Siberia, European Russia, Georgia, Grodno Region, Kakheti Region, Kemerovo Region, Khabarovsk Territory, Krasnoyarsk Territory, Leningrad Region, Minsk, National Park “Narochansky”, New Siberian Islands, Novosibirsk Region, Oksky Biosphere Reserve, Omsk Region, Orenburg Region, Primorye Territory, Republic of Altai, Republic of Belarus, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Republic of Tuva, Russia, Ryazan Region, Sakhalin Island, Sakhalin Region, Salair National Park, Saratov Region, Siberia, South Urals, St. Petersburg, Stavropol Territory, Tchiauri forest, Tomsk Region, Trans-Baikal Territory, Tula Region,Tver Region, West Siberia.
35311Himelbrant D.E., Stepanchikova I.S., Kuznetsova E.S. & Pankova V.V. (2023): Are lichens coming back? Strelninsky Bereg Protected Area (St. Petersburg, Russia). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 57(1): 55–74.
The total revealed lichen diversity of Strelninsky Bereg Protected Area includes 130 species, 123 of them are lichenized, four are lichenicolous, and three are non-lichenized saprobic fungi. The lichen biota of Strelninsky Bereg is quite rich, despite extremely small size of the area. The lichen Lecania olivacella is new to Russia. Bacidina pycnidiata, Fellhanera bouteillei, and Lecidella subviridis are new to North-Western European Russia. Nine lichen species reported from Strelninsky Bereg are red-listed in St. Petersburg. The reappearance of Leptogium saturninum, which was not recorded in St. Petersburg more than last 90 years, could reflect a decline of atmospheric pollution in the city suburbs. Successful occasional reintroduction of foliose lichens Flavoparmelia caperata, Hypotrachyna revoluta, and Punctelia jeckeri could be possible as a result of modern climate change in the region of St. Petersburg and in the World. Key words: lichen biota, new records, protected species, modern climate change, North-West European Russia.
35310Урбанавичене И.Н. & Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichene I.N. & Urbanavichus G.P.] (2023): К лихенофлоре Мантуровского кластера заповедника «Кологривский лес» (Костромская область, Россия) [To the lichen flora of the Manturovskii cluster of the Kologriv Forest Reserve (Kostroma Region, Russia)]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 57(1): 83–105.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The first data on the lichen flora of the Manturovskii cluster of the Kologriv Forest Reserve are provided. In total, 313 species are listed including 278 lichen species, 18 species of lichenicolous, and 17 species non-lichenized saprobic fungi. Sixty five species are recorded for the Kologriv Forest Reserve for the first time; 54 of them newly recorded for the Kostroma Region. Of these, Cryptodiscus pini, Lecanora variolascens, and Micarea isidioprasina are new to Russia; Arthonia destruens, Libertiella fennica, Rostania pallida, Talpapellis beschiana are new to the Central Russia. New localities of three species included in Red Data Book of Russia, Leptogium burnetiae, Lobaria pulmonaria, Menegazzia terebrata are given. Keywords: Cryptodiscus pini, Lecanora variolascens, Micarea isidioprasina, lichens, lichenicolous fungi, new records, Russia.
35309Munzi S., Graca C., Martins D. & Maguas C. (2023): Differential response of two acidophytic lichens to increased reactive nitrogen availability. - Biologia, 2023: 1-9.
Lichens are one of the most responsive components of the ecosystem to reactive forms of nitrogen. In this work, we selected the lichen genera Cladonia and Usnea, composed of terricolous and epiphytic lichens respectively, and described as sensitive to nitrogen, to test the effects of different doses of nitrogen on lichen physiological parameters (photobiont and mycobiont vitality, chitin quantification, nitrogen content and stable isotopes analysis). The main objectives were to check if the activation of protective mechanisms could be stimulated in case of chronic stress (low nitrogen increase for prolonged time), and, if so, if a toxicity threshold could be identified above which these mechanisms fail. The two lichen genera were generally affected by prolonged exposure to increased nitrogen availability. However, Cladonia rangiformis was able to maintain physiological functioning at the lowest nitrogen doses used, whereas thalli of Usnea become overwhelmed. Moreover, the mycobiont appeared to be more sensitive than the photobiont responding to lower nitrogen doses. Although only studies of longer duration and testing more nitrogen doses will be able to determine an accurate toxicity threshold, these results give important clues on the use of lichens as biomonitors for the establishment of environmental policies. Chitin, Cladonia, Ecophysiology, Isotopic signature, Toxicity threshold, Usnea, PHYSIOLOGICAL-RESPONSE, CRITICAL LOADS, TOLERANCE, DEPOSITION, VIABILITY, TRAITS, STRESS, COPPER
35308Krajanova V. (2023): Discoveries and identification methods of metal oxalates in lichens and their mineral associations: A review of past studies and analytical options for lichenologists. - Fungal Biology Reviews, 2023: 1-12.
Lichens are generally acknowledged as the main agents of the initial bioweathering of rock substrates. The most direct evidence of a chemical interaction between lichens and their mineral substrata is the production of oxalic acid, of which interaction with ions present in a close lichen environment occasionally results in the precipitation of metal oxalates. In the past, only a few studies revealed the presence of metal oxalates in lichens, and currently, almost no new discoveries are arriving. Therefore, the main goal of this review is to bring the focus back to this phenomenon. To date, only Mg oxalate dihydrate, Mn oxalate dihydrate, Cu oxalate hemihydrate, Zn oxalate dihydrate, and anhydrous Pb oxalate have been detected in lichens. The most reliable diagnostic methods of metal oxalates in lichens are powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Prospective lichen specimens for investigations may be found in anthropogenically-polluted environment or naturally metal-rich rock substrata. This review acts as an initial guide that provides analytical options for field lichenologists, offers a few suggestions for further research on this matter, and encourages to new biomineral discoveries in the scope of mineralogy. Survival in the metal-toxic environment, ability to produce oxygen, and extremophile nature, are the reasons why lichens are good subjects for research within the context of currently expanding astrobiology sciences, as well. (C) 2022 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Metal oxalate, Lichen, Analytical method, Metal oxalate-associated minerals, FT-RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY, X-RAY-FLUORESCENCE, CALCIUM-OXALATE, ORGANIC-ACIDS, SAXICOLOUS LICHENS, SILICATE MINERALS, CRYSTAL-CHEMISTRY, COPPER OXALATE, ROCKS, MONOHYDRATE
35307Hasan N., Ling J., Abu Bakar M., Seman W., Murad A., Abu Bakar F. & Khalid R. (2023): The Lichen Flavin-Dependent Halogenase, DnHal: Identification, Heterologous Expression and Functional Characterization. - Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 2023: 1-29.
Enzymatic halogenation captures scientific interest considering its feasibility in modifying compounds for chemical diversity. Currently, majority of flavin-dependent halogenases (F-Hals) were reported from bacterial origin, and as far as we know, none from lichenized fungi. Fungi are well-known producers of halogenated compounds, so using available transcriptomic dataset of Dirinaria sp., we mined for putative gene encoding for F-Hal. Phylogenetic-based classification of the F-Hal family suggested a non-tryptophan F-Hals, similar to other fungal F-Hals, which mainly act on aromatic compounds. However, after the putative halogenase gene from Dirinaria sp., dnhal was codon-optimized,cloned, and expressed in Pichia pastoris, the similar to 63 kDa purified enzymeshowed biocatalytic activity towards tryptophan and an aromatic compound methylhaematommate, which gave the tell-tale isotopic pattern of a chlorinated product atm/z 239.0565 and 241.0552; and m/z 243.0074 and 245.0025, respectively. This study is the start of understanding thecomplexities of lichenized fungal F-hals and its ability to halogenate tryptophan andother aromatic. compounds which can be used as green alternatives forbiocatalysis of halogenated compounds. Biocatalysis, Chlorination, Halogenating enzymes, Lichen, Recombinant proteins, Phenolic compounds, PICHIA-PASTORIS, TRYPTOPHAN 6-HALOGENASE, BIOCATALYTIC SCOPE, PROTEIN, BIOSYNTHESIS, MECHANISM, ATRANORIN, PEPTIDE, OXIDASE
35306Gao L., Pare D., Chavardes R. & Bergeron Y. (2023): Initiating the transition from open-canopy lichen woodland to productive forest by transplanting moss, results from a 10-year experiment. - Plant and Soil, 2023: 1-14.
Background and aimsLow productivity open lichen (Cladonia spp.) woodlands have been rapidly expanding in the closed-crown feather moss (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt.) boreal forest of eastern Canada. While open-woodland areas are progressing, there is little information on the recoverability of open lichen woodlands back to closed-canopy forests.MethodsAn experimental set-up using moss transplantation was installed on a poor jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) stand with a lichen ground cover in 2011. Treatments included: 1) lichen cover removed, 2) lichen cover removed and transplantation of a feather moss cover, 3) lichen control, and 4) a natural jack pine site with feather moss cover (moss control). We extracted tree stem increment cores and collected needles and soil samples for nutrient analysis.ResultsThe transplanted-moss treatment can counteract the adverse effects of lichen on jack pine growth. This treatment enhanced foliar nutrition and soil nutrients, especially ammonium (N-NH4+) and nitrate (N-NO3-). With this treatment, the soil conditions (e.g., soil nutrients, soil moisture) and foliar nutrition were closer to that of moss control. Surprisingly, lichen removal treatment did not improve growth and resulted in poorer jack pine growth and harsher soil conditions.ConclusionFeather moss can establish, survive, and remain healthy in an environment previously occupied by lichen. The replacement of lichen by feather moss establishes soil conditions that appear conducive to better tree growth and have the potential of restoring the productivity of boreal forests in open-canopy lichen woodlands. Feather moss, Lichen, Restoration, Recoverability, Jack pine, Boreal forests, YOUNG BLACK SPRUCE, BOREAL FOREST, NITROGEN-FIXATION, ENVIRONMENTAL-FACTORS, GROWTH, STANDS, DISTURBANCES, COMMUNITIES, VEGETATION
35305Chowaniec K., Żukowska‑Trebunia A. & Rola K. (2023): Combined efect of acute salt and nitrogen stress on the physiology of lichen symbiotic partners. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 30: 28192–28205.
Nitrogen pollution and excessive salinity are commonly regarded as one of the major environmental concerns in recent decades in many urban environments. Although in urban areas lichens are exposed to both salt and nitrogen stress, no studies have been conducted to date on the simultaneous impact and interaction of these factors on lichen physiology. The aim was to determine the efect of various combinations of NaCl and NH4NO3 doses on the physiology of epigeic lichen Cladonia rei. We also aimed to compare the response of lichens collected from polluted and unpolluted sites to verify whether lichens exposed to diferent levels of environmental stress in their native environment will react diferently. The combined salt-nitrogen treatment caused signifcant disturbances in the integrity of cell membranes and chlorophyll fuorescence parameters. The most detrimental efect concerned the loss of cell membrane integrity, which suggests that this parameter can serve as a relevant indicator of acute salt-nitrogen stress incidents. Salt stress decreased the photosynthetic efciency 1 h after exposure, but after 72 h, the FV/FM returned to the level characteristic of healthy lichens in experimental groups without and with small doses of ammonium nitrate. In contrast, recovery was not possible in combination with high nitrogen doses. This indicates that exposure to short-term salt stress in a nitrogen-poor environment only causes a temporary reduction in photosynthetic efciency, but in urban eutrophic environments may have more serious consequences. The weakened physiological condition of the mycobiont manifested by an increased level of cell membrane damage and a persistent decrease in the photosynthetic efciency of the photobiont in lichens growing along the roads may indicate an excess of nitrogen in the environment, enhanced by the efect of salt. Lichens collected from a heavy-metal-polluted habitat responded more strongly than those from an unpolluted habitat suggesting that in lichens previously afected by certain harmful factors, exposure to another stress factor may lead to greater disturbances. This is of particular importance for lichens inhabiting the vicinity of roads, since they are also under the infuence of other pollutants emitted by road trafc. Keywords: Cell membrane integrity · Chlorophyll fuorescence · Lichens · Nitrogen excess · PSII maximal quantum yield · Salt stress.
35304Lalremruata P.C., Singh P. & Lalfakzuala R. (2023): Eleven new records of lichen to the state of Mizoram, Indo-Myanmar biodiversity hot spot region, India. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences, 93(1): 205–211.
The paper reports the occurrence of eleven species of crustose and foliose lichens for the first time to the state of Mizoram in northeast India. During the course of lichen exploration in the state of Mizoram, the authors collected lichen specimens from Tawi Wildlife Sanctuary, Mizoram, India. After critical examination and thorough consolation of literature, it revealed that 11 species have been discovered as new additions to the lichen flora of the state. The species include Bacidia connexula (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Baculifera curtisii (Tuck.) Marbach, Flavoplaca citrina (Hoffm.) Arup, Fröden and Søchting, Herpothallon philippinum (Vain.) Aptroot and Lücking, Leptogium delavayi Hue., Letrouitia trangressa (Malme) Haff. and Bellem, Pertusaria pertusa (L.) Tuck, Pertusaria pseudococcodes Müll Arg., Pyrenula andina Aptroot, Sticta fuliginosa Hoffm. Ach. and Trichothelium epiphyllum Müll. Arg. are described. A brief description of each speccies is provided with distribution, and well supported by illustrations. Keywords : Crustose ; Foliose ; Forests ; New addition ; Mizoram ; Northeast India.
35303Nguyen V.-K., Dong P.-S.-N., Nguyen‑Si H.-V., Sangvichien E., Tran T.-N., Hoang L.-T.-T.-T., Dao M.-T., Nguyen-Hai, Phan H.-V.-T., Yusuke H., Mitsunaga T. & Chavasiri W. (2023): Eumitrins I–K: three new xanthone dimers from the lichen Usnea baileyi. - Journal of Natural Medicines, 77: 403–411.
In the continuing discovery and structure elucidation of natural xanthone dimers, which are still rarely reported in absolute confguration, three new xanthone dimers, eumitrins I–K (1–3) were isolated from the lichen Usnea baileyi, a rich source of natural xanthone dimers. Their structures were elucidated unambiguously by spectroscopic analyses, including high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS), 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1D and 2D NMR). The absolute confguration of all three compounds was established through DP4 probability and ECD calculation. All compounds revealed weak activity for their enzymatic inhibition against α-glucosidase and tyrosinase, as well as antibacterial activity. Keywords: Lichen · Usnea baileyi · Dimeric xanthone · α-Glucosidase · Enzyme inhibitory · Antibacterial.
35302Chiva S., Moya P. & Barreno E. (2023): Lichen phycobiomes as source of biodiversity for microalgae of the Stichococcus-like genera. - Biologia, 78: 389–397.
The term phycobiome was recently introduced to designate all the microalgae (primary or non-primary) associated with lichen symbioses. Abundant non-primary symbiotic microalgae are usually obtained from lichen isolations, confirming that thalli are a source of biodiversity and new species. In this study, microalgae were isolated from thalli of Buellia zoharyi, Ramalina farinacea and Parmotrema pseudotinctorum collected in the Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands. Excluding Trebouxia phycobionts, 17 strains similar to Stichococcus (Prasiola clade) were obtained. Molecular identification was carried out by nuclear ITS sequencing, and a phylogenetic tree was generated from these sequences, and grouping them into 4 clades: Diplosphaera chodatti, Diplosphaera sp.1. Deuterostichocuccus sp.1. and Tritostichococcus coniocybes. It is also noteworthy that Diplosphaera sp.1 was detected and isolated from three phylogenetically distant lichenized fungi (B. zoharyi, R. farinacea and P. pseudotinctorum), which were sampled in ecologically different localities, namely Tenerife, La Gomera and Castellón. These results reinforce the idea of the constant presence of certain microalgae associated with the lichen thalli which, despite not being the main primary photobiont, probably form part of the lichen’s phycobiomes. Keywords : Isolation · Phylogeny · Prasiola clade Trebouxiophyceae.
35301Chen X., Yan D., Yu L. & Zhang T. (2023): An integrative study of mycobiome in different habitats from a High Arctic region: diversity, distribution, and functional role. - Journal of Fungi, 9(4): 437 [13 p.].
In the Arctic ecosystems, fungi are crucial for interactions between soil and plants, the cycling of nutrients, and the transport of carbon. To date, no studies have been conducted to thoroughly examine the mycobiome and its functional role in various habitats of the High Arctic region. The aim was to unravel the mycobiome in the nine habitats (i.e., soil, lichen, vascular plant, moss, freshwater, seawater, marine sediment, dung, and marine alga) in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic) using a high-throughput sequencing approach. A total of 10,419 ASVs were detected. Among them, 7535 ASVs were assigned to unidentified phyla, while the remaining 2884 ASVs were assigned to 11 phyla, 33 classes, 81 orders, 151 families, 278 genera, and 261 species that were known. The distribution of the mycobiome was driven by habitat specificity, indicating that habitat filtering is a crucial factor influencing the fungal assemblages at a local scale in this High Arctic region. Six growth forms and 19 fungal guilds were found. The ecological guild (e.g., lichenized, ectomycorrhizal) and growth form (e.g., yeast, thallus photosynthetic) varied significantly among various habitats. In addition, the occurrence of 31 fungal species that are considered to be potential pathogens was determined. These results will increase our understanding of fungal diversity and its functional significance in this distinctive High Arctic area and thereby establish the groundwork for prediction about how the mycobiome will alter in various environments as a result of anticipated climate change. Keywords: fungal diversity; high arctic; habitat specificity; functional role.
35300Hardouin M.E. & Hargreaves A.L. (2023): Mapping nationally and globally at-risk species to identify hotspots for (and gaps in) conservation. - Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 290(1995): 20222307 [11 p.].
Protecting habitat of species at risk is critical to their recovery, but can be contentious. For example, protecting species that are locally imperilled but globally common is often thought to distract from protecting globally imperilled species. However, such perceived trade-offs are based on the assumption that threatened groups have little spatial overlap, which is rarely quantified. We compiled range maps of terrestrial species at risk in Canada to assess the geographic overlap of nationally and globally at-risk species with each other, among taxonomic groups, and with protected areas. While many nationally at-risk taxa only occur in Canada at their northern range edge, they are not significantly more peripheral in Canada than globally at-risk species. Further, 56% of hotspots of nationally at-risk taxa are also hotspots of globally at-risk species, undercutting the perceived trade-off in their protection. While strong spatial overlap across threat levels and taxa should facilitate efficient habitat protection, less than 7% of the area in Canada's at-risk hotspots is protected, and two-thirds of nationally and globally at-risk species in Canada have less than 10% of their Canadian range protected. Our results counter the perception that protecting nationally versus globally at-risk species are at odds, and identify critical areas to target as Canada strives to increase its protected areas and promote recovery of species at risk. Keywords: species at risk, protected areas, conservationhotspots, peripheral species, Canada. [p. 5-6; 3. Results. (a) Hotspots of at-risk taxa. ] "In Canada, hotspots of nationally at-risk taxa generally clustered along the southern border (figure 1). This was true for most taxonomic groups, with the notable exceptions of at-risk mammals, whose diversity hotspots followed the western mountains, and at-risk lichens, whose hotspots were mostly coastal."
35299Stevens C.J., Bell J.N.B., Brimblecombe P., Clark C.M., Dise N.B., Fowler D., Lovett G.M. & Wolseley P.A. (2020): The impact of air pollution on terrestrial managed and natural vegetation. - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 378: 20190317 [18 p.].
Although awareness that air pollution can damage vegetation dates back at least to the 1600s, the processes and mechanisms of damage were not rigorously studied until the late twentieth century. In the UK following the Industrial Revolution, urban air quality became very poor, with highly phytotoxic SO2 and NO2 concentrations, and remained that way until the mid-twentieth century. Since then both air quality, and our understanding of pollutants and their impacts, have greatly improved. Air pollutants remain a threat to natural and managed ecosystems. Air pollution imparts impacts through four major threats to vegetation are discussed through in a series of case studies. Gas-phase effects by the primary emissions of SO2 and NO2 are discussed in the context of impacts on lichens in urban areas. The effects of wet and dry deposited acidity from sulfur and nitrogen compounds are considered with a particular focus on forest decline. Ecosystem eutrophication by nitrogen deposition focuses on heathland decline in the Netherlands, and ground-level ozone at phytotoxic concentrations is discussed by considering impacts on semi-natural vegetation. We find that, although air is getting cleaner, there is much room for additional improvement, especially for the effects of eutrophication on managed and natural ecosystems. Keywords: acid deposition, ammonia, nitrogen, ozone, sulfur.
35298Sutton M.A., van Dijk N., Levy P.E., Jones M.R., Leith I.D., Sheppard L.J., Leeson S., Tang X.S., Stephens A., Braban C.F., Dragosits U., Howard C.M., Vieno M., Fowler D., Corbett P., Naikoo M.I., Munzi S., Ellis C.J., Chatterjee S., Steadman C.E., Móring A. & Wolseley P.A. (2020): Alkaline air: changing perspectives on nitrogen and air pollution in an ammonia-rich world. - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 378: 20190315 [21 p.].
Ammonia and ammonium have received less attention than other forms of air pollution, with limited progress in controlling emissions at UK, European and global scales. By contrast, these compounds have been of significant past interest to science and society, the recollection of which can inform future strategies. Sal ammoniac (nūshādir, nao sha) is found to have been extremely valuable in long-distance trade (ca AD 600–1150) from Egypt and China, where 6–8 kg N could purchase a human life, while air pollution associated with nūshādir collection was attributed to this nitrogen form. Ammonia was one of the keys to alchemy—seen as an early experimental mesocosm to understand the world—and later became of interest as ‘alkaline air’ within the eighteenth century development of pneumatic chemistry. The same economic, chemical and environmental properties are found to make ammonia and ammonium of huge relevance today. Successful control of acidifying SO2 and NOx emissions leaves atmospheric NH3 in excess in many areas, contributing to particulate matter (PM2.5) formation, while leading to a new significance of alkaline air, with adverse impacts on natural ecosystems. Investigations of epiphytic lichens and bog ecosystems show how the alkalinity effect of NH3 may explain its having three to five times the adverse effect of ammonium and nitrate, respectively. It is concluded that future air pollution policy should no longer neglect ammonia. Progress is likely to be mobilized by emphasizing the lost economic value of global N emissions ($200 billion yr−1), as part of developing the circular economy for sustainable nitrogen management. Keywords: alkaline air, nitrogen, nūshādir, lichens, ecosystem recovery, circular economy.
35297Seminara A., Fritz J., Brenner M.P. & Pringle A. (2018): A universal growth limit for circular lichens. - Journal of The Royal Society Interface, 15(143): 20180063 [8 p.].
Lichens fix carbon dioxide from the air to build biomass. Crustose and foliose lichens grow as nearly flat, circular disks. Smaller individuals grow slowly, but with small, steady increases in radial growth rate over time. Larger individuals grow more quickly and with a roughly constant radial velocity maintained over the lifetime of the lichen. We translate the coffee drop effect to model lichen growth and demonstrate that growth patterns follow directly from the diffusion of carbon dioxide in the air around a lichen. When a lichen is small, carbon dioxide is fixed across its surface, and the entire thallus contributes to radial growth, but when a lichen is larger carbon dioxide is disproportionately fixed at the edges of an individual, which are the primary drivers of growth. Tests of the model against data suggest it provides an accurate, robust, and universal framework for understanding the growth dynamics of both large and small lichens in nature. Keywords: coffee drop effect, fungi, growth rate, lichenometry, microbiology, population biology.
35296Rolshausen G., Hallman U., Dal Grande F., Otte J., Knudsen K. & Schmitt I. (2020): Expanding the mutualistic niche: parallel symbiont turnover along climatic gradients. - Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Science, 287: 20192311 [9 p.].
Keystone mutualisms, such as corals, lichens or mycorrhizae, sustain fundamental ecosystem functions. Range dynamics of these symbioses are, however, inherently difficult to predict because host species may switch between different symbiont partners in different environments, thereby altering the range of the mutualism as a functional unit. Biogeographic models of mutualisms thus have to consider both the ecological amplitudes of various symbiont partners and the abiotic conditions that trigger symbiont replacement. To address this challenge, we here investigate ‘symbiont turnover zones’ –– defined as demarcated regions where symbiont replacement is most likely to occur, as indicated by overlapping abundances of symbiont ecotypes. Mapping the distribution of algal symbionts from two species of lichen-forming fungi along four independent altitudinal gradients, we detected an abrupt and consistent β-diversity turnover suggesting parallel niche partitioning. Modelling contrasting environmental response functions obtained from latitudinal distributions of algal ecotypes consistently predicted a confined altitudinal turnover zone. In all gradients this symbiont turnover zone is characterized by approximately 12°C average annual temperature and approximately 5°C mean temperature of the coldest quarter, marking the transition from Mediterranean to cool temperate bioregions. Integrating the conditions of symbiont turnover into biogeographic models of mutualisms is an important step towards a comprehensive understanding of biodiversity dynamics under ongoing environmental change. Keywords: mutualist-mediated effects, facilitation, range predictions, beta-diversity turnover, altitude-for-latitude, lichen symbiosis.
35295Crittenden P.D., Ellis C.J., Smith R.I., Wanek W. & Thornton B. (2023): Loss of nitrogen fixing capacity in a montane lichen is linked to increased nitrogen deposition. - Journal of Ecology, 111: 280–299.
The circumboreal/circumpolar N2-fixing lichen Stereocaulon vesuvianum is among the most widespread and abundant fruticose species in montane Britain but has lost the capacity to fix N2 over large areas of the country. To investigate whether loss of N2-fixation in S. vesuvianum is linked to increased N deposition, we examined thallus morphology, physiology and chemistry at twelve locations representing an N deposition gradient of 3–40 kg ha−1 year−1. Measurements were made in parallel on a non-N2-fixing reference species (Parmelia saxatilis). The presence or absence of cephalodia (N2-fixing nodules containing the cyanobacterium Stigonema sp) was recorded in over 500 herbarium specimens of S. vesuvianum dating back to 1820. Cephalodium abundance in S. vesuvianum, and 15N concentration in S. vesuvianum and P. saxatilis, were strongly negatively correlated with N deposition and particularly with dry deposited N; cephalodia do not form at total N deposition rates ≥8–9 kg ha−1 year−1. Other morphological oddities in S. vesuvianum at N-polluted sites include increased apothecium (fungal reproductive structure) production and green algal biofilm development. Biofilm covered thalli without cephalodia lacked nitrogenase activity and cephalodia at sites where they rarely develop had nitrogenase activities typical for this species. The presence or absence of cephalodia in herbarium specimens of S. vesuvianum suggest that the present-day N-deposition linked gradient in N2-fixing capacity did not exist in the 19th century and largely developed between 1900–1940. Synthesis. We provide clear evidence that N2-fixing capacity in S. vesuvianum has been lost in regions subjected to many decades of enhanced atmospheric N deposition. This loss is consistent with established models of diazotrophy, which identify supply of combined N as an inhibitor of N2-fixation. Progressive depletion of thallus 15N with increasing N deposition is in line with available data indicating that much atmospheric N pollution is 15N-depleted. Rates of nitrogenase activity in S. vesuvianum are low compared to other symbiotic systems and perhaps more likely supplanted by elevated N deposition. We suggest that other ecosystem compartments with low rates of fixation (e.g. soils) might also be susceptible to N pollution and merit investigation. Keywords: 15N natural abundance, cephalodia, herbarium specimens, lichens, nitrogen deposition, nitrogen fixation, Stereocaulon vesuvianum.
35294Almer J., Resl P., Gudmundsson H., Warshan D., Andrésson Ó.S. & Werth S. (2023): Symbiont-specific responses to environmental cues in a threesome lichen symbiosis. - Molecular Ecology, 32: 1045–1061.
Photosymbiodemes are a special case of lichen symbiosis where one lichenized fungus engages in symbiosis with two different photosynthetic partners, a cyanobacterium and a green alga, to develop two distinctly looking photomorphs. We compared gene expression of thallus sectors of the photosymbiodeme-forming lichen Peltigera britannica containing cyanobacterial photobionts with thallus sectors with both green algal and cyanobacterial photobionts and investigated differential gene expression at different temperatures representing mild and putatively stressful conditions. First, we quantified photobiont-mediated differences in fungal gene expression. Second, because of known ecological differences between photomorphs, we investigated symbiont-specific responses in gene expression to temperature increases. Photobiont-mediated differences in fungal gene expression could be identified, with upregulation of distinct biological processes in the different morphs, showing that interaction with specific symbiosis partners profoundly impacts fungal gene expression. Furthermore, high temperatures expectedly led to an upregulation of genes involved in heat shock responses in all organisms in whole transcriptome data and to an increased expression of genes involved in photosynthesis in both photobiont types at 15 and 25°C. The fungus and the cyanobacteria exhibited thermal stress responses already at 15°C, the green algae mainly at 25°C, demonstrating symbiont-specific responses to environmental cues and symbiont-specific ecological optima. Keywords: differential gene expression, heat stress, Peltigera britannica (lichenized ascomycetes), photosymbiodemes, symbiotic interactions.
35293Kasprzyk I. (2023): Forensic botany: who?, how?, where?, when?. - Science and Justice, 63: 258–275.
Plants are a good source of biological forensic evidence; this is due to their ubiquity, their ability to collect reference material, and their sensitivity to environmental changes. However, in many countries, botanical evidence is recognised as being scientifically. Botanical evidence is not mostly used for perpertration, instead it tends to serve as circumstantial evidence. Plant materials constitute the basis, among others, for linking a suspect or object to a crime scene or a victim, confirming or not confirming an alibi, determining the post-mortem interval, and determining the origin of food/object. Forensic botany entails field work, knowledge of plants, understanding ecosystem processes, and a basis understaning of geoscience. In this study, experiments with mammal cadavers were conducted to determine the occurence of an event. The simplest criterion characterising botanical evidence is its size. Therefore, macroremains include whole plants or their larger fragments (e.g. tree bark, leaves, seeds, prickles, and thorns), whereas microscopic evidence includes palynomorphs (spores and pollen grains), diatoms, and tissues. Botanical methods allow for an analysis to be repeated multiple times and the test material is easy to collect in the field. Forensic botany can be supplemented with molecular analyses, which, although specific and sensitive, still require validation. Keywords: Forensic botany ; Botanical evidence ; Macroremains ; Palynomorphs.
35292Pinna D., Mazzotti V., Gualtieri S., Voyron S., Andreotti A. & Favero-Longo S.E. (2023): Damaging and protective interactions of lichens and biofilms on ceramic dolia and sculptures of the International Museum of Ceramics, Faenza, Italy. - Science of the Total Environment, 877: 162607 [16 p.].
Although ceramic objects are an important part of the worldwide cultural heritage, few investigations on the effects of lithobiontic growth on their outdoor conservation are available in the literature. Many aspects of the interaction between lithobionts and stones are still unknown or strongly debated, as in the case of equilibria between biodeterioration and bioprotection. This paper describes research on the colonization by lithobionts on outdoor ceramic Roman dolia and contemporary sculptures of the International Museum of Ceramics, Faenza (Italy). Accordingly, the study i) characterized the mineralogical composition and petrographic structure of the artworks, ii) performed porosimetric measurements, iii) identified lichen and microbial diversity, iv) elucidated the interaction of the lithobionts with the substrates. Moreover, v) the measurements of variability in stone surface hardness and in water absorption of colonized and uncolonized areas were collected to assess damaging and/or protective effects by the lithobionts. The investigation showed how the biological colonization depends on physical properties of the substrates as well on climatic conditions of environments in which the ceramic artworks are located. The results indicated that lichens Protoparmeliopsis muralis and Lecanora campestris may have a bioprotective effect on ceramics with high total porosity and pores with very small diameters, as they poorly penetrate the substrate, do not negatively affect surface hardness and are able to reduce the amount of absorbed water limiting the water ingress. By contrast, Verrucaria nigrescens, here widely found in association with rock-dwelling fungi, deeply penetrate terracotta causing substrate disaggregation, with negative consequences on surface hardness and water absorption. Accordingly, a careful evaluation of the negative and positive effects of lichens must be carried out before deciding their removal. Regarding biofilms, their barrier efficacy is related to their thickness and composition. Even if thin, they can impact negatively on substrates enhancing the water absorption in comparison to uncolonized parts. Keywords: Outdoor ceramic artworks; Archaeometry; Porosity; Lithobionts; Biodeterioration; Bioprotection; Black meristematic fungi; Bioreceptivity; Metabarcoding.
35291Vereshchagin O.S., Frank-Kamenetskaya O.V., Vlasov D.Yu., Zelenskaya M.S., Rodina O.A., Chernyshova I.A., Himelbrant D.E., Stepanchikova I.S. & Britvin S.N. (2023): Microbial biomineralization under extreme conditions: Case study of basaltic rocks, Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. - Catena, 226: 107048 [14 p.].
Microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and others) are considered to be the pioneers of the settlement under extreme conditions and take an active part in biomineralization and soil formation. We studied biofilms and for the first time identified the presence of microbial biomineralization in extreme conditions of Tolbachik Volcano area, Russia. Rock samples with lichen / cyanobacteria biofilms were studied by a complex of methods (optical and scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). We found that the acidic environment of biofilms favor oxalate biomineralization under the action of lichens and suppresses the carbonate biomineralization under the action of cyanobacteria. Calcium (whewellite, Ca(C2O4)·H2O, and weddellite, Ca(C2O4)·(2.5-x)H2O (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25)) and copper oxalates (moolooite, Cu(C2O4)·nH2O) were found in lichen biofilms. Direct relationship between the age of lichen and intense of biomineralization was discovered. It was shown that the lichens not only extract calcium and heavy metals (Cu, Pb) from the basaltic rock (both in situ and from weathered particles of the same rock brought by the wind) but increase their content in biofilm. The lichen species Psilolechia leprosa, Sarcogyne hypophaea, Rinodina cf. gennarii, and Ochrolechia subplicans subsp. subplicans can form oxalates. It was also found that (1) calcium and copper oxalates can be localized in the same lichen, (2) the species producing oxalic acid do not always produce oxalates and (3) the ratio of whewellite and weddellite formed by the same species lichen can vary significantly. Obtained results show high abundancy of biomineralization in terrestrial environment, including extreme and provide some insights into mechanisms of microbial biomineralization.
35290Ikeda M.A., Nakamura H. & Sawada K. (2023): Aliphatic hydrocarbons in the lichen class Lecanoromycetes and their potential use as chemotaxonomic indicators and biomarkers. - Organic Geochemistry, 179: 104588 [11 p.].
Lichens are found in a wide range of terrestrial habitats and have important roles in terrestrial ecosystems. However, because lichens are easily decomposed and are rarely preserved as fossils, their paleoenvironmental ecology and evolutionary history remain a mystery. We performed lipid analyses on 29 lichen samples belonging to Lecanoromycetes, the largest class of lichens, from several locations in Japan, to determine their potential for use as taxonomic tools and biomarkers. We found that the lichens contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, including n-alkanes, alkenes, and long-chain branched alkanes, fernenes, diploptene, and hop-21-ene. Lichens with a green algal photobiont (photosynthetic symbiotic algae) contained 1,8-heptadecadiene or 6,9-heptadecadiene and 8- and 7-heptadecene, whereas lichens with cyanobacteria as a photobiont did not contain the heptadecadienes but did contain octadecene, nonadecene and nonadecadiene. These differences in characteristics could be attributed to phylogenetic differences in the photobionts that comprised the lichens, indicating that the alkene composition could be used for lichen chemotaxonomy. Although additional research is needed to confirm that this signal gets preserved in sedimentary archives, our results suggest a previously unknown origin for the C17–C19 alkenes in sediments and imply that these components could be used to reconstruct the past composition of lichens. Keywords: Lecanoromycetes ; Lichens ; Hydrocarbons ; Alkenes ; Chemotaxonomy.
35289Marginson H., MacMillan G.A., Grant E., Gérin-Lajoie J. & Amyot M. (2023): Rare earth element bioaccumulation and cerium anomalies in biota from the Eastern Canadian subarctic (Nunavik). - Science of The Total Environment, 879: 163024 [12 p.].
Recent increases in the demand for rare earth elements (REE) have contributed to various countries' interest in exploration of their REE deposits, including within Canada. Current limited knowledge of REE distribution in undisturbed subarctic environments and their bioaccumulation within northern species is addressed through a collaborative community-based environmental monitoring program in Nunavik (Quebec, Canada). This study provides background REE values (lanthanides + yttrium) and investigates REE anomalies (i.e., deviations from standard pattern) across terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems in an area where a REE mining project is in development. Results are characteristic of a biodilution of REE, with the highest mean total REE concentrations (ΣREE) reported in sediments (102 nmol/g) and low trophic level organisms (i.e., biofilm, macroalgae, macroinvertebrates, common mussels, and reindeer lichens; 101–102 nmol/g), and the lowest mean concentrations in higher-level consumers (i.e., goose, ptarmigan, char, whitefish, cod, sculpin and seal; 10−2 - 101 nmol/g). The animal tissues are of importance to northern villages and analyses demonstrate a species-specific bioaccumulation of REE, with mean concentrations up to 40 times greater in liver compared to muscle, with bones and kidneys presenting intermediate concentrations and the lowest in blubber. Further, a tissue-specific fractionation was presented, with significant light REE (LREE) enrichment compared to heavy REE (HREE) in consumer livers (LREE/HREE ≅ 101) and the most pronounced negative cerium (Ce) anomalies (
35288Харпухаева Т.М. [Kharpukhaeva T.M.] (2021): Биогеографический анализ лишайников Баунтовского района (Республика Бурятия) [The biogeographic analysis of lichens of Baunt District (Republic of Buryatia)]. - Проблемы ботаники Южной Сибири и Монголии [Problems of Botany of South Siberia and Mongolia], 20(2): 210–214.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The article presentes data analysis of lichens of the Baunt District of the Republic of Buryatia. This region is characterized by a significant area, geomorphological heterogeneity of the surface, an extreme climate and interesting local ecosystems. Local lichens belong to the mountain-boreal biota, since the area is located in the boreal zone of the Hol-arctic. Lichen flora represents different phytogeographical patterns with residual and consistent interchange of vegetation formations. The most lichen species are concentrated in the areas of rock outcrops, especially carbonate outcrops. In extreme conditions, epiphytic lichens grow in shelters on various substrates in a medium-scale ecosystem: inside rocks, near thermal springs, in mountain forest valleys or on slopes exposed to the sun. The valleys that were not glaciated during the Quaternary period serve as shelters for the rare species of tropical and non-moral origin. As a result of the conducted research, several rare and vulnerable species of lichens have been identified, listed in the Red Books of various ranks.
35287Черепенина Д.А. & Мучник Е.Э. [Cherepenina D.A. & Muchnik E.E.] (2021): К изучению лихенофлоры парков музея-заповедника Д. И. Менделеева и А. А. Блока (Московская область) [To the study of lichen flora of the parks of the museum-reserve D. I. Mendeleev and A. A. Blok (Moscow oblast)]. - Проблемы ботаники Южной Сибири и Монголии [Problems of Botany of South Siberia and Mongolia], 20(2): 159–169.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The results of lichenological research conducted for the first time in the parks of the museum-reserve D.I. Mendeleev and A. A. Blok (Moscow oblast): «Shakhmatovo» (39.2 ha), «Tarakanovo» (4.5 ha), «Boblovo» (25.4 ha) are presented. 122 species: 115 lichens, 6 non-lichenized fungi and a lichenicolous fungus from 58 genera included in 30 families were identified. 103 species were found in «Shakhmatovo», 61 species in «Tarakanovo» and 60 species in «Boblovo». Findings of Alyxoria culmigena («Shakhmatovo»), Lecanora subcarpinea («Tarakanovo»), Peridiothelia fuliguncta, Toniniopsis separabilis («Shakhmatovo»), Xanthocarpia crenulatella («Shakhmatovo», «Tarakanovo», «Boblovo») are new for the Moscow Region. The spectrum of the first five leading families of the park lichen flora of the museum-reserve D. I. Mendeleev and A. A. Blok is close to that of natural forest communities, which, coupled with the completeness of the spectrum of ecobiomorphs and eco-logical-substrate groups, the presence of species of natural forest lichen flora, rare and indicator species characterizes the condition of the studied lichen flora as close to natural zonal, with a slight level of anthropogenic transformation. Keywords: Biodiversity, indicator species, lichens and allied fungi, Moscow Region, old park, rare species, Red Data Book.
35286Харпухаева Т.М. [Kharpukhaeva T.M.] (2021): Лишайники в окрестностях алюминиевых комбинатов Иркутской области [The lichens in aluminum plants vicinities of Irkutsk region]. - Проблемы ботаники Южной Сибири и Монголии [Problems of Botany of South Siberia and Mongolia], 20(1): 470–473.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The aim of our work was to assess the diversity of lichens in the forests polluted by the air emissions fromthe Bratsk (BRAZ), Irkutsk (IRKAZ) and Taishet (TAZ) aluminum smelters, as well as in the background (non-polluted)territories, similar to those by natural and forest-growing conditions. 102 wide-distributed lichen species were found onplots. This amount is due to the fact that the wood tier is sparse and forophytes composition is depleted. The lichen diversity varies in different types of vegetation and according to the influence of anthropogenic factors. Species diversity in vicinities of smelters and in buffer zones are similar, excluding control zones with dark-conifers forests. It’s established that as wemove closer to the aluminum plants – to the IRKAZ and especially BRAZ, the projective cover, the total number of speciesdecreases, and their species composition changes. Clear morphological changes of lichen thalloma were observed in theimpact zone of the BRAZ. Relatively resistant to atmospheric pollution lichens are found in the impact and buffer zonesin vicinities of plants. Lichens are absent in the crowns and trunks, but their abundance increases on bases of trees trunks. Keywords: Atmospheric pollution, epiphytic and epigeic lichens.
35285Пауков А.Г., Скопинцева Е.Е., Давыдов Е.А. & Яковченко Л.С. [Paukov A.G., Kruglova E.P., Pryakhina V.I., Sinenko O.S. & Teptina A.Y.] (2021): Изучение разнообразия рода Pertusaria s. l. (лихенизированные аскомицеты) на Хоккайдо [Studies of the diversity of genus Pertusaria s.l. (lichenized ascomycetes) on Hokkaido]. - Проблемы ботаники Южной Сибири и Монголии [Problems of Botany of South Siberia and Mongolia], 20(1): 343–344.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The study of biodiversity of lichens in Hokkaido, Japan, revealed seven species of genus Pertusaria s. l., sixof which are new to the island or whole Japan. The full list of species of Pertusaria s. str. and Lepra known from Hokkaidocomprises 18 species. Keywords: Far East, Japan, Pertusariales, secondary metabolites.
35284Пауков А.Г., Круглова Е.П., Пряхина В.И., Синенко О.С. & Тептина А.Ю. [Paukov A.G., Kruglova E.P., Pryakhina V.I., Sinenko O.S. & Teptina A.Y.] (2021): Накопление элементов в талломах представителей рода Circinaria Link (лихенизированные аскомицеты) в аридных местообитаниях [Accumulation of elements in thalli of representatives of genus Circinaria Link (lichenized ascomycetes) in arid habitats]. - Проблемы ботаники Южной Сибири и Монголии [Problems of Botany of South Siberia and Mongolia], 20(1): 341–342.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Elemental profiles were studied in thalli of a representative of Circinaria from Bogdinsko-Baskunchakskiyreserve (Astrakhan region, Russia). The highest concentration of iron, silica and aluminium were found in the cortex ofthe thalli. In the deeper layers the concentration of the elements decreases but the concentration of aluminium does notdepend on the depth. Iron and aluminium in thalli may act as filters for UV-B as well as heat insulators. Keywords: Adaptation, Aspicilia desertorum, Megasporaceae, metal accumulation.
35283Кутенков С.А. & Тарасова В.Н. [Kutenkov S.A. & Tarasova V.N.] (2021): Разнообразие лишайников, мхов и сосудистых растений в ельниках болотно-травяных Пинего-Мезенского междуречья (Архангельская область) [Diversity of lichens, mosses and vascular plants in the paludified herb-rich spruce forests of the Pinego-Mezen watershed (Arkhangelsk Region)]. - Проблемы ботаники Южной Сибири и Монголии [Problems of Botany of South Siberia and Mongolia], 20(1): 255–260. .
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The paludified herb-rich spruce forests of the Pinego-Mezen watershed are characterized by a high speciesand coenotical diversity. The habitat type (floodplain, stream valley, mire margin) is the main compositional gradientfor vascular plant and moss diversity. The density, basal area and proportion of spruce and deciduous species in thetree stand are less significant. The main compositional gradient of the lichen diversity is the tree stand structure, whichprovides the availability and quality of the substrate for the epiphytic and epixilic lichens that prevail in such communities.The gradient of paludified herb-rich spruce forests from floodplain habitat to mire margins is less significant for thecomposition of lichen flora. Keywords: Biological diversity, floodplains, forested mires, gradient analysis, NMS, old-growth forests.
35282Андросова В.И. & Чернышева Т.Н. [Androsova V.I. & Chernisheva T.N.] (2021): Эпифитный лишайниковый покров коллекционных насаждений арборетума Ботанического сада Петрозаводского государственного университета [Epiphytic lichen cover of collection trees of arboretum of the Botanical Garden of Petrozavodsk State University]. - Проблемы ботаники Южной Сибири и Монголии [Problems of Botany of South Siberia and Mongolia], 20(1): 23–27.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] At present, 264 species of lichens and allied fungi have been recorded for the territory of the BotanicalGarden of Petrozavodsk State University (Republic of Karelia) and 112 species have been found in its arboretum, wheremore than 200 species of introduced trees grow. The paper presents the results of studying the features of the epiphyticlichen cover of the collection trees of the arboretum of the Botanical Garden of PetrSU (Republic of Karelia). Results of thestudy are based on 1662 descriptions of the epiphytic lichen cover on 209 trees of coniferous species and 1150 descriptions –on 143 deciduous introduced species.The average total projective cover of lichens on the trunks of the studied coniferous introduced species reaches 18 % atthe trunk base, and 19 % – at a height of 130 cm above the ground. The number of species in the descriptions of epiphyticlichen cover varies from 0 to 12 (0.8 in average). The highest values of the projective cover of lichens and the numberof species in the descriptions were observed on the trunks of conifers of the genus Pinus, the lowest – on the trunks oftrees of the genus Thuja. The average total projective cover of lichens on the trunks of the studied deciduous introducedspecies was 8 % at the base, and 25 % – at a height of 130 cm above the ground. The number of species in the descriptionvaries from 0 to 9 (1.0 in average). The highest values of the projective cover of lichens and the number of species in thedescription are noted on the trunks of the genus Quercus, the lowest – on the trunks of trees of the genus Ulmus. Collectiontrees of arboretum tree represent a model object for observing the features of the formation of the epiphytic lichen cover. Keywords: Arboretum, botanical garden, coniferous introduced tress, deciduous introduced tress, dendrarium, epiphytic lichen cover, middle boreal zone.
35281Сонина А.В. [Sonina A.V.] (2021): Эпилитный лишайниковый покров в оценке качества прибрежно-водной среды в условиях Карелии [Epilithic lichen cover in assessing the quality of the coastal water environment in Karelia]. - Проблемы ботаники Южной Сибири и Монголии [Problems of Botany of South Siberia and Mongolia], 20(1): 409–413.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The paper summarizes the data obtained by analyzing the reaction of the coastal epilithic lichen cover tothe chemical parameters of water in reservoirs of different types and uses. The study was carried out on the shores of freshwater bodies (Lake Onega, Lake Ladoga, Lososinka, Suna rivers) with different anthropogenic pressures in the Republicof Karelia. At each place of study, the lichen cover was described at the survey sites (frame 10 x 20 cm) along the transectand water samples were taken for chemical analysis. The aim of the work is to identify indicators of the coastal epilithic lichen cover to indicate the quality of the aquatic environment and assess the state of coastal ecosystems. The lichen flora ofthe surveyed coasts of fresh water bodies has 53 species, the highest species diversity of lichens is characterized by placeswithout obvious sources of pollution – the Kivach reserve (29 species), the shores of Lake Ladoga (27 species) and the Botanical Garden of PetrSU (16 species), and in urban conditions ( Petrozavodsk), a large settlement (Yanishpole) and nearthe pulp and paper industry (Kondopoga), the number of lichen species is much lower (8, 5 and 4). Regression analysisshowed the dependence of the number of lichen species on the registration site on the concentration of phosphorus compounds in water (p
35280Fos Martín S. (2023): Aproximació al coneixement de la biota liquènica de la comarca de l’Horta Sud (València). - Annals de la delegació de la Garrotxa de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural, 12[2022]: 79–136. .
[in Catalan, with an illustrative photodocumentation] La recopilació de les dades disponibles sobre la biota liquènica de la comarca de l’Horta Sud ha permés l’elaboració d’un catàleg preliminar amb 66 fongs liquenitzats. Tot i tractar-se d’un territori fortament antropitzat, amb grans extensions ocupades per àrees urbanes i industrials i per infraestructures viàries o dedicades a l’agricultura, alberga algunes espècies poc citades a la Comunitat Valenciana, com ara Enchylium coccophorum, Lecania rabenhorstii, Placidiopsis cinerascens, Placidium tenellum, i una espècie inclosa a la Llista Roja dels líquens amenaçats del nostre territori, com ara Diploschistes diacapsis. A més a més, aquest estudi aporta la primera cita confirmada a nivell regional de Flavoplaca flavocitrina.
35279Veas-Mattheos K., Almendras K., Pezoa M., Muster C. & Orlando J. (2023): High Andean steppes of southern Chile contain little-explored Peltigera lichen symbionts. - Journal of Fungi, 9(3): 372 [18 p.].
Peltigera lichens can colonize extreme habitats, such as high-elevation ecosystems, but their biodiversity is still largely unknown in these environments, especially in the southern hemi- sphere. We assessed the genetic diversity of mycobionts and cyanobionts of 60 Peltigera lichens collected in three high Andean steppes of southern Chile using LSU, β-tubulin, COR3 and ITS loci for mycobionts, and SSU and rbcLX loci for cyanobionts. We obtained 240 sequences for the different mycobiont markers and 118 for the cyanobiont markers, including the first report of β-tubulin sequences of P. patagonica through modifying a previously designed primer. Phylogenetic analyses, ITS scrutiny and variability of haplotypes were used to compare the sequences with those previously reported. We found seven mycobiont species and eleven cyanobiont haplotypes, including considerable novel symbionts. This was reflected by ~30% of mycobionts and ~20% of cyanobionts haplotypes that yielded less than 99% BLASTn sequence identity, 15 new sequences of the ITS1-HR, and a putative new Peltigera species associated with 3 Nostoc haplotypes not previously reported. Our results suggest that high Andean steppe ecosystems are habitats of unknown or little-explored lichen species and thus valuable environments to enhance our understanding of global Peltigera biodiversity. Keywords: Andean steppes; Chile; cyanobiont; lichen; mycobiont; Nostoc; Peltigera; phylogeny.
35278dos Santos L.A., Aptroot A., Lücking R. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2023): Lecanora (Ascomycota, Lecanoraceae) in Brazil: DNA barcoding coupled with phenotype characters reveals numerous novel species. - Journal of Fungi, 9(4): 415 [28 p.].
We sequenced over 200 recent specimens of Lecanora from Brazil, delimiting 28 species in our material. Many seem to represent undescribed species, some of which being morphologically and chemically similar to each other or to already described species. Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis based on ITS, including our specimens and GenBank data. We describe nine new species. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate the diversity of the genus in Brazil, not to focus on segregate genera. However, we found that all Vainionora species cluster together and these will be treated separately. Other Lecanora species with dark hypothecium clustered in several different clades. Species with the morphology of Lecanora caesiorubella, in which currently several subspecies with different chemistry and distribution are recognized, fall apart in different, distantly related clades, so they cannot be regarded as subspecies but should be recognized at species level. A key is given for the Lecanora species from Brazil. Keywords: South America; cryptic species; delimitation; Lecanoraceae; chemistry.
35277Si H., Wang Y., Liu Y., Li S., Bose T. & Chang R. (2023): Fungal diversity associated with thirty-eight lichen species revealed a new genus of endolichenic fungi, Intumescentia gen. nov. (Teratosphaeriaceae). - Journal of Fungi, 9(4): 423 [18 p.].
Fungi from the Teratosphaeriaceae (Mycosphaerellales; Dothideomycetes; Ascomycota) have a wide range of lifestyles. Among these are a few species that are endolichenic fungi. However, the known diversity of endolichenic fungi from Teratosphaeriaceae is far less understood compared to other lineages of Ascomycota. We conducted five surveys from 2020 to 2021 in Yunnan Province of China, to explore the biodiversity of endolichenic fungi. During these surveys, we collected multiple samples of 38 lichen species. We recovered a total of 205 fungal isolates representing 127 species from the medullary tissues of these lichens. Most of these isolates were from Ascomycota (118 species), and the remaining were from Basidiomycota (8 species) and Mucoromycota (1 species). These endolichenic fungi represented a wide variety of guilds, including saprophytes, plant pathogens, human pathogens, as well as entomopathogenic, endolichenic, and symbiotic fungi. Morphological and molecular data indicated that 16 of the 206 fungal isolates belonged to the family Teratosphaeriaceae. Among these were six isolates that had a low sequence similarity with any of the previously described species of Teratosphaeriaceae. For these six isolates, we amplified additional gene regions and conducted phylogenetic analyses. In both single gene and multi-gene phylogenetic analyses using ITS, LSU, SSU, RPB2, TEF1, ACT, and CAL data, these six isolates emerged as a monophyletic lineage within the family Teratosphaeriaceae and sister to a clade that included fungi from the genera Acidiella and Xenopenidiella. The analyses also indicated that these six isolates represented four species. Therefore, we established a new genus, Intumescentia gen. nov., to describe these species as Intumescentia ceratinae, I. tinctorum, I. pseudolivetorum, and I. vitii. These four species are the first endolichenic fungi representing Teratosphaeriaceae from China. Keywords: Ascomycota; China; lichens; multi-gene phylogeny; Mycosphaerellales.
35276Andreas M., Prausová R., Brestovanská T., Hostinská L., Kalábová M., Bogusch P., Halda J.P., Rada P., Štěrba L., Čížek M. & Horák J. (2023): Tree species-rich open oak woodlands within scattered urban landscapes promote biodiversity. - Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 83: 127914 [10 p.].
City forests, Multi-taxon approach, Native tree vegetation, Sparse canopy.
35275Syed Salleh S.N.A. & Abas A. (2023): Monitoring heavy metal concentrations using transplanted lichen in a tourism city of Malaysia. - Sustainability, 15(7): 5885 [12 p.].
Heavy metals are major pollutants in tourist cities due to transportation and urbanization. This study aimed to assess heavy metal concentrations using transplanted lichen in tourist cities. The project was conducted in Malacca, Malaysia, using transplanted Usnea misaminensis lichen at ten sampling stations. After one month, these lichen samples were collected and heavy metal analysis was carried out in a lab using ICP-MS. Other factors, such as the number of vehicles, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed, were also recorded. The results indicated that the heavy metal concentrations in Malacca were higher than at the control station. The ranking of heavy metal concentrations in the study areas was Fe > Zn > Mn > Pb > Cr > Cu. Furthermore, a positive correlation was also found between the number of vehicles and temperature with the heavy metal concentrations determined within the study areas, while relative humidity and wind speed showed a negative correlation with the heavy metal concentrations detected. The usage of lichens to observe and monitor the chemical compositions in the atmosphere is considered to be relevant these days because they allow for long-term data from the ecosystem to be obtained due to their long life span. This research also emphasizes the need for a better plan for Malacca. Local authorities need to re-plan and redesign Malacca to ensure that pollutants can be flushed out, the city looks greener and cooler, and more non-motor vehicles are used as public transport. Keywords: applied lichen; ecological indicator; environmental management; urban ecology; Usnea misaminensis.
35274Perlmutter G.B., Miranda-Gonzáles R. & Bungartz F. (2023): Placement of Arthonia rubrocincta in Coniocarpon (lichenized Ascomycota: Arthoniaceae), with an extended range for the species in southeastern North America and the Caribbean. - Phytotaxa, 589(3): 278–282.
Arthonia rubrocincta morphologically and anatomically fits the generic concept of Coniocarpon and is here transferred to the latter genus as Coniocarpon rubrocinctum. Specimens from southeastern United States and Bahamas were studied and the range of the species is found to extend north into North Carolina, USA and southeast to the Bahamas. Thatch palm (Coccothrinax argentata) is reported as a new phorophyte. An emended description based on examined material is presented for the species. Keywords: Arthoniales, morphology, distribution, taxonomy
35273Fernández-Costas D. & García-Molares A. (2023): Some interesting lichens for the Iberian Peninsula. - Botanica Complutensis, 47: e85069 [8 p.]. .
The presence of 25 species was reported during a survey carried out in the municipality of O Rosal (Pontevedra, NW Spain). Among them, Arthonia anglica and A. ligniaria are new records for the Iberian Peninsula, while Rinodina colobinoides and Usnea erinacea are new records for Spain. In addition, Agonimia opuntiella, Cliostomum griffithii, Coppinsiella ulcerosa, Lecanora barkmaniana, Micarea synotheoides, Physcia vitii, Reichlingia zwackhii, Rinodina biloculata, R. excrecens, R. conradii and R. pyrina are recorded for the first time in Galicia. Another 10 species included in this publication are new records for the province of Pontevedra. Keywords: Ascomycota; lichenized fungi; epiphytes; Spain; Galicia; new records
35272Ceker S., Orhan F., Sezen S., Gulluce M., Ozkan H., Aslan A. & Agar G. (2018): Anti-mutagenic and anti-oxidant potencies of Cetraria aculeata (Schreb.) Fr., Cladonia chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Spreng. and Cetrelia olivetorum (Nyl.) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb.). - Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 17(1): 326–335. .
In this study, the mutagenic and anti-mutagenic effects of methanol extract of three lichen species (Cetraria aculeata, Cladonia chlorophaea and Cetrelia olivetorum) were investigated by using E. coli-WP2, Ames-Salmonella (TA1535 and TA1537) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test systems. The results obtained from bacterial test systems demonstrated that methanol extracts of three lichen species have strong anti-mutagenic potencies on TA1535, TA1537 strains and to a lesser extent on E. coli-WP2 strain. The anti-oxidant level of human lymphocytes cells was determined in order to clarify the mechanism underlying the anti-mutagenic effects of these lichen species. Co-treatments of 5, 10 and 20 μg/mL concentrations of these three lichen species with AFB decreased the frequencies of SCE and the level of MDA and increased the amount of SOD, GSH and GPx which decreased by aflatoxin. The findings of this work have clearly demonstrated that Cetraria aculeata, Cladonia chlorophaea and Cetrelia olivetorum have significant anti-mutagenic effects which are thought to be partly due to the anti-oxidant activities and the interaction capability of lichen extracts with mutagen agents (Sodium azide, acridin, N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and aflatoxin B1). Keywords: Lichen extracts; Anti-mutagenicity; Anti-oxidant; Short term tests (Ames- Salmonella, E. coli-WP2, SCE).
35271Chrismas N.A.M., Allen R., Hollingsworth A.L., Taylor J.D. & Cunliffe M. (2021): Complex photobiont diversity in the marine lichen Lichina pygmaea. - Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 101: 667–674.
Lichens are a well-known symbiosis between a host mycobiont and eukaryote algal or cyanobacterial photobiont partner(s). Recent studies have indicated that terrestrial lichens can also contain other cryptic photobionts that increase the lichens’ ecological fitness in response to varying environmental conditions. Marine lichens live in distinct ecosystems compared with their terrestrial counterparts because of regular submersion in seawater and are much less studied. We performed bacteria 16S and eukaryote 18S rRNA gene metabarcoding surveys to assess total photobiont diversity within the marine lichen Lichina pygmaea (Lightf.) C. Agardh, which is widespread throughout the intertidal zone of Atlantic coastlines. We found that in addition to the established cyanobacterial photobiont Rivularia, L. pygmaea is also apparently host to a range of other marine and freshwater cyanobacteria, as well as marine eukaryote algae in the family Ulvophyceae (Chlorophyta). We propose that symbiosis with multiple freshwater and marine cyanobacteria and eukaryote photobionts may contribute to the ability of L. pygmaea to survive the harsh fluctuating environmental conditions of the intertidal zone. Key words: Algae; cyanobacteria; host switching; intertidal zones; lichens; symbiosis.
35270Норкулов М.М. [Norkulov M.M.] (2023): Лишайники каратепинских гор [Lichens of the Karatepa mountains]. - Озиқ-овқат хавфсизлиги: миллий ва глобал муаммолар [Food security: national and global problems], 2022/3: 36–40. .
Uzbekistan; Tianshan. [in Russian with English abstract: ] The article presents information about the taxonomy and ecology of lichens in the Karatepa mountains. According to the conducted studies, 10 families of the Lecanoromycetes class (Parmeliaceae, Ramalinaceae, Megasporaceae, Physciaceae, Teloschistaceae, Peltigeraceae, Collemataceae, Candelariaceae, Umbilicariaceae, Physciaceae), 1 family of the Eurotiomycetes class (Verrucariaceae) and 1 family Lichinaceae of the class Lichinomycetes were identified, 18 groups and 23 species were noted as widespread. The taxonomic analysis and ecological characteristics of the identified species are presented. Keywords: lichen, lichenomycota, epilite, epigee, epiphyte, epixyl, epibriophyte, tallom, photobiont, mycobiont.
35269Lorenz C., Bianchi E., Poggiali G., Alemanno G., Benesperi R., Brucato J.R., Garland S., Helbert J., Loppi S., Lorek A., Maturilli A., Papini A., de Vera J.-P. & Baqué M. (2023): Survivability of the lichen Xanthoria parietina in simulated Martian environmental conditions. - Scientific Reports, 13: 4893 [15 p.].
Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. is a widely spread foliose lichen showing high tolerance against UV-radiation thanks to parietin, a secondary lichen substance. We exposed samples of X. parietina under simulated Martian conditions for 30 days to explore its survivability. The lichen’s vitality was monitored via chlorophyll a fluorescence that gives an indication for active light reaction of photosynthesis, performing in situ and after-treatment analyses. Raman spectroscopy and TEM were used to evaluate carotenoid preservation and possible variations in the photobiont’s ultrastructure respectively. Significant differences in the photo-efficiency between UV irradiated samples and dark-kept samples were observed. Fluorescence values correlated with temperature and humidity day-night cycles. The photo-efficiency recovery showed that UV irradiation caused significant effects on the photosynthetic light reaction. Raman spectroscopy showed that the carotenoid signal from UV exposed samples decreased significantly after the exposure. TEM observations confirmed that UV exposed samples were the most affected by the treatment, showing chloroplastidial disorganization in photobionts’ cells. Overall, X. parietina was able to survive the simulated Mars conditions, and for this reason it may be considered as a candidate for space long-term space exposure and evaluations of the parietin photodegradability.
35268Yuan X., Li Y., Luo T., Bi W., Yu J. & Wang Y. (2023): Genomic Analysis of the Xanthoria elegans and Polyketide Synthase Gene Mining Based on the Whole Genome. - Mycobiology, 51(1):36-48.
Xanthoria elegans is a lichen symbiosis, that inhabits extreme environments and can absorb UV-B. We reported the de novo sequencing and assembly of X. elegans genome. The whole genome was approximately 44.63 Mb, with a GC content of 40.69%. Genome assembly generated 207 scaffolds with an N50 length of 563,100 bp, N90 length of 122,672 bp. The genome comprised 9,581 genes, some encoded enzymes involved in the secondary metabolism such as terpene, polyketides. To further understand the UV-B absorbing and adaptability to extreme environments mechanisms of X. elegans, we searched the secondary metabolites genes and gene-cluster from the genome using genome-mining and bioinformatics analysis. The results revealed that 7 NR-PKSs, 12 HR-PKSs and 2 hybrid PKS-PKSs from X. elegans were isolated, they belong to Type I PKS (T1PKS) according to the domain architecture; phylogenetic analysis and BGCs comparison linked the putative products to two NR-PKSs and three HR-PKSs, the putative products of two NR-PKSs were emodin xanthrone (most likely parietin) and mycophelonic acid, the putative products of three HR-PKSs were soppilines, (+)-asperlin and macrolactone brefeldin A, respectively. 5 PKSs from X. elegans build a correlation between the SMs carbon skeleton and PKS genes based on the domain architecture, phylogenetic and BGC comparison. Although the function of 16 PKSs remains unclear, the findings emphasize that the genes from X. elegans represent an unexploited source of novel polyketide and utilization of lichen gene resources. Xanthoria elegans, DNA sequencing, genome-mining, polyketide synthase, USNIC ACID, UV-B, CLUSTER, EXPRESSION, PREDICTION, DIVERSITY
35267Plaskowska E., Patejuk K., Lorenc M. & Grzeszczuk J. (2023): Lichens and Fungi on Sandstone Tombs at the Historical Jewish Cemetery in Wroclaw (Poland). - Studies in Conservation, 2023: 1-9.
Microflora inhabiting rock surfaces, including bacteria, fungi, algae, and lichens, form a specific kind of an ecosystem. Unique and not well known forms of this environment are old cemetery tombs. To better understand such environments, lichenological and mycological studies were conducted in the old Jewish cemetery in Wroclaw, Poland. The research covered 13 tombstones made of several varieties of sandstone. This research shows that some gravestones made of sandstone from Wartowice were strongly populated by fungi. Physical and chemical properties of the stone as well as the quality of the starting raw material were favourable for this deterioration process to occur. The most frequently recorded lichens were: Psilolechia lucida, Verrucaria nigricans, and Lepraria sp. The species of fungi most frequently found on the monuments were: Cladosporium herbarium, Aspergillus niger, and Alternaria alternata. The aim of the study was to detect the mycobiota living on tombstones in the historical Jewish cemetery in Wroclaw, which contains stones originating from Lower Silesian quarries that now exhibit traces of biodegeneration. Cemetery, fungi, lichens, decay, sandstone, tombs, biodeterioration, COLONIZATION
35266Pichler G., Muggia L., Carniel F., Grube M. & Kranner I. (2023): How to build a lichen: from metabolite release to symbiotic interplay. - New Phytologist, 238(4): 1362–1378.
Exposing their vegetative bodies to the light, lichens are outstanding amongst other fungal symbioses. Not requiring a pre-established host, 'lichenized fungi' build an entirely new structure together with microbial photosynthetic partners that neither can form alone. The signals involved in the transition of a fungus and a compatible photosynthetic partner from a free-living to a symbiotic state culminating in thallus formation, termed 'lichenization', and in the maintenance of the symbiosis, are poorly understood. Here, we synthesise the puzzle pieces of the scarce knowledge available into an updated concept of signalling involved in lichenization, comprising five main stages: (1) the 'pre-contact stage', (2) the 'contact stage', (3) 'envelopment' of algal cells by the fungus, (4) their 'incorporation' into a pre-thallus and (5) 'differentiation' into a complex thallus. Considering the involvement of extracellularly released metabolites in each phase, we propose that compounds such as fungal lectins and algal cyclic peptides elicit early contact between the symbionts-to-be, whereas phytohormone signalling, antioxidant protection and carbon exchange through sugars and sugar alcohols are of continued importance throughout all stages. In the fully formed lichen thallus, secondary lichen metabolites and mineral nutrition are suggested to stabilize the functionalities of the thallus, including the associated microbiota. Key words: extracellular, fungus, metabolite, mycobiont, photobiot, polyol, signalling, symbiosis.
35265Энхтуяа О., Жавхлан С., Мөнхзул Т. & Бямбасүрэн П. [Enkhtuya O., Javkhlan S., Munkhzul T. & Byambasuren P.] (2022): Хуурай гандуу уулархаг нутгийн биологийн олон янз байдалд чухал амьдрах орчинг хагийн төрөл зүйлээр тогтоох нь (Ховд аймгийн Мөст сум, Хужирт багийн Бараат уулын жишээн дээр) [Establish of important habitats for dryland mountain biodiversity by their lichen species (in case of Baraat mountain, Khujirt village, Mӧst sum, Khovd aimag)]. - Монголын ботаникийн сэтгүүл [Mongolian Journal of Botany], 4(30): 24–39.
[in Mongolian with English abstract: ] The study of lichens, which are species sensitive to environmental changes, is of great use. As a result of our analysis of lichen biodiversity, it is shown that the habitats of dry grass meadows from the Baraat ridge of the village Hujirt-Bagh from the somon Must, Khuvd Aimak are extremely rare in the Altai-Sayan region and are important habitats for the gene pool and habitat of the rare genetic resources of lichens. As a result of the research, 52 species from 32 genera of 17 families were registered, of which 7 species were found for the first time in the mountainous dry steppe vegetation of the geographical region of Mongolia Altai. And also found extremely rare and Altai-Sayan endemics Evernia terrestris and another 12 species with the status of rarity. According to available data, this mountainous area can be considered the southernmost boundary of the lichen range, for which a question of protection should be raised. The study also determined that the diversity of substrate habitats is more important than the size of the area of the species range, taking into account, all known lichen species as referring to the environment and the availability of moisture on the surface of the growth, and how they adapt. In the modern era of climate change, local protection of this unique ecosystem of habitats isolated in dry and arid mountainous areas will help the Bodonchu River, which is important for the diversity of extremely rare and rare vascular and nonvascular (cryptogam) plant species also small mammals of reptiles and birds. The protection of the habitat of one of the main sources of the Bodonça River Basin and the livelihoods of pastoralists must be valued. Keywords: Baraat Uul, extremely rare, rare lichen, functional sensitivity.
35264Жавхлан С., Энхтуяа О. & Бямбасүрэн П. [Javkhlan S., Enkhtuya O. & Byambasuren P.] (2022): Монгол-Алтайн уулын хээрийн тойрогт тэмдэглэсэн 7 зүйл хагийн шинэ цэгүүд [Seven lichens were registered in the mountain-steppe region of Mongolian Altai]. - Монголын ботаникийн сэтгүүл [Mongolian Journal of Botany], 4(30): 40–50.
[in Mongolian with English abstract:] In 2019 on field time study in Mongolian-Altai heigh mountain steppe region we collected 120 lichen samples from different substratum in heigh mountain area (altitude: 2527-2770 m). We identified some interesting species such as Buellia geophila (Florke ex Sommerf.) Lynge, Caloplaca cerina (Ehrh. Ex Hedw.) Fr., Diploschistes diacapsis (Ach.) Lumbsch., Rinodina mniaraea (Ach.) Korrb., Vulpicida tubulosus (Schaer) J.E.Mattsoon & M.J.Lai, Caloplaca crenulatella (Nyl.) H.Oliver and Phaeophyscia squarrosa Hale. These species firstly recorded in the Mongolian Altai mountain steppe region. Keywords: Lichens, new record, Caloplaca crenulatella.
35263Kukwa M., Kosecka M., Jabłońska A., Flakus A., Rodriguez-Flakus P. & Guzow-Krzemińska B. (2023): Pseudolepraria, a new leprose genus revealed in Ramalinaceae (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes, Lecanorales) to accommodate Lepraria stephaniana. . - MycoKeys, 96: 97–112.
The new genus Pseudolepraria Kukwa, Jabłońska, Kosecka & Guzow-Krzemińska is introduced to accommodate Lepraria stephaniana Elix, Flakus & Kukwa. Phylogenetic analyses of nucITS, nucLSU, mtSSU and RPB2 markers recovered the new genus in the family Ramalinaceae with strong support. The genus is characterised by its thick, unstratified thallus composed entirely of soredia-like granules, the presence of 4-O-methylleprolomin, salazinic acid, zeorin and unknown terpenoid, and its phylogenetic position. The new combination, P. stephaniana (Elix, Flakus & Kukwa) Kukwa, Jabłońska, Kosecka & Guzow-Krzemińska, is proposed. Keywords: Lichenized fungi, morphology, Neotropics, secondary metabolites, sterile lichens, taxonomy.
35262Ruiz L., Carrión-Paladines V., Vega M., López F. & Benítez Á. (2023): Biological crust diversity related to elevation and soil properties at local scale in a montane scrub of Ecuador. - Journal of Fungi, 9(3): 386 [13 p.].
The montane shrublands of southern Ecuador represent one of the least studied ecosystems, which in the last decade have been seriously threatened by increasing wildfires, deforestation, overgrazing, and conversion to forest plantations. Our main objective was to determine, at the local scale, the diversity of species composing the biological soil crust (BSC) at three elevations (2100, 2300, and 2500 m.a.s.l.) and their possible relationships with soil physical and chemical properties in montane shrublands. For this purpose, three monitoring plots of 100 m2 were established at each elevation, and within each plot, 20 subplots were established (180 subplots sampled in total). In addition, composite soil samples were collected at a depth of 0 to 10 cm, and some physical and biochemical parameters (e.g., bulk density, texture, pH, organic matter, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and potassium) of the soil were analyzed. The results show 35 species (23 lichens, 10 bryophytes and 2 cyanobacteria) at three elevations with a bell-shaped or hump-shaped distribution pattern. This allowed us to point out that the species richness was higher at the intermediate elevations and that the composition showed significant differences in the three elevations related to soil factors. Elevation and soil drivers may help to better chose the more suitable biological soil crust (lichen-dominated and bryophyte-dominated BSC) for the management and conservation of the montane scrub of Ecuador, which is strongly threatened by human activities. Keywords: diversity; lichens; bryophytes; biological soil crust; richness; elevation.
35261Frati L. & Brunialti G. (2023): Recent trends and future challenges for lichen biomonitoring in forests. - Forests, 14(3): 647 [18 p.].
Currently, forest ecosystems are often located in remote areas, far from direct sources of air pollution. Nonetheless, they may be affected by different types of atmospheric deposition, which can compromise their health and inner balance. Epiphytic lichens respond to air pollution and climate change, and they have been widely adopted as ecological indicators, mainly in urban and industrial areas, while forest ecosystems are still underrepresented. However, in recent years, their use has become increasingly widespread, especially in the context of long-term monitoring programs for air pollution in forests. In this review, we provide a critical analysis of the topic from the point of view of the different methodological approaches based on lichen responses adopted in forest ecosystems. Further, we discuss the main challenges posed by the current global change scenario. Keywords: air pollution; climate change; lichen diversity; functional traits; indicator species; bioaccumulation.
35260Nascimbene J., Nimis P.L., Klüßendorf J. & Thüs H. (2023): Freshwater lichens, including new species in the genera Verrucaria, Placopyrenium and Circinaria, associated with Lobothallia hydrocharis (Poelt & Nimis) Sohrabi & Nimis from watercourses of Sardinia. - Journal of Fungi, 9(3): 380 [25 p.].
This work summarizes the results of the exploration of freshwater lichen biota on the island of Sardinia associated with the regional flagship species Lobothallia hydrocharis, a large-sized crustose lichen from the splash zone along mountain streams, so far known from Sardinia only. Molecular data were used to confirm its distinctiveness from other taxa and its systematic placement and to identify critical taxa among its associated lichen biota. We found 25 species of lichenized fungi, including three species new to science in the genera Verrucaria, Placopyrenium, and Circinaria, and seven species new to Sardinia (Hydropunctaria rheithrophila, Ionaspis chrysophana, I. odora, Verrucaria aquatilis, V. collematodes, V. pseudovirescens), or new to Southern Europe (V. devensis). Specific traits for the freshwater lichen biota of Sardinia were identified and compared to those reported from freshwater sites in the Alps and Carpathian mountains, e.g., a relative scarcity of subgelatinous lichens. Parasitic or epilichenic interactions were found frequently but only in the splash zone and not in the permanently submerged zone, i.e., two parasitic Placopyrenium species, and clearly lichenicolous thalli of Kuettlingeria atroflava and Lobothallia hydrocharis. Due to its specific trait profile and the great potential for the discovery of new species, we recommend the inclusion of Sardinian and further Mediterranean sites in continental-scale monitoring programs for freshwater lichens. Keywords: biogeography; cryptic diversity; DNA-barcoding; Mediterranean; taxonomy.
35259Boonpeng C., Sangiamdee D., Noikrad S. & Boonpragob K. (2023): Assessing seasonal concentrations of airborne potentially toxic elements in tropical mountain areas in Thailand using the transplanted lichen Parmotrema tinctorum (Despr. ex Nyl.) Hale. - Forests, 14(3): 611 [19 p.].
The atmosphere of mountain areas may be contaminated by pollutants originating mainly from road traffic, as well as tourist and community activities within such areas. This study mainly aimed to assess the concentrations of airborne potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in two mountain areas in Thailand using lichen biomonitoring. Thalli of the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum from the relatively unpolluted area in Khao Yai National Park (KYNP) were prepared and exposed at nine sites in the KYNP and nine sites in Doi Inthanon National Park (DINP) during the rainy and dry seasons. The lichen transplants were collected and analyzed for 15 PTEs, including Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V, and Zn, using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The result clearly showed that the atmosphere of many monitoring sites in both mountains were contaminated by the investigated PTEs. The contamination factors (CFs) revealed that several PTEs heavily contaminated the atmosphere at many monitoring sites. The pollution load indices (PLIs) clearly illustrated that the atmosphere of all sites had higher pollution loads in the dry season than in the rainy season, which was likely due to the higher numbers of motor vehicles and visitors. The highest pollution loads were observed at sites that had higher traffic density and human activities, including the park entrance site in the KYNP and the community site in the DINP. The lowest air pollution loads were discovered at the summit sites in both mountains. This study indicates that the atmosphere of mountain areas can be contaminated by some PTEs that are mainly produced by road traffic and local communities. It also confirms the ability of the transplanted lichen P. tinctorum to be an effective biomonitoring tool for airborne PTEs in natural environments. Keywords: air pollution; biomonitor; Doi Inthanon National Park; Khao Yai National Park; road traffic; tourism.
35258Xu M., Liu Y., Möller E., LaGreca S., Moya P., Wang X., Timdal E., de Boer H., Barreno E., Wang L., Thüs H., Andrésson Ó., Magnússon K.P., Ólafsdóttir E.S. & Heiðmarsson S. (2023): Mycobiont-specific primers facilitate the amplification of mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNA: a focus on the lichenized fungal genus Melanelia (Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae) in Iceland. - MycoKeys, 96: 57–75.
The fungal mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) ribosomal DNA is one of the most commonly used loci for phylogenetic analysis of lichen-forming fungi, but their primer specificity to mycobionts has not been evaluated. The current study aimed to design mycobiont-specific mtSSU primers and highlights their utility with an example from the saxicolous lichen-forming fungal genus Melanelia Essl. in Iceland. The study found a 12.5% success rate (3 out of 24 specimens with good-quality mycobiont mtSSU sequences) using universal primers (i.e. mrSSU1 and mrSSU3R), not including off-target amplification of environmental fungi, e.g. Cladophialophora carrionii and Lichenothelia convexa. New mycobiont-specific primers (mt-SSU-581-5’ and mt-SSU-1345-3’) were designed by targeting mycobiont-specific nucleotide sites in comparison with environmental fungal sequences, and assessed for mycobiont primer specificity using in silico PCR. The new mycobiont-specific mtSSU primers had a success rate of 91.7% (22 out of 24 specimens with good-quality mycobiont mtSSU sequences) on the studied Melanelia specimens. Additional testing confirmed the specificity and yielded amplicons from 79 specimens of other Parmeliaceae mycobiont lineages. This study highlights the effectiveness of designing mycobiont-specific primers for studies on lichen identification, barcoding and phylogenetics. Keywords: Melanelia, mtSSU, Parmeliaceae, PCR, primer design.
35257 Hekkala A.-M., Jönsson M., Kärvemo S., Strengbom J. & Sjögren J. (2023): Habitat heterogeneity is a good predictor of boreal forest biodiversity. - Ecological Indicators, 148: 110069 [14 p.].
Reliable assessment measures are crucial for tracking changes in biodiversity and for evaluating the state of biodiversity. Two of the main drivers of biodiversity are habitat heterogeneity and resource amount. These drivers are used as proxies of biodiversity but assessing both is costly, limiting their practical use. To test which of the drivers best predicts the number and abundance of sessile species of conservation concern (including macrofungi, lichens, bryophytes, and vascular plants), we assessed forest stand heterogeneity using a method developed in Sweden (‘Habitat Heterogeneity Score HHS’), and quantified the resource amount and quality of ecologically important structural variables (deadwood volume, basal area of living trees, proportion of broad-leaved trees, and the age of the oldest tree in the stand). We conducted the assessments in 77 boreal conifer-dominated forest stands in two regions of Sweden. Despite some group-specific organism differences, HHS was the best predictor of both number and abundance of all species of conservation concern, regardless of the region. Further, HHS was the best predictor of red-listed species number and abundance in the southern region, while a model including the volume of deadwood and the age of the oldest tree performed best in the northern region. Deadwood (CWD) volume was the single best resource amount predictor of the number and abundance of species of conservation concern, emphasizing the critical role that dead trees have for biodiversity. In addition, we calculated threshold values for deadwood volume and HHS depicting the level above which the number of red-listed species is significantly higher, and found this value to be higher in the southern region (22.4 m3 ha− 1 deadwood and a HSS value of 17) than in the north (20.0 m3 ha− 1 and 16). These values can be used as guidance when identifying coniferous forests with high enough qualities to support red-listed species. To conclude, the method of assessing habitat heterogeneity presented in this study is a practical and reliable way to identify forests of high biological diversity, and can therefore be part of the toolbox for sustainable forestry in boreal forests. Keywords: Deadwood, coarse woody debris, conservation; Habitat amount; Indicator; Structural complexity.
35256Khakhar A. (2023): A roadmap for the creation of synthetic lichen. - Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications , 654: 87–93.
Lichens represent a charismatic corner of biology that has a rich history of scientific exploration, but to which modern biological techniques have been sparsely applied. This has limited our understanding of phenomena unique to lichen, such as the emergent development of physically coupled microbial consortia or distributed metabolisms. The experimental intractability of natural lichens has prevented studies of the mechanistic underpinnings of their biology. Creating synthetic lichen from experimentally tractable, free-living microbes has the potential to overcome these challenges. They could also serve as powerful new chassis for sustainable biotechnology. In this review we will first briefly introduce what lichen are, what remains mysterious about their biology, and why. We will then articulate the scientific insights that creating a synthetic lichen will generate and lay out a roadmap for how this could be achieved using synthetic biology. Finally, we will explore the translational applications of synthetic lichen and detail what is needed to advance the pursuit of their creation.
35255Erlandsson R., Arneberg M.K., Tømmervik H., Finne E.A., Nilsen L. & Bjerke J.W. (2023): Feasibility of active handheld NDVI sensors for monitoring lichen ground cover . - Fungal Ecology, 63: 101233 [9 p.].
Vegetation indices are corner stones in vegetation monitoring. However, previous field studies on lichens and NDVI have been based on passive sensors. Active handheld sensors, with their own light sources, enables high-precision monitoring under variable ambient conditions. We investigated the use of handheld sensor NDVI for monitoring pale lichen cover across three study sites from boreal heathlands to High Arctic tundra (62–79 °N), and compared it with Sentinel-2 satellite NDVI. NDVI decreased with increasing cover of pale lichens but the correlation between active and satellite NDVI varied between areas. NDVI values declined with lichen cover and ranged from 0.4–0.18 when lichen cover was above 40%. Active ground measurements of NDVI explained 81% of the variation in the satellite NDVI values in Svalbard (High Arctic), while the relationships were lower (∼30% explained variation) in boreal regions (Troms-Finnmark and Røros). We show that active sensors are feasible for extracting information from lichen-dominated vegetation. Keywords: Lichen; Pale lichens; Cladonia; NDVI; Active sensor; Remote sensing; Monitoring.
35254Westberg M., Hammarström O., Isaksson R., Johansson P., Thor G., Vicente R. & Svensson M. (2023): Additions to the flora of lichenicolous fungi of Sweden. - Graphis Scripta, 35(1): 4-13.
15 lichenicolous fungi are reported as new to Sweden: Abrothallus halei, A. puntilloi, Arthonia japewiae, A. parietinaria, Buelliella lecanorae, Lecidella parasitica, Opegrapha lamyi, O. pertusariicola, Parmeliicida pandemica, Rosellinula frustulosae, Sclerococcum microsporum, Stigmidium acetabuli, S. hageniae, S. humidum and Xenonectriella physciacearum. Eight of these are also new to Fennoscandia.
35253Llewellyn T., Nowell R., Aptroot A., Temina M., Prescott T., Barraclough T. & Gaya E. (2023): Metagenomics Shines Light on the Evolution of "Sunscreen" Pigment Metabolism in the Teloschistales (Lichen-Forming Ascomycota). - Genome Biology and Evolution, 15(2): 1-19.
Fungi produce a vast number of secondary metabolites that shape their interactions with other organisms and the environment. Characterizing the genes underpinning metabolite synthesis is therefore key to understanding fungal evolution and adaptation. Lichenized fungi represent almost one-third of Ascomycota diversity and boast impressive secondary metabolites repertoires. However, most lichen biosynthetic genes have not been linked to their metabolite products. Here we used metagenomic sequencing to survey gene families associated with production of anthraquinones, UV-protectant secondary metabolites present in various fungi, but especially abundant in a diverse order of lichens, the Teloschistales (class Lecanoromycetes, phylum Ascomycota). We successfully assembled 24 new, high-quality lichenized-fungal genomes de novo and combined them with publicly available Lecanoromycetes genomes from taxa with diverse secondary chemistry to produce a whole-genome tree. Secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) analysis showed that whilst lichen BGCs are numerous and highly dissimilar, core enzyme genes are generally conserved across taxa. This suggests metabolite diversification occurs via re-shuffling existing enzyme genes with novel accessory genes rather than BGC gains/losses or de novo gene evolution. We identified putative anthraquinone BGCs in our lichen dataset that appear homologous to anthraquinone clusters from non-lichenized fungi, suggesting these genes were present in the common ancestor of the subphylum Pezizomycotina. Finally, we identified unique transporter genes in Teloschistales anthraquinone BGCs that may explain why these metabolites are so abundant and ubiquitous in these lichens. Our results support the importance of metagenomics for understanding the secondary metabolism of non-model fungi such as lichens. anthraquinone, lichenized fungi, Lecanoromycetes, ABC-transporter, biosynthetic gene cluster, fungal evolution, POLYKETIDE SYNTHASE GENES, LEPTOSPHAERIA-MACULANS, PHYLOGENOMIC ANALYSIS, GENOMES, ALIGNMENT, PRODUCT, FUNGI, DIVERSITY, SELECTION, CLUSTER
35252Knudsen K., Wheeler T., Hodková E. & Kocourková J. (2023): The annotated lichen checklist of San Nicolas Island, California, U.S.A.. - Archive for Lichenology, 33: 1-47. .
136 lichens are reported from San Nicolas Island. Sequences for Niebla ramosissima and Aspicilia aurantiaca are published. Calciphytes, endemic species, island diversity, soil crusts, rare species
35251Diaz V. & Manzitto-Tripp E. (2023): A synopsis of the yellow-green, usnic acid-producing, species of Xanthoparmelia in Colorado. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 22: 1-40. .
The genus Xanthoparmelia belongs to one of the largest and most species-rich foliose lichen families - Parmeliaceae. It occurs primarily in arid regions around the world. In the United States, Xanthoparmelia is extremely abundant in the southern Rocky Mountains and adjacent high plains of Colorado, where species play significant ecological roles. The present study emphasizes the examination of type material, protologues, study of new field collections as well as existing herbarium material, data from thin layer chromatography, and information on species distributions to delimit species of non-melanin-containing (i.e., yellow-green) members of Xanthoparmelia in Colorado, U.S.A. Using the University of Colorado Herbarium (COLO) collection in addition to collections made by the authors, a total of 18 species belonging to five different chemical groups are recognized as occurring in Colorado. Xanthoparmelia arseneana is placed in synonymy with X. novomexicana. In addition, two species are excluded from Colorado: X. taractica and X. hypopsila. A dichotomous key and a species treatment that includes type citations, morphological descriptions, chemical information, and geographical distributions is included. This treatment is the first to focus on this abundant yet taxonomically challenging lineage solely in Colorado.
35250Banerjee S., Ram S.S., Mukhopadhyay A., Jana N., Sudarshan M. & Chakraborty A. (2023): Potential of epiphytic lichen Pyxine cocoes, as an indicator of air pollution in Kolkata, India. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India, Sect. B Biological Sciences, 93(1): 165–180.
The accumulation of trace elements in the thalli of epiphytic lichens can reveal levels of trace elements in the ambient air. This study assessed the trace elements in lichen species Pyxine cocoes found in the urban and periurban areas of Kolkata. Trace elemental analysis was carried out using energy-dispersive X-ray fuorescence and protoninduced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Variable levels of elements like Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, V and Pb, are detected in the thalli of P. cocoes collected from repressentative locations. Localization of trace elements in the thalli was confrmed by analysis using scanning electron microscope attached with EDX spectrometer. Several pollution indices such as enrichment factor, contamination factor (Cf) and pollution load index were estimated to evaluate the trace element contamination level of the ambient air at the sampling spots. PLI and Cf and values suggest deterioration or air quality that varies from moderate to high level of contamination. Ca, S, Pb, Sr and Cr, are highly enriched at urban sampling spots (1–9). High coefcient of variation values for Ca, S, Pb, Sr and Cr confrm their accumulation from local anthropogenic sources in the urban sampling spots (1–9). However, results of principal component analysis analysis have shown that sources of trace elements in the samples from urban areas include both vehicular emissions and anthropogenic activities. Higher concentration of trace elements in the lichen thalli collected from peri-urban locations is attributed to vehicular emissions from the highways and expressways running through these areas. Keywords: Biomonitor · Epiphytic · Lichen · Trace element · Air pollution · Environment.
35249Ansari B.K., Shukla A.K., Upreti D.K. & Bajpai R. (2023): Accumulation of cadmium in transplanted lichen Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl., with reference to physiochemical variation and kinetics of cadmium biosorption. - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 110: 67 [8 p.].
The present study aims to signify the role of Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl. (P. cocoes) as cadmium (Cd) biomonitor in atmosphere. This was achieved by quantifying the amount of Cd accumulated in transplanted P. cocoes, when stimulated with known concentrations of Cd (5µM, 50µM, 100µM, 150µM and 200µM) at increasing intervals of time up-to 40 days. All the five concentrations exhibited increasing trend of accumulation with time. As depicted by Pearson’s Correlation (at prker parameters in combination with the ability to accrue Cd fortifies P. cocoes’s role as a biomonitor. Keywords: Biosorption kinetics · Cadmium · Cell membrane integrity · Enzyme activity · Lichen.
35248Coppins B.J. (1996): Literature pertaining to British lichens – 19. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 78: 65-71.
35247Hitch C. [ed.] (1996): New, rare or interesting British lichen records. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 78: 56-65.
35246Bowen H. (1996): Why have species of Lobaria declined in the past century?. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 78: 55-55.
35245Copins B.J. & Coppins S. (1996): Action plan for lower plants in Scotland. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 78: 53-54.
35244Smith C. (1996): Lichens on the internet. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 78: 51-53.
35243Hawksworth D.L. (1996): Parmelia caperata reaches central London. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 78: 45-45.
35242Gilbert O. (1996): A neglected habitat: reservoir drawdown zones. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 78: 41-41.
35241Kantvilas G. (1996): Tasmania: its vegetation and lichens. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 78: 1-10.
biogeography, history, tasmania, 5 fig. Includes overview of maaor vegetation types, a brief history, and biogeographic elements.
35240Fryday A. (1996): A provisional re-assessment of the non-yellow species of Rhizocarpon occuring in the British Isles. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 78: 29-40.
British Isles, Rhizocarpon
35239Dalby K. (1996): Lichen records for Orkney. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 78: 43-45.
England, Orkney,
35238Yañez O., Osorio M.I., Osorio E., Tiznado W., Ruíz L., García C., Nagles O., Simirgiotis M.J., Castañeta G., Areche C. & García-Beltrán O. (2023): Antioxidant activity and enzymatic of lichen substances: A study based on cyclic voltammetry and theoretical. - Chemico-Biological Interactions, 372: 110357 [10 p.].
The antioxidant activity of nine lichen substances, including methylatrarate (1), methyl haematommate (2), lobaric acid (3), fumarprotocetraric acid (4), sphaerophorin (5), subsphaeric acid (6), diffractaic acid (7), barbatolic acid (8) and salazinic acid (9) has been determined through cyclic voltammetry. The compounds 1–4 presented slopes close to the Nernst constant of 0.059 V, indicating a 2H+/2e− relation between protons and electrons, as long as the compounds 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 present slopes between 0.037 V and 0.032 V, indicating a 1H+/2e− relation between protons and electrons. These results show a high free radical scavenging activity by means of the release of H+, suggesting an important antioxidant capacity of these molecules. Theoretical calculations of hydrogen bond dissociation enthalpies (BDE), proton affinities (PA), and Proton Transfer (PT) mechanisms, at M06-2x/6-311+G(d,p) level complement the experimental results. Computations support that the best antioxidant activity is obtained for the molecules (3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8), that have a carboxylic acid group close to a phenolic hydroxyl group, through hydrogen atomic transfer (HAT) and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) mechanisms. Additional computations were performed for modelling binding affinity of the lichen substances with CYPs enzymes, mainly CYP1A2, CYP51, and CYP2C9*2 isoforms, showing strong affinity for all the compounds described in this study. Keywords: Lichenic substances; Antioxidant; Cyclic voltamperograms; DFT methods; CYPs enzymes; Natural products.
35237da Silva A.S., Aguiar J.C.R.O.F., Nascimento J.S. , Costa E.C.S., dos Santos F.H.G., de Araújo H.D.A., da Silva N.H., Pereira E.C., Martins M.C., Falcão E.P.S., Scotti L., Scotti M.T. & Navarro D.M.A.F. (2023): Larvicidal activity and docking study of Ramalina complanata and Cladonia verticillaris extracts and secondary metabolites against Aedes aegypti. - Industrial Crops and Products, 195: 116425 [8 p.].
Highlights ● Ramalina complanata and Cladonia verticillaris extracts showed larvicidal activity. ● Fumarprotocetraric acid was a better larvicidal as Divaricatic acid. ● The TRP286 residue may have contributed to the very good activity of FUM. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is the main vector of the arboviruses that cause Zika, Yellow Fever, Dengue, and Chikungunya, incapacitating diseases that may even be fatal. There are still no vaccines for any of these viruses. Therefore, the only way to contain outbreaks is to control the vector that transmits them. In the present study, we investigated the larvicidal activity of lichen extracts (Ramalina complanata (Sw.) Ach., 1810 and Cladonia verticillaris (Raddi) Fr.), isolating components that were used against larvae of the mosquito A. aegypti. The ether extract from R. complanata exhibited an LC50 = 5.9 µ−1, while a compound isolated from this species, divaricatic acid, had an LC50 = 27.1 µ−1. The acetone extract of C. verticilaris exhibited an LC50 = 17.4 µ−1 and the isolated compound fumarprotocetraric acid (FUM) had an LC50 = 13.6 µ−1. These results demonstrate that extracts and isolated compounds from the two lichen species have strong larvicidal activities. FUM is the most active compound in our investigation. The molecular docking studies of divaricatic acid and FUM demonstrated that they bind to the active site of AaAChE1 in an energetically favorable manner. The TRP286 residue may have contributed to the more pronounced activity of fumarprotocetraric acid compared to divaricatic acid. Other aspects related to the more pronounced activity of fumarprotocetraric acid are its molecular weight and higher solubility. Our results provide evidence of the importance of studying lichen secondary metabolites as natural sources of insecticides and investigating possible interactions with AaAChE1. Keywords: Ramalina complanata; Cladonia verticillaris; Divaricatic acid; Fumarprotocetraric acid; Larvicidal; Docking.
35236Stanton D.E., Ormond A., Koch N.M. & Colesie C. (2023): Lichen ecophysiology in a changing climate. - American Journal of Botany, 110(2): e16131 [14 p.].
Lichens are one of the most iconic and ubiquitous symbioses known, widely valued as indicators of environmental quality and, more recently, climate change. Our understanding of lichen responses to climate has greatly expanded in recent decades, but some biases and constraints have shaped our present knowledge. In this review we focus on lichen ecophysiology as a key to predicting responses to present and future climates, highlighting recent advances and remaining challenges. Lichen ecophysiology is best understood through complementary whole-thallus and within-thallus scales. Water content and form (vapor or liquid) are central to whole-thallus perspectives, making vapor pressure differential (VPD) a particularly informative environmental driver. Responses to water content are further modulated by photobiont physiology and whole-thallus phenotype, providing clear links to a functional trait framework. However, this thallus-level perspective is incomplete without also considering within-thallus dynamics, such as changing proportions or even identities of symbionts in response to climate, nutrients, and other stressors. These changes provide pathways for acclimation, but their understanding is currently limited by large gaps in our understanding of carbon allocation and symbiont turnover in lichens. Lastly, the study of lichen physiology has mainly prioritized larger lichens at high latitudes, producing valuable insights but underrepresenting the range of lichenized lineages and ecologies. Key areas for future work include improving geographic and phylogenetic coverage, greater emphasis on VPD as a climatic factor, advances in the study of carbon allocation and symbiont turnover, and the incorporation of physiological theory and functional traits in our predictive models.
35235Bokhorst S., Bjerke J.W., Phoenix G.K., Jaakola L., Mæhre H.K. & Tømmervik H. (2023): Sub-arctic mosses and lichens show idiosyncratic responses to combinations of winter heatwaves, freezing and nitrogen deposition. - Physiologia Plantarum, 175(2): e13882 [18 p.].
Arctic ecosystems are increasingly exposed to extreme climatic events throughout the year, which can affect species performance. Cryptogams (bryophytes and lichens) provide important ecosystem services in polar ecosystems but may be physiologically affected or killed by extreme events. Through field and laboratory manipulations, we compared physiological responses of seven dominant sub-Arctic cryptogams (three bryophytes, four lichens) to single events and factorial combinations of mid-winter heatwave (6°C for 7 days), re-freezing, snow removal and summer nitrogen addition. We aimed to identify which mosses and lichens are vulnerable to these abiotic extremes and if combinations would exacerbate physiological responses. Combinations of extremes resulted in stronger species responses but included idiosyncratic species-specific responses. Species that remained dormant during winter (March), irrespective of extremes, showed little physiological response during summer (August). However, winter physiological activity, and response to winter extremes, was not consistently associated with summer physiological impacts. Winter extremes affect cryptogam physiology, but summer responses appear mild, and lichens affect the photobiont more than the mycobiont. Accounting for Arctic cryptogam response to multiple climatic extremes in ecosystem functioning and modelling will require a better understanding of their winter eco-physiology and repair capabilities.
35234Zhurbenko M. (2023): Clypeococcum wedinii (Dothideomycetes), a new lichenicolous fungus on Bunodophoron, with an updated key to species of Clypeococcum. - The Lichenologist, 55(1): 35-39.
Clypeococcum wedinii, a pyrenocarpous ascomycete growing on the lichen genus Bunodophoron in Chile and New Zealand, is described as new to science. It differs from other Clypeococcum species in the combination of the following characteristics: a conspicuous gall formation, scattered, loose to dense stromatic growths sometimes looking like a clypeus, an ascomatal wall composed of both textura intricata and angularis in surface view, a non-amyloid hymenium, an absence of ostiolar filaments, 8-spored asci, and 1-septate ascospores arranged biseriately in the ascus. An updated key to the species of the lichenicolous genus Clypeococcum is provided. lichen-dwelling fungi, Polycoccaceae, Southern Hemisphere, taxonomy
35233Wang W., Abas A., Wei X., Qian X. & Wei J. (2023): Two new species of the lichenized genus Lasioloma (Byssolomataceae) from Asia. - The Lichenologist, 55(1): 27-33.
Two new species of the lichenized genus Lasioloma are described from Asia: Lasioloma longiramosum W. C. Wang & A. Abas (collected from Malaysia), is characterized by a distinct woolly prothallus between dispersed thallus patches, comparatively small, muriform ascospores, long filiform conidia (main branch 22–28 μm in length, the other three branches 65–80 μm) and a foliicolous habitat; L. verrucosum W. C. Wang & X. L. Wei (collected from China), is characterized by a warted thallus, filiform conidia (main branch 22–32 μm in length, the other three branches 50–65 μm) and a corticolous habitat. The placement of both new species was confirmed by a molecular phylogenetic approach based on combined ITS, mtSSU and mtLSU sequences, and both are compared in detail to other similar species of the genus. Our study also revealed that the length of the conidial branches, which has not been explored in previous studies, should be regarded as an important feature for species delimitation in Lasioloma. China, conidia, foliicolous lichens, Malaysia, mtLSU
35232Pfeffer B., Lymbery C., Booth B. & Allen J. (2023): Chromosomal genome sequence assembly and mating-type (MAT) locus characterization of the leprose asexual lichenized fungus Lepraria neglecta (Nyl.) Erichsen. - The Lichenologist, 55(1): 41-50.
Complete chromosomal-level assemblies of fungal genomes are rare. The intimate ecological symbioses and complex reproduction strategies utilized by fungi make highly contiguous, gapless genome assemblies particularly difficult. Here, we use long-read sequencing on the Oxford Nanopore Technology MinION platform to sequence and assemble the genome of Lepraria neglecta (Ascomycota, Lecanorales). In addition to eight contigs ascribable to chromosomes, six of which are assembled telomere-to-telomere, we discovered the presence of a complete MAT locus with two conserved MAT1-2 genes and a putative MAT1-1 pseudogene. The full genome assembly of a widespread, common species presents an opportunity for new insights into lichen reproduction while the presence of the mating-type locus in the genome of an asexual lichen raises fundamental questions about reproductive biology in fungi generally. asexual reproduction, chromosome assembly, chromosome counts, fungal mating systems
35231Kantvilas G. (2023): Three new species of siphuloid lichens, with a first key to the genus Parasiphula. - The Lichenologist, 55(1): 17-25.
The term ‘siphuloid’ is introduced for a suite of distinct lichen genera with a superficially similar foliose to fruticose morphology, notably Siphula, Siphulella, Siphulopsis, Parasiphula and Knightiellastrum. Three new species are described: Parasiphula squamosa Kantvilas (from Tasmania and New Zealand), characterized by a whitish grey, squamulose or minutely foliose thallus lacking lichen substances or containing traces of atranorin; Siphula capensis Kantvilas (from southern Africa), containing baeomycesic and squamatic acids, and characterized by robust, broadly flattened, rounded lobes with thickened apices; and S. crittendenii (from the Caribbean but with an outlying collection from Queensland, Australia), an epiphytic species containing thamnolic acid, with fragile, flattened lobes mostly to 10 mm long and 1−5 mm wide, with ragged or much-divided apices. Salient features of the species of Parasiphula are summarized and a first key for this genus is presented. Infrageneric problems in Siphula are also discussed briefly. Caribbean islands, Coccotremataceae, Icmadophilaceae, new species, southern Africa, Tasmania, taxonomy
35230Ertz D. & Tehler A. (2023): New species of Arthoniales from Cape Verde with an enlarged concept of the genus Ingaderia. - The Lichenologist, 55(1): 1-15.
Three new species of Arthoniales are described from Cape Verde: Ingaderia dendritica, with ascomata formed of richly branched-dendroid lirellae and containing erythrin; Sparria caboverdensis, with small stroma-like ascomata and ascospores with 3–7 transverse septa; and Syncesia miesii, with an I− thallus, a tomentose hymenial disc, and a chemistry with fatty acids only. Phylogenetic analyses using nuLSU and RPB2 sequences reveal the placement of Fulvophyton sorediatum, Llimonaea occulta, L. sorediata and Sparria caboverdensis in the family Opegraphaceae. The genus Llimonaea is recovered as paraphyletic, with L. flexuosa being placed as sister species to a lineage including the genera Ingaderia and Paraingaderia. In consequence, an enlarged concept of the genus Ingaderia is proposed, resulting in the transfer of F. sorediatum, L. flexuosa, L. occulta, L. sorediata and Paraingaderia placodioidea to Ingaderia. Fulvophyton, lichen, Llimonaea, Opegraphaceae, phylogeny, Sparria, Syncesia
35229Manová A., Hýžová B., Darriba Canora D., Castrillo Antolin A. & Dufková K. (2022): Vitality and growth rate of agar plate-cultivated Antarctic microautotrophs: Analysis of PSII functioning by chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. - Czech Polar Reports, 12(2): 269–279.
In our study, we focused on the growth of three different microautotrophs isolated from Antarctic lichens (Placopsis contortuplicata, Solorina spongiosa) and cryptoendolithic algal vegetation. The isolates were purified and inoculated on agar plates, Bold´s Basal Medium (BBM). The growth of the cultures and the markers of physiological (photosynthetic) activity were monitored by chlorophyll fluorescence in 1 week intervals for 3 months after inoculation. For the assessment of photosynthetic activity, the method of slow Kautsky kinetics supplemented with saturation pulses was applied. Four chlorophyll fluorescence parameters calculated: (1) maximum quantum yield of PSII (FV/FM), (2) effective quantum yield of photosynthetic processes in PSII (ΦPSII), (3) non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence, and (4) background chlorophyll fluorescence ratio (F0/F0´). Troughout the cultivation period, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (FV/FM) showed high values in all three autotrophs with only slight increase in the first part of the cultivation period, followed by slight decrease in the second part. The ΦPSII values showed a rapid decline within the first 4 weeks of cultivation followed by more or less constant values in the isolates from P. contortuplicata and cryptoendolithic alga. Contrastingly, time course of ΦPSII rather showed an increase followed by a decrease in S. spongiosa isolate. NPQ (related to the activation of protective mechanisms) increased in the second part of cultivation period, the rate of increase and maximum values were species-specific. The species-specific differences in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters are discussed as well as their potential for evaluation of photosynthetic performance of in vitro cultivated algal/cyanobacterial cultures on agar plates. Keywords: lichen photobionts; algal biotechnology; Kautsky kinetics.
35228Hájek J., Puhovkin A., Giordano D. & Sekerák Jr. J. (2022): What does critical temperature tell us about the resistance of polar lichens to freezing stress? Applicability of linear cooling method to ecophysiological studies. - Czech Polar Reports, 12(2): 246–255.
Lichens from polar regions are well adapted to low temperature and considered cryoresistant. However, interspecific differences in their cryoresistance exist according to the degree of their adaptation and severity of the environment. In our study, we applied linear cooling technique in order to evaluate the interspecific differences in several lichen species. Thalli segments of Umbilicaria antarctica, Nephroma antarctica, Placopsis contortuplicata and Lasallia pustulata were exposed to the cooling from 20 to –35°C at a constant rate of 2°C min-1. Simultaneously with the cooling, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters evaluating potential (FV/FM) and effective yield of primary photochemical processes in PSII (FPSII) were measured in 30 s interval. Temperature response curves of FV/FM and FPSII formed typical S-curves that were species specific. Critical temperature (cooling point at which FPSII equals 0), was found in a narrow range of –25 to –28°C, suggesting that all experimental lichen species have a high resistance to sub-zero temperatures. The method of linear cooling used in this study has proven its applicability in ecophysiological studies since it is sensitive enough for the evaluation of species-specific differences in cryoresistance. This study describes different parameters that can be derived from the S-curves and discuss their proper use in ecophysiological and stress physiology studies. Keywords: cryoresistance; chlorophyll fluorescence; photosystem II; primary photosynthesis.
35227Halıcı M.G. & Kahraman Yiğit M. (2022): Rinodina gennarii Bagl., a new record of lichenized fungi for Antarctica. - Czech Polar Reports, 12(2): 155–159.
In a project aiming to determine the lichen biodiversity of James Ross Island which is located in the NE Antarctic Peninsula, 3 specimens growing on basaltic rocks were identified as Rinodina gennarii, a cosmopolite bipolar species which was never reported from Antarctica. This species is characteristic by having Dirinaria-type ascospores lacking a distinct torus and swelling around the septa in KOH. Detailed morphological and anatomical properties of this species along with photographs based on the Antarctic specimens are provided here. Our study and newly reported R. gennarii suggest that the lichen biodiversity of Antarctica is far from being fully known and detailed floristic and taxonomical revision studies should be carried to determine it. Keywords: Antarctic Peninsula; biodiversity; James Ross Island; lichens; Physciaceae.
35226Doyle E., Blanchon D., Wells S., de Lange P., Lockhart P., Waipara N., Manefield M., Wallis S. & Berry T.-A. (2023): Internal transcribed pacer and 16S amplicon sequencing identifies microbial species associated with asbestos in New Zealand. - Genes, 14(3): 729 [12 p.].
Inhalation of asbestos fibres can cause lung inflammation and the later development of asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma, and the use of asbestos is banned in many countries. In most countries, large amounts of asbestos exists within building stock, buried in landfills, and in contaminated soil. Mechanical, thermal, and chemical treatment options do exist, but these are expensive, and they are not effective for contaminated soil, where only small numbers of asbestos fibres may be present in a large volume of soil. Research has been underway for the last 20 years into the potential use of microbial action to remove iron and other metal cations from the surface of asbestos fibres to reduce their toxicity. To access sufficient iron for metabolism, many bacteria and fungi produce organic acids, or iron-chelating siderophores, and in a growing number of experiments these have been found to degrade asbestos fibres in vitro. This paper uses the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 16S amplicon sequencing to investigate the fungal and bacterial diversity found on naturally-occurring asbestos minerals, asbestos-containing building materials, and asbestos-contaminated soils with a view to later selectively culturing promising species, screening them for siderophore production, and testing them with asbestos fibres in vitro. After filtering, 895 ITS and 1265 16S amplicon sequencing variants (ASVs) were detected across the 38 samples, corresponding to a range of fungal, bacteria, cyanobacterial, and lichenized fungal species. Samples from Auckland (North Island, New Zealand) asbestos cement, Auckland asbestos-contaminated soils, and raw asbestos rocks from Kahurangi National Park (South Island, New Zealand) were comprised of very different microbial communities. Five of the fungal species detected in this study are known to produce siderophores. Keywords: asbestos; bioremediation; chrysotile; fungi; bacteria; siderophores; amplicon sequencing; New Zealand.
35225McGrath C. (2023): Highlight: Gene Cluster Reshuffling Drives Natural Sunscreen Evolution in Lichens. - Genome Biology and Evolution, 15(2): 1-2.
A new study reveals that the evolution of sunscreen pigments in lichen-forming fungi has been governed by the reshuffling of existing enzyme genes and novel accessory genes into new gene clusters. Lichens are diverse and colorful organisms that can be found in nearly every environment on Earth, from the arctic tundra to tropical rainforests. Due to the wide variety of their phenotypes and propensity to be misidentified as plants, fungi, or mosses, lichens have long been poorly understood. Lichens are composed of multiple distinct spe- cies, including at least one fungus and at least one photo- synthetic partner, usually a green alga or cyanobacterium. According to Theo Llewellyn, a PhD candidate at Imperial College London and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, “Lichens are hugely important for Earth’s ecosystems and provide fantastic study systems for exploring many biologic- al questions. However, they are understudied and often overlooked, meaning that much less is known compared to other organism groups, especially in the field of genom- ics.” Llewellyn is doing his part to change this by focusing his PhD work on lichen-forming fungi, which are known to produce a huge variety of bioactive secondary metabolites.
35224Karagoz Y. & Karagoz B. (2022): Lichens in Pharmacological Action: What Happened in the Last Decade?. - Eurasian Journal of Medicine, 54: S195-S208.
Lichens are a unique group of organisms, which can produce compounds that are named secondary metabolites and rarely or are not produced in other organisms. Lichens possess pharmacological actions related to their secondary metabolites. Our knowledge of lichens and their pharmacological actions rapidly increases as new technologies and devices, which facilitate the investigation of the chemical profile and biological activities of lichens, are introduced and become more readily available. In addition, new methods and perspectives, as well as suggestions for pharmacological mechanisms, accumulate daily. Furthermore, lichen substances stand as a relatively untapped source of natural products. Accordingly, researchers investigate the pharmacological actions of lichen-derived material more frequently than it was in the past. This review focused on the pharmacological activities of lichens published in the last 11 years (2012-2022). Literature data obtained from WebOfScience and PubMed databases using related search keywords revealed that anti-genotoxicity, anticancer, and anti-microbial activity studies have constantly been conducted. More recently, immunomodulatory and inflammation-related studies took to the stage. Enzyme inhibition actions were popular as well. Our selection was based on the novelty and mechanistic insight that papers presented. Lichens, natural products, biologic pharmaceuticals, literature review, IN-VITRO EVALUATION, USNIC ACID, PROTOLICHESTERINIC ACID, SECONDARY METABOLITES, DIFFRACTAIC ACID, ANTIOXIDANT, EXTRACTS, CELLS, APOPTOSIS, INHIBITION
35223Ficko S., McClymont A., Haughland D. & Naeth M. (2023): Optimizing growth chamber conditions for maintaining Arctic lichen-dominated biocrusts. - Restoration Ecology, 2023: 1-9.
Optimizing growth chamber conditions for Arctic lichen biocrusts will create new opportunities to assess and prioritize reclamation techniques given the challenges associated with conducting arctic field work. Our study is the first to examine growth chamber conditions for optimizing survival and growth of Arctic lichen biocrusts, as measured by changes in lichen cover. We assessed effects of substrate crossed with substrate depth, substrate sterilization, lichen inoculation and community composition, and watering frequency in four concurrent experiments over 6 weeks on survival of arctic biocrusts collected from Diavik Diamond Mine Inc., Northwest Territories, Canada. Mixed species declined less than Flavocetraria cucullata, and substrate affected F. cucullata survival over time. Live lichen cover declined least with a 3-day watering frequency and substrate depth of 1 cm. Sterilization did not affect lichen survival, and no contamination was observed over 6 weeks. Our results highlight the challenges of maintaining and growing lichens under controlled conditions, as only a few treatments showed increases in cover. Our research shows that even short-term growth chamber experiments have potential to screen reclamation treatments prior to field assessments, permitting reclamation scientists to optimize limited time and resources while in the field. Arctic, biocrust, growth chamber, lichen, revegetation, tundra, BIOLOGICAL SOIL CRUSTS, BRYOPHYTES, CULTURE, MINE
35222Coppins B.J. (1995): Literature pertaining to British lichens - 18. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 77: 43-48.
35221Earland-Bennett P.M. (ed.) (1995): New, rare and interesting british lichen records. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 77: 37-42.
35220Dobson F. (1995): We are still looking for the largest lichen. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 77: 35-36.
35219Crittenden P. (1995): Lichens and radioactive fallout over North West Russia. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 77: 34-35.
35218Gilbert O. (1995): Country diary: Inchnadamph, North-West Highlands. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 77: 16-17.
35217Pelkonen V.P., Hyvärinen M. & Tarhanen S. (1995): Ultracryomicrotomy in immunological studies on lichens. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 77: 29-33.
enzymes, immunoelectronmicroscopy, immunogold labelling, stereocaulon, 2 fig. Study of glutamine synthetase distribution in the cyanobacteria of Stereocaulon glareosum.
35216Laundon J.R. (1995): The formation of the British Lichen Society. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 77: 1-10.
BLS, Great Britain, history,
35215Coppins B.J. (1995): Literature pertaining to British lichens – 17. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 76: 59-61.
35214Brightman F. (1995): New, rare and interesting british lichen records. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 76: 47-59.
35213Dobson F. (1995): Field meeting to Nonsuch park and St Mary’s church, Ewell, Surrey. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 76: 44-46.
35212Guest J. (1995): Lichens, long-tailed tits and air pollution. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 76: 37-39.
35211Fryday A. (1995): Night on a Bare Mountain. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 76: 30-33.
35210Orange A. (1995): The British species of Lepraria and Leproloma: chemistry and identification. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 76: 1-9.
35209Rose F. (1995): Surveys of Hampshire churchyards. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 76: 40-41.
35208Gheza G. (2018): Addenda to the lichen flora of the Ticino river valley (western Po Plain, Italy). - Natural History Sciences. Atti Soc. it. Sci. nat. Museo civ. Stor. nat. Milano, 5(2): 33–40.
The Ticino river valley is a focal area for biodiversity in the western Po Plain (Northern Italy). Lichens have been collected by the author from 91 sites in the period 2011-2017. These collections and the few literature data published in the last decade have been summarized. Twenty-eight species (15 terricolous, 5 epiphytic, 3 lignicolous, 3 saxicolous, 1 epiphytic and lignicolous, 1 terricolous and epiphytic), mostly belonging to genus Cladonia, are reported here as addenda to the floristic list published 15 years ago by the Lombardy Ticino Park, which included 123 species. Many of the newly recorded species are interesting under a conservation or biogeographical standpoint. Key words: Calluna heathlands, Cladonia, dry grasslands, floristics, lichen diversity, macrolichens, planitial woods.
35207Gheza G., Nascimbene J., Barcella M., Bracco F. & Assini S. (2022): Epiphytic lichens of woodland habitats in the lower Ticino river valley and in the “Bosco Siro Negri” Integral Nature State Reserve (NW Italy). - Natural History Sciences. Atti Soc. it. Sci. nat. Museo civ. Stor. nat. Milano, 9(2): 7–18.
Epiphytic lichens were surveyed in the “Bosco Siro Negri” Integral Nature State Reserve (province of Pavia, Lombardy, NW Italy), which hosts a well-preserved fragment of oak-elm flood-plain forest (Natura 2000 Habitat 91F0). The core woodland fragment hosted only four species on the tree boles, i.e. Lepraria finkii plus the forest specialists Coenogonium pineti, Diarthonis spadicea, and Opegrapha vermicellifera. An additional eight nitro- and photophytic species were recorded on the highest twigs of the canopy. The whole Reserve, including the neighbouring degraded woodlands and poplar plantations, hosted 27 epiphytic lichen taxa. The lower Ticino River valley between Vigevano and Pavia, in which the Reserve is located, was surveyed for epiphytic lichens in an additional 45 sites, including 15 well-preserved oak-elm/hornbeam woodlands (Habitat 91F0), 15 degraded broadleaved woodlands with high occurrence of black locust and 15 poplar plantations. Overall, 32 species were recorded. Well-pre-served woodlands had a lower species richness, but they hosted forest specialists not occurring in the other two habitats. Graphis pulverulentaand Lecania cyrtellina are new to Lombardy. Anisomeridium polypori, Diarthonis spadicea, Lecanora expallens and Pseudoschismatomma rufescens are reported from Lombardy for the second time.Keywords: floodplain forests, Habitat 91F0, Natura 2000 Network, plantations, river parks.
35206Miral A., Jargeat P., Mambu L., Rouaud I., Tranchimand S. & Tomasi S. (2022): Microbial community associated with the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum L. (DC.) living on oceanic seashore: A large source of diversity revealed by using multiple isolation methods. - Environmental Microbiology Reports, 14: 856–872. DOI: 10.1111/1758-2229.13105.
Recently, the study of the interactions within a microcosm between hosts and their associated microbial communities drew an unprecedented interest arising from the holobiont concept. Lichens, a symbiotic association between a fungus and an alga, are redefined as complex ecosystems considering the tremendous array of associated microorganisms that satisfy this concept. The present study focuses on the diversity of the microbiota associated with the seashore located lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum, recovered by different culture-dependent methods. Samples harvested from two sites allowed the isolation and the molecular identification of 68 fungal isolates distributed in 43 phylogenetic groups, 15 bacterial isolates distributed in five taxonomic groups and three microalgae belonging to two species. Moreover, for 12 fungal isolates belonging to 10 different taxa, the genus was not described in GenBank. These fungal species have never been sequenced or described and therefore non-studied. All these findings highlight the novel and high diversity of the microflora associated with R. geographicum. While many species disappear every day, this work suggests that coastal and wild environments still contain an unrevealed variety to offer and that lichens constitute a great reservoir of new microbial taxa which can be recovered by multiplying the culture-dependent techniques.
35205Lõhmus A., Motiejūnaitė J. & Lõhmus P. (2023): Regionally varying habitat relationships in lichens: the concept and evidence with an emphasis on north-temperate ecosystems. - Journal of Fungi, 9(3): 341 [30 p.].
Habitat ecology of lichens (lichen-forming fungi) involves diverse adaptations to stressful environments where lichens use specific habitat conditions. Field observations confirm that such habitat ‘preferences’ can vary significantly across species’ distribution ranges, sometimes revealing abrupt changes over short distances. We critically review and generalize such empirical evidence as broad ecological patterns, link these with the likely physiological mechanisms and evolutionary processes involved, and outline the implications for lichen conservation. Non-replicated correlative studies remain only suggestive because the data are frequently compromised by sampling bias and pervasive random errors; further noise is related to unrecognized cryptic species. Replicated evidence exists for three macroecological patterns: (a) regional limiting factors excluding a species from a part of its microhabitat range in suboptimal areas; (b) microhabitat shifts to buffer regionally adverse macroclimates; (c) substrate suitability changed by the chemical environment, notably air pollution. All these appear to be primarily buffering physiological challenges of the adverse conditions at the macrohabitat scale or, in favorable environments, coping with competition or predation. The roles of plasticity, adaptation, dispersal, and population-level stochasticity remain to be studied. Although lichens can inhabit various novel microhabitats, there is no evidence for a related adaptive change. A precautionary approach to lichen conservation is to maintain long-term structural heterogeneity in lichen habitats, and consider lichen ecotypes as potential evolutionarily significant units and a bet-hedging strategy for addressing the climate change-related challenges to biodiversity. Keywords: adaptation; ecotype; ecophysiology; environmental filtering; habitat selection; limiting factors; macroecology; niche; oceanicity-continentality gradient; spatial ecology.
35204Pykälä J., Kantelinen A. & Myllys L. (2023): Taxonomy of Thelidium auruntii and T. incavatum complexes (lichenized Ascomycota, Verrucariales) in Finland. - MycoKeys, 96: 1–23.
The taxonomy of lichen species morphologically similar to Thelidium auruntii and T. incavatum in Finland is being revised. Based on ITS and morphology, ten species occur in Finland. All species are restricted to calcareous rocks. The Thelidium auruntii morphocomplex includes six species: T. auruntii, T. huuskonenii sp. nov., T. pseudoauruntii sp. nov., T. sallaense sp. nov, T. toskalharjiense sp. nov. and T. sp. 1. In the ITS phylogeny, T. auruntii, T. pseudoauruntii and T. sallaense group together, but the remaining species are placed outside of this clade. All the species have northern distribution in Finland, occurring on fells in NW Finland and/or in gorges in the Oulanka area in NE Finland. The Thelidium incavatum morphocomplex includes four species: T. declivum sp. nov., T. incavatum, T. mendax sp. nov. and T. sp. 2. This morphogroup is not resolved as monophyletic in the ITS phylogeny, with only T. declivum and T. mendax forming a strongly supported group. Thelidium incavatum is rather common in SW Finland, with one separate locality in eastern Finland. Thelidium declivum occurs only in the Oulanka area. Thelidium mendax occurs in the Oulanka area, but one locality is known from eastern central Finland. Thelidium sp. 2 is known from one locality in SW Lapland. Keywords: Calcareous rocks, DNA barcoding, ITS, lichenized fungi, new species, phylogeny.
35203Skobel N., Borovyk D., Vynokurov D., Moysiyenko I., Babytskiy A., Bednarska I., Bezsmertna O., Chusova O., Dayneko P., Dengler J., Guarino R., Kalashnik K., Khodosovtsev A., Kolomiychuk V., Kucher O., Kuzemko A., Shapoval V., Umanets O., Zagorodniuk N., Zakharova M. & Dembicz I. (2023): Biodiversity surveys of grassland and coastal habitats in 2021 as a documentation of pre-war status in southern Ukraine. - Biodiversity Data Journal, 11: e99605 [19 p.].
Background: This paper presents two sampling-event datasets with occurrences of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens collected in May-June 2021 in southern Ukraine. We aimed to collect high-quality biodiversity data in an understudied region and contribute it to international databases and networks. The study was carried out during the 15th Eurasian Dry Grassland Group (EDGG) Field Workshop in southern Ukraine and the Dark Diversity Network (DarkDivNet) sampling in the Kamianska Sich National Nature Park. By chance, these datasets were collected shortly before the major escalation of the Russian invasion in Ukraine. Surveyed areas in Kherson and Mykolaiv Regions, including established monitoring plots, were severely affected by military actions in 2022. Therefore, collected data are of significant value in the context of biodiversity documentation. The knowledge about the biodiversity of this area will help to assess the environmental impact of the war and plan restoration of the damaged or destroyed habitats. The first preliminary analysis of collected data demonstrates the biodiversity richness and conservation value of studied grassland habitats. New information: We provide sampling-event datasets with 7467 occurrences, which represent 708 taxa (vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens) collected in 275 vegetation relevés. Amongst them, vascular plants are represented by 6665 occurrences (610 taxa), lichens - 420 (46) and bryophytes - 381 (51). Several new species were reported for the first time at the national or regional level. In particular, one vascular plant species (Torilis pseudonodosa) and two lichen species (Cladonia conista, Endocarpon loscosii) were new to Ukraine. One vascular plant (Stipa tirsa), two species of bryophytes (Rhynchostegium megapolitanum, Ptychostomum torquescens) and three species of lichens (Cladonia cervicornis, C. symphycarpa, Involucropyrenium breussi) were recorded for the first time for the Kherson Region. Additionally, these datasets contain occurrences of taxa with narrow distribution, specialists of rare habitat types and, therefore, represented by a low number of occurrences in relevant biodiversity databases and particularly in GBIF. This publication highlights the diversity of natural vegetation and its flora in southern Ukraine and raises conservation concerns. Keywords: bryophytes, dry grasslands, flora, lichens, occurrence data, sampling-event data, steppe, vascular plants.
35202Shivarov V.V., Denchev C.M. & Denchev T.T. (2023): Red List of lichenized fungi in Bulgaria. - Mycobiota, 13: 1–30.
The first Red List assessment of lichenized fungi reported from Bulgaria is presented. The IUCN Red List criteria were applied to 138 species to assess their current extinction risk and to highlight the main threats for them. Our results revealed that six species are Regionally Extinct (RE), 23 species are Critically Endangered (CR), 20 species are Endangered (EN), 13 species are Vulnerable (VU), 11 species are Near Threatened (NT), 58 species are Least Concern (LC), and seven species are Data Deficient (DD). The most important floristic regions for lichen conservation are the Pirin Mts (26 species), the Balkan Range (25), the Rila Mts (25), the Rhodopes (20), Mt. Vitosha (16), Mt. Strandzha (16), and the Black Sea coast (15). The main threats are development of tourism and recreation activities that destroy habitats (60 species affected), air pollution (55), climate change (53), development of tourism and recreation areas (41), harvesting trees and other woody vegetation (unintentional effects) (27), ecosystem modifications that convert or degrade habitats (18), and development of housing and urban areas (14). The information provided in this Red List will assist to further develop the national conservation strategy for Bulgaria. Keywords: biodiversity, Bulgaria, conservation status, fungal diversity, IUCN Red List categories, lichens, red listing, Regionally Extinct (RE), threatened species.
35201Tanona M. & Czarnota P. (2023): The response of lichens inhabiting exposed wood of spruce logs to post-hurricane disturbances in Western Carpathian forests. - Fungal Ecology, 63: 101228 [11 p.].
We investigated which of the following environmental factors: the number of years since the windthrow of the tree (the age of dead wood), the phytocenosis (the type of forest community), altitude, exposure, wood hardness and the spatial scale of forest disturbances (small gaps with a few fallen spruces vs large-area windthrows) contributed to the diversity and abundance of lichens inhabiting the exposed wood of windthrown spruce trees in Polish Western Carpathian forests. Both Shannon H index and sum of coverage coefficients rose with increasing age of the wood, levelling off after 11–14 y (diversity) and 14–17 y (abundance). This factor appeared to be the most important for this group of lichens, but the significant positive impact of large-area windthrows on the lichen abundance was also demonstrated by using a GLM model. The age of the wood we precisely determined on the basis of data on Norway spruce mortality collected annually in permanent plots of the Gorce National Park since 2000. Using the Shore durometer we linked the course of the wood-inhabiting lichen succession with wood decay more precisely than before. The largest number of species was associated with medium hard wood, i.e., 51
35200Hofmann B., Dreyling L., Dal Grande F., Otte J. & Schmitt I. (2023): Habitat and tree species identity shape aboveground and belowground fungal communities in central European forests. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 14: 1067906 [14 p.]. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2023.1067906.
Introduction: Trees interact with fungi in mutualistic, saprotrophic, and pathogenic relationships. With their extensive aboveground and belowground structures, trees provide diverse habitats for fungi. Thus, tree species identity is an important driver of fungal community composition in forests. Methods: Here we investigate how forest habitat (bark surface vs. soil) and tree species identity (deciduous vs. coniferous) affect fungal communities in two Central European forests. We assess differences and interactions between fungal communities associated with bark surfaces and soil, in forest plots dominated either by Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies, or Pinus sylvestris in two study regions in southwestern and northeastern Germany. Results: ITS metabarcoding yielded 3,357 fungal amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) in the northern and 6,088 in the southern region. Overall, soil communities were 4.7 times more diverse than bark communities. Habitat type explained 48– 69% of the variation in alpha diversity, while tree species identity explained >1– 3%. NMDS ordinations showed that habitat type and host tree species structured the fungal communities. Overall, few fungal taxa were shared between habitats, or between tree species, but the shared taxa were highly abundant. Network analyses, based on co-occurrence patterns, indicate that aboveground and belowground communities form distinct subnetworks. Discussion: Our study suggests that habitat (bark versus soil) and tree species identity are important factors structuring fungal communities in temperate European forests. The aboveground (bark-associated) fungal community is currently poorly known, including a high proportion of reads assigned to “unknown Ascomycota” or “unknown Dothideomycetes.” The role of bark as a habitat and reservoir of unique fungal diversity in forests has been underestimated. Keywords: biodiversity, fungal diversity, metabarcoding, tree microbiome, rhytidome.
35199Esmaeillou M., Sohrabi M. & Ofoghi H. (2022): The study of the destructive roles of the endolithic lichen Verrucaria buschirensis , family Verrucariaceae on the world heritage site Persepolis. - Journal of Research on Archaeometry, 8(1): 171–183. DOI: 10.52547/jra.8.1.171.
The establishment of lichens on stone surfaces can cause serious damages to the surface. While the harms by the epilithic settlement is restricted to visual damages, the endolithic settlement will also bring about serious damage to the depths of the rock and will form small holes and fractures within the rock, which in turn will allow other organisms to penetrate and prompt further impairments. Considering the historical importance of the surfaces of carved stones at the world heritage site of Persepolis and the damages induced by lichens in these valuable works, the purpose of this study was to investigate the destructive role of lichens of the Verrucariaceae family at this legendary site. In this study, thin sections were prepared to identify the type and texture of the rock in terms of petrography. In order to detect organic substances on the rock surface as well as their color difference, pyrographic and FTIR studies were conducted. Additionally, using an electron microscope and an optical stereomicroscope, the damages caused by biopits resulting from lichen thallus in the stone were examined. In conjunction with petrographic studies, the type and origin of the stones as well as their vulnerability were identified. Based on the FTIR analysis, it was determined that the stone’s color changed from gray to white due to calcium oxalate precipitation. The results of electron microscope imaging showed that the establishment of lichen (Verrucaria buschirensis of the Verrucariaceae family and the penetration of hyphae into the stone severely damaged the surface of the stones at Persepolis, and any neglect will result in further irreparable damages. Keywords: Biodeterioration, FTIR, Petrography, biopit, Stone Damages.
35198Etayo J. (2023): Volume one of a new worldwide flora of lichenicolous fungi – Basidiomycota. - Bryologist, 126(1): 164–165.
Book review on: Diederich, P., A. M. Millanes, M. Wedin & J. D. Lawrey. 2022. Flora of Lichenicolous Fungi. Volume 1. Basidiomycota. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg, 351 pp. Available in the museum shop at the price of 35 E. A pdf is also available from: https://¼en
35197Lendemer J.C. (2023): Recent literature on lichens—268. - Bryologist, 126(1): 154–163.
35196Winchester V. (2023): Lichenometric dating and its limitations and problems: a guide for practitioners. - Land, 12(3): 611 [18 p.].
Lichenometry, a method for dating rock surface exposure mainly in high latitudes and mountain environments, is based on estimates of lichen growth rates, but over the last 70 years it has been severely criticised. Its chief limitation is its questionable reliability due to three main problems: the species belonging to the Rhizocarpon subgenus, most often used by lichenometrists, are hard to identify; growth studies have highlighted the intrinsic variability of growth both seasonally and annually, with species sensitively responding to a wide range of environmental factors; and the same sensitive dependence also applies to the time taken for colonization on fresh rock surfaces. These problems cast doubt on many absolute dating studies and critics have suggested that, at best, the technique should only be used for relative dating. This paper provides guidance on identification procedures and suggests alternative dating methods based on lichen size-frequency distributions and cross-dating with other lichen species, thus avoiding reliance on a single species or support from other methods. With appropriate development, it is hoped that these approaches can provide a way forward that allows the technique to contribute more reliably to the dating of rock surfaces in regions where there are few other dating options. Keywords: lichenometry; Rhizocarpon; identification; variable growth; colonization; absolute dating; relative dating; size-frequency distributions; cross-dating.
35195Raudabaugh D.B. & Aime M.C. (2023): Culturable diversity of lichen-associated yeasts through enrichment strategies. . - Ecologies, 4(1): 152–170.
Lichens are symbiotic partnerships between a filamentous fungus and a photosymbiotic “alga”. Studies show that lichens harbor endothallic fungi, but that some taxa have been difficult to isolate from the main filamentous thallus-forming fungus and other faster growing lichenicolous/endothallic fungi. Therefore, we aimed to develop and evaluate liquid yeast-enrichment strategies to (1) isolate lichen-associated yeasts in pure culture, and (2) determine the taxonomic placement and breadth of the diversity of culturable yeasts. Eighty-two lichen samples were collected and washed with distilled water, and healthy thalli were ground up and added to seven different yeast-enrichment broths. Yeast colonies were isolated in pure culture and identified using molecular techniques. Initial isolates were identified using BLASTn analysis, and a taxonomic refinement was completed using PhyML analysis. In total, 215 isolates were obtained. The most prevalently isolated ascomycetous yeasts were within the Dothideomycetes (Aureobasidium, Plowrightia, and Dothiora), while the most frequently isolated basidiomycetous yeasts belonged to the genera Curvibasidium, Sporobolomyces, and Tremella. The generic placements could not be determined for 17 isolates, and in total 25 novel species were recovered. The results of this research indicate that (1) lichen-associated yeasts are diverse, (2) employing liquid enrichment strategies is effective for isolating many of these, and (3) lichen thalli represent a valuable untapped reservoir of diverse and novel yeast species. Keywords: Ascomycota; Basidiomycota; Cystobasidiomycetes; monoterpenoids; Mucor; Nikkomycin Z.
35194热衣木•马木提,方津津,图尔荪阿依•排祖拉 [Mamut R., Fang J.J. & Payzulla T.] (2022): 中国双缘衣属(双缘衣科)地衣一新种 [A new species of the lichen genus Diploschistes from China]. - 菌物学报 [Mycosystema], 41(12): 1932–1940. Doi: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.220297.
[in Chinese with English abstract and description of a new taxon] The lichen-forming genus Diploschistes belongs to Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes, Ostropomycetidae, Graphidales, Diploschistaceae. This genus includes 48 crustose species worldwide, and is confirmed as monophyletic group. Based on morphological, anatomical and chemical observation combined with phylogenetic analysis of ITS, a new species of Diploschistes, D. viridis (referring to subg. Diploschistes), is found and described from western Tianshan Mountains. Detailed morphological descriptions, illustrations, habitat and color photos of this species are provided, and an ITS phylogenetic tree was constructed by maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) method. Keywords: Diploschistes; urceolate apothecia; phylogeny; monophyletic; lecanoric acid.
35193Stordeur R., Eckstein J., Hentschel J., John V., Kison H.-U., Knudsen K., Schiefelbein U., Seelemann A. & Thiemann R. (2023): Bemerkenswerte Neu- und Wiederfunde von Flechten, lichenicolen und saprophytischen Pilzen in Sachsen-Anhalt und angrenzenden Regionen. - Schlechtendalia, 40: 251–268. .
A total of 29 taxa are treated. Of these, 20 are lichenised, six are lichenicolous and two are saprobic fungi. Acarospora similis and the lichenicolous fungus Trimmatostroma lichenicola were detected in Germany for the first time. The lichens Acarospora intermedia, Agonimia voauxii, Athallia vitellinula, Bacidina saxenii, Candelariella viae-lacteae, C. xanthostigmoides, Cladonia diversa, Kuettlingeria soralifera, Lecanora thysanophora, Normandina pulchella, Protoparmeliopsis garovaglii, Rinodina aspera, Scythiora phlogina, Swinscowia jamesii, and Verrucaria bryoctona, the lichenicolous fungi Cladosporium licheniphilum, Laetisaria lichenicola, Taeniolella lecanoricola, Tremella phaeophysciae, Trichoconis physciicola, and the saprobic fungi Leptorhaphis atomaria and Leptosillia macrospora are additional new records for Sachsen-Anhalt. The lichen Protoparmeliopsis garovaglii is new for Saxony, and simultaneously for all eastern Federal States, and Bacidina saxenii is new for Thuringia. The lichenicolous fungus Sphaerellothecium minutum is also new for Sachsen-Anhalt, but at the same time a rediscovery for Germany after about 40 years. Rufoplaca scotoplaca, which has been recollected after almost 100 years at two different sites, is also an important rediscovery for Sachsen-Anhalt. For Eiglera flavida, recent collections from Sachsen-Anhalt (from 2001 onwards) are reported, and for the lichenicolous fungus Epigloea grummannii, which has been extremely rarely found so far, an additional location has been detected. Cetrelia monachorum must be removed from the lists for Sachsen-Anhalt. Key words: lichens, Germany, new records, biodiversity, nomenclature, species’ biology.
35192Conti M., Nimis P.L., Tretiach M., Muggia L., Moro A. & Martellos S. (2023): The Italian lichens dataset from the TSB herbarium (University of Trieste). - Biodiversity Data Journal , 11: e96466 [10 p.]. .
The "Herbarium Universitatis Tergestinae" (TSB), with a total of ca. 50,000 specimens, includes the largest modern collection of lichens in Italy, with 25,796 samples collected from all over the country since 1984, representing 74% of all taxa known to occur in Italy. Almost all specimens have been georeferenced “a posteriori”. Amongst them, 98% are georeferenced and 87% have the date of collection. The dataset includes several type specimens (isotypes and holotypes) and exsiccata.The dataset is available through GBIF, as well as in ITALIC, the Information System of Italian Lichens. Keywords: collection, diversity, georeference, occurrence, specimens.
35191Xhulaj S. (2019): Preliminary data on lichens from Albanian Alps (Razëm locality, Northern Albania). - Biologica Nyssana, 10(2): 155–158. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3600193.
A list of 82 taxa of lichens collected in the Albanian Alps in two nearby localities is presented here. More than half of them (58 taxa) represent new record for the investigation area. Key words: Albanian Alps, biodiversity, lichens, new records.
35190dos Santos L.A. , Aptroot A., Souza M.F., Lücking R., Guzmán-Guillermo J. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2023): Four new species of Tephromela M.Choisy (Ascomycota, Tephromelataceae), three containing lichexanthone, from Brazil and Mexico. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 44(1): 11–25.
Four new species of Tephromela M.Choisy are described here. Three are corticolous species from Brazil: T. multireflexa Aptroot & M.F.Souza, sp. nov., collected in the Chapada dos Guimarães, municipality of Cuiabá, a Cerrado region in the state of Mato Grosso; T. obesimarginata L.A.Santos, Aptroot & M.Cáceres, sp. nov., collected in Caraça, in Campo rupestre in Minas Gerais state; and T. vinacea L.A.Santos, Aptroot, Lücking & M.Cáceres, sp. nov., collected in the Parque Nacional Vale do Catimbau, municipality of Buique, a Caatinga region in the state of Pernambuco, with additional specimens from Mato Grosso do Sul. All are somewhat similar to T. atra (Huds.) Hafellner in morphological and anatomical features but differ chiefly in secondary chemistry, as well as partially in ascospore dimensions and substrate ecology: lichexanthone in the apothecial margins and α-collatolic acid in the medulla of the apothecial margin in T. multireflexa Aptroot & M.F.Souza, sp. nov.; lichexanthone in the thallus and the (unevenly thickened) apothecial margin in T. obesimarginata L.A.Santos, Aptroot & M.Cáceres, sp. nov.; and fatty acids in T. vinacea L.A.Santos, Aptroot, Lücking & M.Cáceres, sp. nov. Molecular data for T. vinacea L.A.Santos, Aptroot, Lücking & M.Cáceres, sp. nov. and T. obesimarginata L.A.Santos, Aptroot & M.Cáceres, sp. nov., demonstrate that they are not closely related to T. atra but form part of a previously unrecognized clade apparently restricted to South America, several of them remaining undescribed. A further new, saxicolous species, T. xanthonica Guzmán-Guillermo, sp. nov., is described from Brazil and Mexico; it is similar to T. obesimarginata L.A.Santos, Aptroot & M.Cáceres, sp. nov. and T. velloziae Kalb in producing lichexanthone in the thallus and apothecial margins, but differs in its substrate ecology and in having an areolate thallus. Two additional species described from Brazil are here combined into the genus: T. carassensis (Vain.) Aptroot & Lücking, comb. nov. and T. epichlorina (Vain.) Aptroot & Lücking, comb. nov. A key is given for the 17 Tephromela species now known from Brazil. Keywords: Phylogeny, ITS, lichenized fungi, cryptic species, new combinations, new species.
35189Vondrák J., Svoboda S., Zíbarová L., Štenclová L., Mareš J., Pouska V., Košnar J. & Kubásek J. (2023): Alcobiosis, an algal‑fungal association on the threshold of lichenisation. - Scientific Reports, 13: 2957 [13 p.].
Alcobiosis, the symbiosis of algae and corticioid fungi, frequently occurs on bark and wood. Algae form a layer in or below fungal basidiomata reminiscent of the photobiont layer in lichens. Identities of algal and fungal partners were confrmed by DNA barcoding. Algal activity was examined using gas exchange and chlorophyll fuorescence techniques. Carbon transfer from algae to fungi was detected as 13C, assimilated by algae, transferred to the fungal polyol. Nine fungal partners scattered across Agaricomycetes are associated with three algae from Trebouxiophycae: Coccomyxa sp. with seven fungal species on damp wood, Desmococcus olivaceus and Tritostichococcus coniocybes, both with a single species on bark and rain-sheltered wood, respectively. The fungal partner does not cause any obvious harm to the algae. Algae enclosed in fungal tissue exhibited a substantial CO2 uptake, but carbon transfer to fungal tissues was only detected in the Lyomyces-Desmococcus alcobiosis where some algal cells are tightly enclosed by hyphae in goniocyst-like structures. Unlike lichen mycobionts, fungi in alcobioses are not nutritionally dependent on the algal partner as all of them can live without algae. We consider alcobioses to be symbioses in various stages of co-evolution, but still quite diferent from true lichens.
35188Meyer A.R., Valentin M., Liulevicius L., McDonald T.R., Nelsen M.P., Pengra J., Smith R.J. & Stanton D. (2022): Climate warming causes photobiont degradation and carbon starvation in a boreal climate sentinel lichen. - American Journal of Botany, 110: e16114 [16 p.].
Premise: The long-term potential for acclimation by lichens to changing climates is poorly known, despite their prominent roles in forested ecosystems. Although often considered “extremophiles,” lichens may not readily acclimate to novel climates well beyond historical norms. In a previous study (Smith et al., 2018), Evernia mesomorpha transplants in a whole-ecosystem climate change experiment showed drastic mass loss after 1 yr of warming and drying; however, the causes of this mass loss were not addressed. Methods: We examined the causes of this warming-induced mass loss by measuring physiological, functional, and reproductive attributes of lichen transplants. Results: Severe loss of mass and physiological function occurred above +2°C of experimental warming. Loss of algal symbionts (“bleaching”) and turnover in algal community compositions increased with temperature and were the clearest impacts of experimental warming. Enhanced CO2 had no significant physiological or symbiont composition effects. The functional loss of algal photobionts led to significant loss of mass and specific thallus mass (STM), which in turn reduced water-holding capacity (WHC). Although algal genotypes remained detectable in thalli exposed to higher stress, within-thallus photobiont communities shifted in composition toward greater diversity. Conclusions: The strong negative impacts of warming and/or lower humidity on Evernia mesomorpha were driven by a loss of photobiont activity. Analogous to the effects of climate change on corals, the balance of symbiont carbon metabolism in lichens is central to their resilience to changing conditions.
35187Duran‑Nebreda S. & Valverde S. (2023): Composition, structure and robustness of Lichen guilds. - Scientifc Reports, 13: 3295 [14 p.].
Symbiosis is a major engine of evolutionary innovation underlying many extant complex organisms. Lichens are a paradigmatic example that ofers a unique perspective on the role of symbiosis in ecological success and evolutionary diversifcation. Lichen studies have produced a wealth of information regarding the importance of symbiosis, but they frequently focus on a few species, limiting our understanding of large-scale phenomena such as guilds. Guilds are groupings of lichens that assist each other’s proliferation and are intimately linked by a shared set of photobionts, constituting an extensive network of relationships. To characterize the network of lichen symbionts, we used a large data set (n = 206 publications) of natural photobiont-mycobiont associations. The entire lichen network was found to be modular, but this organization does not directly match taxonomic information in the data set, prompting a reconsideration of lichen guild structure and composition. The multiscale nature of this network reveals that the major lichen guilds are better represented as clusters with several substructures rather than as monolithic communities. Heterogeneous guild structure fosters robustness, with keystone species functioning as bridges between guilds and whose extinction would endanger global stability.
35186Lambelet-Haueter C. & Clerc P. (2023): Les balades botaniques de la SBG Vieille Ville et Bastions Balade no 2. - Saussurea, 51[2022]: 99–148. .
35185Miyazawa K., Ohmura Y., Yamaoka Y. & Okane I. (2023): Materials for the Distribution of Lichens in Japan (25) Coenogonium isidiatum (Coenogoniaceae, Ascomycota). - Journal of Japanese Botany, 98(1): 37–41.
Coenogonium isidiatum (G.Thor & Vězda) Lücking was confirmed to occur in central Honshu, Japan based on the taxonomic examination of herbarium specimens. Although it was reported from Shikotan Island which is under the Northern Territories Issue, there are no other records from Japan. This species was collected from Shizuoka and Nagano Prefectures at elevations between 1220 and 1700 m where it grew on the bark of Fagus crenata or on mosses scattered on the bark, and also on rock with mosses scattered on the surface. The ITS rDNA sequences of Japanese materials show high identity with those of C. isidiatum registered in GenBank.